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# EE-380 Communication System

Lab 1

Week-02

EE-380L: Communication System – Lab 1
Date: ___________________

Lab Section: ____

Name:

Total Marks:

Roll No:

10

FOURIER ANALYSIS AND HARMONICS
Objective:
In this lab you will generate some commonly used signals and analyze their frequency
content, then see how well the theory follows real life. You will use a function generator to
generate signals, and an Spectrum Analyzer to analyze the true spectrums. In the second task
you will perform some operations such as time shifting, reversal and scaling on the given time
domain signal.
Theory:
All periodic waveforms can be formed by summing an infinite number of sinusoidal waves of
varying frequencies. In previous courses, you should have examined Fourier series and gained
a basic understanding of this. You should be familiar with the terms “time domain” and
“frequency domain” by now.
In this laboratory exercise, you will explore the time and frequency domain views of sinusoidal,
square and triangular waves.
Recall the Fourier series for a square wave is:
4
4
4
F (t )  sin(  0 t ) 
sin( 3 0 t ) 
sin( 5 0 t )  ....

3
5
And the Fourier series for a triangle wave is:

0  2f 0 

8
1
1
2
F (t )  2 (sin(  0 t )  2 sin( 3 0 t )  2 sin( 5 0 t )  ....)
T

3
5

The fundament frequency is defined at
Think about what the frequency spectrum (what frequencies are present, what are the relative
magnitudes) would look like for each of these wave forms are well as a sine waveform. Draw
the spectrum for each below in terms of the fundamental frequency.

Frequency Spectrum

Frequency Spectrum

Frequency Spectrum
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Channel coupling should be DC. View the waveform on the spectrum-analyzer and verify in the time domain that you have the above signal. The Spectrum analyzer will be used to examine the waveforms in frequency domain.e.5Vp-p.EE-380 Communication System for Square Waveform Waveform Lab 1 Week-02 for Triangle Waveform for Sine Task I: In this task you will use a signal generator to simulate three waveforms i.. now change the Limits of spectrum so that distinct harmonics are visible. Record the data in Table 1. square. 200 kHz square waveform with a 2V DC offset. triangle and sine. Procedure:       Set the function generator to generate a 1. fill Table 2 and 3 respectively. Measure both the frequency and magnitude of the fundamental and the next 4 harmonics present. Table 1: Data for Square Waveform Frequency Magnitude Frequency Magnitude Frequency Magnitude Fundamental Frequency 1st Harmonic Present 2nd Harmonic Present 3rd Harmonic Present 4th Harmonic Present Table 2: Data for Triangle Waveform Fundamental Frequency 1st Harmonic Present 2nd Harmonic Present 3rd Harmonic Present 4th Harmonic Present Table 3: Data for Sine Waveform Fundamental Frequency 1st Harmonic Present 2nd Harmonic Present 3rd Harmonic Present Page 2 of 5 . To analyze the frequency spectrum. Repeat the above two steps for both triangle and sine waveforms. connect function generator output to the Spectrum analyzer and auto Set it.

what would you expect to see if you send a square wave through a channel with a finite bandwidth? SOME COMMON TIME DOMAIN OPERATIONS Task II: Generate the following function in MATLAB as an ’.m’ file: Use the above function file to plot the following signals:  Submit all labeled sub-plots on a single-page (landscape oriented – use subplot command) Page 3 of 5 .  Why is there a spike at 0 Hertz?  If in time domain there is a train of impulses. your answer should not exceed 3 lines.EE-380 Communication System Lab 1 Week-02 4th Harmonic Present Questions: Answer the following questions. how would its frequency domain counterpart look like?  Having observed the size and number of higher-order harmonics that comprise a square wave.

2] respectively Show your output to the instructor or TA present and get it graded Task III . x2(t) = x1(t-1)   Repeat the same procedure. and differentiate each other by using color schemes available in MatLab.Fourier transform.e. plot magnitude and phase response of the signal x 2(t). o Use the following commands:  quad(@()func(). plot the above signal for |t|<5.a. Compare the magnitude and phase responses of both signals by superimposing them on each other. for |f| < 5Hz and resolution 0.EE-380 Communication System   Lab 1 Week-02 Use axis command to set your x . i.01Hz. numerical computation The Fourier transform of a function is given by: To numerically compute the Fourier transform. o Use the following commands:  axis([-5 5 -1 3])  grid on Compute the magnitude response of the Fourier transform and plot it.15] and [-2. Page 4 of 5 . Plot the magnitude and phase response using ‘abs’ and ‘angle’ command respectively.  grid on A signal x2(t) is time shifted version of the signal x1(t).b).   Using MatLab function file. we will approximate the above integral using MatLab’s ‘quad’’ function (See help).y axis to [-15.

pdf” and upload it in Drop box at LMS.EE-380 Communication System Lab 1 Week-02 Submission Instructions:  Submit each plot (labeled) with its code on a single page. Page 5 of 5 .  Prepare a PDF with the filename “NAME_1610xxxx.