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PETROGENESIS AND TECTONICS OF THE BASEMENT ROCKS
O F THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS:
SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE ALPINE TECTONICS OF THE
CARPATHIAN - PANNONIAN REGION

DlNU ION PANA

O

A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial
fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Department of Earth and Atrnospheric Sciences
Edmonton, Alberta

Fa11 1998

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ABSTRACT

Pre-Alpine basement units in the Apuseni Mountains and Rornanian Carpathians consist
of high- and medium-grade assemblages intnided by Paleozoic granitoids. Gneissic assemblages
yielded relatively narrow ranges of & N d , and Tm model age values which indicate high
concentration of Precambrian crustal rnaterial and sirnilar protoliths. Associated granitoid intrusions
yielded &Nd,

and T,

model age values suggesting variable assimilation of the gneissic crust U-Pb

zircon data for the granitoids of the Apuseni Mountains indicate Paleozoic rnagmatic events that
correlate with those documented in Vanscan Europe. mAr/33Ardates from gneissic assemblages
indicate mainly Variscan and Cretaceous cooling ages- Retrogressive low-grade assemblages
define an anastomosing network more than 1000 km long of cnistal-scale shear zones. eNd,,
values and TOM
model ages from phyllonites are similar to those from adjacent mediurn-grade or
granitic rocks. '"'ArPAr direct dating of most phyllonites indicates Late Paleozoic and Cretaceous
polyphase tectonism. Carbon and oxygen isotope data suggest the involvement of a juvenile-origin
fluid in the development of carbonate Iâyetç which grew rnetasomatically during progressive
exhumation and local involvernent of cover strata in the crustal shear zones.
Low-grade shear zones accornmodated most of the Eariy Alpine strain in the CarpathianPannonian region and record: 1 - tangential stretching of the Pre-Alpine basement at the southern
boundary of ancestral Europe which resulted in two elongated flysch troughs floored by thinned
continental crust with local mantle-derived material separating the Carpathians and the Apuseni-

South Pannonian continental fragments. II - Cretaceous intra-continental tectonism dominateci by
transcurrent displacement with local uplif€of the basement and gravitational emplacement of cover
nappes in the peri-carpathian basins; several "wildflysch" assemblages record strain concentration
at shallow structural levels along the long-lived transcurrent shear zones.
Tertiary brittle strain varies frorn strike-parallel to thrust- and normal slip related to complex
northeastward translation and rotation mainly accornmodated by domains of thinned continental

crust The deveioprnent of the Pannonian basins system accompanied by Neogene volcanic activity
is consistent with crustal extension above a zone of mantie upwelling and contemporaneous
tectonic loading of the surrounding European crust at the exterior of the Carpathian arc.

TO

Mike and Mam

Ion Gheuca and Acad. Karlis Muelenbachs are thanked for their guidance and relentless assistance during my Ph. Dr. and Bati. Karen Fallas. I am thankful to Rob Stevens and Jochen Mezger for welcoming me to Edmonton and sheltenng me on several occasions. Thomas Chacko. lstvan Almasi and George Morris. 1 am very grateful for the moral and offen financial support of my family who made this work possible: Cristina. work. Gogu. Ion Hartopanu. Discussions with Dr. Clark Burchfiel (Massachusetts lnstitute of Technology). Marian Lupulescu helped da@ ideas and concepts. Mami. friendship and interesthg discussions with Jochen Mezger. In the field. Program. . Steve Wetherup. This project was funded by NSERC operating grants to P. Dr. Robert Creaser and Dr. Dan R&dulescuwho encouraged and kindly assisted me in finding access to state-of-the-art instrumental facilities. Mimi. I enjoyed cornpanionship and able assistance of by Dr. Employment by Halferdahl & Associates provided further financial support that helped to complete this project. Marin Secfiiman for passionate discussions on the petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks. Erdmer and by the University of Alberta scholarships and the Geological Survey of Rornania funding to the author. Dr. Special thanks to Acad. Dr. Dr. Philippe Erdmer is thanked for his friendly support and guidance throughout the course of my Ph. Dr. and encouragements of Acad. I would Iike to thank Dr.personal involvement in solving logistical problems is - highly appreciated. Udubasa General Manager of the GSR . The rnembers of rny supervisory cornmittee. My wife Cristina and Our kids Mihnea and Mara have heroically endured life with an aiways-too-busy husband and father. Paul Williams (University of New Brunswick). Calin Ricman and Dr. Karen read parts of rny thesis and kindly helped to improve my English. Dr. Dr. The help and friendship of my fellow graduate students at the University of Alberta made life away from home more enjoyable and bearable. Dr.D. I owe my involvement in the fantastic field of tectonics to the unique personality. Dr. 1 am very thankful to Dr. Bob Thompson and Dr.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Dr. Ion Balintoni. Gheorghe Popescu and Dr. I am also grateful for discussions with other geologists at vanous meetings. His danng non-conventional ideas and his encouragements to search for alternative solutions strongly influenced rny work. Lamy Heaman. thesis. Dr. Gheorghe Mantea. In particular. Horst Hann. Mihai Tatu. I am grateful for the support. Mircea Sihdulescu. Tudor Berza. Tano Yarnashita. Radu Dimitrescu generously sheared their encyclopedic knowledge on the Apuseni and Carpathians mountains and contributed to my understanding of the Alpine nappe concepts. Burt Stniik (Geological Survey of Canada).D. Dr.

...... ................. Greenschist Shear Zones......... Alpine Evolution.................................................................................. New Interprebtion: Alpine Crustal Shear Zones...26 2......................4......... INTRODUCTION..... 28 2......2........2-1..............28 2....... The Current Tectonic Model for the Carpathian Region.............................. ........ -38 3............. 8 1........................................................................................ Basement Rocks................ 1 1................................................................. ..........................2.. 25 2.. The Model and the Real Worid............................................................................................................3.. PR€-ALPINE TECTONIC FRAMEWORK OF THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS: CONSTRAINTS FROM A Sm-Nd AND U-Pb ISOTOPIC STUDY ON THE METAMORPHIC AND IGNEOUS BASEMENT ASSEMBLAGES.................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1... ......... Introduction..... 15 1............. 53 3................................................3..................................................... ............................................4.................. -32 CHAPTER 3. .......... ................................... ...................................... .........................................2..........39 3..24 2..................................................4.......2........ 16 1-4-4.....................................................................................................................4......................... Summary and Conclusions...................................... 2 1. Crustal evolution......................................... ............. Reevaluation of Existing Data....................2...................................... 66 References.................. 25 2............................. Geological Units Previous Isotope Data................................................... Introduction........................37 3................3... 5 1..................... 18 CHAPTER 2....................... Pre-Alpine Evolution of the Basement Units from the Apuseni and Carpathians Mountains..........................4.............. ..........................................................................1...................43 3..............5........ Geologic Setang............................................1 ..............4.. AIpine evolution.............................................................2.... ........ ........ Sm-Nd Analyücal Data.................. Statement of Problem............................................ .....5................................... 13 1.... 8 1..... U-Pb Geochronology of lgneous Rocks.......................... 17 References............................... ............60 .................................................................... 31 References....................... 29 2.............................1 .............................................................. .................................................... Summary and Cornparison with Central-Western Europe....2....................... New Results ....... ALPINE CRUSTAL SHEAR ZONES AND PRE-ALPINE BASEMENT TERRANES IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS AND APUSENl MOUNTAINS....1 ..................

.. 6............. Regional Setting: Previous Work.................................................................. 82 4. Introduction.... 6..... 99 4.................... 161 References.................3........................... Regional Orientation Data and Evidence of Strain Partitioning............................ .............................................................7..................................... Protolith Ages and Timing of Tectonism.............................2 Medium-Grade Rocks.... Previous Geochronology...........1 0.................... -74 Geological Units....................170 Basement Units of the Apuseni Mountains.... Tectonic Evolution of the Southem Apuseni Sedimentary Basin......................................212 References................................. ALPINE WENTS WlTH '"'ArPAr AGES ........204 Concluding remarks.................. Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Apuseni Sedimentary Basin............6.................................178 Basernent Units of the East Carpathians...................................................................................... 4.......................9........... -221 ..................3........................... -162 ................................... .............6.........................................................................151 5........................................................2............... -158 5.............................................................3..................................208 6......................................................................................................5........ 139 5............................... 6................................141 5.............................................................. Conclusions..................7... .......... 111 4.............. 6.............9. 107 5... LithotectonicAssemblages within the Orogenic Basement..............9..........6....................................................................... Regional Correlations................ 6....................................................... 109 5.............5.................................3..... 78 Analytical Methods........................208 6.......................................................................2 Muscovite........ 106 5..................................... 93 4................................................................... Conclusions.... 132 5...... Geologic Setting...................3 Whoie Rock..7.................................... 6................................***... ROMANIA: RESOLUTION OF VARISCAN VS..................................... 81 Results......................................1 Hornblende.............................................................10............... 71 72 Introduction............ Oceanic Remnants in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region......................................................101 References.......8................3......*.....................1............................................... 4........................1 Low-Grade Rocks..................................4.........................1................8.......................6.............5.................... 190 Basement Unib of the West Carpathians. 199 Basement Units at the Juncto i n of the West Carpathians and Eastern Alps........................2........................ ROMANIA: IMPLICATIONS OF STRAIN PARTITIONING............9.........6.......................1.............................2................. 6......2................................................... 88 4.............4.............. Proposed Geodynarnic Model.........................................176 Basement Units of the South Carpathians..... 4.................. 210 6.............. TECTONOTHERMAL EVOLUTION OF THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS.......... 170 Basement of the Neogene Pannonian Basin. 77 Tectonothermal Evolution......... Towards a New Tectonic Model For the Carpathian-Pannonian Region: Block Rotation and Orogen-Parallel Tectonics....6......................................... CHAPTER 6 ALPINE STRAIN DISTRIBUTION AND LITHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF BASEMENT ASSEMBLAGES IN THE CARPATHIAN-PANNONIAN REGION .......................... 4.. Significance........... 151 5..............................CHAPTER 4.................................. 154 5........... TECTONOTHERMAL EVOLUTION OF THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS..............................4........... Lithotectonic Assemblages: Distribution and Metamorphic Conditions....................................................................109 5...........*.............. 4.......... CHAPTER 5......169 6........................................................... 6..1....... Introduction..............203 Basement Units of the Eastern Alps............................... 109 5.............................................8......................................... 82 4.......................................................

................................. 285 1....2............... The Junction Region between the Eastern Alps and the West Carpathians.4............................. 292 1. 235 1.. 270 ... .................................................... 259 1............................................................ The North Pannonian Unit .......................................................................... ................... ...............1........................281 1... .............. 1...............1....9....287 1......................................................... 300 APPENDIX II Geochemical Data from Rocks of the Highis-Biharia Shear Zone.... ..........1 0........................................... West Carpathians.. 233 ......................... Apuseni Mountains..... Dinandes.................................................. ... Introduction................................................... Neogene to Quatemary Volcanism in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region................2......................................9................................................283 1................................................ 1...............297 References.........................7. 326 .............................6....................... The Intra-CarpathianRegion....... East Carpathians........................... ....................................APPENDIX i OUTLINE OF THE MAJOR TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNlTS OF THE CARPATHIANS ......248 1........................................ 326 APPENDIX IV Microprobe Data. 235 t ......................8.... South Carpathians... Southem Alps...................... Eastern Alps. ....312 APPENDIX III Analytical Data.................. PANNONIAN SYSTEM AND OUTSTANDING PROBLEMS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF THE ALPINE EVOLUTION OF BASEMENT ASSEMBLAGES........................ The South Pannonian Unit and Apuseni Mountains............ 251 1.......................................................................................3.................................................................. ................... ..................................9.................5.................... .....

........ ...rich rocks within Paiu~eni assemblage of the HBSL............. Summary of the 'OArPgArplateau ages on rocks from Me Apuseni Mountains....................... ..272 APPENDIX II ... ................................................................ ....... .. Surnrnary of isotope data on granitoid samples from the Apuseni Mountains..........................Average compositions of rocks within Highig unsheared igneous complex..........................................1 . 127 Table 5-3...Correlation of the main tectonic units in the Alpine-Carpathian transition zone.... Previous radiogenic data in the Apuseni Mountains (K-Ar neutron activation).... " " A r p ~sarnple r localitieç and petrography.........1 .............. 75 ........ Summary of lithostratigraphicclassification previously used for the metamorphidmagrnaticbasement of the Apuseni Mountains................................................... Table 14...................239 ..... 130 APPENDIX I Table 1.. 54 Table 3-4............... 99 Table 4.......313 Table 112.......................... Summary of U-Pb data on igneous rocks of the Apuseni Mountains...... Chemical compositions of SiO..........LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER 3 Table 3.......Oxygen isotope composition of silicate rocks within the Highis-Bihana shear zone................. .... 314 Table 11........ 45 Table 3-2..... 2 Table 5 .............................110 ............. Principal lithostratigraphicgroups of Precambrian metamorphic rocks and their position in the main structural units of the South Carpathians.... .....................250 Table 13... Nd and Sm concentrations and isotopic data for samples from the Romanian Carpathians.262 Table 1-5......... Principal Iithostratigraphicgroups of Precambrian metamorphic rocks and their position in the main structural units of the East Carpathians....2 CHAPTER 5 Table 5................ Lithosbatigraphic units of the West Carpathians basement..... ... 253 Table 2 1.... ........................ 62 CHAPTER 4 Table 4-1 ...... 83 Table 4-3 ......Nd and Sm concentrations and isotopic data for samples from the Apuseni Mountains... Lithostratigaphidtectonicunits in the basement in Central and Eastern Alps.... 54 Table 3-3...................... .. Carbon and oxygen isotope data for carbonate lenses from the Apuseni Mountains........

......................... Romania.....33 1 Table lil-3..............................................318 APPENDIX III Table 111-1............................................................................................................ *Arf39~rplateau isotopecorrelations for homblende concentrates from structural units comprising the Apuseni Mountains....................................................................... 36ArpArVS.. Romania...... Carbonates............... Chernical compositions of rocks within the "Black Series"........................ 341 APPENDIX IV Table IV-1.............................................................Table 11-3...... 332 Table 111-4............................ Chemical composition of granitic rocks from HBSZ in the Biharia and Giliiu rnountains. Highiq Mountains............. Romania.........327 Table 111-2........................... 40~rfjSAr analytical data for incremental-heating experiments on homblende concentrates from structural units comprising the Apuseni Mountains.. 4 0 ~ r r 9 A analytical r data for incremental-heating expenments on muscovite concentrates from structural units comprising the Apuseni Mountains............... 3q 7 Table 11-6.. Romania........................................................................... 348 ........................................................................... Chemical compositions of the sheared rnafic rocks from HBSZ in the Biharia and Gilau mountains.... 4 0 ~ r r 9 A analytical r data for incremental-heating expenments on whole-rock samples of slatelphyllite or phyllonite from structural units comprising the Apuseni Mountains.......... Chemical composition of rnafic rocks within Paiuseni assemblage of HBSZ...... 316 Table 11-5. 315 Table 114........

...... Sketch map of the distribution of basement rocks in the Romanian Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains showing the extent of proposed Alpine shear zones........ Sketch map of the distribution of the rnetarnorphic assemblage in the Apuseni and Romanian Carpathians mountains with the location of Sm-Nd samples........... 7 Figure 14......52 Figure 3-6.......... Microphotographsof zircon grains in granitoid samples from the Apuseni Mountains.....................East Carpathians 12 along Geotravene V ........................................................................................................................ Concordia diagrams for the granitoidic intrusions of the Highis-Biharia Shear Zone........ 4 Figure 1-2.......................................... ......... Simplified tectonic sketch of the Alpine Orogen.............................................................................................. Palinspastic sketch of the Carpathians............ .........................................................................................27 CHAPTER 3 Figure 3-1 ........................................ Reconstructedfacies distribution and generalked cross-section 9 for the middle Norian...................... Sketch map of the Apuseni Mountains with the sample locations (Sm-Nd and U-Pb samples)........40 Figure 3-2...... Mode1representation of the rnetarnorphic history of the basement rocks in the Carpathians............ Figure 1-6............... Evolution of &Ndthrough time for the analysed samples from the Apuseni Mountains and Romanian Carpathians. 51 Figure 3-5....... 59 ............................... 48 Figure 3-3........Nd isotopic characteristics of the gneissic assemblages and associated Paleozoic intrusions from the basement units of the Apuseni Mountains........................................LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER 1 Figure 1-1.......... 50 Figure 3-4.......... CHAPTER 2 Figure 2-1.......... Concordia diagrams for the representative granitoidic intrusions within medium-grade assemblages of the Apuseni Mountains........... 11 Figure 1-5..........56 Figure 3-7............ Palispastic reconstnicüon of the Apuseni ..... 58 Figure 3-8................................. 6 Figure 1-3.................................................. Concordia diagram for the Savâqin granitic intrusion wi-thinthe 'Tethys ophiolitesn......................... The configuration of three geosynclinal areas developed during the Precambrian and Paleozoic......

...... 76 Figure 4-3 .............. 118 Figure 5ô..... Structural map of the Apuseni Mountains............................. 89 Figure 4-8 .. . Nappe stacking mode1for the Apuseni Mountains...... 111 Figure 5-3 .. *ArpAr age for multigrain muscovite concentrates from the phyllonite collected within the Highiq-Biharia shear zone.121 Figure 57.... 97 Figure 4-1 3............................................................ *OArpAr age and apparent WCa spectra for rnultigrain homblende concentrates from the amphibolite collecteci within the Baia de An- assemblage................. Sbuchiral map of the Apuseni Mountains........................................A r p ~ rage and apparent WCa spectra for a whole-rock sample of phyllonite collected within the Baia de Ades assemblage..................... 98 CHAPTER 5 Figure 51 ..................................................................... 91 Figure 4-9 ..................................................113 Figure M................................................................... 40Arf%r age for multigrain muscovite concentrates from the gneiss collected within the Baia de Anes assemblage......... &ArPAr age and apparent KiCa spectra for multigrain homblende concentrates from the amphibolite collected within the Codnr assemblage..... 73 Figure 4-2 .................... Quartz-filled tension gashes in microganite of the PZiiuseni assemblage.......... 96 Figure 4-12 .... Centimetre-sue veins of carbonatewithin igneous rocks anected by strain. a~r/39Arage and apparent WCa specta for a whole-rock sample of phyllonite collected within Triassic cover of the Codru assemblage................. aArpAr age and apparent WCa spectra for a whole-rock sample of phyllonite collected within the Highis-Bihada shear zone.............108 Figure 5-2 ........... 91 Figure 4-1 0................................................................ Main tectonic unib of the Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains........... . 85 Figure 4-5 ... 86 Figure 4-6 ............... 94 Figure 4-12 .... 92 Figure 4-1 1.. 123 .... a ~ r p A age r and apparent WCa specta for a whole-rock sarnple of phyllonite collected within the Baia de Anes assemblage.............116 Figure 5 5.................-....... *AflgAr aga for multigrain muscovite concentrates from the gneiss collected within the Somes assemblage............. &ArPAr age and apparent KlCa spectra for multigrain homblende concentrates from the amphibolite collected within the Sorneq assemblage............. Carbonate nodules within phyllonite..... Pseudo-metaconglomerate in the Paiuseni assemblage........... .............. mArpAr age for multigrain muscovite concentrates from the gneiss collected within the Codru assemblage.. 87 Figure 4-7 ........... Generalized geologic-tectonic map of the Apuseni Mountains (with the locations of 40A r p ~samples) r ........ (wntinued) ............. 79 Figure 4-4 .......... European segments of the Alpine chain mentioned in the text......................CHAPTER 4 Figure 4-1 ....................... Late granite intrusions in diorite wth in i the Highis igneous complex...............

................................................ 130 Figure 5-10.......... Massive replacement of diorite by carbonate....................... 134 Figure 5-12...128 Figure 5-9'.................. Kinematic indicaton along the Sibisel shear zone overprinting the Getic crust in the northem part of South Carpathians................. -136 Figure 5-14 ............Figure 5 ............... 140 Figure 5-16................. Oxygen isotope composition of silicate rocks within the Highis-Biharia shear zone... Planar structures along the belt of low-grade rocks in the Apuseni Mountains................ 173 Figure 6-2............................. Temperature estimates for the easternrnost exposures of the Someg and Baia de Arieg assemblages...... Stretching lineation within the Highis-Biharia shear zone........... Linear structures along the belt of low-grade rocks in the Apuseni Mountains............ 150 Figure 5-20...................181 Figure 6-4........................ 8 ..183 Figure 6-5 .......... Stretching lineation within the Baia de A r i e ~assemblage.185 Figure 6-6........................... 146 Figure 5-19..... 148 Figure 5-19..... Outcrop-scale kinematic indicators........... Pressure-temperature estimates for the central part of the Baia de Aries assemblage............... Kinematic indicaton in the northem F8ig2h-a~ Mountains....................................Stable isotope composition of the carbonate lenses in the Apuseni Mountains............... 137 Figure 5-15........... Proposed informal classification of the Apuseni Mountains metamophic-magrnatic basement rocks....... 135 Figure 5-13...... 126 Figure 5-9... Kinematic indicaton along the Corbu shear zone overprinting the Danubian crust in the southwestern part of the South Carpathians............ (continueci) Outcropscale kinematic indicaton................ Microphotographsof pmbed gamet grains........... ....... ...................... Pressure-temperature estimates for the eastem part of the Baia de An- assemblage........................... Proposed correlation of the metamorphic assemblages from the Apuseni Mountains and southem Pannonian basement ......................... Tectonic sketch of the Apuseni Mountains...................................................................................................................... Kinematic indiCaton along the contact between Getic and Danubian units in the southwestern part of the South Carpathians...143 Figure 5-18.... 189 ................................... Peak reequilibrationtemperatures recorded by carbonate rocks in the Apuseni Mountains .............................. Microscopie shear-sense indicators....................................................................................................................................131 Figure 5-1 1.. 187 Figure 6-7..........175 Figure 6-3...... Kinematic indicaton along different segments of the shear zone through the Getic crust ('Supra Getic I Getic thrust contact")...............................................142 Figure 5-17............ 753 Figure 5-21................... ........................................157 CHAPTER 6 Figure 6-1 ........

. 216 Figure 6-18........ 245 Figure I ô (continued) Tornographic images of the upper mantle under the Dinarides ans Carpathians mountains............................................................................................................................................ Deep structure of the AIps. Tectonic sketch of the main basement units in the West Carpathians.......240 Figure 1-5..........193 Figure 6-1 0......................... 2 9 APPENDIX I Figure 1............196 Figure 6-12........................................................... 252 Figure 1-9...................254 Figure 1-10.... .................................... 9 1 Figure 6................................................................................ 214 Figure 6-17....................... Proposed kinematic rnodel for the Alpine evoluüon of the Carpathian-Pannonian region. 246 Figure 1-7.................................... Deep structure of the westemmost West Carpathians imaged by dep seismic reflection.200 Figure 6-14...................... Major fractures significant for the Tertiary kinernatics of the Apuseni and Carpathian crustal fragments....................... Simplified map of the Austro-Alpine basernent units r ..................................... ........ 195 Figure 6-1 1... Tornographic images of the upper rnantle under the Alps............... Tectonic sketch with the major low-grade shear zones exposed in the East Carpathians................ Tectonic sketch of the basement units in the West Carpathians with the inferred transcurrent and nonal shear zones............ Simplified map of the Austro-Alpine basement units east of the Tauern Window.....8 ................... Sirnplified tectonic sketch of the Carpathian-Pannoniansystem.................................................................................... Late Cretaceous and Paleogene low-grade normal shear zones developed in the gneiss-granite core of the High Tatra metamorphic core complex.............. Tectonic sketch of the Haghimag syncline on the eastem margin of the East Carpathians basement.....236 Figure 1-3.................. Stretching lineation within the Tulgheq shear zone.... Simplified tectonic sketch of the Eastern Alps.............................................................. 249 Figure 1-8.....202 Figure 6-15.Figure 6............. Proposed model of strain partitioning during oblique compression between the Carpathians and stable Europe........... Kinematic indicators along the contact of the East Carpathians basement wi# the internai flysch unit................................ Legend of the Iithostratigraphic columns cornpiled for the segments of the Alpine-Carpathian orogen discussed in te& ................................................................206 east of the Tauern Window with the existing 4 0 ~ r p Adata Figure 6-16................... 234 Figure 1-2..... Subsurface geology around the Rechnitr Window.. 257 .....244 Figure 1-6....................................9 .....198 Figure 6-13....................................................... Tectonic sketch of the Rodna metarnorphic core complex..... Simplified tectonic sketch of the West Carpathians..... 237 Figure 1 4.............

................. Deep structure of the East Carpathians as depicted by magnetotellunc data... ...................................... The main basement units of the Pannonian Basin............ Tectonic sketch of the Apuseni Mountains....................... 107 LIST OF PLATES (in pocket) Geological Map of the Highis-Drocea Mountains.. Sirnplified tectonic sketch of the North Pannonian Unit ............................................ .......................... The main Alpine nappes involving basement rocks in the East Carpathians.268 Figure 1-17..... 296 APPENDIX II Figure 11................... Figure 1-22.... Deep structure of the East Carpathians along Geotraverse V as depicted by magnetotelluric data........... 265 Figure 1-16................. 273 Figure 1-20.................................................................................................................................. 321 1 4...............319 Figure 11-2............................................. 258 Figure 1-12....274 Figure 1-21... .........................to high-grade rocks in the Getic Nappe......... 284 Figure 1-24.................Figure 1-11.....................263 - Figure 1-15........................ Stratigraphie wlumns for the cover sequences which differenciate the postulated East Carpathians basement nappes.. 288 Figure 1-26.. .................................. The main Alpine nappes involving basement rocks in the South Carpathians............................................... Tectonornetamorphic evolution of the medium................................... Trace elements-tectonic discrimination plots for rocks of the Highig-Biharia Shear Zone................................. .................. Simplified tectonic sketch of the South Carpathians ......260 Figure 1-13...............................................261 Figure 1-14..... 320 Figure 11-3.......276 with the existing 40Ar/ 39Ar data.. 282 Figure 1-23....................................................................... scale 1: 50 000 Geological Map of the central Apuseni Mountains.......... 269 Figure 1-18.. 293 Figure 1-27................................................ Sirnplified tectonic sketch of the South Carpathians.... Major discrimination plots for the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Highis-Biharia Shear Zone.......... ........... Simplified tectonic sketch of the Dinarides...........271 Figure C l 9........................... scale 1: 50 000 .. Simplified tectonic sketch of the East Carpathians.......................................................................*.......................... ...... Simplified tectonic sketch of the South Pannonian Unit.......................... Simplified tectonic sketch of the Southern Alps.............................. (continued) Trace elernents-tectonic discrimination plots for Figure 1 rocks of the Highis-Biharia Shear Zone................ SrlCa BalCa systematics of magmatic rocks from the Eastern Carpathians Volcanic Arc.......286 Figure 1-25...............*.............. Deep structure of the central West Carpathians imaged by dep seismic refiection....... General geochemicctl characteristics of the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Highis-Biharia Shear Zone...

-- CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .

.

1980. B .Pieniny Klippen Belt. b extemal ( West . R Rhodope Massif. 1 to 7 External zones of the European continental margin: 1 .East Carpathians. S . Rheno-Danubian).Mecsek Mountains. 9 . 3 Helvetic units.Sredna Gora. M . and Biharia units.Southern continental border. Siindulescu. 1-1. A Apuseni Mountains. Tr Transylvanian Depression. 8 ..Serbo-Macedonian Massif. 5 Dacidic crustal fragment. Vardar). 7 . Codm.Prebalkan.Bakony Mountains. 12 Bihor. T . 11 . Kotel. 6 . T. E .East Carpathians. Trojan. 1984. Transylvanides.Intemal zones of the European continental margin: External and Median Pennine (Valais. 1980.Stara Planina.Great Hungarian Plain. 13 .lnner Dinarides. 4 . IB . 14 Outer Dinarides. 15 Neogene volcanics. LHP . Bukk. - - - - - - - - - - - - - . PB .Intemal (Magura.Villany Mountains. Tatric. SG .8urchfiel. 16 Neogene intemal depressions. V . Bk Bükk Mountains.Rhodope. Extemal Piedmont). Veponc.Flysch units: a .Molasse sequences of the northern foredeep. Dragovo-Petrova. E .Engadine Window. GHP . 17 Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene. Simplified tectonic sketch of the Alpine Orogen (compiledfrom Debelmas et al. W -West Carpathians. SP . Kmutner. SM .Rechnitz Window. Southem Alps.Foreland.Liffle Hungarian Plain.Tauern Window.Ophiolite suture (Interna1Pennine. P Pannonian Depression.Igal-Bükk zone.AustroAlpine.South Carpathians. Briancon.Fig. and Gemeric units. 10 to 14 . 1O . K). Re . 2 .Serbo-Macedonian Massif. 1988).

.

In the Carpathians and Apuseni segments of the orogen. 1. . basement units.for eariy Alpine subduction and thrusi tectonics was lost due to overprinting by subsequent widespread extension associated with the development of the Pannonian basin. were collected and a first-order cornparison with the basement units adjacent to the Apuseni Mountains crusta1 fragment was made. preliminary kinematic and isotopic data from the Carpathians Mountains. An outline of the major tectono-stratigraphie units of the Carpathian-Pannonian region and outstanding problems in the interpretaüon of the evolution of basement assemblages is presented in Appendix 1. THE CURRENT TECTONIC MODEL FOR THE CARPATHiAN REGION The present anatomy of the Mesozoic-CenozoicCarpathian orogen (Fig. and understand pre-Alpine tectonic framework of the region. In addition. and the Alpine tectonics. . the Apuseni Mountains: . An increasing amount of data is inconsistent with the curent interpretation of Early Alpine evolution and encourages alternative tectonic interpretations.a detailed structural study aimed at deciphering the kinematic significance of the obsewed structures.a stable (carbon and oxygen) and radiogenic isotope (Sm-Nd and CI-Pb) study was undertaken to determine the origin and age of the protoliths of the rnetamorphic assemblages. . Critical analysis of the existing data base followed by rejection of unreliable data and speculative interpretation was camed out in an attempt to develop an updated tectonic model. several superposed pre-Alpine orogenies have been inferred. The present study has investigated the relationships between interna1strain observed in low-grade basernent units of the Apuseni Mountains and Romanian Carpathians. 1-1) is interpreted to include an arcuate thnist-and-fold belt. the basement nappes supposed to be n'gid and to preserve original stratigraphie successions show widespread intemal strain consistent with Alpine kinematics.2. A three-part anaIysis has been undertaken in the case study area. the proposed Cretaceous stacking of far-travelled nappes is contradicted by kinematic indicators and isotope dating.the age of tectonism and the resolution of the Van'scan versus Alpine tectonism were investigated using a~r/39Ardating techniques. No unambiguous evidence of Cretaceous subduction exists. A complete record of the Variscan Orogeny is interpreted within basement units in the western segments of the Alpine orogen. Representative traverses in the Carpathians were conducted in order to put kinematic and age constraints on major contacts involving basernent rocks. and a volcanic arc.

d) in the Variscan cycle: 1 ..geosyncline area.c . 3 . 1969). b) in the Pre-Baikalian (Middle Proterozoic?): 1. a) before the Pre-Baikalian cycle (Early Proterozoic ?): 1.b.b ernerged. 2 .oceanic zone. 2 platform. 3 shield. 1.geosyncline area.geosyncline area. area of the green schist formation: 1.a area of the metamorphic formations in the Carpathians.deep-seated fractures.cordillera.area of the green schist formation overfying the shield. 1. 1-2.shield. The configuration of three geosynclinal areas devejoped during the Precarnbrian and Paleozoic (afler Giuscil et al. - - - - - - . 1.Fig. 2 Pre-Karelian and Karelian shield rocks. c) in the Baikalian (Late Proterozoic): 1 . 1.a submerged. 2 .

13.Fig. . Retrograde metamorphism would underlie stratigraphie unconformities postulated between sequences assigned to one of the three geosyndine cycles (affer Kautner. Model representation of the metamorphic history of the basement rocks in Me Carpathians. 1980).

Paleo-Tethys was consumed in the Cimmerian Indosinian suture zone interpreted in Bulgaria and Turkey.. the Alpine-Carpathian realm was part of Pangaea. Si!induIescu. rifting ceased and a giant carbonate platform developed on the underlying thinned crust.7 PmAIpine evoluüon of the basemenf units ln the existing synthesis (Giusd et al. Balintoni et al. 1986).f.g. 1986). Giusca et al. Bercia et al. 1942. epidote-amphibolite and greenschist grade conditions. Stratigraphic and metamorphic diswntinuîties were postulated between the products of the three orogenic cycles (Fig..2. 1985. Pre-PemianMesozoic basement sequences were interpreted to have been involved in a large number of Alpine and pre-Alpine nappes (e-g. Late Proterozoic-Cambrian. and Middle Pateozoic age were interpreted to have been metamorphosed under amphibolite. 1980). the Dinarides in the Early Anisian. 1978). The north-westward propagation of Tethys sea is shown by the syn-tectonic progression of the deep-water sediments (Hallstatt facies): it reached Turkey in the Late Permian. 1975. 1995) (Fig. Keuper) record epicuntinental conditions (Tollmann. 1-2). the southeastern Alpine-Carpathian area was increasingly dominated by manne facies. Balintoni. 1-3). and the Alpine region in MiddIe to Late Anisian time (BechsHdt. respectively...2 Alpine Evolution In the late Paleozoic. Kmutner. 1. 1980. Buntsandstein. 1977). due to northward drift of Gondwanian microcontinents (Sengor et al. the occurrence of terrestrial sediments (e-g. an oceanic embayrnent of Panthalassa - (Laubscher and Bernoulli.. From the east this continent was transgressed by Paleo-Tethys. 1983. KMutner.2. 1977) raised suspicions about the previous stratigraphy. 1980).. Popescu-Voitesti. 1969. the Vardar Ocean (Haas et al. Volcano-sedimentary sequences of Middle Proterozoic.. Retrogressive reactions documented in the greenschist rocks (e-g. Dimitrescu. The resulting distal (outer shelf) and proximal (inner shelf) facies zonation suggests a north-westwardgulf-like embayment of Tethys. This northward drift of Gondwanian fragments created the space for a new oceanic domain called Neo-Tethys (Dercourt et al. 1976. Ktautner. and the boundary was rnoved upsection to the next litfiologic unit without medium grade relics (e-g. In the Late Triassic. The Triassic deep-water seaway was variously traced From the Central Alps (Austroalpine) to the inner West Carpathians into the . 14). Throughout the Pemian and Triassic.. 1994). but were accommodated in the mode1 as re-hydrated stratigraphie units of the underiying older successions. 1989... basement rocks in the Carpathians and Apuseni mountains are assigned to three geosynclinal cycles superposed in the same area (Fig... 1969. Berza et al. Paleomagnetic data from the African and Eurasian plates and the absence of island arc terranes in the western Alps constrain Tethys to being a relatively small embayment of a larger easteriy ocean.. whereas to the west and north. 1988). Vemicano) and detrital facies (e. 1984.

. .. .. . .. . ... . a) Reconstructed facies distribution and b) generalized cross-section for the middle Norian (aller Haas et al.... . .. . ...- - . .. . . . .. . .. .. .. . ..V v v V v V v V v Y V V V v V TRK Torrukapolna facies unit SKW Sauthein itrrawanks NKW Nanhern Karawanks MTD Mid Transaanubtan Untc S Z O L ~ S SrtSlUrard6 unit Fig. .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. .. .. .V Y . .... . . . .. . . . .. ... . .. . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . 1995) . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . ... .. . 14. . ... .. . . .. .. .... . a) . . .. . . . . .. ... .

. The Alps are a result of southward subduction of the Penninic ocean. are interpreted to record major subductions.l990. Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic acwmpanied by closure of Tethys. Sardinia. Sandulescu. 1-5a and 1-6). would connect the Vardar Ocean to the Pieniny ocean. and farther to the Ligurian-Piemont ocean (Sandulescu. Carpathians. variably aggregated and defoned Iight crustal masses were brought together with offscrapings ftom subducted oceanic plates. followed by highly cornplex tectonism related to collision and thrusting of the Apulian promontory of the Afn'can plate ont0 the European shelf. Meliata). 1982. and Aegean Sea. A second-order rift would have separated the Carpathians from stable Europe (Fig. The main Tethyan suture is interpreted along the Transylvanides. but eastward (Itaiy. 1984. Basement rocks have been involved as rigid slices in a large number of Cretaceous nappes (Appendix 1). Motions of intra-Tethyan plates were prirnarily meridional. 1987). and hybrid in the Dinarides. variously oceanic. 2. some of them of significant extent and displacement . periods of relative stability seem to be separated by episodic.inner East Carpathians (Toltmann. 1984). Debelmas and Sandulescu. 1-5a and 1-6). to the west on the Apuseni fragment and to the east on the Carpathian fragment Nappe emplacement would have prograded from the Tethys into the Carpathian crust and into the accretionary wedge during westward subduction of the oceanic or thinned continental crust that separated the Carpathians from Europe. relaüvely rapid local plate migrations as a consequence of the motions of larger plates: 1. Magmatic arc rocks. separated by sutures andlor major faults. As plates converged by subduction of intervening oceanic lithosphere. Corsica. A Jurassic tholeiitic to calc-alkaline suite exposed in the southeastem Apuseni Mountains and inferred as basement of the Transylvanian Basin is currently interpreted to represent the main remnant of oceanic cmst that traces Tethys from Vardar in the Dinarides to the south Penninic ocean in the Central Alps. Middle to Late Jurassic brake-up - of Pangea and the development of the Central Atlantic and Ligurian Piemont (South Penninic) oceans. It was locally floored by oceanic crust as indicated by pillow lavas interfingered with Middle Triassic radiolarites in the Meliata unit of the inner West Carpathians. KovBcs. by basalts uncbnformably overlain by Camian andlor Nonan Iimestones in the Peqani Mountains (southern East Carpathians) and by mafic pebbles in Jurassic klippen within Senonian strata north of the Apuseni Mountains (Botiza). (Figs. 1969. After Triassic-Jurassic spreading and local subduction of oceanic crust (e.Cretaceous compression resulted in ciosure of the Tethys Ocean partly by subduction and partly by bilateral abduction. The Carpathians and the lnner Carpathian region resulted from the aggregation of several terranes.g. Carpathian) and westward (Alboran) arcs were also well established. continental.

1-Austroalpine-lnner Dacides. T. K-Krakow. Transylvanides. 6-marginal Dacides (~anubian).Middle Dacides. c) The major Tethyan suture in the Alpine-Carpathian - orogen.- - Fig.Flysch sequences of the Outer Dacides. OD. W-Wien (fmm Sandulescu. M. Be-Beograd. Pieniny Klippen Belf P. 1b Bükk Mountains and correlative uni&. 3 Fiysch sequences of the Magua Group. 2 . IMF Intra-Moesian Faulf Peceneaga-Carnena Faulf Bc-Bucharest. SP. 4 . Bd-Budapest. 5 . a) Palinspastic sketch of the Carpathians ai the end of the Mesozoic spreading and b) at the end of Cretaceous subduction. T and Rechnitz Windows). Getic and Supragetic nappes).North Transylvanian Fault.Major Tethyan sutures (VardarM South Pannonian. NTF . Tauern. 1988). MD (Central East Carpathian nappes. 1 5 .7 Moldavides. - - - .

Appendix 1) (from S4ndulescu. .East Carpathians crustal fragments (along Geotraverse V. Paiinspastic reconstructionof the Apuseni .LOWER JURASIC (MIDDLE-UPPER TRIASIC A L S O I CENTRAL EAST CARPATHIANS O N E CENTRAL PAtEOZOlC OR OLDER BASEMENT EAST CARPATtlt ANS OCEANIC CRUST T H I N N E D CRUST Z y F L Y S C H Z O N E MAASTRICMTIAN PALEOCENE CALCAREOUS (MAINLY) AND PELAGIC FORMATIONS PELAGIC FORMATIONS CENTRAL MOLASSE CLUJ NAPOC Figure 1-6. 1688). The generalized nappe interpretationof the East Carpathians (EC) required a shallow dipping suture zone beneath the Apuseni continental crust fragment (A).

c) volcanic rocks in the northeastern part of the Pannonian Basin were interpreted as a subduction arc related to northward subduction from &O/SiO. some of them far-travelled in the inner Carpathians and intra-Carpathians (e-g. 1. 1982. Tapponier. The arc migrated to the east and younger volcanism initiated in the southem East Carpathians. THE MODEL AND THE REAL WORLD Recent ovewiews and tectonic syntheses tend to use a uself-explanatorynteminology. ratios (Balla. 1990) Subduction magmatisrn started in the West Carpathians and Apuseni mountains during the Early Miocene and migrated to the East Carpathians. Although unavoidable in large scale generalizations. Space and tirne inconsistenciesexist and geochemical and geophysical data appear to have been disregarded. or . l983). plagiogranite has been interpreted as a sheeted dyke cornplex with subvertical igneous contacts (Savu.. the self-explanatory terms are in some cases rnisleading. the Carpathian arc is thought to be the response to tectonic filling of what was. granophyre. a westward-opening oceanic embayment This filling is viewed in two different ways: . 1990). 1984b). . pegmatoid quartzdionte. Progressive crustal extension of the Transylvanian basin is suggested by the Burdigalian strata accumulated within its centre. For example: a) an areally-limited cornplex of basalt. Continued subduction caused retro-arc crustal extension and formation of the Pannonian basin system. Royden et al.the migration of the Carpathian arc and the wrnplex suturing of various plates. Hamilton. 1978). 1984a).. although the sub-vertical discontinuities are joints/cleavages consistent with the youngest Miocene tectonism in the southern Apuseni Mountains. in Early Tertiary tirne. Arculus and Johnson. gabbro.. although they are located along an E-W Iinearnent that projects into the south Transylvanian Late Tertiary strike-slip fault zone.3. Balla. 1982) although significant uncertainties associated with &O zoning were known (e...In recent tectonic analysis. and expansion of the Sannatian strata towards the peripheries. Late Tertiary strike-slip faults are accompanied by Pliocene-Pleistocenealkali-basalts. b) strained agglomerates with tectonic enclaves from adjacent Jurassic strata were interpreted as Cretaceous "mélangen(Savu.g . 1973). The older calc-alkaline volcanics were left behind in the southern Apuseni Mountains during development of the Transylvanian inter-arc basin (Bleahu et al.. Assirnilated into regional tectonic synthesis the uself-explanatorynterms derived from suspect original interpretaüons resulted in evolutionary models that included wide oceans followed by subduction/obduction (e-g.a coherent continental plate pushed obliquely by north-moving plates. 1977. Hamilton. bounded and sliced by strike slip faults as needed to fit into this embayment (e-g.

b) Deep water strata rnake a wherent thrust-and-fold belt only along the West and East Carpathians. 1982) because no contemporaneous andesitic tuff is known on the overriding East Carpathian plate. 1973) argued for Cretaceous subduction. 1997) in front of the Carpathians is critical. Masson et al.. Linzer. 3 . 1995.. The survival of oceanic crust until the Miocene is unlikely. a) The only mafic rocks in front of the East Carpathians are intra-continental basalts interlayered in the most internat fiysch units (RussoSandulescu. precluding a subduction zonefvolcanic arc relationship for the main Tethyan suture. 1983. The lack of continuity of deep water strata makes their interpretation as accretionary wedge suspect c) No volcanic arc associated with the assumed Cretaceous subduction zones can be traced: 1 . Geochemical data are at variance with the notion of subduction-related volcanism (Seghedi and Szakks. 1995) or even Miocene time (Peresson and Decker. 1996). Royden et ai-. unlike most subductionrelated magmatic arcs (Pécskay et al. 1992). The magmatic events do not show interpretable age progressions and chernical zoning. and for the consumption of the oceanic crust in front of the Carpathians by Turonian time.1. The local expression of the main Tethyan suture interpreted between the Apuseni and the Carpathians mountains bears no resemblance to a subduction zone.basaltic tuff and basaitic andesite (Savu et al. 2 . . Winkler and Slaczka. a remnant of Jurassic oceanic cmst in Paleogene (eg... 1973) overlying the extemal Danubian cnist of the South Carpathians would record Cretaceous subduction in front of the Danubian domain and not between Danubian and Getic as postulated. 1987) from the Turonian-Senonian *mélangew(Pop. 1-1). it disappears in front of the South Carpathians. The zone of igneous activity was diffuse and discantinuous.. d) The Neogene-Quatemary magmatic rocks cannot be rnatched with correlative sutures. The original model (RZidulescu. For recent models. There is no geological evidence for extensive Mesozoic oceanic crust in the region. as proposed by subduction-related models. 1985). and reappears at the tip of the Moesian plaffom (Severin-Trojan flysch) and in front of the easternmost segment of the Balkans (as the Kotel flysch) (Fig. 1995).the belt of Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline intrusions stretching from the Balkans to the Apuseni Mountains. The Mesozoic igneous complex between the Apuseni Mountains and the Carpathians is dominated by calc-alkaline rocks with tholeiitic rocks restricted to its westemmost part The source of sediments in flysch units is of continental origin (e-g. cuts the suture interpreted in the southern Apuseni Mountains. S&ndulescu.andesitic tuffites interlayered in several Cenomanian flysch sequences of the East Carpathians were tentatively interpreted to record local subduction within the flysch basins (R&dulescu and Dimitrescu. Only the anatomy of the East Carpathian segment of the orogen resembles a subduction zone defined by the pair of accretionary wedge-magmatic arc.

1970.. Royden. Cretaceous subduction is critical to the generalized nappe interpretation of the intemal units. Strain associated with the Cretaceous subduction was implicitiy considered to be regionalscale Cretaceous nappe stacking in the ovemding plates. 1988. 1907) and the Supragetic (Streckeisen.g. the Getic nappe .. the - - Supragetic nappes Streckeisen. 1990). and the initiation of Miocene calc-alkaline volcanisrn. the volcanic "arcnconsists in fact in Iineaments that cut the intemal units obliquely in the East Carpathians and transversely in the West Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains.Murgoci. Horizontal seismic refiectors at the cnrst . The assurnption that overriding did not proceed far onto the preexisting continental shelf (Hamilton. Sandulescu. retreating subducted slab cannot explain the areal and temporal distn'bution of the cale alkaline volcanisrn in the Carpathian-Pannonian region. 1988) or delaminated lithosphere (Doglioni. e) No geophysical evidence of fossil paleo-subductionzones exists. The explanation is petrologically tenuous and at odds with the clear subduction geometry imaged under the Dinarides (Spakman. Roman.J 973. 1993) (Appendix 1). Along the South Carpathians segment. 2. Royden.g. 1986. Tomek. Moreover. volcanic arc rocks are missing.mantie interface (e. A single. 1995) invoke speculative models to explain the location of a vertically descending slab at the extenor of the "subducting wedgen under the stable European foreland. the - Bucovinic and Transylvanian nappes Uhlig. 1988). there is a 100 My time gap between the first major subduction-relatedthnrsts (Aptian).Several attempts to relate the subduction zone postulated beneath the East Carpathians to the seismically active Vrancea region (e. 1993) and the lack of any remnant of subducting slab underneath the West Carpathian (Spakman. 1903) were correlated along the entire Carpathians . 1967. Magura and Sinaia flysch units are located forlandwards from the hinge of the postulated subduction. the Supragetic nappe Codarcea et al. 1990) conflicts with cuvent interpretation of the Getic (Murgoci. Magneto-telluric and seismic investigations of the contacts between the European. and Apuseni continental fragments show that shallowdipping detachrnents in the upper crustal levels merge into vertical tectonic discontinuities at intermediate and deep crustal levels (e..The belt of Neagene magrnatic rocks is generally interpreted to track the contour of the -100 km isobath at the top of a subducting slab of oceanic crust (e-g. and over 60 My between the inferred complete consurnption of the eastem oceanic basin (Turonian. While the Carpathians thrust-and-fold belt is strongly divergent. 1907. 1990) and Apuseni mountains is interpreted as Moho rejuvenation via the gabbro-eclogite phase transition.. Sollogub et a1. 1934) basement nappe systems which are believed to have been thrust more than 100 kilornetres ont0 the European foreland.. 1934.g. Thrusts inferred in different segments of the orogen long before the plate tectonics concept (e. and its orientation perpendicularto the inferred subduction zone. Volcanoes within the Pieniny Klippen Belt.g. Linzer. 1993) along the West and East Carpathians orocline. Carpathians. StClnicai and StClnid.

1984). KMutner. 1986) is of late Early Perrnian age. ft is highly unlikely that a cmstal fragment detached and displaced during the opening of Tethys would have retumed to its original location following ocean closure. 1986. Kmutner. respectively. 1.4.and post. Giu@ 1979) or Caledonian and Variscan igneous events (Balintoni. Balintoni.The age of sedimentary protoliths of greenschist to high-grade facies rocks were assigned on the basis of paleontological data (e-g. 1971. nappe contacts were justified by the omission of lithostratigraphicunits. 1994). Berza et al. U-Pb zircon data and 10Ar/39~r data record Early and Late Variscan tectonothermal events. Savu. A large number of K-Ar analyses were generally inconclusive. The Highis igneous complex assigned to Variçcan (e. 1980. Sm-Nd isotopic data indicate that both crustal fragments started tbeir evolution at about the same time in the Earîy Precambrian. Balintoni et al. 1965. All tectonic contacts involving basement rocks were interpreted as major Cretaceous (or older) overthrusts (e. Codarcea and Iliescu.1 Crusta1 evolution Basement assemblages in the Apuseni and Carpathians rnountains previously assigned to three superposed 'geosynclinals cycles' are inferred to be Precambrian crust variably reworked during subsequent tectonothemal events. 1. *ArpgAr dates on metamorphic rocks are interpreted to indicate either rapid cooling following a metamorphic event or cooling during uplift.tectonic granites. 1967.based on isofated exposures of Mesozoic cover strata reinterpreted as kcies zones facing the postulated Tethys ocean (SHndulescu.. lancu.. 3.. Although very popular. Codarcea. Corroborated with U-Pb zircon dates from associated pre. 1988) offered support to the nappe model: by postulating sedimentary protoliths in original stratigraphic succession. Visarion and Dimitrescu. 1983.g. the assumed Cretaceous nappe stacking model is inconsistent with key evidence presented here: kinernatic indicators and isotopic dating. 1984. 1989. 1975.. 1994.. Dimitrescu.4. The stratigraphic interpretationof the metamorphic / magmatic assemblages (e-g. U-Pb zircon data for granites previously assigned to the Middle Proterozoic tectonic-magrnatic cycle have yielded Middle to Late PaIeozoic ages. NEW RESULTS Detailed field and laboratory work on basement rocks of the Apuseni Mountains and selected regions of the Carpathians presented here shed new Iight on the crustal evolution and mode of involvernent of basement units in Alpine tectonism. Medium-grade lithotectonic assemblages have yielded Early Proterozoic Sm-Nd crustal residence ages.g. 1967. Similar Iithologies and isotopic compositions of basement units from the Apuseni and Carpathian mountains cast doubts upon their interpretation as distinct African and European crustal fragments. 1980). Hann and S & u . pointing to a similar Paleozoic evolution. ..

suggesting Eocene emplacement instead.4. Sm-Nd data suggest a stepwise evolution of the crust by repetitive addition of juvenile material followed by shearing and metamorphism. 4QArfgAr data for syn-kinematic muscovite. 1. and whole rock samples from the belts of low-grade rocks indicate polyphase tectonism between Late Carboniferous and Late Cretaceous. values less negative than those of medium-grade rocks. no evidence exists for a tectonic model that postulates hinterland nappes passing over frontal ones (eg. 155 Ma) for the tholeiitic substratum.2 Alpine evolution Crustal fragments at the southern margin of the European platform were repeatedly broken and re-welded during cornplex plate interaction dominated by large scale transcurrent shear zones. The emplacement of the S a v a ~ i n granite was previously inferred to be of Cretaceous age and related to Early Alpine subduction and nappe stacking. Getic. Tithonian to Early Cretaceous flyschlike sequences developed in tectonically active troughs and are often acwmpanied by mantlederived intrusions up to Albian. model ages are in the same range as Paleozoic granites variably wntaminated during ascent ttirough gneissic crust. The youngest zircon population yielded a date of 55 Ma. The Cretaceous . The Alpine strain was gradually accommodated in wide retrogressive shear zones overprinting metamorphic and igneous basernent and uwildflyschn assemblages in clastic cover strata..The low-grade assemblages show a large component of non-coaxial strain accompanied by rebogressive metamorphic reactions and are interpreted here as retrogressive Alpine shear zones overpnnting basement units. The Early Alpine extension of the European crust was dominated by tangential stretching rather than normal rifting. Transylvanian nappes). Although compressional structures including thrust faults are wmmon. Mesozoic mafic rocks and deep water sedirnents are more Iikely related to local tracts than to a wide oceanic basin. No inheritance from continental crust has been found. Kinematic indicators along most contacts between postulated far-travelled Cretaceous basement nappes are orogen-parallel and oriented consistentIy with the intemal strain within the adjacent rnetamorphic assemblages. Cretaceous to Recent compression resulted in diachronous phases of stress release and tectonic relaxation at fragment margins with distinct kinematics. Sm-Nd model ages are younger and E Nd. Bucovinic. The tholeiitic rocks were previously interpreted as a slab of oceanic crust obducted onto the Apuseni continental cnist The inhented grains of a uniform high-Th zircon population yielded a Callovian date (c. U-Pb zircon data on a calc-alkaline intrusion within the tholeiitic suite of the Southem Apuseni Mountains (Sgvâqin granite) is inconsistentwith the subduction/obduction model. tectonically active zones of weakness are integrated into a new regional geodynamic model below. Supragetic. The kinernatics of these long-liveb.

6. 275-281. Pateotectonic Reconstruction of the Central AlpineMediterranean Belt for the Neogene. 39.. The correlation of Iithologic assemblages from the Apuseni Mountains with isolated exposures along the orogen is tenuous. R. p. REFERENCES Atculus. and Celet. Z. l. and have incomplete cover sequences.4. West Carpathians. 1-1). Géol. 11969. This study ernphasises the Alpine kinematics recorded by basernent lithologies relevant for regional correlations and tectonic interpretations. and East Carpathians (Fig. more deeply eroded. R. the Moesian platform was not a passive promontory of Europe.2. W. L e t . 1978. Intemal units however.. 7. p. 127.juxtaposition of crustal fragments resulted from trançcurrent displacernent and local oblique thnists rather than from large overthrusts normal to a hypothetical subduction zones. Balla. 88. Geophys. Soc. 313-353. . Z. 61-102. Their correlation is a matter of debate. The Apuseni Mountains. During Cenozoic tectonism. Development of the Pannonian Basin Basement through the Cretaceous- Cenozoic Collision: A New Synthesis. Bull. Earth Planet Sci. The Carpathian Loop and the Pannonian Basin: a Kinematic Analysis. P.. XI.. Balla. but a relatively active west moving indenter. Tectonophysics. 30. are surrounded by Neogene filf of the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins. J. 213-243. 1985.. Introduction a la séance consacrbe a la Géologie des Dinarides. Paleo-geographic reconstruction and tectonic analysis based exclusively on Alpine (Perrnian to Recent) stratigraphy have resulted in contradictory interpretations.. Z. This view drastically Iimits the extent of the supposed TertÏary ocean embayment in the Carpathian area and the implied hundreds of kilometres of shortening by nappe stacking. J. 1986. Transactions. 1982. XII. The Carpathian orocline is defined by a coherent thnist-and-fold belt along the Eastern Alps... Criticism of generalized models for magmatic evolution of arc-trench systems. Balla. p.. Aubouin. p. 1970. are more discontinuously exposed. 118-126. Asupra caracterului retromorf al paragneiselor biotitice CU clorit de pe Bâsca Grosetului (Fagaras): Buletinul Societafii Stiinfifice de Geologie. Tectonophysics. Balintoni. 941-944. located between the Carpathians and the Dinarides branches of the Alpine orogen. de France. the ovemdden cmst in front of the East Carpathians is essentially thinned continental cnist. and Johnson. p.

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807-8 10 by Dinu Panaand Philippe Erdmer . 1994.C H A P T E R 2* ALPlNE CRUSTAL SHEAR ZONES AND - PRE ALPINE BASEMENT TERRANES IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHRANS AND APUSENl MOUNTAINS * This chapter contains an aRicIe published in Geology. 22. p. 9.

Following a reexamination of metamorphic sequences in the orogen. Contacts between products of each cycle were inferred to be stmtigraphic or metamorphic discontinuities. In the second. 1984.2. In addition. epidote-amphibolite. 1980) have been suggested. 2-1). Triimpy. Dimitrescu. Giu@ et al. but not demonstrated. 1980). For many epidoteamphiboIite and greenschist grade sequences. Strike-slip displacement and associated penetrative deformation during rifong (SHndulescu. S&ndulescu. 1988) or collision (Burchfiel.. or as exotic fragments from more southem paleolatitudes (Apulian and Rhodopian continental fragments: Burchfiel. three superposed geosynclinal cycles of mid-Proterozoic. and Variscan orogenies.2. respectively (Codarcea. respectively. 1967. in Radulescu and Dimitrescu. Involvernentof basement rocks in Alpine tectonism has been largely considered as being thrusting of rigid sheets. a recess-and-promontory rift geornetry resulted in the inverses shape of the Carpathians (Fig.1. 1984. we consider that the sense of the metamorphic reactions is retrograde and that rocks were involved during Alpine tectonism in wide retrograde shear zones that cut continental fragments on both sides of the Tethys suture. Dimitrescu. INTRODUCTION In the traditional interpretation of metamorphic basement rocks in the Carpattiian Orogen. 1985). and mid. 1993). Kmutner. . Late Proterozoic to Cambrian. Mesozoic closure of the Tethys ocean and related rifis led to diachronous collision of continental fragments against the East European plate. 1980. an evaluation of available data. l984). In the first interpretation. and a new proposal for the style of Carpathian basement involvement in Alpine orogeny. GEOLOGlC SElTING Alpine evolution of the Carpathian orogen began with Triassic and Early Jurassic rifting and transfomi faulting. 1989). The cycles were interpreted to have produced metamorphic sequences of arnphibolite. 1989) require revision to accommodate strike-slip displacements. 1982. We present the geologic setting. we consider that some textures previously interpreted as metasedimentary and metavolcanic are pseudodepositionaland are in fact polyphase blâstomylonitic fabrics.g. Sandulescu. 1969. Continental fragments have been considered as blocks locally rifted and rewelded during collision (the Intemal and Median Dacides: Rfidulescu and Siindulescu. 2. and Miocene back-arc extension in the hinterland (Transylvanian and Pannonian basins) was partly coeval with foreland thrusting (Royden and Burchfiel.. the Moesian foreland promontov acted as a stress deviator during Paleogene compression (Ratschbacher et al. initial northwarddirected normal convergence was followed by eashvard escape..to late-Paleozoic age resulted frorn the Dairadian. we consider that tectonic syntheses that highlight thnist faulting almost to the exclusion of other processes (e. 1973. and greenschist grade. Balintoni et al. CadomianfCaledonian.

continental crust originally interpreted as part of a single nappe (e-g. 1969. Murgoci. Codarcea. 1984. and low-temperature mylonite. 1980). and may be suspect as most of the palynologically . Popescu. The data are inconclusive. Palynologicaldata cited in support of lithostratigraphic models consist of microspores of Late Proterozoic or early to mid-Paleozoic age. We consider that domains mapped as Barrovian prograde zones or as distinct lithostratigraphic intervals are characterized instead by different intensities of retrograde metamorphism. Balintoni. 1974.. 1989). We found thern to range from gouge and cataclasite to tectonic breccia and conglomerate. locally rnarked by faults. In previous syntheses.. Pan&.3. KHutner. Codarcea and Hiescu. 1984. 1990j) appear on reexaminationto be slight Iithologic contrasts or zones of slight retrograde metamorphic contrast. these rocks were previously considered as Carboniferous or Perrnian sedimentary deposits. 19û4). 1907) has also been interpreted as a stack of pre-Alpine and Alpine nappes (e-g. and metarnorphic rocks to preserve prirnary structures (e-g. 1986.. Upon examinau'on of these contacts.. 1990).. Contacts interpreted as major thrusts by previous workers (e-g. 7 975. 1970. In the Apuseni Mountains. conflicting proposals were made for the evolution of the basement rocks. 1965. Giusca et al. Very-low-grade fault rocks are locally developed at domain margins. Mutihac. 1980. but other researchen inferred that metamorphism in lowgrade domains were retrograde.: Hann and Sasz. REWALUATION OF EXlSTlNG DATA As a result of different interpretations of the sense of metarnorphic reactions. Olaru and Dimitrescu. 1963.2. rocks interpreted as basal arkosic transgressive beds are more likely brittlely deformed augen gneiss and granitic-microgranite. 1974) or as slices involved in complex pre-Alpine and Alpine stacking (Sandulescu. we were unable to locate basal conglomerates in several field localities in the southern Carpathians. Bamvian zonation was initially interpreted (e.g . and even by one of us [Pana.g. Lithostratigraphic "groups" with detailed stratigraphie columns were assigned to one of the three geosynclinal successions inferred to be separated by major depositional unconformities. 1974). and that zonation is only apparent and resulted from retrograde metamorphism of medium. Streckeisen and Hunziker. the lithologic layering of rnetarnorphic sequences was interpreted to be prirnary. Dimitrescu. reported frorn rocks considered to be simple prograde metamorphosed sedimentary strata (e. Balintoni et al. The extent of reworking of metamorphic cnist during Alpine orogeny is unclear.g. Hann and Sasz. Dimitrescu et al. Kautner.. 1977. In the southern Carpathians.: Baincil& 1965. Basement rocks in the eastern Carpathians have been considered either as structurally ngid blocks unaffected by Alpine tectonisrn (eg. foliations to be parallei to bedding. we interpret some horizons of metaconglomerate to be entirely tectonic in origin. 1969. lancu. 1990).or high-grade cmst (e. Savu.

Tincova Banatite. Oravifa Fault. Valeapai-Nadrag-Cincig shear zone (VNCSZ).1 w'. Narned faults are OF. STmbata shear zone (SaSZ). Open circles with letter abbreviation represent the following localities: Dl Ditrau. RM. Trasdu shear zone (TSZ). Shear zone Gladna abbreviaüons are: Highis-Bihor tectonic zone (HBTZ). Lucaref. TVTome@. Racog. CBugu shear zone (CSZ). Sibigel shear zone (SiSZ). Medlterranean S e i *FRIC* 7 Fig. LescovitaMaciova-03bTca shear zone (LMDSZ). Tulghe~shear zone (TgSZ). 2-1. The Danubian domain forms a separate terrane of the orogen not considered here. BPan shear zone (BSZ).. Rusca Montana basin. BF. . L. R. Boeriqte Fault Other abbreviations: MM. Rusaia shear zone (RSZ). Muntele Mare granite: Ti. Romana-Geoagiu shear zone (GGSZ). Sketch map of the distribution of basernent rocks in the Romanian Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains showhg the extent of proposed Alpine shear zones.

. 1969."dated" greenschist rocks have been later s h o w to be retrograded older rnetamorphic cmst or even foliated igneous rocks (e-g.4. 2. Recent OArfgAranalyses of medium. Using published data and preliminary results of field work.. 1975. 1987). the oldest K-Ar minera1ages fall in the range 500-700 Ma. rather than frorn penetrative regional deformation (Soroiu et al. These data hint that the last medium-grade metamorphic overprint is Variscan and show that the penetrative Alpine tectonism that affected at least some areas must be accommodated in regional interpretation. Seclitman et al. cryptic blastornylonitezone hosting chloritoid is known (Hartopanu et al. Original contact relations are rnasked by deformation and metamorphism. suggesting the possibility of infiltration. we have divided basernent rocks into a sheared volcanic rock-gabbro-diorite and granite ("greenstone-granite") assemblage and two gneissic assemblages: type A. 1984. Metamorphic History. In medium. The metamorphic history is best documented in the South Carpathians in type A crust. together with lowgrade rnylonitic reactivation.. in where granulitic. biotite yielded a Rb-Sr age of 840 Ma. 1977) in type B cnist. NEW INTERPRETATION: ALPINE CRUSTAL SHEAR ZONES 2. and K-Ar isochron ages are 850150 Ma (cf. Prograde medium-pressure minerai assemblages were variously overprinted by low pressure assemblages (Hartopanu. (1987) proposed that nearly 80% of medium-grade metamorphic assemblages were retrograde. S a b h et al. . 1980).4. Stelea and Stelea. 1990. Pana et al. 1992). dominated by migmatitic gneiss and granitoid rocks with rare small eclogitic pods. W d e areas of relict gamet i kyanite i staurolite in a greenschist matrix record shearing under chlorite-grade conditions (Pana. respectively (Dallmeyer and Neubauer.to highqrade metamorphic rocks. 1980).KMutner. 1993). medium-pressure parageneses overprinted by low-pressure assemblages have been reported (Balintoni and Gheuw. 1989).. lsotopic age data are difficult to reconcile with proposed tectonic models.1 Basement Rocks Lithotype Associations. Hann and S a s . eclogitic. and data from low grade rocks record two tectonothermal events. A discontinuous. widespread rnid-Cretaceous and younger K-Ar ages in low-grade rocks were originally interpreted to result from local resetting along faults. In the eastern Carpathians. at 200 Ma and 118 Ma. 1991).to highgrade metamorphic rocks in the South Carpathians yielded results of 294 to 309 Ma. and peridotitic bodies are preserved within medium-grade gneiss. KGutner. and type B. dominated by large crystalline dolomitic andlor calcitic marble bodies and amphibolite. in others.

both structures may exceed 500 km in Iength. most can be followed along strike for several tens of kilometres and some are continuously exposed for more than 200 km ( Highis-Biharia. Gladna Romana-Geoagiu. Gladna Roman&Geoagiu. Extent. carbonate-. differentially exhumed. 1975). Displacement. Tulghes). Tulgheq. Balan. Reactions within the shear zones are retrograde. Sheanng and fiuid influx resulted in a symrnetrical zonation about a relatively narrow axial zone where rehydration of rnedium-grade or magmatic parageneses commonly produced the assemblage chlorite + epidote + actinolite + albite + white mica + magnetite + quartz. Valeapai-Nadmg-Cinciq. The Balan shear zone correlates with a geophysically inferred fault (Socolescu et al.4. Tras&iu). the zones have the following cornmon features. Sambata. and the Rusaia shear zones. Greenschist rocks occupy in discontinuous linear domains between higher grade rocks. A width of 3 km of cornpletely reequilibrated rock is average. and gaphite-rich lenses of probable metasomatic origin.the Trasdu . stilpnomelane (in the Lescovija-Maciova-DCibaca and Balan shear zones). Balan. similady. which implies about 30 km of late displacement along the Lescovifa-Maciova-Daibaca shear zone. and the Valeapai-NadragCinciq shear zone coincides with a geophysical lineament that extends to Belgrade (Milan.. Their contacts are gradational and parallel to the local trend of the Carpathian orogen.. to about 15 km (Highiq-BihaB'a. locally juxtaposed. Lescovifa-Maciova-Dgbâca. The growth of chloritoid (in the Highis-Biharia.Sibisel. Lifhotectonic Assemblages. Although detailed study is needed to establish the outline of each shear zone and their interrelations. On the basis of regional kinematic analysis. we suggest an initial left-Iateral displacementfor the BCllan and Tulgheq shear zones. 40 to 50 km of dextral displacement along Sibisel shear zone is suggested by the outline of the Magura-Cozia-Cumpana augen-gneiss domain. or buried beneath Tertiary deposits. These are (Fig. Although the size and proportions of . and Rusaia shear zones). 1978) suggests to us that it is a pull-apart. 2-1): the Highig-Biharia tectonic zone (HBTZ). and Tulghes shear zones). Ciilusu. Sibisel.2. Onentafion.2 Greenschist Sheat Zones We infer the existence of at least I O discrete retrograde shear zones that may be part of an anastornosing network more than 1000 km long. which cuts across regional strike. or margarite ( in the Sibisel shear zone) may be the result of local strain rate variation. Although greenschist dornains are disrnembered along faults. except for the north-striking segment of the Sibisel shear zone. the Leqcovifa-Maciova-Dabfca. 1989). Sibisel. Metamorphic Conditions. Baan. Domains of greenschist reequilibration are characterked by quartz-. The width of the zones varies from less than 1 Km (Sibisel. Strike-slip displacement can be demonstrated for at least some of the shear zones: the offset of the Muntele Mare granite suggests a minimum of 20 km of sinistral displacement along the Highis-Biharia shear zone and the geometry of the Rusca Montanal basin (SCiindulescu et al.

Contacts are commonly complicated by faults (Tulgheq.. the Highis-Biharia shear zone also affects the margin of the adjacent northem granitic gneiss terrane and of the southem carbonate-lens gneiss terrane. Domains of albite schist several tens of square kilometers in area. and Calusu shear zones. Greenschist belts mark crustal-scale discontinuities in which Alpine (Jurassic and Eariy to rnidCretaceous) activity in at least some cases is indicated by K-Ar and a ~ r p gisotopic ~r data (Dallmeyer and Neubauer. 1993). Relict pods of gabbrodiorite and aikaline granite within the Highis-Biharia (Pana et al. Protolifhs. Mylonitized granitoid bodies occur in the Tulghes. Trascau. The main retrogressive tectonism is sealed locally by unmetamorphosed cover as old as Pennian(?)-Triassic (Highis-Biharia.quartzofeldspatic and mafic rock bodies Vary widely at the outcrop scale. Ages of Shearing. The Highis-Biharia and the Lescovip-Maciova-Dgbaca shear zones are overprinted mainly on greenstone-granite assemblages. Lescovifa-Maciova-Dabacal Sibisel). Lithotype and mineralogic assemblages in axial zones point to metamorphic conditions generally above the 400°C isotherrn. 1992). Balan. basementaver relations elsewhere are ambiguous. uranium. but the range of retrograde metamorphism is wide. Upper Cretaceous strata unconfomably overlie parts of the belts and are affected locally by britüe strain and Late Cretaceous-Paleogene regional banatite . and Tulgheq shear zones). The Rusaia and the Valeapai-NZidrag-Cincis shear zones mark the general boundary between the two gneissic assemblages. Low-temperature fault-rocks such as breccia and gouge occur in many places. whereas the Tulgheq and Caluqu shear zones were developed mostly within granitic rnigmatitic-gneiss crust. and Sibisel shear zones) and unmetamorphosed pre-late Cretaceous deposits do not overlie the axial parts of some shear zones (Highis-Biharia. Gladna Rornâna4eoagiu and Trasdu shear zones are overprinted on mainly carbonate-lens gneiss crust. BgIan. retrogression took place at high P-T conditions locally (500-520°Cand 3. Rare gold. unpublished). or Jurassic (C&~suand Trasdu shear zones ). The Lescovifa-Maciova-D3baca shear zone affects adjacent graniüc gneiss crust. single or multiple layers of quartzite andfor carbonate schist to crystalline dolostone-limestone can be followed for tens of kilometres. Protoliths can be deduced from relations with adjacent prograde crust and from lithologic and rnineralogic reiicts. occur on both sides of the lowest-grade domains and indicate that fluids spread outside the axial zone. Balan.742 kb). Samb&a. As indicated by the assemblage muscovite + margarite + quartz + fibrolite in gamet-kyanite micaschist within Sibiset shear zine (Stelea and Stelea. The Sambata. 1991) suggest a rift-like setting. some with higher-grade relict rninerals. and reequilibration temperatures as Iow as 280-250°C are indicated by calcite-dolomite geothermometry in carbonate lenses within the Highis-Biharia shear zone (Pans. and sulphide occurrences are spatially and probably genetically related to the greenschist zones.

5. 2-1) may pinpoint loci of extension along young faults overprinting the Gladna RomanaGeoagiu and Sâmbata zones. and banatite intrusions and explosion breccias follow the trace of the Boeriste fault within the TrascClu shear zone (Fig. 1974). but the 7 30 Ma-ofd Ditrilu alkaline massif (Streckeisen and Hunziker. 2. and the Tulgheq shear zone. one dominated by migrnatic and granitoid rocks (type A) and the other by crystalline dolostone-limestone lenses (type B). slightly oblique to the Lescovifa-Maciova-D2ibaca shear zone. and that britüe overprint at zone rnargins indicates strike-slip or thrust motion. Alpine doleritic sills are sheared and retrograde metamorphosed within Balan shear zone (Popescu.(quartz diorite) intrusions follow the trend of the Oravifa strike-slip fault (Fig. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSICIIS We interpret the data to indicate that the Carpathian lowgrade metamorphic belts are loci of repeated retrogressive metamorphism and deformation of higher grade polycyclic crust and associated igneous rocks. lsotopic age data show that the youngest medium-temperaturefabrics are Vanscan and the lowgrade ones are Alpine. Basement rocks in continental fragments involved in Alpine tectonism in the Rornanian Carpatfiians west of the former European platfon wnsist of three Variscan lithotectonic assemblages: a "greenstone-granite" assemblage and two gneissic assemblages. respectively. Early Alpine rifting (Triassic?. and contacts are gradational. and stretching Iineations are everywhere parallel to fold hinges. For al1 shear zones. Mesoscopic fold hinges are parallel or subparallel to the strike of the shear zones. The Tincova banatite is elongate parallel to the northem border of the ValeapaiNadrag-Cincis shear zone. 1974) cuts that zone. Infernal Structure. We infer that a dominantly ûanspressional tectonic regime produced early steady-state ductile strain fabrics. Rock units display strong interfingenng L-S shape fabric or random shape fabric. where we have observed top-to-the-northwest shear-sense indicators in southeastdipping mylonite zones. where a strike-parallel stretching lineation is overpn'nted by downdip sfickenlines indicating thmsting normal to the orogen.Jurassic) occurred within the type B cruse associated . 2-l). foliation is parallel to rock unit boundaries and ranges from steep to shallow dipping. Our reconnaissance data indicate that metamorphic rock units within the shear zones are tabular or linear. Undated srnall intrusions that may be coeval with the banatite suite occur along the east-trending segment of the Sibisel shear zone. 2-1). The Rusca Montana basin hosts CretaceousPaleogene clastic strata and coeval igneous rocks in a bend of the Lescovifa-Maciova-DZibacâ shear zone. isotopic ages and/or associated rnagmatisrn clearly indicate tectonic actMty younger than inferred cover strata. indicating polyphase deformation. Exceptions are the western part of the Highiq-Biharïa tectonic zone. Quatemary basalts hosting mantle xenoliths at Lucaref and Racog and Gataia (Fig.

l.Although the Mures zone is traditionally interpreted as an oceanic remnant and the local expression of Tethys. or extensional fault systems is recorded by igneous activity that follows the local strike of the zones. 5. so that their number and identity changed over time. but Alpine acüvity is consistent with the present configuration of the Carpathian arc. We relate the geometry of most of the crustal-scale shear zones to tectonic inheritance from this early deforrnation phase.. Asupra caracterului retromorf al paragneiselor biotitice CU clont de pe Bkca Grosetului (Fagaras): Buletinul Societ@i Stiinfifice de Geologie. we consider unlikely the current interpretation of large rigid Cretaceous nappes involving basernent rocks in the southem and eastern Carpathians. Instituhi de Geologie si Geofizica. XI.. 25-36. Alpine strain concentration along at least some Iineaments within the Vanscan lithotectonic assemblages resulted in wide. 1980. I. but the locus of most intense strain likely migrated over time. REFERENCES Balintoni. the ocean was probably not wide. WI. v. The time when some of the shear zones began to f o m is probably Late Paleozoic. 1977. and Gheuca. I. p.. Because suturing juxtaposed the same (type B) lithologic assemblage on two relatively small "microplates". metamorphism regresiv si tectonicii În regiunea Zugreni-Bamar (Carpafii Orientali): Dari de Seama ale lnstitutului de Geologie si Geofizicg. I. the exposed magmatic suite is largely intermediate in composition.S. . We propose that strain rewrded by the greenschist belts accommodated most of the stress field in the Carpathian Orogen and is responsiblefor the Carpathian's double bend. Balintoni. LXllI15. transpressional. p. Some zones were involved passively or actively in later deforrnation.11-38. Date noi asupra pozqei structurale a metamorfitelor din bazinul vaii Putnei (Carpafii Orientali): D. The extent and tectonic significance of the greenschist belts indicate that revisions to the interpretation of metamorphic rocks in the Romanian Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains must be made to accommodate AIpine tectonism. 2-1). p. Shear-zone initiation could have been controlled by isostatic contrasts between crustal domains. Reactivation in large strike-slip. Metamorphism progresiv. Our observations strongly favor Burchfiel's (1980) suggestion that crustal fragments were repeatedly broken into smaller units and then welded and enlarged. v. 275-281. Balintoni. v. On this basis. 1969.igneous actMty is inferred to have occured in the Mures zone (Fig. generally steeply dipping tectonic discontinuities whose shallow parts are now exposed as greenschist belts..

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and Mogos. M.S. La nappe de i-iaghimas.. no. p.. Gh. Strusievicz. Belgrade. M. 16. H. Moser. 1991.. Pan& 0. I. H. Geotectonica României.. p. Reports 1.. 1984. Bedelean. 1909. Studiul fornafiunilor cristaline CU Sulfuri Metalice din Zona Balan (Munlii Hiighirnaq-Ciuc): Ter&de doctorat. III. p. Geologie... Sisturile cristaline din Munfii FZigZirasului(clina romana): Anuarul Institutului Geologic Roman.O.. Universitatea Bucuresti. v. f982. Editura T e h n i a 323 p. p. 4. 223-31 1.I. Partea a Ill-a: Editura UniversitCEifiiBucuregti. IV12.. 1970. Shdulescu. The metamorphic evolution of the low pressure terrain in the central South Carpathians (Getic Nappe): Geologicky Zbomik. Bercia. G. 165-265. M.. Linzer. Academia Romana.. 76-80. G.PHiuqeni din masivul cristalin Highiq: Rornanian Journal of Stratigraphy. 1978.. v. v. H.. M. 855-873. M. H. 41993. and Mastacan. 427-439. Popescu. The Plate-Tectonics Concept and the Geological Structure of the Carpathians: Tectonophysics. L... 114 p. flar. Royden. Riidulescu. Balintoni.. F... Bindea.. no. in press. 1989. 8. G. M. 1987. D.Romania. 1952. v.M. L.. HP. and Tatu. Stratigrafia si izogradele de metamorfism din provincia metamorfidi prebaikaliang din Munfii Semenic: Anuarul Institutului Geotogic.. H. 120 p. Geologic Map of Romania. 735-754. N..PA. Ratschbacher..1.. I.. Petrologia endogena a teritoriului R.. geografie). R. Are systematic variations in thrust belt style related to plate boundary processes? (Thewestern AIps versus the Carpathians): Tectonics. Ricman. p. Hann. v. Savul. Scale 1: 1000 000. Pan& D. p. XXXVIII. Borcos. 51-61. R.. v. Nhtaseanu. 1967. Contribufii la cunoagterea gneiselor porfiroide din Carpapi ORentali: Buletin stiinfific al Acaderniei Republicii Populare Romane (SeMa biologie. v.. 12... Cretaceous to Miocene ttinisting and wrenching along the central South Carpathians due to a corner effect dunng collision and orocline formation: Tectonics. 81-99. Patnilius. and Dimitrescu.....155-161Rtidulescu. and Pan& D. M. D.. p. Shdulescu.. Savu. and Marinescu. agronomie. Studii si CerceHri.UO(IV/S. 1974. v. Savu.C. 1973. 38/6. lig-l8S. 1990. une nouvelle nappe de décollement dans les Carpathes Orientales: Carpato-Balkan Geological Association. Kriiutner. 1.I. S. Ghenea. Stefanescu.. Vlll Congress.. S~dulescu. . Central and Northern Fgggras-Lithologid sequences and structure: Dan de Seama ale lnstitutului de Geologie si Geofiziki. Low grade metamorphic senes frorn the Arieq Valley (Apuseni Mountains). B. Reinhardt. M.G. F. Saiiu. and Sauidulescu. p.. p. v. p.. 1. C. C. geologie. and Burchfiel. O. M. Lupu.

Soroiu.. R. Stelea. p.. M. M. Tome 31. R. Airinei. Géographie.Socolescu. p. Institut Géologique de Roumanie. 75. Triimpy.C. 29-38. A.. U.. and Popescu.. J. 1974. 1992.. A. Streckeisen. 1988. 54f1. p. 85-89. XV.. and Stelea. Popescu. Fizica si structura scoarfei terestre din Romania: Editura tehnicCt. M. and Dimitrescu. Gh. f969.G. de Ciuc. 1. 218. v. and Hunziker. 4142.. p. South Carpathians: Romanian Journal of Mineralogy.. *clman. v.. Supplement No. SeMunea Il. .. Cuza" lasi. and Maninfiu. Ciocirdel. v. p..I.. Bucure#. Le Mésozoïque de Tornesti (Dep. 1937. Contributions préliminaires à la géochronologie des massifs cristallins des Monts Apuseni: Anuanil Stiinfific al UniversitZQÏi"A1. On the Origin and Age of the Nepheline Syenite Massif of Ditro (Transylvania. 25-33 Streckeisen.. A possible Jurassic-Cretaceous transforrn system in the Alps and the Carpathians: Geological Society of Arnerica Special Paper.. 93-109.b (Geoiogie). Hîrtopanu. Margarite in Dynarnically Metarnorphosed Micaschists in the Cibin Mountains.. 1975. S..Carpates orientales): Comptes Rendus des Séances. 59-77. I. p. I. 1987. Kasper. Types of mineral reactions in the Carpathian metamorphic areas: Revue Roumaine de Géologie Géophysique. M. Gh.. Rumania): Schweizer Mineralogische Petrographische Mitteilungen. Bd. R. SéBe Géologie. v.

R. Erdmer .C H A P T E R 3* PRE-ALPINE TECTONIC FRAMEWORK OF THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS: CONSTRAlNTS FROM A Sm-Nd AND U-Pb ISOTOPlC STUDY ON THE METAMORPHIC AND IGNEOUS BASEMENT ASSEMBLAGES * A versrOn of this chapter has been submitted to Journal of Geology by D. H. Heaman. 1. Creaser. and P. Pana L.C.

1980. However. INTRODUCTlON The Apuseni Mountains represent the largest basement exposure between the Carpathians and Dinarides branches of the Alpine orogen. A widespread low-grade Alpine overprint affected the basement units of the Apuseni Mountains (Pan3 and Erdmer 1994). Silndulescu. 1988. Aipine vs. Haas et al. further extensive petrological studies are needed to substantiate the appurtenance of a dated magmatic event to a certain preAlpine geotectonic setting in order to attempt the reconstruction of the Variscan orogen anatomy.. . in an attempt to reveal its ancient geological history and relationships to other Variscan terranes incorporated elsewhere as basement units in the Alpine orogen. whilst the pre-Alpine evolution of the crust is largely speculative due to the lack of analytical data. 1969. Variscan tectonothemal evolution has been recently constrained by '"'A~P'A~ data on metamorphic rocks (Dallmeyer et al. 1994)... The Variscan orogen is currently interpreted as a collage of various tectono-stratigraphie units accreted along the northem margin of Gondwana dun'ng Eariy to Late Carboniferous transpressional collision (von Raurner and Neubauer. Dimitrescu. Precambrian and Paleozoic tectonotherrnal events have been inferred in the basement units of the Apuseni Mountains (e. Sm-Nd analysis on gneissic assemblages of the Apuseni and Carpathians mountains yielded similar Eariy Proterozoic crustal residence ages.g.. 1992.g. We present the first set of Sm-Nd and U-Pb data on representative lithotectonic assemblages and associated igneous rocks that constitute the Apuseni crustal fragment.XI. nature of boundaries and geodynarnic evolution of the Apuseni crustal fragment (e. The U-Pb zircon data indicate that several Paleozoic tectonomagmatic events documented in the Alps can be partly recognized in the basement rocks of the Apuseni Mountains. 1989. 1995).. Recent geodynamic models agree to a certain degree upon the Cenozoic extent...g. Balla. Kovacs et al. the Eariy Alpine evolution is controversial. In some reconstnictions (e. 1988) the Apuseni Mountains belong to a large crustal fragment that includes the Austroalpine units of the Alps and hence would have an African origin.g.g. 1998). Atternpts to integrate basernent units frorn southeastern Europe into the model are based almost exclusively on lithostratigraphic correlations (e. G ui@i et al. the Apuseni fragment is interpreted as a slice of European cnist. Kmutner. Csontos et al.. Low-grade assemblages traditionally attributed to the Vanscan orogeny record in fact Alpine strain overprinting mainly Permian igneous rocks. The Alpine evoluüon of the Apuseni Mountains has been debated in an impressive number of contributions. In other reconstructions (e. However. The European Alpine belt is superposed on the wider Variscan belt. Kt%utner. 1990.. 1986). 1993). MBrton and Mauritsch. Extensive petrological and geochronological studies in the Alps and in the extra-Alpine Variscides have resulted in a relatively well constrained Late - Proterozoic Paleozoic evolutionary model. 1982).. Neubauer and Raumer.

3-1). 1998) resulted in a different interpretation: the low-grade assemblages define a kilometre wide arcuate belt of polyphase Alpine strain concentration.. the stratigraphic systematics of the basement rocks is extensively used.wtapped in a mesh of phyllonite with undigested pods of gabbro-diorite-monzodiorite and tonalite-adamellite-granite (Appendix II. epidote-arnphibolite and greenschist facies assemblages were defined in the central and northem Apuseni Mountains (e-g. Igneous textures are progressively obliterated towards the peripheries of the pods until comptetely losing their identity wh tin i the phyllonitic matrix which may indicate that rnost phyllonitic rock-types derived from igneous protoliths (Pan5 and Ricman. Figs. It can be traced across the Apuseni Mountains from the southern Pannonian Basin to the northern Transylvanian basin (Fig. In the absence of diable age data. The . 1968. Dimitrescu. Partial overiapping between the field of igneous acidic rocks and that of the quartz-clast bearing schist ("metawnglorneraten)samples suggest direct derivation of the schist from granitoids by shearing accompanied by loss of alkalies and relative enrichment in quartz (Appendix II. 1988).2. In the axial zone of the belt the rocks are phyllonite and metre to kilometre size igneous pods. 1975) are inconsistent with the postulated evolutionary model. The protolith of the the HBSZ phyllonite is uncertain. Recent recognition of a large wmponent of non-coaxial strain and of the retrograde character of the metamorphic reactions in the lowgrade assemblages (Pan8 and Erdmer. the Highis-Biharia Shear Zone (HBSZ). II-?and 11-2). 1969. with the higher metamorphic grade rocks being the oldest The age of the spatialiy associated igneous rocks were assigned assuming that they represent the magrnatic activity during the tectonornetamorphic event that affected the surrounding metamorphic assemblages.. GEOLOGlCAL UNITS. the Highis Mountains expose an igneous complex. 1988) and the existing K-Ar data (Soroiu et al. Giuqc5 et al.3. but have no stratigraphic connotation.. Pavelescu et al. The low-grade assemblages within the Alpine shear zone are defined by distinct lithologic and mineral relics. In the westernmost segment of the HBSZ. Fig. PREVIOUS ISOTOPE DATA Amphibolite. Although the location and nature of these contacts are controversial (Balintoni. 1994) and systematic a ~ r p A dating r of low. and to the south the Baia de Anes carbonate lenses gneissic assemblage. 11-1). a Late Proterozoic/Cambrianor Caledonian and a Variscan tectonomagmatic cycle.. the metamorphic rocks were traditionally assigned to either a Middle Proterozoic. medium-grade rocks define distinct Iithologies: to the north the Someg gneiss-granitic assemblage and the Codm arnphibolite-granitoidic assemblage.. On either side.and medium grade rocks (Dallmeyer et al. Dimitrescu 1985). The igneous rocks show a range of chernical compositions and grain-sizes indicative for an upper crustal igneous complex. Stratigraphie and metamorphic unconforrnities were interpreted between rocks assigned to different tectonomagrnatic cycles. 1985. tens of square kilornetres wide.

.

g. Figs. Giusca et al. Balintoni (1986) interpreted the rnafic rocks from Highiq and Biharia mountains to represent Caledonian ophiolitic crust and the granitic rocks to represent the Variscan magrnatism. K-Ar age data ranging from 75 to 123 Ma (Soroiu. the initiation of magmatic activity with mafic intrusions along the entire HBSZ suggests a pre-Alpine rift-like setting wiai more advanced extension across the western segment. quark-Iatiandesite and trachyte of the Highis igneous cornplex. Fig.. 11-1c). An 40~rp9 plateau ~r age of c. Dimitrescu. This mode1 also assumes two rnetamorphic events contemporaneous with the intrusions. although the only available data were K-Ar ages ranging from 143 to 76 Ma (Pavelescu et al. 1968). Sheared and hydrated diorite bodies were previously interpreted as epidote-amphibolite facies clastic sediments and consequently assigned to the Caledonian event (e. 108 Ma and several Jurassic and Cretaceous Total Gas Ages were recently reported frorn the phyllonite in the Biharia Mountains (Dallmeyer et al. Same rocks plot within different fields in different discrimination diagrams or outside the defined fields (Appendix II.g. were initially mapped as black quartzite and shale (Giuscai. Pavelescu et al. 1969. 1979) and interpreted to represent a post-Variscan Cahoniferous (Pemian?) sedimentary cover named the "Black Senesn(BS). 11-1 and 11-2). are interlayered subordinate phyllonite. A 350 Ma whole rock K-Ar age is the only isotope data reported so far on a granite sample from the Highis Mountains (GiugcCI. 1975) and aAr/jSAr plateau ages of 100-114 Ma on the low-grade rocks (Dailmeyer et al. a very fine grained mesh of micaquartz-albitemagnetite with epidote nests overprints and obscures the original texture. in the Biharia and Gilau mountains weakly to highly sheared gabbroquark diorite and granodiorite-tonalite (trondhjemite) units suggesting a bimodal magmatism (Appendix II. In a limited area near the western extrernity of the Highis Mountains. 1968).1988). i997) indicate Eariy to Middle Cretaceous tectonism. Mafic rocks from the HBSZ show ambiguous chemical characteristics inconsistent with the classical patterns constrained for major tectonic settings. Commonly. Completely homfelsed rocks plot in the latibasalt and trachyte fields and show a more alkali character than the associated igneous rocks (Appendix II.. Along the HBSZ to the east. 1975). et al. 1998). spatially and genetically related to basalt. However. Rocks from the eastem sector of the HBSZ (Highi~Mountains)with a more pronounced tholeiitic character plot in the 'ocean floor" and 'within platenfields whilst rocks from the eastem segment (Biharia and GiHu mountains) show a calc-alkaline tendency and plot in the 'ocean ffoor" and "island arcnfields (Appendix II). 11-2 and 11-3). 1985.. Figs. an association of black to gray massive rocks and their sheared equivalents.igneous rocks were previously interpreted to intrude a prograde greenschist facies assemblage and were consequently assigned to the Variscan event (e. l'lie pre-Alpine crusta1thinning / weakness is also . 1988). later described from additional locations were shown to be low temperature hornfelses up to biotite isograde (Pana and Ricrnan. Similar rocks.et al.

retrogressed medium-grade protofithsc m be traced into the adjacent gneissicamphibolitic assemblages.. The contact is gradational and often obscured by sheared granites of uncertain appurtenance-The gneisscarbonate assemblage crops out in several isolated 'islands' along the southern margin of the Apuseni crustal fragment (Fig. Paveiescu.Recent * A r p ~ rdata on an homblende concentrate from the orthoamphibolite and muscovite from gneiss samples yielded ages of c.. 1975). et al.. A polyphase tectonometamorphic evolution is indicated by metamorphic textures and . Pavelescu. respectively (Dallrneyer et al. 1998).. et al. The cross-cutüng relationships within individuai exposures are difficult ta correlate due to the limited size and variable chernistry of the granitoid bodies and widespread lowgrade shean'ng. The Somes assemblage is intruded by the Muntele Mare granite. 316l y were interpreted to date rapid cooling following the 306 Ma and c. Unfortunately. HBSZ is bounded by the Codru assemblage which consists of a discontinuous belt of orthoamphibolite and their gabbroic protolith. The presence of gamet and staurolite zone followed by local siIlimanite growth have been interpreted as evidence for a pofy-metamorphicevolution (Hârtopanu and Hartopanu. invaded by multiple phases of diorite to granite intrusions.. 3-1). However. 366 to 405 Ma and c. Baia de Aries and Vidolm exposures of gneiss-carbonate assemblages.inferred frorn its overprinting by a wide Alpine shear zone... toward the peripheries. 335 to 340 Ma. a ~ ~ data P on ~ homblende r and muscovite concentrates yielded ages of c. 303-314 Ma. 1996) in afl these relatively limiteci gneissic exposures south of HBSZ.381 Ma (Soroiu et al. a striking lithologic difference compared to the northern Somes assemblage is the presence of carbonate rocks with similar C-Oisotopic signature (Pana et al. The lithology gradually changes norttiward into the Sornes assemblage. dominated by monotonous micaceous gneisses. From west to east these are the Madrigeqti. 1998). Whereas no mediurn-grade relia exist within the axial zone of the belt.. 1968. K-Ar data on rocks assigned to the Codru assemblage range between 243-596 Ma (Giuscai et al. 1986). detailed lithologic correIation is not possible. K-Ar data on the Somes assemblage yielded a wide range of values 77. 1975). the low-grade assemblages of HBSZ are bounded by a gneissic assemblage dominated by kilometre-size lenses of variable dolornitic marble. so different local narnes are still in use. The contact is overprinted by a kilometrewide biotite to chlorite zone normal detachment. The gneisses are intruded by concordant granite bodies up to several hundreds metres in size at Madrigegi and Surduc and by the Vinfa stock at Baia de Arieq. with interlayers of quartzofeldspathic gneisses and scarce amphibolite. r e ~ p e ~ v eand Variscan metamorphic event (Dallmeyer et al. To the south. To the north. Two-mica gneisses are interlayered mainiy in the western part and appear to be derived from two-mica granodiorite. 1969. Soroiu et al. 1969.

single Re filaments in a silica gel-phosphoric acid mixture and analysed on a VG354 mass spectrometer. ~ r Different -Ar/39Ar cooling agas in different 'islands' suggest heterochroneous Alpine tectonism along the now. Sample dissolution and the extraction of Pb and U follows closely the procedure of Krogh (1973). respectively.~tracer U solution (Krogh and Davis. alteration.155% IAMU for U (based on replicate analysis of the NBS-SRM 981common Pb and the NBS-SRM U 500 standards) and for isotopic ratios measured with a Daly photomultiplier detecior. 1998). Heaman. a Daly-Faraday ernpirical conversion factor of +0. Baia de Arieç) (Dallmeyer et al. 1975).13% / AMU was applied. 1973. U-Pb GEOCHRONOGY OF IGNEOUS ROCKS The age of the intrusive units in the basement of the Apuseni Mountains was previously arbitrarily assigned based on the interpreted age of the associated metamorphic assemblages.4 pg and f m n 0. Further zircon selection was made using a binocular microscopeto avoid grains with cracks. Pb and U were loaded ont0 outgassed. 156 Ma. The errors associated with the PblU and M7Pb/2mPbratios. We have selected seven granitoid sarnples from the most represenbtive lithotectonic assemblages (Fig. The Pb isotopic ratios were measured on a single Faraday cup collector and for a typical load of 1O ng of Pb the average beam intensity at mass 206 (1 . 3.. 3-1 ) in order to constrain the pre-Alpine tectonomagmatic evolution of the region.450°C) was 0. Al1 the Pb and U isotopic data were corrected for mass fractionation using factors of +0.06 pg.Pb and U blanks measured during this study were progressively improved from 40 pg to 1. Al1 the zircon fractions were abraded following the abrasion technique outIined by Krogh (1982) and washed pnor to dissolution (Krogh. Three to five zircon fractions have been analysed from each sample using the isotope dilution thermal ionization (TIMS) method. Zircon was separated from this concentrate using standard heavy liquid and magnetic minerai separation techniques outiined by Heaman and Machado (1992).088% fAMU for Pb and +0. A sample from the Savirsin granite intniding the supposed Tethyan suture in the southern Apuseni was analysed in order to constrain the Early Alpine evolution of the Apuseni fragment. 1986) The zircon fractions were spiked with a mixed = P ~ . 119-111 Ma.25 and . southern rnargin of the Apuseni crustal fragment from Middle Jurassic (c.5 x 10-"A (1O1'ohrn resistor).3. Vidolrn) to Early-Middle Cretaceous (c.a ~ r f 9 data.36 pg to 0. Multi-grain fractions were selected based on distinct optical features and grain quality for each sarnple. are estimated to be 0. inclusions or other imperfections. Anaiytical procedure 10 to ? 5 kilograrns of rock samples were pulverized to a fine powder with a jaw cnrsher and Bico miIl and then passed over a Wilfley Table to obtain a heavy mineral concentrate.

respectively. Two samples from the Highis igneous complex were selected in an attempt to bracket the age of the magmatism.0.8485 x 10-1°yfl) and =U (1. The regression lines and the errors associated with the age determinations (quoted at the 95% confidence levef) were calculated using the ISOPLOT software (version 2.12 by K Ludwig. An alkalidiorite (sample 9 1) previously assigned either to the initial phase of Variscan magmatisrn (GiuscB. the Codru granodiorite and two of the three analysed granitoids within the phyllonitic belt do not show radiogenic Pb inhentance consistent with a non-contaminated juvenile source. Granitoid intrusions associated with the gneissic assemblages contain an invisible inherited radiogenic Pb component that is common for granitoids of anatectic origin. euhedral zircons have been separated from the Cladova diorite. USGS). The three near concordant analyses yield a discordia array with an upper intercept age of 267+/-4 Ma (Fig. 1979. interpreted as zircon inhentance (Fig. 3-3b). 3-3a) which is interpreted as the emplacement age for the mafic rocks. In contrast. (1971) and the IUGS Subcomrnission on Geochronology (Steiger and Jager. The initial common Pb isotopic composition was calculated using the mode1 proposed by Stacey and Kramers (1975). 1965) or to the Caledonian ophiolitic cmst (Balintoni. Field relationships unequivocally indicate that crystallisation of mafic rocks was followed by granitoid intrusion and veining (Fig 5-5). respectively (numerical propagation of al1 known sources of emr) based on the reproducibility of sarnples. Three fractions of tiny zircons yielded three points on a discordia array with an upper intercept age at 264+/-2 Ma (Fig.05% (la). Results U-Pb zircon data are summarized in Table 3-1. 3-2a).SI25 x 1O-l0yf1)and the isotopic composition of uranium (137. 1986) was selected as a representative sample for the initiation of the igneous activity.and is tentatively interpreted as the best approximation of the emplacement age . 3-3c).U-Pb zircon data on intrusive rocks from the Highis Mountains indicate a relatively short lived (267-264 Ma) igneous event in late Eariy Pemian and roll out the previous interpretsltions. Two multi-grain fractions of tiny euhedral zircons yielded two data points 10% and 14% discordant. strongly abraded grains. A regression line through origin and the two analysis intersect the concordia Iine at 516+/-8 Ma (Fig. Savu. 1977). A weakly defomed granite from the Biharia Mountains (sample 16) was selected in order to investigate the assumed correlation of the igneous pods along the Alpine Highis-Bihafia Shear Zone. The first best fraction consisted in fiuid inclusion-free. The decay constants for (9. Under the microscope.88) used in this study are those recommended by Jaffey et al. a homogeneous population of tiny zircon grains show obvious w r e structure. A sample of porphyric microgranite (sample 12) was selected as the best estimate for the cessation of the igneous activity. Three multi-grain fractions of optically clean.

initial cornmon Pb. blank.Table 3-1. 1 sigma emrs . spike. Surnmary of U-Pb zircon data on igneous rocks of the Apuseni Mountains Spike and fradionation correded only "Atomic ratios correded for fractionation.

euhedral prismatic to needle-like zircon grains show no visible sign of disturbance or core structure. It shows no medium grade metamorphic record being only affected by localized low-grade shearing. Under the microscope. The amphibolite grade metarnorphism is constrained to be pre-late Devonian. transparent. well abraded zircons (Fig. and therefore can not be related to the Early Carboniferous main phase of Variscan collision/ metarnorphisrn. 3-2c) define a discordia array with an upper intercept age of 372+/-1 Ma (Fig. The last medium-grade . The upper intercept age is interpreted as emplacement age of the Codni granodiorite (Middle-Late Devonian). Two fractions from the Madrigefl granite yielded two data points ca. A third multi-grain fractiori yielded a 207PbpPbage of 495 Ma which is similar to the age of the orthogneiss from Me Bihai-in Mountains. and the other from the Vinfa stock (sample 9) intruding the Baia de Aries gneisses. 3 4 ) is interpreted to represent the emplacement age of the Madrige~tigranite. A third multi-grain fraction with a significantly lower Th content (Table 3-1) yielded a 332 Ma 2 0 7 ~ b p Page b suggesting the presence of an inherited component The inferred Late Carboniferous emplacement age represents the upper limit of the last mediumgrade metarnorphisrn that affected the main body of the Apuseni crustal fiagrnent Two samples were selected from different granite intrusions in the carbonate-lenses beanng gneissic assemblages south of the HBSZ one from a concordant granitic unit in the MildrigeN gneisses (sample 6). Four multi-grain fractions of colourless. Two slightly discordant multigrain fractions (1 and 2 in Fig.2 and origin intersects the concordia line at 295+/-1 Ma. 5% discordant with similar 207Pb/206Pb ages of 393 and 391 Ma. 60th multi-grain fractions consisted of transparent. The regression Iine through anaIysis 1. 34a). A granite sarnple from the central part of the Muntele Mare batholith (sample 4) was selected in order to put an upper limit on the last medium-grade overprïnt of the northem Somes gneissic assemblage. respectively. colouriess euhedral well abraded zircon grains. 3-4b) yielded m7Pb1206Pb ages of 295 Ma. From the Codru assemblage. euhedral. we have selected a representative two-mica granodiorite sample (sample 24). The Mgdrigegti granitoids are decimeter to metre thick and up to few hundred metïss long two-mica granite units intedayeredwith gamet-plagiogneiss. transparent small zircon crystals whereas fraction 2 consisted of transparent fragments of larger prismatic crystals. 392N-6Ma defined by the first h o fractions (Fig. The uppr intercept age of ca. We interpret the upper intercept age as the minimum emplacement age of the Muntele Mare granite.(inheribnce can not be precluded). colourless. The selected grains of fraction 1 were long prismatic. This Late Cambrian age for the granite sarnple from the Biharia Mountains contrasts significantly with the Permian age of the igneaus complex from the Highis Mountains. the transparent. The heterochronouscharacter of the igneous protolithwithin HBSZ indicateç that geotectonic setting reconstructions based on geochemical data may be irrelevant unless the emplacement age of several other major intrusions along the magmatic arc are detennined.

Biharia Mountains. c) zircon grains from the Codm granodiorite. Neagu Creek. at tbe top sefected first and second best fractions of intact bi-pyramidal transparent crysbls and fragments. 3-2. respectiveIy. Hemeneasa Creek: centre left selected fragments of prismatic transparent grains. - . to the top selected best fraction and to the right best fraction after abrasion. d) zircon grains from the Savarsin granite. centre and right same fractions after abrasion. bottom left corner the big grain that yielded the smallest discordance pointing to a late Paleozoic emplacement age. b) zircon grains from the Vinfa granitic infmsion in the Baia de Aries carbonate lense gneissic assemblage. Leucii Creek: to the left unabraded grains. Microphotographs of zircon grains in granitoid samples from the Apuseni Mountains.Fig. Arad-Deva highway at the Royal Castie in Sava~in:yellow and larger grains yielded the late Middle Jurassic age and smaller culouriess grains yielded the Eocene age. a) zircon grains separated from the Leucii granite slightly sheared and retrogressed within the Highis-Biharia shear zone.

.

overprint recorded by the Maidrigesti gneisses is thus constrained to be older than Early Devonian. Fractions 1. U-Pb zircon data on the Vinta granite (sample 9) yielded three highly discordant data points and a less discordant one that corresponds to a well abraded transparent zircon fragment (Fig. 3-5). Fractions 1 and 4 define a poorly constrained discordia array with an upper intercept age of 980 Ma. The age of the SSvar$n granite in the southem Apuseni Mountains is critical for the curent interpretation of Alpine evofution of the region. 1993) and the 211 Ma age may be related to the Late Triassic . m~r/39Ar plateau ages between 216 Ma and 169 Ma at the margins of the HBSZ (Dailmeyer et al. Two distinct population of zircon grains have been found in a sample from the Savâqin granite (Fig. 2 and 3 define a discordia array with an Eariy Proterozoic upper intercept age of c. 3-4d). 3-2d). respectively. We interpret them as xenocrysts from the tholeiitic wall-rock. Ages around 1000 Ma have been sporadicalIy reported in central-western Europe (Pin. 3-2b and fraction 1 in Fig. Two multi-grain fractions of the larger yellowish zircons yielded 207Pbp06Pb ages of 161 and 162 Ma. One fraction of colourless zircon crystals yielded a 2 0 7 ~ b ~ 2 0of 6 ~55 b Ma. A second group of smaller zircon grains are colourless. Most zircons are relatively large yellowish transparent zircon crystals and fragments with cracks and small fiuid inclusions. 211 Ma. The Eady Eocene age of the transparent colouriess zircon grains is most likely the emplacement age of the Savârqin granite. . 1998) support this interpretation. the U-Pb ages on zircon frorn the Wnfa intrusion suggests Precambrian inheritance in the Baia de Aries gneiss-carbonate assemblage. Both intercept ages may be geologically significant: Early Proterozoic zircon ages are reported in basement units of the Western Alps (Gebauer. 267-264 Ma). The yellowiçh zircon grains yielded a Callovian age. 2365 Ma and a Late Triassic lower intercept age of c.Early Jurassic tectonisrn that led to the developrnent of Tethys. transparent incusion and cracks free. 1991)-Although insufficiently well constrained. The 2m~b1206~b age of 261 Ma is therefore the best approximation of the emplacement age and roughly corresponds to the emplacement age of the Highis igneous complex (c. (Fig..

Concordia diagams for the granitoid intrusions of the Highis Bihana shear zone.92 j ~ r forceci n thrwgh a i i n : 271i46 Ma: MSWD = 33 .295 510 y. MSWD =25 Fig.1 I Yakfii unfaced: 264.12 ~ ~ k forced f f t thiougt~origln: 270 12 Ma: MSWO=4. 5_.285 -290 I i . sample and fraction nurnbers as in Tables 3-1 and 3-2. -300 .8Ma: MSWD=0.7t 3. 3-3.4 9 Yorldit unforceci 51617.6and216r52Ma Yoclbit faced througn origln: 500 i 16Ma.280 .0405[ ' t 266. 5 0.3 Ma.2t2.3 a * û38 / I T b1 1 270 Sheared granite LEUCll -275 . MSWD = 0. ~ 9 t2 5 ! ..

78 ibrkforcedîtmughoi)gin: 372.2 t 1 Mo: and lt33Mo MSWD = 0.6 Fig.1 t 0.372. Concordia diagrams for the representative granitoid intrusions within mediurn-grade assemblages of the Apuseni Mountains. sample and hacüon numbers as in Tables 3-1 and 3-2.68Ma: MSWû =0. 34. .

granite SAVARSIN Fig. . 36. Concordia diagram for the Sêvârsin ganitic intrusion within the Tethys "ophiolites".

0.4. correcting raw ratios both for variable massdiscrimination to 146Nd/'"Nd = 0. al1 the three sarnples from the Sornes assemblage . -12. The purified Nd and Sm fractions were analyzed for isotopic composition using a VG354 mass spectrometer. and a gamet-beanng plagiogneiss (sample 2) in the southeast Apuseni Mountains yielded very similar eNd(0) (-15.. A less negative eNd(0) value of 4.5 and -1 5. respectively. respectively) and cnistal residence ages (1. followed by final grinding to -35 microns.and disolved in a 5 1 mix of vapourdistiled 24N HF and 16N HN03in sealed teflon vessels at 160°C for 24 hours to dissolve flourides. The laNd . Sm was analysed in static = multicollector mode and corrections made both for variable rnassdiscrirninationto '52~m/'54~rn 4. 1981) with reproducibility of better than +/.03% for '49Sm.3. Sample powders were weighted. 1981). The Somes assemblage is characterized by the most depleted initial ~Nd(0)values ranging from ca.22 %.90 and 1.lsotopic analysis of Nd used a dynamic multicollector routine.87. Results Sm-Nd data on basernent assemblages from the Apuseni and Carpathians mountains are sumrnarized in Table 3-2 and 3-3. 1981) and for the effects of low abundance (non-'"Nd) tracer Nd isotopes.7 has been calculated for a kyanite-bearing micaceous plagiogneiss (sample 3).7219 using an exponential law (Wasserburg et al.4. respectively).5 to -15.5 ng. and for the effects of low abundance (n~n-'~~Srn) Sm tracer isotopes on 'PSm/%m.01 % for ''"Nd and +/-0.62 % and I4'Srn = 97. This solution was evaporated and the residue bken up in HCI for separation of the rare earth elements as a group using standard cation chromatography. 1986). totally spiked with a tracer solution of ' " ~ d and 149Sm. '"Nd = 97..'"Sm tracer solution was made from highly purified material. Sm-Nd ANALUICAL DATA A suite of 31 samples of gneisses and granite of the basement units of the Apuseni and Carpathians mountains were analysed for their Nd isotopic signatures. Total procedural blanks for Nd and Sm are 0..7 7537 using the exponential law (Wasserburg et al.5. A quartzofeldspathic layer (sample 1) in the northem. in an area interpreted to record two medium grade rnetamorphic events (Hartopanu and Hârtopanu. Sm-Nd data on 7 samples from the most representative basement assemblages of the Romanian Carpathians were also collected. followed by separation of Nd from Sm using Di (2-ethylhexyl phosphate) chromatography (HDEHP). However. For cornparison. The concentrations of 'Nd and 14'Srn in this solution were determined by direct calibration in triplicate against a mixed Sm/Nd normal solution (Wasserburg et al. Analytical pmedure Samples were crushed to grave1size without direct contact with any rnetal surfaces. Neodymiurn isotopic analyses were perfonned at the University of Alberta.

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From the southem gneiss-carbonate assemblage one sarnple from each of the main three 'islands' have been analysed as well as the granitic intrusions dated by U-Pb. This rock-type rnay be interpreted either as a Paleozoic conglomerate derived from a gneiss-granitic (Somes type) protolith. Within the Highis-Biharia shear zone. 372 Ma.7 and TDMmodel ages of 1. 16.2.64. Sm-Nd and isotopic ratios from variabIy deformed pods of granitoid rocks (samples 11. whilst the Vidolm gneiss (sample 10) yielded a value of -9. The Madrigesti granite (sample 6) with the emplacement age of c.yielded similar middle Eariy Proterozoic TOMmodel ages ranging from 1.7-1. 392 Ma yielded less model age as the adjacent gneisses. values of -4.12.5 and 11-7.68 Ga metaconglomerate (sample 14) shows &Ndand TOM which are comparable to those of the gneisses.T .9.9 Ga.15.2 and 1.96 Ga. respectively). A chlorite-fibrolite bearing schist apparently derived from the adjacent granitoids yielded an &Nd(O) value of -12. From the Codru assemblage two gneiss and three granitoid samples have been selected for SmlNd analysis. or as tectonic enclaves of highly deformed gneissic basernent underiying the igneous complex which were tectonically intercalated within the phyllonitic belt. Meanwhile. which is in the range obtained for the southem gneiss-carbonate assemblage. These ranges .18. The stock-like Vinfa negative €Nd values but the same TOM granite which intrudes the gneisses with more depleted cNd(0) in the Baia de Aries 'island'.2 to -11. The gneiss sample from the westemmost area (Codru Mountains) yielded a less negative eNd(0) value of -9.38 to 0. they reveal a distinct evolution of the gneisscarbonate cnist from the southern Apuseni compared to the gneiss-granitic crust in the centralnorthern Apuseni Mountains. sample 3). The gneisses yielded a relatively narrow range of &Nd(O)values from -7.35 Ga to 3.4 Ga.17. 8) in the main Baia de Ades island (-9.6 and the youngest TDM in the basement rocks of the Apuseni Mountains ranging from 1.9 to +2. The Madrigesti gneiss (sample 5) shows the least depleted ~Nd(0)value of 7.8.6 (sample 22) similar to the value yielded by the adjacent plagiogneiss from the Somes assemblage (-12.76 to 1.8 Ga. the quartz-clasts bearing mylonite or model age values of -12. yielded even less depleted &Nd values and younger TOMmodel age indicating that the mixing process was dominated by the juvenile matenal. in the range obtained for the gneisses (samptes 7. Sm-Nd data indicate that al1 basement 'islands' incorporate similar ancient crusta1 material with addition of more juvenile rnaterial at Mgdrigesti. sample 24) was found in one of the most characteristic rock types of the Codru assemblage. the granodiorite that yielded an emplacement age of c. The three granitoids of the Codru assemblage yielded &Nd(t)values of 4.5. model ages ranging from 1. The most positive ~Nd(t)value (+2.7. Sm-Nd data on the Muntele Mare granite (sample 4) intnided in the Somes assemblage yielded a less negative &Nd.19) yielded ~Nd(i)values ranging from +1 to -4 and .13.

Hi'ghis-Biharia igneous belt + Fig. . 3-6.Gneiss Codni assemblage Baia deArieg assemblage Paleozoic intrusions A + 3.Nd isotopic characteristics of the gneissic assemblages and associated Paleozoic intrusions frorn the basement units of the Apuseni Mountains-Symbols correspond to the main lithotectonic assemblages and numben indicate the sample numbers in Table 3-2.

5 yielded Middle Proterozoic T. 3-8 comparatively presents the Sni-Nd evolution of similar lithologic assemblages from the Apuseni and Carpathians mountains.56 Ga. 2. 3-7 and Table 3-3) have been selected from lithologic assemblages sirnilar to those separated in the Apuseni Mountains: the Sebes kyanite-gamet bearing gneisses (samples 25. Poitrassor~et al.22) suggesting mixing of the old crust with Late Carboniferousjuvenile material. an irregular pattern characterises the carbonate lense dominated assemblage A very consistent evolution is suggested by the Mandm and Pang&-afisheared . 26) in the South Carpathians and the Bretila gamet plagiogneiss (sample 29) are part of a gneiss-granitic assemblage without significant carbonate lenses. The Suru (sarnple 27) retrogressed plagiogneiss iri the South Carpathians and the Rebra (sample 31) andalusite-gamet bearing gneiss in the East Carpathians belong to a plagiogneissmicaschist carbonate lenses assemblage similar to the Baia de Arieg assemblage of the Apuseni Mountains.contrast significantiy with those yielded by the adjacent gneissic assemblages. Two sets of &Nd(t) values recalculated for each of the adjacent gneissic assemblages at the time t corresponding to the two dated rnagmatic events within HBSZ show no clear correlation with the Pafeozoic intrusions (except for the sheared phanentic Mihcriegti granite. Samples with l47Sm/144Nd < 1. 3) and eventually Codru gneisses samples (20. 7. The wide range of ~ N d ( tfrom ) -4 to +1 (even when recalculated for the sarne age of 300 Ma) indicate isotopically heterogeneous sources andlor very diverse petrogenetic processes.17. Ttiey plot along a distinct Iine whose y intercept is 0. In contrast. sample 17) (Appendix II).. or higher than 0.. Similar variability was reported from the anorogenic granite from Corsica (e-g. The extremely old TDMmodel ages do not have a direct geologic significance since they correspond to samples with 147Srnll44Nd ratios close to. Similady. 1990) origin for the Muntele Mare granite. 1995) Fig. 3-6 shows the spread in the Sm-Nd isotopic composition of the Highiq-Biharia igneous sarnples with no clear isotope mixing pattern with older crustal material. The gneiss-granite assemblage plots bellow al1 the other assemblages.8 and Tm model ages around 1.6 Ga similar to those of the Highiq-Biharia igiieous phyllonite rocks. These data suggest a 'hybridn crustmantie (Barbarin. model ages ranging from 1. -4. Fig.35 to 1.51 corresponding to a 3 Ga poorly constrained isochrone age of uncertain geologic significance.thians (Fig. The samples from the Romanian Carpa. 5) and the Madrigesti (sample 6) and Virifa (sarnple 9) granites intruding the former rock units. The Codm intrusions do not seem to be isotopically related to the Codni gneisses. Samples 28 and 30 from lowgrade mylonites on igneous rocks of the controversial Tulghes assemblage yielded eNcl(0) values of ca. a mixing line can be traced between the scuthern gneiss-carbonate cmst (samples 10. the Muntele Mare granite (%ample4) plots in the continuation of the Someq (samples 1. sirnilar to the Sornes assemblage in the Apuseni Mountains.

UKRAINE Fig 3-7. E Nd(o).TOMand sample nurnber as in Tables 3-2 and 3-3.IOOltm . . Sketch map of the distribution of the metamorphic assemblages in the Apuseni and Romanian Carpathians mountains with the location of Sm-Nd samples.

assemblages from the Apuseni Mountains. - . Continuous line assemblages h m the Carpathians. The depieted rnantle model aiter Goldstein et al.Fig. Evolution of &Nd through üme for analysed samples h m the Apuseni Mountains and Romanian Carpathians. broken line . 3-8. note that the gneissgraniticassemblage plots below al1 the other assemblages: a very irregular pattern charaderises the gneisscarbonatk assemblage while a very consistent evolutïon is typical for gneisses in the Tulghes assemblage. (1984)..

5. 1991)3.granitoids in the Tulgheq shear zone.The same Alpine crustal fragment rnay contain distinct Variscan terranes and distinct Alpine panels may be constituted by the same Variscan basement In the Western Alps.g. the basement units are separated from Europe by the Vahicum-Sinaia-Sevenn trough. Subsequent Alpine compression resulted in the consumption of the supposed wide oceanic troughs accompanying large translationIrotation and strain in the continental fragment Sm-Nd and U-Pb data that constrain the pre-Alpine evolution of individual crustal fragments provide a basis for regional correlation of basement units across the supposed Alpine sutures.g. although poorly constrained (Appendix II) suggests a Lower Paleozoic magmatic event which can be correlated to the 500 Ma intrusions in the Biharia Mountains and may be related to the Latest Proterozoic-Eariy Paleozoic crut-forming event documented in the central and western Europe (e..4. -14. 1989) or dunng the Eariy Carboniferous (e-g. -15. 2.5. Transylvanian. 1994).06 Ga in the South Carpathians. -14.. several associations of Mesozoic deep-water strata and mafic rocks interpreted as suture zones (Vardar. Various pre-Permian-Mesozoic medium-grade assemblages from the Apuseni and Carpathians basement units yielded a range of Eariy Proterozoic TOM rnodel ages which suggest a similar crustal evolution. Age estimates of 2-3 Ga. von Raumer and Neubauer.90 in the Apuseni Mountains. model ages (1-87 and 1. A tentative isochmn aga for the sheared granitoids. Eariy Alpine rifting resulted in the developrnent of new oceanic troughs and separation of several cmstal fragments.92 and 2. in different western and central European sectors of the Variscan orogen although model dependent. Pin. Gebauer et al. 1987) which includes the basement units exposed in the Apuseni Mountains. the Valais trough partly separates Europe from its foreland. The major Ligurian / Piemontais ophiolitic suture separates the European HelveticlPenninic basement from the African Austro-Alpine basement In the Carpathian sector of the Alpine belt.5 in the Apuseni Mountains.6 in the East Carpathians) and T . The very narrow ranges of sNd(0) values (-15..02 Ga in the East Carpathians) for the granite gneiss assemblages indicate a relatively uniform .. -14. SUMMARY AND COMPARISON WlTH CENTRALWESTERN EUROPE Variscan collision is interpreted to have welded pieces of the northem passive margin of Gondwana to the active Laurasian margin between 500 and 330 Ma (e.7 in the South Carpathians. 1. 1988). Bükk-Meliata) apparently define a coherent Earfy Alpine continental fragment ("Tisia" -Kovacs et al. the Penninic basernent and its continuation in the extemal Alpine units. Between the Dinarides and Carpathians branches of the Alpine orogen. allow the intnguing possibility that Variscan Europe comprise recycled Archean cmst (Liewand Hofmann.. the Helvetic basement..

The Sorneq assemblage fmrn the Apuseni Mountains similar E Nd(0) and TOM shows the same isotopic signature as the Sebes-Lotru and Bretila gneiss-granite assemblages of the Carpathians. The Baia de Aries carbonate lense dominated assemblage yielded sirnilar .69 in the Apuseni Mountains. a retrogressive in the range of the gneisses (sarnple 25 and 26) and in the East schist (sample 27) yielded a TDM Carpathians granitic phyllonites (sarnples 28 and 30) yielded TOM rnodel ages in the sarne range as the Paleozoic intrusions dated in the Apuseni Mountains. 1.8-0.95 Ga in the South Carpathians and 1.9 to +2. Low-grade assemblages yielded E Nd(0) and TOM mode1ages similar to either the gneissic assemblages or to the Paleomic granitoids. A uniform protolith of sedirnentary origin for al! regionally extensive gneiss-granitic assemblages appears unlikely because it would involve a unique and constant provenance in a huge sedimentary basin for a long time interval.96 Ga to 0. A trondjemite-tonalite-granite (TTG) association is a good candidate for the likely precursor of the gneiss granitic crust of the Carpathians and Apuseni rnountains. Sm-Nd data rnay be interpreted to indicate direct derivation of the low-grade assemblages by shearing and retrogression of distinct units of aie pre-existing cnist. 1991) may be interpreted in the cnistal fragments exposed in the Romanian segments of the Alpine orogen.7 Ga range contrasts rnarkedly with the abundance of Nd mode1 ages falling in this time interval.protolith. The carbonate lense and rnicaschist dorninated assemblage yielded wider ranges for both eNd(0) (-9. The carbonate lense dominated assemblage appears to be located at the interior of the Carpathian Arc and Eastern Alps and to occupy a structurally higher position in respect with the gneiss-granitic crust Paleozoic granitoids yielded consistently younger Nd rnodel ages ranging from 1.9 Ga with a cluster between c. Its evolution included: a) Precambrian TTG and granulite stages. b) Paleozoic granitization and incorporation of upper mantle materials foliowed by evolution through mid-crustal levels and c) localized.2 to -4.85 Ga in the East Carpathians) and suggest various additions of more juvenile rnaterial. -13 in the South Carpathians and -10.6) providing wrnpelling evidence for broad mixing processes involving adjacent mature crust and Paleozoic juvenile end-mernbers.2 in the Apuseni Mountains. In the South Carpathians. Instead. the uniform SmMd ratios may indicate a unifonn Early Proterozoic manue-derived protolith multiply recycled during subsequent tectonism. 1. intense Alpine shearing and retrogression. These data are consistent with data reported in the central and western Europe where the almost cornplete lack of unequivocal evidence for magmatic events in tfie 1. A 'middle Proterozoic hiatus* in the crust-forming processes sirnilar to other parts of Europe (Pin. Corroborated with field and petrographical data.6 Ga and a relatively wide range of & Nd(t) values (4.5 to 1. Lithologically similar assemblages across the local expression of the Tethys ocean have mode1ages.5 in the East Carpathians) and TOM (1-82to 1.

Helvetic (Gotthard).1 Cladova alkalidiorite 267+/-4 +0.. basic and acidic rocks of different ages from various basernent units of the Penninic. The c. The discordant fraction from the MZidrigesti granite that yielded a 207Pb/206Pb age of c. 295 Ma) and late Early Permian (c. Surnmary of the isotope data on granitoid samples from the Apuseni Mountains SAMPLE # LOCATION 1 1 ROCKTYPE 1 Vinla 1 1 I granite U-Pb AG€ c. 516 Ma old Leucii plagiogranite (sample 16 ) is the oldest age detemined so far in the Apuseni Mountains.96 1.65 1 Jemova microgranite 264+/-2 +1.35 4. 55 1 1 1 0. 495 Ma may indicate inheritance from the same tectonomagmatic event. Table 34.g.. 1988) or ensialic rifüng unrelated to subduction (Pin and Vielzeuf.7 1.495 Ma). Since the Carpathians cnistal fragment is of European origin we propose the same ongin for the basement units of the Apuseni crustal fragment. Birnodal suites of similar age (uleptino-amphibolitic*assemblages) received controversial geodynamic interpretation as back-arc (e.62 Muntele Mare 1 1 granite I Codru 1 295 +/-1 1 granodionte ( 1 1 I 372+/-1 +2. In central and western Europe the Eariy Paleozoic igneous activity suggests ensialic rifting processes (Weber.. 1984) that may have evolved to a seafloor spreading stage (Pin.75 1-56 1 I I I I I 1 1. 1994).6 Madrigegti granite 392+/-6 -3. Giraoud et al. Ultrahelvetic (Aar) and AustroAlpine domains are interpreted to represent a cryptic Variscan suture zone with remnants of the Proterozoic-Earîy Ordovician "Penninic-Austro-Alpine mobile beItn(von Raumer and Neubauer. In the West Carpathians the 'leptino amphibolite comptexnof Tatricum is interpreted to represent a slice of 500(?) to 430 Ma old oceanic crust (PutiS. Briand et al. 1991). 392 and 372 Ma). 267261 Ma) magmatic events (Table 3-4).261 1 1 1 l ~Nd(t) -1-9 1 1 TOY I 1. Early Devonian (c. . ultra-basic. Late Carboniferous (c. In the Alps. Four groups of Paleozoic emplacement ages have been detemined in the basement rocks of the Apuseni Mountains: Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician (c.isotope concentrations and ratios as the Suru and Rebra assemblages of the Carpathians. 516 .6 Siivaqin 1 granite 1 c. Similarly to the Alpine stratigraphy. isotope data on pre-Alpine basernent suggest that tectonic models that assume consumption of wide oceans and amalgamation of far travelled cnistal fragments of African ongin in the CarpathianPannonian region are suspicious. 1985.4 1. 1988).0 Leucii granite 516+/-8 +0.

In the West Carpathians. 1993). based on Nd and Sr isotope data on amphibolites from the Dragqani assemblage followed by copious Late Proterozoic and Cambrian crustal melting indicated by abundant granitoids (Liégeois et al.. 1994).. 1993) and of granitic rocks with chemicat characteristics sirnilar to modem subduction-related igneous rocks in most units of the Central.6 & . juvenile matenal possibly related to a zone of Late Devonian crustal thinning. 1988) the Rb-Sr isochron data in the Tatncum (380+/-20 Ma) and Veporicum (391+/-6 Ma) (Cambei and Kral... 392 Ma (Middle Devonian).1994). I W l . the Gemericum leucogranite that yielded an emplacement age of 403+/-5 Ma (U-Pb zircon Shcherbak et al. It appears that the 'Pan-Afncann cnistal evolution docurnented along the northern margin of the Gondwana supercontinent extended over most of the mid-European domain (Pin. 1989) would be related to compression during the Eariy Devonian. Ordovician-Gebauer. The presence of eclogite and granulite facies rocks of uncertain age in vanous Helvetic units (Silurian-Eariy Devonian-Paquette et al.N d . A direct tectonic relationship of the Danubian units to the PanAfrican evolution recorded along the northem margin of Africa is uncertain since no such record was reported so far from the intervening Carpathian-Rodopian cmst No record of a Middle-Late Ordovician tectonothermal event was found so far in the Apuseni crust in contrast with the intense tectonomagmatic activity documented in the Alps. Sbike-parallel tectonic flow lines and a ~ r p sdates ~ r on amphibolite (405-366 Ma) suggest Devonian transcurrent tectonism accornpanied by magma intrusion and uplift of the cmst The positive &Nd(t) may be interpreted as the least contarninated. Rb-Sr data on granodiorite from the Mecsek Mountains. 1996) corresponds to a period of significant continental growth. 1989.. 1993) and the external massifs of the Helvetic domain (Paquette et al. Western and Southern Alps has been interpreted to document Ordovician subduction (von Raumer and Neubauer. 1993). a discontinuous belt mainly consisting of igneous rocks along the southem and eastern margin of the Somes assemblage. Devonian high-pressure metamorphisrn in the Austro-Alpine units of the Eastern Alps (Neubauer. Dallmeyer et al.. The Ordovician granitoids were also interpreted as the result of a 'thermal event" caused by Early Paleozoic under-plating (Schmid. 1995). 2) The Mgdrigesti granite (sample 6) intruded the southern gneiss-carbonate assemblage at c. Liégeois et al. 1995. The 372+/-1 Ma ofd Codru granodiorite with no microscopicallyvisible zircon inherïtance and the most juvenile +2. On the Alpine crustal fragment that includes the Apuseni Mountains. 430 Ma) magmatic event (Svingor and Kovach. A Late Proteromic oceanic crust interpreted in the Danubian units of Sou# Carpathians. 1989) is cunentiy interpreted to document a Silurian-Devonian phase of collision at the level of the lower and middle crust (von Raumer and Neubauer. belongs to the Codru assemblage. 1981). suggest an Early Silurian (c. Devonian continental thinning and rifüng accompanied by intrusion of trondhjemitic melts is recorded by the Riouperoux-Livet .

3) A Late Carboniferous tectonothermal event in the Apuseni Mountains is recorded by the intrusion of Muntele Mare batholith (c.. Ménot et al. Eariy Carboniferous tectonothermal event is docurnented by ' O A r p ~ r plateaus on muscovite and homblende in the Tatricum (Malusky et al. Dextral transpression is interpreted to have resulted in south verging nappe-tectonics accompanied by migrnatitic and magmatic events in the Helvetic domain (324+/-12 Ma K-Ar on amphiboles. An isolated a ~ r p plateau ~ r age of 375 Ma on a homblende concentrate has been reported from the East Carpathians (Dallmeyer et al...Permian conglomerates in the westem Apuseni Mountains suggest rapid uplift and erosion of the Somes-Muntele Mare cnistal fragment Late Carboniferous I-type granites accompanied by high-temperature metarnorphisrn in the middle Austro-Alpine units would record a phase of 'Laten Variscan collision/subduction (von ~ r ages (Dallmeyer et al. 340335 Ma on muscovite in minor gneissic units from the Codru assemblage (Dallmeyer et al.. 283 - . The tectonic significance of other isotopic ages in this range is unclear. 295 Ma) and a ~ r p ages ~ r on homblende (317-306 Ma) and muscovite (314-303 Ma) in the adjacent Someg assemblage (Dallrneyer et al. 1994). 1994) corresponds to the stepwise decrease in K-Ar ages from homblende. 1997). 1993). 1981) and K-Ar (Balogh et al. 1993.igneous complex in Me extemal massifs (Ménot and Paquette. A transcurrent plate margin can be inferred along the Codni assemblage that evolved from transtensive during the Late Devonian intrusion of Codru granodiorite to transpressive in the Carboniferous (?). Late Devonian migmatization processes are docurnented by the U-Pb zircon age of 36W-8 Ma (Balogh et al. 1987. 1996). Dallrneyer et al. 1998)... the tectonic setting of the Apuseni basement units is uncertain. to muscovite and biotite which suggest progressive uplift of Tatricum during the Devonian-Carboniferousand of Vepon'cum dun'ng the Late Carboniferous. respectively and exhumed following the intrusion of the Muntele Mare granite. Bussy and von Raumer. 1993). 307-304 Ma) follawed by Earfy Permian uplift of core complexes (c. In the East Carpathians 4 0 ~ r pplateau 1996) on muscovite and homblende indicate Late Carboniferous stnke-slip tectonism along the Tulghes shear zone (c. 1998). 335 Ma) tectonothermal event accompanied by metasomatism is suggested by Rb-Sr (Svingor and Kovach. The Somes assemblage evolved above the -500" C and -400" C isotherms corresponding to hornblende and muscovite argon retention. In the West Carpathians. Widespread Carboniferous (?). ln the Mecsek Mountains an Early Carboniferous (c.. Raumer and Neubauer. However. 1983).. In the Apuseni Mountains. 1983) data. 317 Ma U-Pb monazite. General EarIy Carboniferous collision in the Alps (360-320 Ma) is inferred to be the main Variscan tectonic event. In the Mecsek Mountains.. the main Paleozoic tectonic event documented in the Alps was only recorded by a ~ r p gages ~ r of c. The interpreted compressive tectonic regime (Putis.

261 Ma) in the southem gneiss-carbonate assemblage may record Early Pemian Ming of the continental fragment In current models for the Alpine evolution of the region (e-g. No record of the Variscân orogeny could be recognized so far in the Highig Mountains. In this general framework. previously a classical example of the Variscan tectonism. 267 to c. 1983) probably re!ated to shearing and retrogression of the Mecsek granodiorite into the Ofalu carbonate shear zone..Nicolae et al. The 264+/-i8 Ma K-Ar isochrone age on homblende from the Gemericurn (Burchart et al. 267-264 Ma) and eventually the emplacement of Vinfa granite (c. RbSr whole rock and mineral isochrons indicate magmatic activity during the Late Carboniferous in the Tatricum (300 Ma. Riidulescu et al. intra-oceanic subduction is suggested to have resulted in Cretaceous emplacement of the SZivârsin granite within Callovian tholeiitic rocks of . the geochemical data suggest an extensional tectonic setting at least during the initial mafic intrusions.. major extensional Iineaments of igneous activity developed in the Helvetic and Penninic basement (Bonin et al. 1981. 1984. In the Alps.. 264 Ma). Lupu et al. 1993). 1989).267 Ma). 284 and 270 Ma (Svingor and Kovach. Balogh et al. In the West Carpathians. Although equivocal. 1981. 310 to 286 Ma on muscovite (Dallrneyer et al... In Me South Carpathians mArpAr plateaus ages on homblende ranging from c. 4) Late Early Permian igneous activity in the Highiq Mountains took place in a relatively short tirne intemal during the (c. 1983) and in the Mecsek Mountains.. the Highig igneous cornplex (c.... Savu. In the Velence Mountains K-Ar data indicate a Late Carboniferous-Early Permian tectonothennal event (c. Since the metamorphism recorded by the surrounding low-grade rocks is Jurassic and Cretaceous. from rocks which have provided pebbles to the nonmetamorphosed Carboniferous cover strata may be related to cooling during uplift and erosion following the Eariy Permian granitic intrusions. High Tatra) and Early Pemian in the Veporicum (285+/-5 Ma) and Gemericum (282+/-2 Ma)(Carnbel et al. Balogh et al. Clastic sedimentation in elongate troughs and volcanic activity related to pull-apart basins are interpreted in the Western and Ligurian Alps. 19871. Rb-Sr isochrone ages and K-Ar ages indicate tectonisrn and rnetasomatism bebveen c. 1996) indicate the general Late Carboniferous uplift of the medium-grade metamorphic basernent The tectonic significance of other isotope ages reported in regions adjacent to the Apuseni Mountains are uncertain. 290-270 Ma... 1992. Bleahu et al. Sandulescu. Riidulescu and Siindulescu. 1973. 1993). 1993. the evolution of the Highis-Biharia igneous belt should be related to the Alpine (development of Paleotethys ?) rather than to the Variscan 'cyclen. 323 to 317 Ma and from c. 1983. Available data from other segments of the Alpine orogen suggest that Late Carboniferoud Permian evolution was dominated by stn'ke-slip tectonics accornpanied by uplift and erosion as a precursor to the Alpine cycle.

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7512.. SM. p. 1994. 86. Subcommission on geochronology: Convention on the use of decay constants in geo. York. M. M i t 74. Schmid. K. The Paleozoic evolution of the Alps. J. M. 207-221.. 1969. E.. and Neubauer. Neubauer (eds). 427436. S t Univ. Least squares fitting of a straight line with correlated enors. IV.. 13-20.. 2 4 . 25-33. B. L e t . 359-362. Svingor. Rb-Sr isotopic studies on ganodiofitic rocks from the Mecsek Mountains. Eatrh. and Grecula. 2 4 . 39. p. G. Soc. Overview on Romanian geology.N.. Kasper. Heidelberg. 1988.. The Pre-Mesozoic Geology in the Alps. New York. Mitskievich. (Eds. v. Stacey. p. Wasserburg.and cosmochronology. 3-22. p. and Jager. U-Pb radiometric detenination of the age of zircons from Modra granodiorite (Malé Karpaty) and porphyroid ftom Spissko-gemerske nidohorie Lower PaIeozoic (Western Carpathians). 8. Steiger. W. South Tatric-Veporic Basement Geoiogy: Variscan Nappe Structures. and Kov&ch. Field Guidebook. Springer. G.. N. Bartinsky. "AI. Spec. H. p. 83-99 S&dulescu. M. M. 1981. J.S. 0.. and Kramers. 15.. Schweiz Mineral. Publ-. B. i993.567-583. Petrogr. p. p. Soc. 36.. S. Shcherbak. Hungary. P. 1977. Sectllb (Geol). 1981.. D. 5. Ivrea-zone and adjacent Southern Alpine basement In: J. Contributions préliminaires à la géologie des massifs cristallins des Monts Apuseni. Variscan events: early Paleozoic continental rift metamorphism and late Paleozoic cnistal shortening.. Sci. E. Acta.d'une subduction éo-hercynienne. France. T.4. Jacobsen. p. 1994. R. N. M i t O s t e r Geel-Ges. 320-324. p.. J. and Sanderson. Earth Planet. 1984. U. Cambel. Implications sur l'origine des groupes leptynoamphibolitiques. p. . p. Bull.. Geochirn. Geoi. J..Covasna conference. 14. 26. and Dimitrescu... DePaolo.. Plan. 45. L e t .I. 459-467. D.. Sci- Let. 1969.. of Tect. Géol.Y. 295-307. J.. LM. Soroiu. 1994. 1975. Popescu.. Weber. É. v... Geologica Carpatica. F. RH. EarVi. p. Sm and Nd isotopic abundances in standard solutions. von Raumer and F. Cosmochim.. McCulloch. Alpine Thick-Skinned and Extensional Tectonics in the West Carpathians (Eastern Low Tatra Mountains. & Regional Geology.P.. T. Acta Geologica Hungaricae. Approximation of terrestrial lead isotope evolution by a two-stage mode]. 3 4 5. in Hutton. 2311-2323.Cuzat'.): Variscan tectonics of the North Atlantic region. Precise determination of SmINd ratios. Rom.D. ALCAPA II. Stepanyuk. p. von Raurner. Northwester SIovak Ore Mountains). An. and Wen. J.. D. J..A. Putis. Plan. Sci.

Neubaue? and P. A-5020 Salzburg. University of Georgia. F. ALPINE EVENTS WlTH ''ArP9~rAGES This chapter contains an article submitted to Geologische Rundschau by RD. Erdme? 1 Department of Geology. GA 30602 USA Department ofEarth & Atmosphenc Sciences. Edmonton. Pans-London University. Dallmeyer'. D. Pana2. Austria . University of Alberta. Canada T6G 2E3 Geology and Paleontology Institute. ROMANIA: RESOLUTION OF VARISCAN VS.1. Athens.C H A P T E R 4* TECTONOTHERMAL EVOLUTION OF THE APUSENl MOUNTAINS.

with highest grade sequences being considered the oldest (see reviews in Giuqca et al. Resolution of the chronology of Alpine events and distinction from pre-Alpine evolution has been difficult within intemal structural units which include basement tectonic elements. Trümpy. the exact chronology of thrusting and the sequence of internal deformation from hanging wall to footwall has not been cleariy resolved. 1987. Pana and Erdmer. Maluski et al. Krautner. nappe assembly and associated imbrication of intemal units occurred within the AlpineCarpathian orogen. 1996) have uncovered an extensive record of non-coaxial strain in basement areas affected by retrogressive . 1996). Dimitrescu. Dallmeyer et al. Back-arc extension andfor strike-slip translation associated with the Neogene development of the Pannonian Basin system variably overpn'nted older cornpressional structures of the Carpathian arc... Among these. 1983. 1987.. 1976.. These continental plates were initially separated by oceanic crust of the Penninic and at least part of the Tethyan oceans. Stratigraphic mnstraints and previously published geochronologic data suggest that initial phases of oceanic subduction and localized high-pressure metamorphism occurred during the Late Jurassic-Cretaceous (e-g. 1992. 1993. l988). 1994. 1994. Thoni and Jaquoz. and Pana et al..4. 1968.1984. 1985. "Early" Alpine tectonothermal events: Frank et al. 1988. and there have been conff icting interpretations of the nature of unit boundaries and the age and origin of protoliths.. As a result. 1992. 1980.. Previous workers considered metamorphic basernent rocks exposed in the Apuseni Mountains to have evolved in three distinct tectonothermal cycles. lanovici et al. 1Q88b).. 1985.1.. S~dulescu. 1986. Balintoni. The location of boundaries between the contrasting metamorphic sequences has been controversial. Cambel and Kral. 1980. Recent field work and structural analysis in the Apuseni Mountains (Pana and Ricman. The effects of Alpine orogenesis have generally been interpreted as translations of rigid thrust sheets with relatively insignificant intemal duce lti strain (e-g. Final collision of Europe and Gondwana occurred in the Paleogene ("Late" Alpine orogenesis: e-g. Burchfiel. lanovici et al. Basement and Mesozoic cover sequences in the Apuseni Mountains represent critical exposures regionally situated between the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins (Fig. Tollmann. Krist et al. the Apuseni Mountains have particular tectonic significance because they are separated from other basement units in the Alpine-Carpathian orogen by an ophiolitic suture. INTRODUCTION The Alpine-Carpathian orogen originated dunng the Mesozoic-Cenozoic collision of Europe with continental crustal fragments derived from Gondwana. 1976.. and resulted in the emplacement of previously assembled nappe complexes onto extemal tectonic elernents of the Alpine-Carpathian orogen. The Paleogene collisional suture separates internal tectonic units which experienced both Cretaceous and Paleogene penetrative Alpine deformation from extemal tectonic units which record only "Late" Alpine events. 1976. Dimitrescu. However..1988a). 1989. 4-1).

.

lanovici et al. 1988b) Previous geochronology consisted of a relatively large number of K-Ar data for most of the representative basement uni& of the Apuseni Mountains (Soroiu et al. 1988b). Mesozoic and Tertiary K-Ar mineral ages reported from several areas of medium.. 1975). 4-1). The data suggest regional Alpine reactivation of basernent units within the Apuseni Mountains.. Krautner.. Arieseni. 1980. 1985. and detailed chronology of Alpine vs. 1969. 1969).. 4-1). Muncelu. in Soroiu et al.. These results are presented here. They suggest a complex tectonothemal evolution that involved "Early"and "Late" Vanscan and polyphase Alpine events.. GEOLOGIC SETTING. the Somes. 1985. Codru. KHutner. Pavelescu et al.and fowgrade metamorphic rocks were interpreted to record local fault reactivation (e-g. Baia de Arieq and Msdrigegti "series").g. The highest-grade and rnost complexly deformed units were considered the oldest Garnet-bearing gneiss / micaschist 1 amphibolite associations were assigned to a Middle Proterozoic cycle (e-g. 1980. Arada and/or Bistra "senes" andfor "formations") and chlorite-dominated rocks were assigned a Late Paleozoic age (e-g. eariier tectonothermal events within the Apuseni Mountains. PREWOUS GEOCHRONOLOGY The Apuseni Mountains expose various structural elements consisting of contrasting metamorphic and igneous basement rocks and Permian-Tertiary cover sequences with "Western Carpathian" ."Austroalpine" affinities (Fig. intensity. Dimitrescu. Dimitrescu. These new data necessitate a revision of the traditional interpretation of the geological history of the region and its role within the overall Alpine-Carpathian orogen. the Paiuseni.g. In cuntrast to the proposed classification. Basement units of the Apuseni Mountains were previously interpreted to represent volcanic-sedirnectary sequences which originated and were metamorphosed during three successively superposed geosynclinal cycles (e.. The age of tectonothemal events was established on the basis of relative metamorphic grade and lithostratigraphic correlations. Regional orogenic unconformities were inferred between assemblages of different matamorphic grade and were interpreted to record a succession of superposed Frecarnbrian.. Eariy Paleozoic ("Caledonian") and Late Paleozoic ("Vanscan") events. As a result. . al1 isotopic ages reported so far for low-grade (greenschist) samples are Alpine whereas al1 gneissic and granitic samples have yielded Middle Paleozoic or younger ages (Table 4-1).. Dimitrescu. transitional upper greenschist-lower amphibolite grade units were considered Upper Proterozoic-Early Paleozoic (e-g. Sohodol. Vidolm and Trasdu "series" andfor Yorrnations"). the Biharia. a forma1 stratigraphie classification of the metamorphic assemblages was developed (e.. 1968. Belioara. 4..metarnorphism (Fig.2. A systematic aArpAr dating program has been camed out to help resolve the extent. Giu@ et al. 1976.

10 t I i ' 356+1-9 %O+/-9 281+/-10 I 230+1-9 1 I ' . Bi~odm I Bisba Valley 'codnr Mesu1 Mera VaJlêy.Pniuca Mountains. Pojorata !Codru IAnesul Mare Valley.Codru Bisba Valley 'Codni ~ValaaMare Valley.Codm Vaka Mare Valley. Bistra Codru Valea Mare Valley. Bistra Somes 1 SMnesul Reœ Vaîley Somes IValea Mare Valley. Bisfra Somas .-D B ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~- ~Çomss Somas !Sirla ~atrau I Cosului Valley Tlara vaiiey 1 tara Valley b~tului Vaiicy j ~uizufui Valley Somas (sunos Somes ION#)W~ROCICI~--~ ' l anl les .C&&ia IChI-MwAû sdiist I meîaaqiamsrateœ I Y ~ D ~ U I Y ~ R I. BiÇomts 'Valea Mare Valley. PO. Copalnk Somas l~alea Mare Valley. Bistm Çomas l Calatele t Samts l Somazut Rece valley r~ l~omesut ~ e c Vaiiey e Somes '~alea M m Valley. granite I i ~ ~ a invthe eMM granitel 1 Muntsle Mare pegmatite l Muntele Mare pegmatite j~unleleMata pasmatHe 1 l pegmatoid granne 1 jpegmataid granite 1 I pegmatoidgranrte 1 lpegmatoidgran~s itwlhjemiîe . pcgmataiddionte 1 'pegmatoid diorits (homblendite tpegmaüte 'biotitite I [pegmatoidgranite jtrondhjemiîe I 115 123 WR 1 l I 794-1-5 4 l 268 38 1 1 I L Mu Mu Mu Mu Bi Bi Bi K-F Bi Bi Mu Mu MU Mu Mu Mu MU Bi Ho Ha Ho Mu Bi Bi Bi I 90 I 107 I t 237+/-6 199+/-6 119+/-3 85+/-3 . Bistra . 90 89 1 115 I 160 156 I 1 I 194 . Pojorate Codru !AriasuiMars Valley. Pojwata WR WR 1 1 WR I 227+/-8 I 209+/-6 I i . Bistre Codni lihsul Neagului Codm l Dosul Neaguiui Codm lValea Mare Valley. Copalnic Somu IPricluca Mountains. Bisfra S m l ~ a l e Mare a Valley. Bistm ~Sa~nes lValea Mam Valley.Valea Mare Valley. BiCodru ~AnesulMare Valley.Table 4-1.Munteie are granite I 1 Muntele Man. Previous radiogenic data in the Apuseni Mountains (K-Ar neutron activation) Paiuseni baiusani 1 Highis ~alay. iMuntekM8repegmatite i ~ m t e Mare k pegmatite : l ~ u n t e l Mare e granite I 1Mmtele Mare granite unte te le Mare granite I . 232 l 296 1 305 326 I 343 I 303 I 288 300 I i 1 35f+/. I ~micasaiist iarnphibolits [guartz-feldsparschist lgarneî rnicaschist lgamet rnicasctilst l na j Bi WR 1 I 1 1 1pegmaloid grantte /pegmaoidgranite I .

1981.K Ij D v. . Balintoni. 4-2. i CODRU NAPPE SYSTEM TOCHTHON Fig.~ rI P .1984. Nappe stacking model for the Apuseni Mountains (compiled from Bleahu. 1994). Sandule~cu.TRANSILVANIDES BIHARIA NAPPE SYSTEM I k ! 1 MOMA NAPPE^ 1 DIEVA NAPPE^ P .

a climactic "Mediterranean". and Baia de Arieg medium-grade assemblages and the Paiuseni. GEOLOGICAL UNlTS Panai and Erdmer (1994) and Pan&et al.. Balintoni. micaschist. the BihaBa nappe complex was ~.3. and vafiably deformed granite which together comprise the Someg assemblage. no unambiguous stratigraphic constraints are available.. (1996) described continuous zones of concentrated ductile strain within the Apuseni Mountains.. Alpine nappe assembly in southem sectors of the Apuseni Mountains has been considered to be of Middle Cretaceous age in the Trasdu Mountains (Lupu. Codni. 1992). Gosau-type sequences stratigraphically overlie the Bihana nappe complex (Bleahu et al. intra-Turonian deformation was reported to have followed initial Middle Cretaceous tectonism and to have resulted in emplacement of the cantrasting Codru and Biharia nappe complexes onto the Bihor "autochthon" (e-g-.Alpine tectonism was largely considered to be the Cretaceous (pre-Gosau) assembly of several nappe complexes associated with rigid translation of basernent and cover units. Senonian. The Codru nappe complex was inferreci to consist of six or seven distinct thrust units dominated by cover sequences. Resolution of the timing of individual Alpine events was based on stratigraphic controls. These include the Someq. S & t d u l e s ~1984). Balintoni descnbed as comprising only basement units (Bleahu et al. An idealized thrust stack derived from existing compilations (Bleahu et al. and rocks ranging up to Paleogene are locally involved in Alpine thnisting (Bordea. In contrast. 1981. Bleahu et al. The fast medium-grade tectonotherrnal event recorded in this assemblage predated emplacement of the large Muntele Mare granite. Sandulescu. In northem sectors of the Apuseni Mountains. 1984). 4. 1984. However. amphibolite. (1986. The Codru nappe complex was considered to have been assembled and thrust over the Bihor paraautochthon in the Turonian. They recognized several regionally mappable "lithotectonic assemblages" which record marked along-strike variations in Alpine tectonism. in Bleahu et a[. 1981. Pana and Erdmer (1994) and Pan3 et al. 4-1 ). Arïeseni and Poiana low-grade assemblages (Fig. 1994) considered that each Alpine thrust sheet comprised several Variscan nappes. Pana et . Sandulescu. 1981) and of Early Laramian age (Maastrichtian) in other areas. and questioned the extent of rigid Alpine thrusting within most sectors of the Apuseni Mountains.. Biharia. 1981. 4-2.. 1981. Only one nappe near the base of the Codru nappe complex was considered to include basement rocks (the Codm assemblage). 1984). The Biharia nappe complex structurally overlies different Permian to Barremian-Aptian cover sequences within various Codni nappe units. They interpreted these to record regionally significant horizontal displacements between distinct lithologic assemblages. (1996) described the Bihor structural unit ("autochthon") as plagiogneiss. 1994) is presented in Fig. S&~duIescu.

Fibrolite occurs in sheared . and discontinuous lenses of variably dolornitic marble. These were variably overprinted by generally lower grade.g. The Barrovian zonation initially proposed by Dimitrescu et al.g. The oldest recognizable fabrics reflect medium-pressure.to low-grade metamorphic conditions. The distinct Highis. Dimitrescu. quartzite. upper crustal igneous cornplex composed of variably transformed rnafic-felsic subvolcanic units and local gabbro-diorite-granite tectonic enclaves. 1996). microdionte. more steeply dipping mylonitic-brittie fabric elements also developed under greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. A distinct sillimanite zone was mapped by HiIrtopanu and Hârtopanu (1986) within gamet and staurolite-bearing gneiss. 1985) or by retrogression of the Someq assemblage dunng Cretaceous thrusting (Balintoni.. Heterogeneous strain partitioning resulted in localized preservationof eariy fabnc elements. Bistra Valley). 1988a) and sillimanite and magnetite-biotite (Pana et al. Bistra Mare Valley) or pegmatitic gabbro/dion'te (e. Quartzofeldspaticgneiss generally contains either biotite or muscovite. arnphibolite. Erdmer and Pana (1995) suggested that these fabrics record the development of a late chlorite-grade detachment zorie dunng extensional exhumation of the Somes assemblage..staurolite zone.. 1985). The Highis-Bihana composite rnagmatic crust was affected by polyphase ductile-brittle shearing. micaschist. medium-grade metamorphic conditions up to the garnet. or chlorite and muscovite and appear to have been derived fmn a Codru granodionte protolith. dolerite.4. Field relationships suggest that initial phases of the last postmetamorphic uplift of the Sornes assemblage from middle crustal levels resulted in development - of sillimanite or biotitdmagnetite. low-grade contact metamorphism is locally preserved in mafic rocks adjacent to large granitic units. An early. The medium-grade Baia de Arieq assemblage is cornposed of plagiogneiss. which may relate to an unexposed stock of the Muntele Mare granite. Pana et al. (1996) described the Coda assemblage to include gabbro-diorite. 1996)occur along the perïphery of the Muntele Mare granite. Sillimanite and cordierite (Dimitrescu. This conûasts with previous interpretaüons of the low-grade rocks ("Arada series") as a Late Proterozoic volcanicsedirnentary succession affected by Eariy Paleozoic ("Caledonian") tectonic activity (e. Layered mylonitic amphibolite is commonly spatially associated with massive dolente (e-g. (1974) has been questioned in later work (Balintoni. granite pegrnatite. which together are cut by veins and stocks of granite and granodionte. TECTONOTHERMAL €VOLUTION The Somes assemblage records a cornplex metamorphic history.al. The Codru assemblage comprises igneous rocks defomed under rnedium. 1985. and amphibolite. Biharia and Aneqeni assemblages comprise a penetratively sheared. It is characterized by less significant low-temperature retrogressive alteration than the Highig-Biharia assemblage.. 4.bearing mylonitic gneiss with gently dipping fabrics.

. diamond = muscovite. thick frame = total-gas age. and Sandulescu. b) lnterpretative NW-SE cross-section in the central Apuseni Mountains ('nappe complexes" compiled from Bleahu et al. . 4-3. a) Generalized geologi~tectonicmap of the Apuseni Mountains. 1984). 1981. square = homblende. For homblende and muscovite: thin frame = plateau age. Localities for which "Arl s r ages have been detemined are indicated by: open-circle = whole-rock.BIHOR 'PARAUTOCHTHON' : CODRU NAPPE: I COMPLM 1 1 BIHARIA NAPPE COMPLEX TRANSYLVANIDES NAPPE COMPLEX Fig.

1981). This allochthon was structurally dismpted during Alpine strikeslip and normal detachment. 1986. 1985). Lithotectonic assemblages within the Highiq-Bihan'ashear zone record evolution under low. Siindulescu. but there is no evidence for distinct tectonic boundaries within the Pgiuseni assemblage (Balintoni. Protoliths of the foliated rocks are controversiai. Shallowdipping mullions and fold hinges in the amphibolite mylonite everywhere trend paraltel to sû-ike. polyphase mylonites denved from different protoliths. 1994). Giuqcii. In western parts of the Apuseni Mountains. and PBiuqeni assemblages exposed in the Biharia Mountains consist of low-grade. Kinematic indicators suggest topto-the-northwest thnisting followed by normal dip-slip motion. Continuous thnist surfaces cannot be mapped and there is no evidence for the extensive Alpine thnrsting which was previously proposed (e. These structurally overlie imbricated Perrnian to Barremian-Aptian cover within Codru structural units. Textural characteristics suggest local relative aluminum enrichment together with fibrolite blastesis during sheanng and retrogression.to very low-grade metamorphic conditions. Internai strain in al1 assemblages is similar.. The tectonic boundaries of the Codru assemblage are difficult to trace between the Sorneq and Biharia assemblages. (1996) suggested that an arnphiboiitel granodiorite mid-crustal dornain was structurally emplaced over the Somes assemblage during early Variscan tectonism. Coniacian strata unconformably overiie a thrust contact between a Codru structural unit and underfying Turonian cover of the Bihor autochthon (Bleahu et al. 1996). 1984. 1985).chlorite-beanng rocks. the Paiuseni assemblage consists of a composite igneaus crust surrounded by polyphase. both the Somes and Codru assemblages are unconfomably overiain by a Permian clastic sequence which can be traced stratigraphically upward into Lower Cretaceous units. 1979. Balintoni. Bihana. resulting in development of a tectonically composite Codru assemblage. and surround the Bihor autochthon. vanably mylonitic units that have been thnist over Pemiian-Mesozoiccover in lowermost Codru structural units. Most frequently. 1976. However. the rocks rarely display medium-grade textures. Pan3 and Ricman (1988) proposed that the foliated rocks are low-grade mylonites formed within a Middle Cretaceous thrust zone affecting composite igneous cmst Thnist kinematics are supported by stnictural data (Pana et al. Balintoni (1986) assigned them to Variscan and Cretaceous nappes.. . The Permian-Lower Cretaceous sequence records locally penetrative Alpine strain. The dominant low-grade structures record this evolution at relatively shallow cnistal depths. indicating that peak metamorphic conditions locally reached the "sillimanite-in" isograd. Assuming different protoliths for parts of the Paiuseni assemblage..g. The rocks were interpreted initially to represent a Middle Paleozoic clastic sequence affected by Vafiscan metamorphism and magmatism (lanovici et al. In the Highig Mountains. Pana et al. Kinematic indicators in phyllonite suggest concurrent or successive strike-parallel and normal dip-slip translations. massive or non-penetratively deformed diorite/dolerite/granite are enveloped by phyllonite.. Dimitrescu. The Arieseni.

including MMhb-1 (Sarnpson and Alexander. Regression techniques followed methods described by York (1969). Analyses of the MMhb-1 monitor show that apparent WCa ratios may be calculated through the relationship 0. It undenvent sillimanite-grade rnetarnorphisrn. A "plateau" is considered defined if the ages recorded by four or more contiguous gas fractions (with similar apparent KlCa ratios) each representing > 4% of the total "Ar evolved (and together constituting > 50% of the total "Ar evoived) are rnutually similar within + 1% lntra laboratory uncertainty. Chtonte-bearing mylonite zones overprint this assemblage in places: one in the southern Gilgu Mountains along the Highis-Bihana shear zone and the second one in the Tras&u Mountains along the TSZ In both zones. followed by extensive down-dip slip motion. Gosau-type sedirnentary sequences unconformable overlie both low-grade assemblages within the Highis-Biharia shear zone and medium-grade rocks of the Baia de An'eq assemblage. Fine-grained biotite +/-gamet +/. r The techniques used generally followed those descnbed by Dal!meyer and GiI lbarguchi (1990).518 (+0. indicating a tectonic evolution from lower.25-1. In the southern and eastem Gilau Mountains. r 39ArpArisotope correlation diagrams. " O ~ r f % analysis.005) x I g A r p ~VS. Inter laboratory uncertainties are c. Variations in flux of neutrons along the length of the irradiation assembly were monitored with several minera1 standards. Subsequent extension overprinted previous zones of crustal wea kness. ANALYTICAL METHODS The Apuseni mineral concentrates and whole-rock samples were analyzed using - incremental release. (1996) suggested that oblique Alpine compression between the Somes and Baia de An- continental fragments was accommodated mainly within the Highis-Biharia igneous belt by westdirected tectonic extrusion and thrusting. . Senonian. IWO). Intra-laboratory uncertainties have been calculated by statistical propagation of uncertainties associated with rneasurements of each isotopic ratio (at two standard deviations of the rnean) through the age equation.5% of the quoted age (Dallrneyer and Gil Ibarguchi. Il. the Biharia assemblage records evidence of strike-slip and local reverse-slip motion. Pan&et al. A mean square of the weighted deviated (MSWD) has been used to evaluate the isotopic correlations.5. 1987).kyanite mylonite bands are spatially associated with two-mica gamet +/aluminosilicate protoliths.to mid-crustal levels. kinematic indicators record rnovement parallei to strike. The Baia de Aries assemblage occupies upper structural positions south and east of the Highis-Biharia shear zone.and records northwest thrusting followed by extension (similar ta the Highi~Mountains). 4.

Using the inverse abscissa intercepts ("O~rpArratio) in the age equation yields plateau isotopecorrelation ages of 300. Apparent KICa ratios are relatively small and display Iittle intra sample variation. 4-4) which correspond to ages of 306. HORNBLENDE Nine homblende concentrates frorn the Sorneq.6.O Ma (28) and 313. suggesting that experimental evolution of gas occurred from populations of compositionally uniforrn intra crystalline sites. Most intermediate. The a ~ Panalytical ~ r data are listed in Tables III-1 to II14 (Appendix III) and are portrayed as apparent age spectra in figures 4 4 to 4-13. RESULTS aArP9Ar incremental-release heating techniques were used to date 34 representative samples collected within various structural units wmprising the Apuseni Mountains.8 Ma (28) and 316.1 I0. The plateau data yield well-defined = ~ r p ~~s ? r ~ArpA isotope r correlations (MSWD < 2. 4-4 to 4-6).0: Table 111-1. optically undetectable contaminant minerals in the homblende concentrates. All spectra are marked by considerable variations in apparent ages recorded by gas fractions evolved at low experirnental temperatures. Somes Assemblage Two samples of amphibolite were collected within the non-retrogressed (pre-Permian 1 Mesozoic) crystalline basement of the Bihor "autochthon" (Someq assemblage) at locations 28 and 30. in Appendix III) with inverse ordinate intercepts (aArP6Ar ratio) are slightly larger than the m ~ r / 3 6ratio ~ r in the presentday atrnosphere. Because calculation of . 2) petrographically unresolved exsolution or compositional zonation within constituent homblende grains.1.5 Ma (30). Sample locations and descriptions of the petrographic characteristics of the dated samples are listed in Table 4-2.4 i 1.6.and high-temperature plateaus (Fig.0 Ma (30). These fractions generally display Iittle intra sample variations in apparent ages and correspond to welldefined plateaus. 3) minor chloritic replacement of hornblende. 4. 4-3). Codru and Baia de Aries assemblages display intemally discordant " O A r p ~age r spectra of variable complexity (Figs. Homblende concentrates from these samples yielded welldefined intermediate. relatively non-retentive phases. These included 24 multigrain mineral concentrates (9 homblende and 15 muscovite) and 10 whole-rock samples of slatefphyllite or phyllonite (Fig. andfor 4) intra crystalline inclusions.4. These could be represented by: 1) very minor.6 * 1. This suggestç that there is no significant intra crystalline contamination with extraneous ("excess") argon cornponents.and high-temperature gas fractions evolved from the hornblende concentrates display little intra sarnple variation in apparent KICa ratios. These are matched by fluctuations in apparent WCa ratios that suggest experimental evolution occurred from compositionally distinct.7 I0.

Ar / Ar sarnple localities and petrography Isotope ! i~ \WN .9 400. Total Gas - l lara V&y !am- Q 0 i I Hb 1 404.0 .Table 4-2.8 405.

isotopecorrelation ages does not require assumption of a presentday aAr/36~rratio. Isotope-correlationsof the plateau analytical data yield slightly younger ages which range between 364. therefore. Baia de Aries Assemblage Amphibolite sarnples were collected at three locations within pre-Pemian / Mesozoic crystalline structural units of the Baia de Arieg assemblage (15.2 Ma (18) and 115. Homblende concentrates from these samples record welldefined intermediate.3 (23) and 400. The plateau isotope-correlation ages are interpreted to date contrasting times of post-metamorphiccooling through appropnate argon retention ternperatures. 4-6). 500 i 25°C are appropriate for argon retention within most hornblende compositions in the range of cooling rates likely to characterize most geofogic settings.3 Ma (23) and 404.4 i 0.2 Ma (25).4 f 0. 17 and d 8).and high. The analysis of sample 22 was poorly resolved (Fig.and high-temperature plateaus (Fig. they are more reliable than ages calculated directly from the analytical data and.0 I0.3 Ma. Samples 17 and 15 yielded similar results (119.3 Ma (25). and corresponded to a total-gas age of 371-1 t 0. are considered geologicalIy significant They are interpreted to date the last cooling through temperatures required for intra crystalline retention of radiogenic argon in the constituent hornblende grains.2 * 0.9 f 0. Insufficient spectrum resolution precludes definition of a meaningful isotope-correlation.5 I0.4 Ma plateau recorded by sample 18. which are markedly younger than the 155. Similar contrasts are seen in the plateau isotope£orrelation ages which range between 151-6i 1.8 k 0. .1 Ma and 118. 4-5) corresponding to ages ranging between 366.3 Ma). Concentrates from samples 23-25 yielded welldefined intermediate. C o d a Assemblage Homblende concentrates were prepared from four samples of amphibolite collected within non-retrogressed (pre-Pemian/Mesozoic)crystalline structural units of the Codni assemblage (locations 22-25). 4-5).temperature plateaus (Fig. The isotope-correlation ages are considered geologically significant and are interpreted to date the last post-rnetarnorphiccooling through appropnate argon retention ternperatures.8 I1. Harrison (1981) suggested that ternperatures of c.3 Ma (17).

intra laboratory) are represented by vertical width of bars. 4-4. .i HORNBLENDE IN AMPHlBOLiTE j SOMES ASSEMBLAGE / b- TGA I O ! 30: BELISU VlLLAGE ' TGA = 319. ExperimentaI temperatures increase fmm left to right Plateau (PA) andfor total-gas (TGA) ages are Iisted on each spectrurn. 4-3a. 40Ar130Arage and apparent WCa spectra for mulügrain homblende concentrates from amphibolite collected within the Somes assemblage. Sample number as in Fig. Analytical uncertainties (two sigma.0.5 Ma 1 - I O 20 40 60 80 100 CUMUtATNE PERCENTAGE %RELEASED CUMULATWE PERCENTAGE RELEASED Fig.6 +1.

40~d39Ar age and apparent WCa spectra for rnultigrain homblende concentrates from arnphibolite collected within the Codni assemblage. 4-5. - 40 - .t ! 1 Il TGA = 367.0.3 Ma TGA = 405.6 Ma .3 Ma i no1 ui 2 f- Z 450 lL --9 400 W % 0 - .7 +/.0.0 +l. Data plotted as in Figure 44.8 +/. I 100 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE " ~ RELEASED r Fig. 20 .0. 250 o CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE " ~ RELEASED r O l ..2 Ma TGA = 386. .- 350 P 23: ]ARA VALLEY m 25: iARA VALLEY PA = 373. 60 - - 80 - .0.1 +/. -.

. .2 +/. .... . .-.- .4 Ma 50 100 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE " ~ RELEASED r 20 40 a 60 ' 8.. CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE " ~ RELEASED r O 20 40 60 80 100 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE '%r RELEASED Fig. 4Lkr/3B~r age and apparent WCa spectra for multigrain hornblende concentrates from amphibolite collected wlthin the Baia de Aries assemblage.. .. . .-. 4-6.- 1 18: SURDUC VILLAGE. .-. '10.+1.-- TGA = 167.a 124.4 +1.2 .BAIA DE ARIES ASSEMBLAGE . . .7 Ma . -. . 1 O O O l TGA .0... Data plotted as in Figure 4-4.0.. .-. .4 -Ma - 20 40 60 80 - 100. TOA = 133.-0..

1985. The KCa ratios display minor and non-systematic intra sample variations. This is interpreted to date cooling through argon retention temperatures following synkinematic growth of muscovite during the mylonitic overpnnt The relatively low-grade character of the associated mylonitic mineral assemblage suggests that synkinnematic muscovite growth Iikely occurred at approximately the same temperatures required for intra crystalline argon retention. mylonitic orthogneiss collected within a ductile shear zone developed in the Somes assemblage exposed in easternmost sectors of the Bihor "autochthon" (location 33). 4-7).6. Blankenburg et al.8 * 0. A muscovite concentrate was prepared from a sample of penetratively retrogressed. The concentrate displays an intemally concordant a ~ r p spectnim ~ r corresponding to a plateau age of 100.2. they are not shown with the age spectra.5 313.150-125 Ma (low-temperature ages recorded by sample 26). Apparent ages systematically increase throughout the analysis of sarnple 26.4. This appears to have been followed by a variable thermal rejuvenation at c..2 Ma (27) and * 0. Little intra sample variation in apparent ages is observed in the higher temperatures portions of the analysis of samples 27 and 29. Therefore. Sorneg Assemblage Muscovite concentrates were prepared from samples of variably retrogressed gneiss and schist collected within variably retrogressed pre-Perrnian/Mesozoiccrystalline rocks (Someg assemblage) of the Bihor "autochthon" at locations 27 and 29. Rejuvenation was rnost extensive in sample 26. the c.and initial intermediate-temperatureincrements evolved from the three concentrates. 100 Ma plateau age Iikely closely dates the ductile strain event Muscovite concentrates were prepared from a sarnple of retrogressed orthogneiss . These define plateaus corresponding to 302. with considerable uncertainties. Consequently. Apparent WCa ratios are very large. 1992) and suggest that initial post-metamorphic cooling through appropriate argon retention temperatures (c. 4-7).g. A sample of sericite quartzite was also coltected within lower grade crysblline sectors ("Arada series") of the Bihor "autochthon" at location 26.6 * 0. 1989) likely occurred behhreen c.2 Ma (Fig. MUSCOVlTE The 15 muscovite concentrates yielded variably discordant a A r p ~ age r spectra (Figs.2 Ma (29). suggesüng that expenmental evolution of gas occurred from compositionally unifom populations of intra crystalline sites. 300 and 315 Ma (plateau ages defined by samples 27 and 29). 4-7 to 4-1 0).. Dallmeyer and Takasu. Apparent ages systematically increase throughout the low. Characteristics of the three internally discordant apparent age spectra are similar to those described for muscovite from partially rejuvenated intra crystalfine systems in other polymetamorphic temnes (e. The muscovite concentrates yielded variably discordant a ~ r / 2 9 spectra ~r with generally similar characteristics (Fig. 400 i 25OC: Cliff.

100 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE "Ar RELEASED O 20 40 60 80 i 100 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE 3ghrRELEASED 4 0 ~ r / 3 age Q ~ rfor multigrain muscovite concentrates from the Somes assemblage. ..0.- 2 - .5 +/.-- TGA = 99.0.9 +/.- 9 - v v . .0..2 Ma - -v - -. .0.1 +/. ] 1 PA = 122. . TARNITA -. 4-7.- - 100 80 . 40 .. .8 */-0...- U ------- PA = 302.2 Ma . .2 Ma TGA = 189. 0 0 .3 5 0 - TGA = 253.. - 20 .6 +/.- . . * ..0 +/...2 Ma ( 31: MUNTELE MARE GRANITE IARAVALLEY 5 O 20 40 60 80 100 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE " ~ RELEASED r Fig.2 Ma 26: RETROGRESSED 2 150 BlHOR ("ARADA") ASSEMBLAGE BISTRA (BONCESTI) VALLF--_ -1 O CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE "Ar RELEASED CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE 3gArRELWSED 150 20 40 60 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE 3gAr RELEASED 1 1 BIHOR ASSEMBLAGE -.LAKE ....2 Ma TGA = 295.0. Data plotted as In Figure 4-4.-. 60 * 80 .... 29: RETROGRESSED PLAGIOGNEISS BIHOR ASSEMBLAGE ClURTUCl VlLiAGE -- ---.

8 and 9). 4-10) of contrasting character. subsequent themal rejuvenation.9 I 0. Both concentrates are characterized by intemally discordant aArP9Ar apparent age spectra (Fig.9 I0. These are interpreted to date the Iast cooling through appropriate argon retention temperatures. The concentrate from sample 8 displays an intemally cornplex age spectra with an intermediate-ternperature age maximum.9 * 0.2 Ma.and high-temperature increments display little intra sample variations in apparent age and define plateaus of 339.2 Ma (21). 340 Ma and 330 Ma. 4-7). the low portion of both spectra indicate Alpine rejuvenation. These included penetratively retrogressed rnylonitic granite (location 16) and progressively metamorphosed pelitic schist (location 14). Intermediate and high-temperature portions of the analysis record apparent ages which Vary between c.7 i 0. 7. Both concentrates are characterized by intemally concordant ' O ~ r pspectra ~ ~ r (Fig. 4-8) in which apparent ages systernatically increase through low-temperature portions of the analyses. Codm Assemblage Muscovite concentrates were prepared frorn two samples of slightly retrogressed schist collected within pre-Pennian/Mesozoic crystalline structural units of the Codru assemblage (locations 20 and 21). 31. the complexity of the two analyses does not permit a reliable interpretation of their geologic significance. 32).1 Ma (14). Baia de Aries Assemblage Muscovite concentrates were prepared from samples of pre-Perrnian/Mesozoic crystalline structural units of the Baia de Arieq assemblage. The concentrate from sample 9 displays a marked and systematic increase in apparent age throughout low-temperature portions of the analysis. 4-9) which correspond to plateau ages of 110. Both are characterized by intemally discordant a~rpgArspectra (Fig. Highiq-Biharia Shear Zone Muscovite concentrates were prepared from samples of variably mylonitic granite collected at three locations within pre-Pennian/Mesozoic crystaiiine rocks exposed within the Highis-Biharia shear zone (3. These are interpreted to date initial post-metamorphic woling through appropriate argon retention temperatures. The geologic significance of the two analyses is uncertain. although this portion of the analysis was poofiy resolved. the results suggest an initial woling at c.5. A concentrate of metarnorphic muscovite was prepared from a sampIe of pre-Pemianl Mesozoic mylonitic schist wllected at location 7 within the Highis-Biharia shear zone. 122.2 Ma (20) and 334.6 i: 0. The character of the low-temperature age discordance is interpreted to refiect the effects of a minor.collected within the Somes assemblage (location 32) and from a sample of massive granite collected within the Muntele Mare batholith (location 31).1 Ma (16) and 116. These are characterized by internally discordant apparent age spectra (Fig. The intemediate. However. Although intermediate temperature plateaus are defined (191-3I0. 340-330 Ma. The .2 Ma.

MUSCOVlTE I CODRU ASSEMBLAGE i TGA = 326.0. MUSCOVITE BAIA DE ARlES ASSEMBLAGE PA = 116.4 + 0.9 +/.0.8 . %RELEASED .2 Ma CHLORITE~USCOMTESCHlST HüZll VALLEY 1 2501 O 20 40 60 80 100 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE ?Ir RELEASED I I 1501 I O 20 40 60 80 100 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE %r RELEASED Fig.3 + 0.9 +/.9 +/.- . 4-9.1 Ma < 1 14: MlCASCHlST i CIOARA VALLEY 1 TGA =111. Data plotted as in Figure 4-4.2 I TGA = 336.0. ' ? ~ r / age ~ ~ spectra ~r for multigrain muscovite concentrates from the Baia de Aries assemblage. Data plotted as in Figure 4-4.2 Ma a 0 1 1 O 20 40 60 80 100 CUMULATlVE PERCENTAGE = ~ RElEASEO r -- CUMULATNE PERCENTAGE Fig.1 Ma ( 9 - A z p" t Y= 50 sa -L TGA = 116. ' ? ~ P ~ ~age r specta for muitigain muscovite concentrates h m the Codni assemblage. 4 .

2 Ma z E200. 7 +/.4 +1.O. -- .0. 1 Ma 9: SHEARED GRANITE : : BIHARIA ASSEMBLAGE ' : a O 20 MUNTELE FILll 40 60 80 100 CUMULATNE PERCENTAGE~~A~ RUEASED .2 Ma l- 2 ! 3: 1 au -- TGA = l l l .-- O 20 40 60 80 100 CUMULATNE PERCENTAGE~~A~ RELEASED CUMULATE PERCENTAGE~~A~ RELEASED TGA = 251-1 +/.0.-I l t 8: SHEARED GRANITE .0.5: PSEUOOCONGLOMERATEMATRIX: PAlUSENl ASSEMBlAGE BANESTI V A L L N 50 PSEUDOCONGLOMERATEMATRIXI PAlUSENI ASSEMBiAGE SlRlA FORTRESS .-- TGA = 288.Data plotted as in Figure 4-4- .6 +1.1 Ma g 350 n d k-: .0. 4%r/ '?Ar age s p e d a for multigrain muscovite concentrates frorn the Highis Biharia shear zone. Fig 4-10. I CUMULATNE PERCE MAGE^^^ RELEASED CUMULATNEPERCENTAGE~~A~ RELEASED r- - MUSCOVITE I HIGHIS BIHARIA SHEAR ZONE - 1 1 S 300 i----* TGA = 321 -4 4..2 Ma W 2 300 w PA = 299. BIHARIA ASSEMBLAGE BISTRA VI LLAGE 1 7: SCHIST BIHARIA ASSEMBLAGE : VADUL MOTlLOR VILLAGE t ! .

4-1 0) in which apparent ages systernatically increase frorn c. Mineralogicalcharacteristics and observed modal variations suggest that these phases may be chlorite and plagioclase feldspar.4 k 0. also present in rninor modal abundance. probably during the low-grade metarnorphism which accompanied development of mylonitic fabn'cs. The internally discordant spectrum suggests that the muscovite originated within a protolith that experienced cooling through argon retention temperatures at c. 275 Ma at highest temperatures.6. Variable and relatively young apparent ages are typically recorded in the small. The muscovite experienced slight thermal rejuvenation. 4-1 1 to 4-13}. respectively. 275 Ma and was followed by extensive Alpine rejuvenation.and high-temperature portions of the whole-rock . 127 Ma in high-temperature portions of the analysis.3.and high. These charactefistics suggest that initial post-metamorphic cooling occurred sometime prior to c. Gas fractions liberated during intermediate.2 Ma. these appear to have included 1) a non-retentive phase present in variable modal abundance. very fine-grained white mica. The muscovite concentrate from sarnple 5 is characterized by a slight but systematic increase in apparent age from c.concentrate displays an intemally discordant apparent age spectnim (Fig. Intemediate. Relative to white mica. and 2) a more refractory phase with relatively low apparent WCa ratio. Although the samples consist primarily of very fine-grained white mica. 125 Ma at low temperatures to c. Apparent ages recorded throughout intermediate.and initial high-temperature portions of the analyses are attnbuted to gas largely evolved frorn constituent. 4-10) in which apparent ages systematically increase throughout low-temperature portions of the analysis to define an intemediate. 300 Ma. 4. systernatic intra sample variations in apparent WCa ratios suggest that several other phases likely contn'buted gas at various stages in the whole-rock analyses. accompanied by relatively small and fiuctuating apparent KICa ratios. Triassic Cover Of The Codru Assemblage A sample of phyllonite derived from a pelitic protolith was collected within ductilely sheared Triassic cover of the Codru assemblage near the lower thrust contact with the HighisBiharia assemblage (location 34).temperature plateau of 299. The concentrate from sample 3 displays an intemally discordant age spectrum (Fig.and high-temperature portions of the analysis generally display large and only slightiy fluctuating apparent K a ratios. 90 Ma in low-temperature increments to c.volume increments evolved at low expen'mental ternperatures. Two concentrates of muscovite were prepared frorn samples of pre-Perrnian/Mesozoic mylonitic "metaconglornerate" collected at locations 3 and 5. with relatively low apparent WCa ratio. WHOLE-ROCK The 1O low-grade whoie-rock samples display variably discordant apparent age spectra (Figs.

* ~ r l ~ % age r and apparent KiCa specba for a whole rock sample of phyllonite collected within Triassic wver of the Codru assemblage. 4-11.200 1 34: SHEARED SILTSTONE i Fig. Data plotted as in Figure 4-4. .

These included two samples of mylonitic schist (locations 2 and 6) and a sample of ultramylonitic granite (location 4). In contrast. The whole-rock phyllonitic granite yielded a well-defined intermediate-temperature age of 107. The mylonitic quartzite (sample 11) yielded an intemally wmplex spectrurn with considerable variation in apparent ages at low and intermediate experimental temperatures. This is considered geologically significant and interpreted to date the synkinematic grown near or below the closure temperature of constituent fine-grained white mica during thnisting. These included mylonitic collected for a ~ ~analysis quaftzite (11).5 0. The five wholerock analyses are characterized by variably discordant aArPgAr apparent age spectra (Fig. 4-12).3 Ma (Fig. 4-1 3) which is considered geologically significant and interpreted to closely date development of the myIonitic fabric. The whole-rock sample yielded a welldefined intermediate temperature plateau corresponding to an age of 114. These three plateaus are considered geologically significant and interpreted to closely date the diachronous growth of synkinnernaticwhite mica during formation of the mylonitic fabrics. 4-1 3).and high.analysis record similar apparent ages corresponding to a plateau age of 117.temperature increments record similar apparent ages corresponding to a plateau of f 85. the high. The two phyllonite samples (10 and 19) are characterized by cornplex. Highis-Biharia Shear Zone A dark-gray phyllonite was collected within the "Black Series" exposed within the HighisBiharia shear zone (location 1). ultramylonitic orthogneiss (32 and 13) and phyllonite (10 and 19). Three phyllonite sarnples were collected within pre-PennianlMesozoic structural units exposed within the Highis-Biharia shear zone.1 Ma (Fig.temperature increments experirnentally evolved from sample 2 recorded a plateau of 99.3 Ma (13).2 Ma (12) and 124.1 I0. The ultramylonitic orthogneiss samples (12 and 13) record intermediate.1 I0. intemally discordant age spectra with uncertain geologic significance. These characteristics may reflect partial rejuvenation of older intra crystalline argon systems during the mylonitic overprint . The analysis of sample 6 was characterized by apparent ages which generally increase from c.7 k 0.temperature plateaus which yield contrasting ages of 168. fine-grained white mica during mylonitization. 4-1 3) which is considered to date development of the mylonitic fabric.7 I0. Intermediate. This is interpreted to closely date the synkinematic growth of constituent. The two samples of rnylonitic schist yielded markedly contrasting results (Fig.1 Ma (Fig.2 I0.9 k 0. 100-75 Ma at low temperatures to define an intemediate. Baia de Aries Assemblage Five sarnples of phyllonite derived frorn pre-PermianIMesozoic crystalline protoliths were P ~ within r the Baia de Aries assemblage.2 Ma. 4-1 1). 4-1 3).2 Ma.2 Ma (sample 4 in Fig.and high-temperature plateau age of 216.7 I0.

....-. 11: MYLONlTlC QUARTZITE DRAGOlESTl VILLAGE ----. 4?4r/'8Ar age and apparent WCa spectra for a whole-rock sample of phyllonite collected within the Baia de Aries assemblage.3Ma ..-.-- AVRAM IANCU VILLAGE TGA = 1445 +l-0..----.. '%t RELEASED . 4-12.. .3Ma TGA = 217.-... .0.3 +l-0.-. Data plotted as in Figure 4-4.-. . .. .5 +/.-.-- - . - 1 TGA = 177.3Ma CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE '8Ar RELEASED CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE Fig. . . . .

.--- n ---] W $ 200 5 $ s 4 100 .0.\.-..--. 4 0 ~ r / 3 9age within the Baia de Aries assemblage.l +/. -- -.4 Ma CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE '?Ir RELEASED CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE '%r RELEASED ~ r and apparent KlCa spectra for whole-rock samples of phyllonite collected Fig.. 4-12 (continued). .3 Ma 150- .. ti.0.. NEISS DOLll VALLEY --.. --.--- . . Data plotted as in Figure 4-4. . rx--k.~~~Ü~-~YL~NÏTICORTHOG .6 +1. f- - .- .: 50 TGA = 128. . 100.--.-.. fi r I PA = 124..-.

.

90' Terüary clockwise rotation (Patrascu et al. (1994).7. lnterpretation and integration of the new data relies upon calibrations of the geologic . Dallmeyer and Martinez-Garcia. time-scale by Palmer (1983)and Gradstein et al. 335 Ma.. In . Dallmeyer et al.11% lie 117: l t f middte Crataawxrsirntnication J m i c to middle cretaa~na -id The spread in * ~ r p ~ Ahornblende r ages recorded by amphibolite of the Codm assemblage could indicate delayed post-metamorphic Devonian cooling similar to the "eariy" Variscan tectonothemaf events recorded in parts of northwest lberia (e-g. Dallmeyer and Urban. Hornblende and muscovite within non-retrogressed sectors of the Someg assemblage record post-metamorphic cooling ages which range between c. Plateau ages can be grouped into distinct Paleozoic and Mesozoic intewals (Table 4-3). Dallmeyer et al.. 300 Ma.4. 1994). This implies that the cooling followed a regionally penetrative "Late Variscanntectonothennal overprint of similar age to that of pre-Permianl Mesozoic sequences exposed throughout much of Iberia and central Europe (e-g. The concordance of the homblende and muscovite ages suggests relatively rapid post-metamorphic cooling in the middle Late Carboniferous. Structures in the mylonitic gneisses indicate dominant strike-slip tectonism with a northward thrust component Contemporaneous tectonism in the Alps has been interpreted to represent Variscan collision accommodated by dextral transpression and south verging nappe emplacement (e. 315 and c.Summary of the a~r/39Arplateau ages on rocks from the Apuseni Mountains TriessCco~er 137 156.. 1994). Muscovite in gneiss of the Codru assemblage records cooling ages of c. Table 43. 340 and c. Because the Apuseni crustal element undenvent c. 1991) and the Bohemian Massif (Tepla Barrandian Zone.. 1995).. von Raumer and Neubauer. 1996). SlGNlfICANCE The 40ArfjS~r results record a complex tectonothemal evolution of basement units in the Apuseni Mountains. 1990.. 1990).g. the aArpAr ages from the Codru gneisses may record the same tectonothemal event.. 1996) and East and South Carpathians (Dallmeyer et al. in the West Carpathians (Malusky et al. 1993 and Dallmeyer et al.

117 Ma and c. Late Carboniferous tectonism accornpanied by granite intrusion and high temperature metamorphism. The c. Although the rocks were variably rejuvenated during Mesozoic orogenesis. This has been interpreted to record a finai phase of Variscan subduction 1 collision (von Raumer and Neubauer.. The effects of Early-Middle Cretaceous tectonism are also evident throughout the Highis-Biharia shear zone. where variable rejuvenation of Variscan muscovite occurred at c. 117 Ma and c. where homblende within foliated amphibolite yielded plateau isotope-correlation ages of c. both arnphibolite and gneiss units of the Baia de Aie$ assemblage at different locations yielded older ' O ~ r pdates ~ r which indicate local Mesozoic activity that pre-dated the rniddle Cretaceous. 100 Ma. Whole-rock samples of . 300 Ma is recorded by muscovite from variably mylonitized granite and schist. 1994). A record of Variscan tectonothemal acüvity in the Apuseni Mountains is also provided by muscovite from pre-Permian/Mesozoic lithologic elements exposed within the Highiq-Biharia shear zone. It was limited to localized and reiatively minor rejuvenation of muscovite intra crystalline argon systems (manifested in the low-temperature age discordance observed in muscovite).the Alps. and muscovite from gneiss and schist yielded plateau ages of c. The regional extent and tectonic significance of the pre-middle Cretaceous tectonic phase is uncertain.. The general concordance of hornblende and muscovite ages suggests relatively rapid cooling following higher grade penetrative Early-Middle Cretaceous tectonothemal activity in the Baia de Aries assemblage. 100 Ma plateau age of synkinnernatic muscovite within a ductile shear zone in the eastem part of the Bihor "autochthon" suggesl that a low-grade event occurred in the late Albian. Although the Muntele Mare batholith intruded the Sornes assemblage at c. 100-90 Ma. Post-Variscan resetting is relatively weak within central and northwestern sectors of the Sorneg assemblage. Mesozoic effects are recorded within most stnrctural elements of the Apuseni Mountains. 117 Ma whole-rock phyllonite age. However. Aptian intemal imbrication at a relatively high crustal level within the Codru assemblage is dated by a c. Aptian to eariy Albian tectonism is also recorded in the Baia de Arieg assemblage. initial cooling between c. These ages can be interpreted to date phases of Austrian compression if the subsequent extension recorded by kinematic indiwtors throughout HBSZ (Pana et al. no evidence of a Variscan subduction setting exists in the Apuseni Mountains. The intensity of Mesozoic thermal and stmctural effects increases eastward and southward across the central Apuseni Mountains. 116 Ma. 320 Ma and c. 1996). 295 Ma (Pana et al. There is no evidence of post-Variscan rejuvenation of hornblende. Whole-rock samples of phyllonite within the shear zone yield ages between c. 114 Ma and c. 1996) occurred at temperatures too low to effect partial rejuvenation. 111 Ma.

. medium.8 CONCLUSIONS 40Arî9Arresults suggest that pre-Permian-Mesozoic lithologic units of the northern Apuseni record three distinct phases of Variscan tectonism at mid-cmstal levels. South of the HBSZ. 150 Ma. 4985. As a result. Petrologic and Tectonic Features of the Highis-Drocea Crystalline Massif (Apuseni Mountains). Balintoni.p. 169 Ma and 186 Ma. p. Geofiz. Inst Geol. S. 5-21. The phyllonitic belt that marks the HBSZ developed dun'ng polyphase Alpine tectonism with a climactic Aptian-Albian phase of compression. D. The Codru assemblage may represent a segment of the Variscan suture subsequently disrupted by Alpine tectonism. Amphibolite of the Codru assemblage records stepwise Devonian uplift. and the associated gneiss. which have been interpreted to date diachronous growth of synkinematic white mica during formation of mylonitic fabrics at the elusive contact with the HBSZ Homblende from an amphibolite in the eastemmost basement unit of the Apuseni Mountains yielded c. This suggests that Alpine compression in the intenor of the Carpathian arc was gradually accomrnodated within wide shear zones with complex strain patterns that include transpression and thrusting followed by normal detachment. U(IX5. l. No regionally significant rigid basement nappe with distinct Alpine kinematics and tectonothermal imprint can be inferred in the Apuseni Mountains. REFERENCES Balintoni. I. 124 Ma. . interpreted to follow a regional medium-grade tectonometamorphic event. 70-71/5.and high-grade Baia de Arieq rocks were transported to relatively shallower cnrstal leveis at several different times. 1986. &ArlSAr data for basement units to the south record only Alpine tectonothermal events.. Corrélation des unités litostratigraphiqueset tectoniques longeant le ruisseau d'Anes entre la vallée de lara et le Mont Gaina ( M o n l Apuseni). slices of rnedium-graderocks expefienced thermal resetüng during tectonic transport at shallower crustal levels during multiple phases of Jurassic-Cretaceous tectonism. D. the ages locally recorded on amphibolite and gneiss units within the Baia de Arieg assemblage date different times of cooling following several distinct phases of structural imbrication associated with AIpine oblique convergence. 5-15. Consequentiy. The Somes assemblage records Late Carboniferous uplitt. Eariy Carboniferous transpression within a relatively narrow belt along the southern margin of the Sorneq assemblage. Inst- Geol. Geofiz.ultrarnylonitic granite yielded plateau ages of c. S. 4.

Cambel. Dallmeyer. Dallrneyer.1985. p. in Geological evolution of the AlpineCarpathian-Pannonian system' Conference. gAr/lS~rof detrital muscovite and whole rock slatelphyllite. W. 7512. Lupu. 1996. Carpatho-Balkan Geological Association. l.. Dallmeyer. p. Bucharest. R. and Panin. Bleahu. 110. Joum. F. 1994. USA: implications for rejuvenation during very lowgrade rnetamorphism. 27. Heidelberg. XXVII.. F. 1980.. Müller. p.. A.. 1995. Soc.D. Geol.. Bordea. 1990. p. XII Congress. 2.. Geol. London. 40.D. Bohemian Massif. 3911..Balintoni... Pre-Pemian Geology of Central and Eastern Europe: Springer-Verlag. 97-110. D. Pre-Mesozoic Geology of Iberia: Springer-Verlag.. Bordea. 416 p. Isotope geochronology of the western Carpathian crystalline cornplex. R. M.. A. Variscan vs.31-62. 873-878. Tectonophysics. 51-57. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica. B. R. RD. 147. Geologica Carpathia. Stefan. 604 p. D. 1981.A. Polyphase Vanscan emplacement of exotic tenanes (Morais and Braganca Massifs) ont0 Iberian successions: evidence from 40Arp9Armineral ages: Lithos. Dallmeyer.. Dallmeyer. Pan& D. of Tect & Reg. p. 1985. and A. R. Burchfiel. Petrol. Rornania. Franke.. 63. Stratigrafia depozitelor neojurasice si cretacice din partea vestic a Muntilor Metaliferi. and Putis. Contrib. Abstract of PhD Thesis. 1991. D. S. Czech Geol. Age of amphibolitic rnetamorphism in the ophiolitic unit of the Morais allochthon (Portugal): implications for early Hercynian orogenesis in the lberian Massif.. The structure of the Apuseni Mountains. K. Soc. Cliff. Univ. 387-420.. p.Cuza"-lasi. Szeged. Fritz. Handler. RB.I. Mineral. S. 142. Eariy Caledonian event in the pre-Alpine rnetamorphic sequences of the Romanian Carpathian. the present state. and Marques.. p. M. M. Helv. S.. RD. W. 8911. Structure of the Apuseni Mountains. Field Guidebook.. Guide to Excursion-B3. Takasu.. 515-527. Eastern Alpine system and the Carpathian orocline as an example of coIlision tectonics. Dimitrescu. Soc. Eclogae geol. 1. R. 133444. and Gil lbarguchi. AI. 1989. lsotopic dating in rnetamorphic belts. Tectonothermal evolution of the interna1 Alps and Carpathians: Evidence from 40~rp9 mineral ~r and whole-rock data... 59-70. Geol. 1992. l. Czech Republic: evidence from a ~ r p ~ r mineral and whole-rock slate ages: Abstract. R. Ribeiro. J.. and Urban.203-227. 1990.. London. B. 3. M. 27 p. Neubauer.C. and Martinet-Garcia. p. p.. 1O3 p. and Weber. J. Narragansett Basin. p.1994... Dallmeyer. 8 Kral. Patrulius. Heidelberg. J. Dallmeyer. 1992. . Covasna. RI-MA. J. Cadomian tectonothemal evolution within the Tepla-Barandian Zone. R. (Stratigraphy of the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits from the western part of the Metaliferi Mountains). H.

. A Mesozoic üme-scafe: Journal of Geophysical Research. V. La stratigraphie des schistes crÎstallins des Monts Apuseni. J. Cogné..S. J. Romanian Geological Institute.M. Diffusion of 40Arin Homblende. M.a possible way to find out the polymetamorphism. W. p. Jber.. Kralik. 85-91.. Z. R. Frey. P..M. . R.. 1212. Rev. D. S. Geol. H. Dimitrescu.. Thierry. Agterberg. Strasbourg. Lithotectonic Assemblages and Kinematic lndicators in the Basement Rocks of the Apuseni Mountains. 272-281. J. and KrWtner. D. R... 665-674.. I. An example: the Somes series. and Bordea.. (Eds. p. p. J. p. Erdmer... p. Esterlus. Geofiz. and Huang.. E. and Scharbert. Observations sur la structure du cristallin des monts Bihor et Gilgu meridiona1.. W.. I. 1995. F. 24. T. Patrulius. Putis.P.. Petrol. Faupl. Lupu. and Hârtopanu. 324 p. Dimitrescu. Geodynamics of the Eastern Alps: H.. and Borcos. G.. M. European Union of Geosciences. 23.. Petr. Bordea... M. Gu@. 70-W1. GiuscZi.). Roum.. M.Dimitrescu. 631 p. 291-299... Frank.. Kozhoukharov. Min. 99.lnst Geol. M.. Contrib.. R. InstGeol. Hardenbol. Geol. Geogr. 78. 1988 a. 1976.. f981. and Thoni. Acad. and Pana. J. p. Janak. and Weber. 272. Dimitrescu. Bucuresti. S. P.1979. 1988 b.. D. 1968. W... 1974. and Savu. 1983: Die Entwicklungs geschichte von Stub.. & Faryad. Mitt. F. 1994. Geologic Map of Romania: 1:50. Jung. P. Flugel and P. 1987. 324331. Nowy.. fi. Klein. Eds. Hamson. p. M. J. Bucharest. Geofiz.. Geofiz. S.V. Géol. van Veen. 1992: Geology and petrology of metarnorphic rocks of the Western Carpathian crystalline complexes. W. Korikovsij. 72-7315. p.. S. Ogg. 1976: Die Datierung geologisher Ereignisse im Altkristallin der Gleinalpe (Steierrnark) mit der RbISr-Methode. D. 191-203. Krohe. Frank. Apuseni Mountains in Precambrian in Younger Fofd Belts. Comenius University PressJBratislava. Geochronologial data from the Eastern Alps: in. p.. Mineral. lanovici.000 Campeni Sheet. Geologia Munplor Apuseni. 143-159.M.. D. Tscherm.. M.G.. P..S. p. M.W...: Deutike.15-43 Gradstein. 3.W. Bleahu. Borcog.. Hârtopanu. Rom. S t Cerc. p.. Savu. 24051-24074. MasivuI cristalin al Highisului. D..P. Scharbert... 0. Vienna. Ed. A.und Koralpenkn'stallin und die Beziehumg zurn Grazer Palaosoklum.. 263-292.. 1986. Hochschulschwerpkt s 15: Die FrUhalpine Geschichte der Ostalpen.. Zoubek. H. S.. Krist. Frank. lntersecting isograds . Abstract Volume.

. p.. Am. Contributions préliminaires à la géologie des massifs cristallins des Monts Apuseni. and Panaiotu. Soroiu. and Ricman. 1988. Palmer. 1994. Geotectonica Romaniei. Geol. I. Tectonic implications of the paleomagnetic research into Upper Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the Apuseni Mountains. L. 11. Paveiescu. The lower complex of the Paiugeni series . 313-337. 1988. H. St. 19. Kapser. of Tect & Regional Geology. Supplernent 1.. 17(3): p... petrogr. 1983. Chem. LW. in The Pannonian Basin: A Study in Basin Evolution. 807-810. p. U.. Geol. P&rascu.. Overview on Romanian geology... p.Kriiutner. v. Soroiu. S.. Roum. Popescu. 22. 27-34. AiIenei. p. Ene. Sampson.. 69. Bleahu. 45. M. F. Lithostraügraphiccarrelations of Precambnan in the Romanian Carpathians. Romania. 168-172. and Horvath. C. 1984. 25-33. Bucharest Shdulescu. Univ. Rev... p. p.. G. & Alexander. Roum. Fr. Geology.. and Jagoutz. Anuarul Institutului de Geologie al Romaniei. 503-504. 32. Editura Technicg. 1980. "Al. 3-15. et Géogr. D. M.. P. M. M i t . Tectonophysics. Géol.C. by Royden. Maluski. M. (Eds. and Dallmeyer. Petr..R. 1994. 177-189. 15. v.. 336 p. Rom. Pop... Géol. Thoni.... 1987. Mem. RD. Pan$ D. R. G. p... 1990.. A.. 309-322. 223. 73. Geol. 75/2. Tollmann. Pan& D. Rev. p. II b (Geol).. v.l. M. Calibration of the Inter laboratory mArPg~r dating standard. Pan$ D. 1975. H. mineral. Géophys. Cenozoic tectonic history of the Carpathians. 17-25. 1969. ALCAPA II. P. The 1983 DNAG time-scale: Geology. An. An. Geog. p. The Alpidic evolution of the Eastem Alps in: Geodynamics of the Eastem .. Rajlich. Tectonophysics. Essai de synthèse structurale des Carpathes: Bull. Inst Geol.. Shdulescu. K-Ar age determinations from the Apuseni and Banat Mountains.. Assoc. J.S. Sect.). Lithotectonic assemblages of the Apuseni Mountains: strain partitioning and timing of tectonism..a blastomylonitic belt... Erdmer. ser.. G. N. Covasna conference. E. MMhb-1. 1987..Cuza". p. and Matte. 180. C. (Isot Geosci. and Dimitrescu.. 299-358. 21-35. Sect). E. lsotopic constrains for eo-Alpine high-P metamorphism in the Austroalpine nappes of the Eastern Alps: bearing on Alpine orogenesis. p. Soc. 229-296. P. G.. 1993.. MArpAr dating of the lnner Carpathians Variscan basement and Alpine mylonitic overpdnting. Alpine Crustal Shear zones and pre-Alpine basement terranes of the Romanian Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains. M. Field Guidebook. 1975. M.. and Erdmer.. p. P. A. 66. 1996. and Popescu. Géophys. p. L.. Siindulescu. S&dulescu. Schweiz. 67-69.

93-109. Earth Planet Sci. P-). & Suppe.. A possible Jurassic-Cretaceous transfomi system in the Alps and Carpathians. 1969. D.(Ed. by Clark.. in: Processes in Continental Lithospheric Deformation (Ed. 8 Faupl. R. Amer. Least squares fitüng of a straight Iine with correlated errorç. p. 218. by Flügel. H. B. 5. York. Trümpy. 361-378.P. Burchfiel. Geol. DeutickeNienna. J.Pap.). Spec. . S. Let..320-324.W.. i988.C. Soc. p. p.

Paris-London University. David Dallmeye? and F m z Neubaue? ' Departmentof Earth and Atmospheric Sciences.Canada Department of Geology.C H A P T E R 5* TECTONOTHERMAL EVOLUTION OF THE APUSENl MOUNTAINS. AB. T6G 2E3. Edmonton. A-5020 Salrburg. University of Alberta. ROMANIA: RMPLRCATIONS OF STRAIN PARTITIONING A shorferversion of this chapter is prepared for submission fo Tectonics by Dinu Pan& Phil$pe Erdmer'. GA 30602. USA Geology and Paleontofogy Instiute. Austria . University of Georgia-Athens.

1993. Dimitrescu. Sandulescu. Dal Piaz et al. Other reconstructions interpreted the Apuseni crust as a srnall continental fragment surrounded by Mesozoic oceanic crust (e. .g. 1992. consisting of metamorphic and igneous rocks and Penian to Mesozoic strata. 1995. 1994). a pooriy understood aggregate of crustal fragments that record Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting. 1982. The rocks contrast greatly with basernent exposures in the Transdanubian Central Range to the West and the Bükk Hills to the north. and as "wildflysch" assemblages in cover sequences. Mhrton and Mauritsch. Hamilton. distribution.. 1984. ) consumed during complex Tertiary translations and rotations (e. and kinematics of metamorphic rocks in the Apuseni Mountains.5.1. 1984. 1976. The aim of this paper is to show that strain partitioning during Mesozoic tectonism in the Apuseni Mountains was more complex than simple nappe stacking. Tectonic interpretations of the Apuseni Mountains have emphasized pre-Late Cretaceous ("pre-Gosau") and Laramide phases of nappe stacking with no metamorphic overprinting (lanovici et al. Balintoni.. Csontos et al. A range of structural levels are now exposed as wide retrogressive ductile to britüe shear zones in the pre-Alpine basement rocks. drifting. 1975. Bleahu.1986. We show that crustai defornation was not confined to discrete thrust surfaces but was gradually accornmodated within wide strain zones. We discuss the regional implications of the data and propose a geodynamic mode1 that contrasts significantly with existing interpretations for the region. 1990. 1976). 1981. 5-1) is a response to the tectonic filling of a westward-facing oceanic embayment in early Tertiary time. 1994.g. R&dulescuet al. and accretion and are largely covered by Neogene fiII of the Pannonian 8asin.. Subduction of a hypothetical Mures-Pienniny branch of the Tethys Ocean beneath this micro-plate was proposed (Radulescu and SCindulescu. 1973. geothermometry. We present data on the nature. Szepesh&y. 1989. and are similar to basement exposures in the Villany and Mecsek hills to the southwest The heterogeneous character of the Pannonian basement has led to contrasting paleotectonic interpretations. MiSic et al. 1979. 1986). 1985. 1985. 1981.. INTRODUCTlON The arcuate Carpathian orogen of eastem Europe (Fig. The outer part of the Carpathians is a coherent thrust-fold belt The inner part is a discontinuous belt of disnipted pre-Mesozoic continental basernent and dismembered Mesozoic strata. The Apuseni Mountains of Romania are the main area of basement exposure in the Pannonian Basin. 1975.. Sandulescu. Balla.. penetraüve structure. BIeahu et al. The nappe interpretation extends to the unexposed basement of the South Pannonian Basin (e. IWO).g...g.. Sandulescu. Some reconstructions assigned the Apuseni crust during early Alpine extension to a coherent micro-continental fragment which included the West Carpathians and Eastern Alps (e. B a l a s et al. 1986) and has thus been proposed for most of the Alpine Orogen in eastern Europe.

.

of amphibolite grade.3. of upper greenschist grade). 1958) and assigned to the Precambrian. and a southern. Balintoni.. respectively (Geologic Map of Rornania. 1988b) (Tab. 5-16 and 5-17) shows that lithologic assemblages previously . Nicolae. 1985. Our mapping (Figs. 1981. and Variscan. Bleahu et al. Bleahu et al. 1993. In the sedimentary basin of the southern Apuseni Mountains. respectively (Giuscil et al. 1:500 000 scale. epi-. A forma1 lithostratigraphic nomenclature was established (KButner. 5-2). Ciofiica and Nicolae. 1988 b).. 1976.. preGosau age were proposed (lanovici et al. REGIONAL SE1TING: PREWOUS WORK The metamorphic sequences of the Apuseni Mountains were initia!ly classified as meso-. 1965. LITHOTECTONIC ASSEMBLAGES: DISTRIBUTION. 5-1). Lupu et al. 5-2..Fine-grained foliated rocks were previously considered to be prograde phyllite. 1976.. 1: 200 000 scale. tectonically active basin with Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous fiysch and wildflysch associated with tholeiitic to calc-alkaline igneous acüvity (Savu. The Biharia nappe system was inferred to consist of either four (lanovici et al...1980. Giuqd.1 Low-grade rocks Low-grade metamorphic rocks are distnbuted along a belt that wraps around the Bihor autochthon. Late Proterozoic. 1960. 1994) have been proposed. lanovici et al. 1979. Cadomian or Caledonian.. the Grenvillian. Savu. with a nearly complete Permian to Eo-Cretaceous platformal sequence of EastAlpineICarpathian affinity with increasing southward "Mesogeanncharacter (Patrulius. 1986). 1993. 1976). The Bihor "autochthon" (Fig. 1985). NATURE OF PROTOLITHS AND METAMORPHIC CONDITIONS 5. Dimitrescu. eleven Laramide (Bleahu et al. Scarce age data were used to propose a stratigraphy inferred to include the products of three pre-Alpine orogenies. and Paleozoic. 1994.3. two nappe systems of presumed Cretaceous. 4 995). and coarse ones to preserve sedimentary structures (Papiu. 5. 1962. 1976) or three basernent nappes (Balintoni.2. a second belt is less well exposed in the Trascgu Mountains (Fig. Dirnitrescu.5. 1968.. The Codru nappe system was inferred to consist of several cover nappes of Permian to Lower Cretaceous sequences and a lowermost nappe involving basement rocks (the Codm "series" of amphibolite grade). 1980. 1981) or seven Austrian and eight Laramide nappes (Balintoni. 1967). 1981). In the northernApuseni Mountains. and the Arada "series". 1981): a northern one. The Permian to Mesozoic sedimentary cover of the Apuseni Mountains has been assigned to two distinct sedirnentary basins (Bleahu et al. 1981. 5-2) was inferred to consist of Pennian to Lower Turonian sedimentary cover and underlying metarnorphic basement (the latter cansisting of the Someg "series". and anchi-rnetamorphic (Geologic Map of Rornania. Dimitrescu.

note the inconsistency between the radiogenic data and postulated stratlgraphic position.g.- "Bala de Arles series" "Vidolmsedes" " Amda assemblage '. ---. 1986.Klldlnella sp. Larnlnarliea ap.-.. l ulzwareleformation'# 7ïascau series" *" i+ AGE DATA PALYNOLOGICDATA 1 K / Ar DATA (Ma) I I I I I1 %luseni sedes' "' ~$hiGra$ol$s. 1976. . * Catlnella p.- + Somes assemblage + + +--* + 523 +-- Flbulsrix ap.. 1968. LemInerHes Vpper mlcaschlst Formationa"* 'Somes" " "GiurcutaleptlneamphiboliteFormatlon" " ("Gl/aun7 'Valea Casuri micaschlst Fomtlon' *" +-+' + .. 1986.-- .+-. 1963.Bleahu et al.Soroiu et al. 1967.T Ma assemblage t + f * * t + + + + + ti Zonotrlleter m..t i::= :* r.+.Kildlnella cL h. Complled from: # lanovlcl et al. 5-1..Dimitrescu. "Blhariafonnatlon" ' p p Sohodol-BelIoara -- PRE-ALPINE TECTONlSM Polana assemblage ~elotrlletes Xonotrllsteam. granite host dated as younger than dykes cutting it) or because method llrnitations(dates reported for hornblendetbiotiteconcentrate)..- . 1971. 1988.. :. cl.+ Bah de Arles assemblage -. Only apparently reliable K/Ar data are shown. d . *** . *. Rlght: corresponding lithotectonlc assemblages discussed in the text. "AradaFonnallon" ' "Arles" li@I Catam~pom sp.-'. ". Table.. . 1969. lanovicl et al. ~tVl Leloaphsrldlum sp. e Pavelescu et al. Lelosphaerldlurn op. Lolotdoleo @p.. 1969. +. Leff: Summary of lithostratigraphic classiRcation previously used for the metamorphiclmagmatic basement of the Apuseni Mountains.. Somes ~ssemblage Codru assemblage L9mi~fmpmnpt++/t+tt+*t+TfI +-- ... b Filipescu and Vincentiu. 1980. 1981.+ - . CORRESPONDING LITHOTECTONIC ASSEMBLAGES USED IN THE TEXT PREVIOUSLY PROPOSED STRATIGRAPHY SUPERGROUP" SUBGROUP". t Ballntoni and lancu.. Protoapaetidlum ap XonosphorldIum d...+ . . *. + +++ + + + A++_ 'Adeseni Fonnatlon" " 505 Ma "Muncel Formation" ' + + + -- -.+ .-uX. 1975.... .. 1976..+.. . we did not consider a number of dates that are suspect because of incompatibility with field relations (e.*' + . "SERIES" "GROUP" 286 Ma or ?FORMATIONq .Krautner. Age data from: a Visarion and Dimitrescu.. - - - - - - . a. ProtosphasrlaRurn7. fide Soroiu et al.. . L P t ~ î ~ B p h ~ t ' I d l Bp. + Trascau assemblage --- -StenozonotrilsIëZX "Varlscan" TECTONISM -+.sp. c Glusca et al.

.

Crosscutting quartz veins indicate multiple phases of silica release within the HBSZ We interpret quartz-pebble-like clasts in the Paiuseni assemblage to result from local shearing and stretching of quartz veins in a more cornpetent mylonitic matrix (Figs. diopside homfels overprints the foliation and is interpreted to resuit from Pafeogene ("Banatite") magmatismFarther along strike to the east. it overlies the PoÏana assemblage consisting of foliated tectonic breccia and conglomerate. we observed a graduai transition fiom biotite. lithotectonic assemblages can be separated that contain petrographically similar tectonites and either igneous or medium-grade metamorphic relics. AH stages of deformation and metamorphism of massive igneous rocks of various mineralogy and grain size into completely equilibrated greenschist facies tectonites are recorded.5-3 and 54). as well as rocks wîth disequilibrium textures. On the basis of mineralogic and lithologic relics..g. largely overprinted by themal metamorphism associated with Paleogene quartz diorite ("Banatiten)intrusions. and Ghizghifului valleys) a conglomerate-like fabnc resulted from the dismembering of a porphyritic rock within a microgranitic host Fine-grained magnetite/epidote/sericite homfels of aplite and basalt constitutes one of the prototiths of the Paiuseni and Arieseni assemblages. Bucura. Ariesul Mic.and/or homblende-bearing diorite to chlorite-albite schist Carbonate mineral reacb'ons accompanied the process. On the western slope of the Bihana Mountains. and diorite relic bodies that a n be separated as the Anepni assemblage-At different locations (e. microgranitic. these separate assemblages cannot be recognized and schist with large sheared granitoid pods defines the Biharia assemblage.assigned to the Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic (Tab. In the Biharia Mountains.to kilornetre-sized lensoid bodies of incompfetely reequilibrated or unaffected rocks. the Bihana assemblage overlies an association of mainly fine-grained silky schist and small aplite. 5-1) contain rocks texturally and mineralogically equilibrated under lowgade metamorphic conditions. associated with numerous granitic. as evidenced by widespread carbonate layers or carbonate-pebble-like sûudures (Fig. in the Aries Valley. homfels. 5-7)..We terni this association the Bihana assemblage. they are L-S or L tectonites). occur metre. Sheared igneous rocks previously considered as intrusions into the pre-metamorphic sedirnentary succession exhibit strong foliation andlor compositional layering and obvious stretching lineation (Le. A wntinuous progression from granitoid to pseudo sedimentary textures was reported in the Highis Mountains by Pan&and Ricman (1988)- We assign to the Pauseni assemblage a Iithologic succession dominated by quartzsencite-albite schist and secondaryquartz-clastbearïng tectonites. . Wthin each assemblage. On the eastem slope. and rhyolitic bodies and rare metamorphic carbonate lenses in the northem Highiq Mountains and southem 8iharia Mountains. The homfelsing Iikely resulted from the youngest bodies of the upper crustal igneous complex. In the Biharia Mountains.

central Highiq Mountains. .Figure 5-3. Quartz-filled tension gashes in a microgranite of the Psiuseni assemblage. Cigher Creek.

Figure 5-4. Pseudo-metaconglomerate in the Paiuseni assernblage; a) and b)
Otcovac Peak, western Highis Mountains; c) Hulurnos Creek, and d) Highis Peak,
central Highig Mountains.

Fig. 5-5. Late granite intrusions in diorite wiaiin the Highia igneous complex of the
Paiuseni assemblage: a) Soirnos quarry; b) Lipova-Arad highway.

concordant quartzo-feldspathic rock bodies previously interpreted as sills (e-g. the Lunca Larga
granites - Balintoni, 1985) or as sedirnentary layers (e.g. the Mihoegti rnetaconglomerateDimitrescu. 1973) are sheared intrusions which have gradational boundanes with the enveloping
tectonites. Metre to kilometre-sized bodies of incompletely metarnorphosed granite to dionte are
commonly hosted by chlorite schist Unsheared domains several tens of square kilometres in
area in the Highiq Mountains expose al1 igneous rock types found along the belt Various
granitoids intrude and partly assimilate older rnafic intrusions (Fig. 5-5).
Stable isotope data from the low-grade assemblages

Carbonate and silicate rocks from the lowgrade assemblages have been analysed for
carbon and oxygen isotope ratio and oxygen isotope ratios, respectively.

Carbonate rocks. Lenses and nodules of calcite, dolomite and ankerite occur (usually
as mixtures of end-rnembers) throughout the low-grade assemblages and are traditionally
interpreted as rnetarnorphosed limestone strata. Their sedimentary origin is questionable
because carbonate rocks were found at different structural levels as discontinuous metre-sized
lenses which rareiy can be followed for more than a few hundred metres. Augen (Fig. 5-7) and

Iens-shaped (Figs. 5-6 and 5-8) carbonate structures and microstnrctures indicate widespread
carbonate reactions in ail low-grade rocks. Carbonate rocks consist of a fine-grained,
preferentially oriented carbonate +/- quartz matrix with micro-lenses of coarser carbonate grains,
ribbon-like quartz grains and corroded relics or pseudomorphs of feldspar and mica. The matrix
is wmrnonly affected by discrete shear zones locally highlighted by white mica flakes and
opaque minerals indicating polyphase deformation. A mylonitic layering is locally defined by
carbonate versus nbbon-like quark layers. Kinematic indicators are similar with those displayed
by the surrounding quartzo-feldspathic rocks.
Analytical method. The carbonate samples were ground to < 200 mesh ( c70 pm), and

phase composition of each sample was verified by X-ray difractometry. The carbonates were
reacted with 100 % phosphoric acid. In the case of calcitedolomite mixtures, CO, was extracted
separateiy from calcite and dolomite. To minimize potential cross-contamination CO, from
calcite was removed after two hours reacüon at 25"C, then the vesse1 was closed and the
reaction was continued for a few days more at 25OC, or 24 hours at 50°C (AI-Aasm et al., 1990).
Isotopic analysis of extracted carbon dioxide were camed out on VG 602 and Finnigan MAT 252
mass spectrometetç at the University of Alberta. The 6-values are reported with respect to PDB
(carbon) and SMOW (oxygen) and are precise to -0.05

Of,

. A correction factor of 0.72 was

used for dolomite and ankerite 6180values detemined at 25OC.Most of the samples have been
analyzed twice under the same andlor different conditions in order to verify the validity of data
and possible kinetic effects due to grain size, time and temperature of reaction. Analysis that
yielded unusually low 6% values have been repeated two or three times. The kinetic effect of

FÏg. 5 6 . Centirnetre-size veins of carbonate within igneous rocks affected by strain
under lowgrade metamorphic conditions; a) sheared microgranite, Paiuseni
assemblage, Cgsoaia resort, Araneag Creek, Highis Mountains; b) granodiorite, Codru
assemblage, Neagu Creek, southem Giliiu Mountains.

.

a) Baneqti Creek.Fig. . southem Biharia Mountains. b) Ariesul Mic River. 5-7. Biharia Mountains. Carbonate nodules within quartz-rnuscovite-carbonate-epidote~albite~ chlorite schist ("metaconglomerate").

.

Fig. soutfiem G i l h Mountains. . 5-8. Neagu Creek. a) Massive replacement of a diorite by carbonate. incomptete substitution at the top of the carbonate layer. b) carbonate tayer deveioped within the chlorite schist matrix.

grain size was found to be insignificant for calcite reacted more than two hours (sample 11 i06).
No fractionation occurred after the completion of the reaction; similar isotopic values have been
obtained for ankerite (sample 11 162) analyzed after one hour at 25OC.after one week at 25OC,
and affer one week at 50°C,and for calcite (sample 11 083) analyzed at 2S°C after 2 hours and
2 months. Differently colored carbonate bands within the same layer have slightiy different
isotopic compositions. The same obsewation is valid for calcite vs. dolomite from mixtures. This
suggests that perfect homogenization did not occur.
Results and Discussion. Analytical data are summarized in Table 5-2 and Fig. 5-9.

Stable isotope ratios record information about the origin of samples (source information)
and their subsequent reaction history. The source sets an isotopic baseline that can
subsequentiy be shifted by isotopic fractionation.

The 6°C values of carbonate rocks of marine ongin of Carnbnan to Terüary age are
virtually constant and have values close to zero on PDB scale. Marine carbonate rocks of
Precambrian age are enriched in 6% by about 3 '1, (Veîzer and HoefS, 1976). Although much
wider ranges of variation have been also reported from different areas (+6 to +11 by Schidlowski
et al., 1976, -5 to +6 by Veizer and Hoefs, 1976), a field of most common isotopic values is
defined by carbon (-2 to +4) and oxygen (20 to 26) for unmetamorphosed marine Iirnestones

(Fig. 5-9) based on data cornpiled by Valley (1986). Sedimentary whole rock isotopic values
(including marble and calcareous quartzite)

are preserved ttirough greenschist and amphibolite

facies metamorphism (Schwartz et al., t97O). Isotopic values of greenschist facies lirnestone
range from 4.3 to +5.6 (mean of +3) and 18.1 to 28.1 (mean of 21-4)for carbon and oxygen,
respectively (Dunn and Valley, 1985). The low 8180and 6% values yielded by the carbonate
lenses from the low-grade assemblages of the Apuseni Mountains are outside the reported
range for marine lirnestone affected by prograde metarnorphism (Valley, 1986).
The "batch" volatilization mode1 implies a "calc-silicate limit" of 0.6 which lirnits the 6180

depletion at less 2 .O,/

Larger depletions in j 8 0 require decarbonation reactions with F-oxygen

vs. F-carbon trends that cross the calc-silicate limit Le., a "silicate absent decarbonation" trend.
Since the carbonate lenses in the Apuseni Mountains are interfingered with silicate rocks,
carbonates must have volatilized without rnaintaining isotopic equilibrium with coexisting
silicates ("decarbonation-silicate disequilibrium", Lattanzi et al., 1980). Disequilibriurn conditions
suggest large amounts of reaction involving massive rock-volume loss and are consistent with
the "open system" rnetarnorphic conditions of a shear zone overprinting manne lirnestone.
Alternatively, the plot of isotopic data along the skam trend (Bowman et al., 1985) is the
combined effect of infiltration of chemically evolved superficial waters and volatilizaD'on of
"juvenilen10w6'~Ccarbonates. The depieted isotopic ratios of mantle-origin CO, (eg. Wyman
and Kemch, 1988) incorporated in the igneous protolith or released along the shear zone

127

Table 5-2. Carbon and oxygen isotope data from carbonate lenses within the HBSZ.

@HARIA ASSEMBLAGE
1111O ! Dolii Valley

,

I

i

I

,

13727 !Tnb. BanestiValley i
13773 IAriesulMic Spring
I
13776 iAriesul M c Valley
t
13789 IAvrarn lanw Village 1
133241 1 Caseior Valley (Cimpe :
13324 i Casehr Valley (Cimpe I
13111 ?BisiraValley
I
1 f203 ~ L u ~ I F S:
13892 ! Sagacea Valley
!
I

I

.

13904 iocolis Valley
13933 1 Baiçorii Valley

!

I

i

!

1

i

D+3%C

bulk

D
i
C
I
C
I
C
i
O+v. minoc i
D
I
O
l
O
i
D+v. minorC I

C

;

D
C+D

D

j

0.84
-O.%
4.84

butk

C+D

Ï

i

c

i

D
I
13936 l Baisorii Vatlev
! D+v. minorC I
BAIA DE ARES ASSEMBLAGE
!
11020 IUnguruluiValley
i D+3%C 1
I
O
1
C
13720 Madri~esüValley
1
C
11116 S ~ h ~ d d
l
C
11119 i\/inta
i
c
i
13812 Cioara Valley
i
C
13860 Belioara Valley
i
c
i
13863 Posaga VallqrIWioari D+v. minorC !
, 13864
Posaga Vall~(8elibarf
C
13914 Ocolis Valley (Belban l
D
1
i
13880 I tara Valley (Surduc) I
C
9947 Ilara Valley (Surduc) 1 D+222%C 1
1
f
I
D
1
!
c

8.426x
0.961 -16.05
O.Si -14.57

1

1SlO

4

I

bulk
-3.44 1 -14.38

/

bulk
bulk

-210 1 -9.10

1

I
I

-8.40

t

1.M 1 -7.40
1.96 1 -7.36
0.52 1 -10.56
2 3 3 1 4.75

bulk
*

I
-0.85 ! 8.42

1

220

I

4.06

I

263
207
1.68
1.23

-10.19
-9.74
-11.08
-8.67

I

2 0 9 1 -3.90
i

-11

i

I

1

1.71

I

I

-1.33

an

I

I

1

t

I

i
I

l

1

l

2 4 3 1 8.79

!

1

I

244

l

1

1

!

-7.90 -15.64
2 4 6 1 -7.09
2 3 2 1 4-97

231 1

t

-9.22

-200

l

bulk

-17.35

I

I

-5.681 -15.80
0.02 t -14.93

-1.86 1 -8.39
-1.90

i
I

1

I
I
I

I
1

0.75

-

1

1
fi

Repeat analysis

t

i

I

1

I

1

I

I

1

I
I

1

bulk

I

!

1

i

(

I
I

1 -17.74
1 -21.25
l

buik

0.84 1 -17.28
0.80 i -18.02
1
i
I
-3.14 l -16.94
-1 .O9 l -18.67
1-51 1 -14.03
1.58 1 -13.39
-1.29 -15.38
4 . 3 3 -16.06
l
l
0.59 1 -17.00

1.53 1 -18.47
I

1
0.80 1 -19.30

!

!

; -19.34

I

1

0.45 1 -6.25
2 7 0 I -7.24
I

I

I

1
1
2 7 ! -7.92

t

.. -....

**.

..

i . 4. .

C f .

(eg.Taylor and Green, 1986) rnay have been altered by the overwhelming influx of surficial
water in the shear zone. Local massive replacement of preexisting country rocks by
metasomatic carbonates as inferred elsewhere (e-g., Baratov et al., 1984; Bohlke and Kistler,
1986; Lapin et al., 1987; Cameron, 1988; Groves et al 1988; Goldfarb et al., 1988) may have
resulted in the carbonate layers and nodules from the iow-grade assemblages of the Apuseni
Mountains.

Silicate Rocks. Oxygen isotope ratios of quartro-feldspathic schist and interiayered
igneous pods of the Paiiuseni assemblage are presented in Table 5-3.Traditionally, the lowgrade sequence is interpreted to represent a volcano-clastic sequence rnetarnorphosed under
lowgrade conditions. The analyzed samples frorn the HBSZ show considerably lower 6180
values than greenschist facies rnetasediments (Valley, 1986). SMOW 6180values of 7.1 8 for the
diorite and 10.03 for the granite samples (1 1 060 and 11 063, respectively) collected from the
Highis igneous complex are in the expected range for igneous rocks (Taylor and Sheppard,
1986). 6"O value of 6.32for the 'albite porphyroblast schistm(11 109) is lower than the 6180
value of the diorite (11 060) and indicates its direct derivation frorn an igneous protolith. 6 "O
values of 14.37 and 12-67for the rhyolite samples (11 107 and 11 100, respectively) and of
15.67 for the granite sarnple (11 090) from metric size pods within the schist matrix are
considerably higher and indicate enrichment by exchange with the metarnorphic fluid- There is a
clear overlap between the 6180values of some rhyolite pods (11 100 and 11 107) and the matrix
of the "metaconglomerate" (11 087) and "phyllite" samples (11 103 and Il104), respectively
(Tab. 5-3). These data indicate that the schist matrix and small igneous pods have locally
reached isotopic equilibrium with a pervasive metamorphic fiuid. An igneous protolith appears
obvious for at least some of the schists. The source of fiuid cannot be inferred in the absence of
6D values.
Temperature estimates

Mineral assemblages in the low-grade rocks indicate metarnorphic conditions below the
biotite isograd. Chloritoid, fine-grained biotite, and an isolated occurrence of kyanite along the
southern margin of the Paiuqeni assemblage show that at least parts of the shear zone
experienced higher metarnorphic conditions. However, no regular distribution of index minerais
can be mapped and the low- to very low-grade silicate rocks are not amenable to
thermobarometric analysis. The calcitedoIomite solvus thermometer (Anovitz and Essene,
1987) shows that temperatures in carbonate mixtures in lenses throughout the schistose matrix
(Fig. 5-7) are in agreement with general metamorphic conditions in surrounding quartzofeldspathic and mafic schists (Le.,below biotite stability)- However, peak temperatures retained
by some lenses (Fig. 5-10) are above the biotite isograd, suggesting that biotite in the
surrounding matrix was altered dun'ng subsequent shearing. Trapping temperatures of fluid

130

Table 53. Oxygen isotope composition of silicatwocks within the Paiuseni assemblage

SAMPLE
LOCATlON
MyfonitrcschIst

ROCK TYPE

MINERAL PHASES

11 087

Siria Hill

secandary qz-dasts sctiist Qz + Mu

11 098

PakseniValley

white silky schist

Qz + Mu +cchlor

11 103

PaiuseniValley

greenisch sitky schist

Qz + Mu +c-chlor

11 092

PaiuseniValley

massive qz-feldspathicrodc

II IO4

Paiweni Valley

gray silky sctiii

Ab+Mu+cchbr+Hm

11 O T I

Covasna Hill

Iayered silky schist

Qr+Mu+cdibr+Hm

1t 109

Leuaï Vallq

Abcfasa s c h i

Qz+Ab+ochlor+Mu

Masive Imeous rocks
11 063

Jemuva Vailey

granite

Qz+Ab+Mi+Mu

-14.424

14.03

10.03

11 090

Highis Valley-Caçoaia granite

Qr+Ab+Mi+Mu

4.783

10.77

15.67

.ne

11 1O0

Paiuseni Spnng

darlrqrey hyalite

Qz+Ab+Mi+Mu+c-chlor

-11

15.15

1267

11 107

Radesti Valley

wtiiteqrey rhydiie

Qr+Ab+Mu+cchlor+Cc+

-10.a00

12.34

14.37

11 060

Cladovita Valley

alkalidiorite

Qz+Ab+Mi+Ph+rng-Hb

-17,628

13.00

7.18

Theoretical yelds for the invalved minerais (-en

Qr

16.64

as C a :

Ch: 14.92

Ab: 15.25

Ph: 14.38: Ph&n~: 13.37; Ph&:1291

IV 14.37

Hb: 13.76

Ko: 17.43

Cc: 9.99

Hm: 9.34

Do: 10.84

Fig. S. isotopic composition and fields for formation waters, ocean waters. meteoric waters.
metamorphic waters, magrnatic waters, and cornmon sedirnentary rocks (after Sheppard, 1984).
Hatched - field of comrnon greenschist grade rnetasedirnents. Vertical lines - samples from the
Paiuseni assemblage. The Kaolinite weathering Iine frorn Savin and Epstein (1970).

1-1

JURSSIO10 Early Crstaceue lholelltio 1 cale-alksllns siillo

1

O.-

10

4

-?O

Lm

SAMPLE #
1

Fig. 5-10. Peak reequilibration temperatures recorded by carbonate
rocks in the Apuseni Mountains; size of carbonate lenses along the
belt of low-grade rocks is highly exagerated. Numbers ln white circles
on the map correspond Io sample numbers in the teble.

1

LOCATION
Agrisu Mare Valiey

I

LITHOLOGIC

CALCITE

ASSEMBLAGE
Palusenl (Hlghls-Biharla)

0.0234

382

0.0367

313
468
383

2

Hlghls Valley

Paluçenl (Hlghls-Blharla)

0.0236

4

Leuldl VaNey

Blharla (Hlghls-Blharla)

0.0374

471
288

5

Blslrlsoara Valley

Arada (Somes)

0,0130
0.0185

6

Baisoara Valley

Blharia (Highls-Blhada)

7

lara Valley

Bala de Aries

O
- .0078
- - .-

0.0iea

.

345

312

0.0073

0.0627

573

0.0147

282

sheared.inclusions in secondary quartz clasts range from 320 to 28S°C (Savu et al. On either side of the marker. retrograde gamet. the Someg assemblage. and an association of plagiogneiss. low-salinity mixtures (4-5 weight % NaCI) and we interpret them to be surficial water trapped late in the tectonic evolution. and amphibolite in the central and northem Gilau Mountains.and (or) biotite-bean'ng rocks occur in the greenschist-grade matrix of the Arada assemblage.andfor rnagnetite-biotite homfels that grades ouhvard into a diffuse zone of chlorite retrogression. the Highig-Biharia shear zone (HBSZ). Poiana and Bihana lithotectonic assemblages. Although sedimentary cover strata may have been incorporated into the Pgiugeni. 5. The bathofith is bounded by a discontinuous aureole of sheared sillirnanite. Temperature ranges from c. in the Gilau Mountains. At its margins. AI1 fluid inclusions are pseudo secondary. Arieqeni. Although discontinuous and with elusive boundaries. Along the Arieq Valley. overprinted a composite igneous crust of diorite to basalt and aplite intruded by granite to rhyolite. the greenschist-grade belt contains relics from the adjacent mediumgrade metamorphic rocks. and gave rise to the Pgiuqeni. and disrnembered granite bodies show that granitic intrusions were not confined to Highis-Bihafia crust before shearing but also invaded medium-gradecnist to the south. the apparently low-grade sequence also contains relics of medium-grade rocks. the presentiy exposed structural levels of the HBSZ consist essentially of highly strained igneous rocks. Fibrolite within sheared granodiorite in ttie Huzii Valley indicates a metamorphic peak at sillimanite grade. A chloritized gamet-beanng schist forms a belt a few hundred metres thick north of the graphitic marker.3 -2 Medium-grade rocks To the north. Poiana. 470°C to less than 300°C recorded within the same lens indicate graduai cooling and continued growth during shearing and progressive exhumation of the shear zone. We propose that a wide shear zone. The metamorphic rocks here are dominated by large lenses of marble and crystatline dolomite and can be separated as . a lithologic association of amphibolite.. and a distinctive muscovite-bearing granite-granodiorite cztn be separated as the Codm assemblage. 1967). a marker of graphitic mylonite can be followed nearly wntinuously for several tens of kilornetres. The carbonate lenses developed by metamorphic differentiation and grew by metasomatism. or Arieseni assemblages. stretched. Farther north.to secondary Wo-phase hydrous. records peak rnetamorphism at sillimanite grade and is intruded by the postkinematic No-mica and gamet-bearing Muntele Mare granite. mafic igneous rocks similar to those in the HBSZ axial zone. micaschist. Our preliminary data on fluid inclusions from quartz grains in carbonate lenses indicate wide ranges of homogenization temperatures of 275" to 135OC and 180' to 90°C. To the south. this assemblage n'ms the southem and eastem margins of the Bihor autochthon.

the Sohodol-Belioara assemblage. 1986).g.5 to 23. andesite. the 'Vidolm series" (Kautnef. Stable Isotope Data On Medium-Grade Rocks Several samples from the large. 1985). 5-10). 1960). Similady. Sample 1-1120 represents a carbonate lens from the southem terrane affected by the shear zone. the 'Mgdrigesti series* (Papiu. the Baia de Anes assemblage is interpreted to record two medium-grade metamorphic events and local retrogression to the chorite zone (Balintoni and lancu.7 for oxygen (Table 5-2) and plot in the field defined for metamorphosed fimestone under rnedim. The originally proposed prograde metamorphic zonation (e. Analytical data are grouped in a narrow range +1. 1976. P-T estimates for the Sornes and Baia de Arieg assemblages are based on the garnetbiotite thennometer and GASP barometer (first formulated by Thompson. Local names previously used for this Iithologic association are. and explosion breccia. The distribution of index minerals in the eastern part of the Someg assemblage was interpreted to be the result of two medium-grade metamorphic events overprinted by a chforite-zone aureole around the Muntele Mare granite-granodiorite batholith (Hartopanu and Hârtopanu. This is in gradational contact to the south and east with aluminosilicate-bearing rocks hosting abundant carbonate lenses. Geofhemobaromefry Metamorphic conditions for the rnediumqrade assemblages have been previously estimated based on petrographical observations and existing petrogenetic grids.5 to +2. and to have resulted by retrogression (Balintoni. 1987) for a marble sample from the Baia de Arieq assemblage (Fig. variably dolomite marble lenses of the Baia de Anes assemblage have been analysed for carbon and oxygen isotope ratios.. Dimitrescu et al. which is intruded by the two-mica and garnet-bearing Vinfa granite. 5-9). TSZ) associated with Paleogene granodiorite. was shown to be apparent. 1986). 1974). respectively) for gneiss samples and calcite-dolomite themorneter (Anovitz and Essene.. and to the east in the Trascaiu Mountains. to the west in the Drocea Mountains. 1976 and Ghent. 1980). Chernical analysis of minerals have been determined with a JEOL JXA-8900R electron microprobe at the University .7 for carbon and 19.and high-grade metamorphic conditions (Fig. the Baia de Aneg assemblage. in 13Cbut only 1-2 'lm in ' 'O in respect with the rnahles from the unretrogressed domain of the southem gneissic terrane. In the Trascau Mountains. the Baia de Arieg carbonate lense-gneissic assemblage is ovedain by Tithonian-Oxfordian carbonate cover strata and is retrograded and brecciated along a nom-striking sinistral shear zone (the Trascau shear zone. Alurnosilicate minerals have been reported from al1 medium-grade assemblages but their distribution is random. It is depleted 4O/. At the conffuence of the Aries and lara rivers. arnphibolite lenses commonly show syrnplectitic rims (mainly epidote-quartz) around gamet that rnay record earlier eclogitic facies conditions for at least parts of the Baia de Aries assemblage.

ms.- 450 650 650 750 TG) average grt. ms.. . average ms. contact bt grt 2 rim. matrix bt 1: Phl + Alm = Ann + Prp 2:2SiI+bQk+Grs=3An 3:Ms+Grs+Alm=Ann+3An 4:Prp+Ms+Grs=3An+Phl 5:Alrn+Ms=ZSil+bQtz+Ann 6: Ph1 + bQtz + 2 SU= Prp + Ms Fig. lara Valley. 5-11.bt. pl Reactions: '-.pl. average ms. matrix bt grt 3 rim. average ms.450 550 650 750 TC) average grt. Pressure-temperature estimates for the eastern part of the Baia de Aries assemblage. matrix bt grî 2 dm. contact bt grt 3 rim. pl. cantact bt TIC) T(C) grt 2 dm. pl. average ms. pl. pl. .average ms. pl.

.

-.g m l 4 con ivefago Moute . 5-13.. ' . ' Reaction. Temperature estimates for the easternmost exposures of the Somes (a) and Baia de Aries (b) assemblages using the garnet-biotite exchange thermometer. ..g m e l 2 mi i ~ n g bioae a Q4mrt2 mi e o n M bbüw Ounet 1 rlm g m \ 1 con gumt 1 rhi -. . Phl + Alm = Ann + Prp Fig.

Microphotographs of probed gamet gains . 5-14.Fig.

although more data are needed (e. In the central part of the Baia de Aries assemblage.. 600650°C.to mid-cnistal conditions. uncertainties in the microprobe analysis likely contributed less than 10 % to the total PT uncertainty (Kohn and Spear. 550 to c. 5-14) constrain temperatures to less than c. 1998) and was uplifted above the c. The lithologic units defined here have no stratigraphie connotation. 261 Ma. The Baia de Arieq assemblage was intruded by the spessartin-bearing Vinfa granitoid during the Perrnian (c.8 kb and 610°C which roughly corresponds to the center of the triangle error defined in a nearby gneiss (gamet 3 . 650aC. 1991). 5-12 and 5-1 3. P-Tcalculations for the gneiss samples have been perfomed using the intemalfy consistent themodynamic data base incorporated in the computer software TWQ 2. A sample from a large rnarble layer hosted by the anafyzed gneiss retained a peak temperature of 573°C (Fig. PT estimates using gamet w r e and rim data (sample 7500. In the eastem part of the Baia de Arieq assemblage ("Vidolm islandn)a staurolite.sample 7345. Temperatures recorded by the hivo-mica gamet-bearing gneiss exposed in the eastern part of the Sornes assemblage (samples 688) range frorn c.of Alberta.and andalusite (?)-bearing plagiogneiss (sample 8033. 1996). The eastem part of the Baia de Arieq assemblage ("Vidolm islandn)was uplifted above the 500°C isotherm during the MiddleJLate Jurassic (Dallrneyer et al. Tentative interpretations follow. 5-1 1) yielded a very good intersection at 3. 1998).g. 5-1 1. Pana et al. Fig. but the PT values are pooriy constrained. Temperature estimates using gamet rim and contact biotite range between 550 and 750°C but the preservation of zoning in gamets (Fig. Fig.. 1998). 5-12) suggest an evolution from approxirnately 3 kbI675"C to 5kbI575OC on a counterclockwise PTt loop. We interpret the medium-grade assemblages and the igneous rocks to represent pre-Alpine cmst. 5-11) by a population of small gamets. The relevant reactions and the estimated PT conditions are presented in Figs. Fig. PT estirnates of 6-7 kb on an adjacent mylonitic gneiss with very fine grained biotite gamet and kyanite (7369. Fig. on chernical equilibrium between rnatrix biotite and gamet wre).02 (Berman... Data on a distinct population of larger broken gamets (gamet 2 .. 5-10).sample 7345) suggest higher pressures. and the Iowgrade metamorphic rocks to represent wide Alpine retrogressive shear zones overprinting this crust . 400°C isotherm during the Eariy Cretaceous (Dallmeyer et al.This region was uplifted above the c. 5 4 1) and symplectitic coronas on gamet in nearby amphibolite lenses suggest a complex PTt path for the Baia de Arieq assemblage that included isothermal decompression from deep. 400°C isotherm during the Eariy Cretaceous (Dallmeyer et al. 1998).

... In the Codm assemblage. A zircon U-Pb crystallization age of c. However.5. infiltration after metamorphisrn cannot be niled out). 186 Ma. 315 to c. 1975).. An 4Arf9Ar plateau age of c. an U-Pb zircon age of c. 1998). 5-1). . U-Pb ages of the igneous protolith Vary from c. In the Highis-Biharia shear zone. 1996). The non. and Austrian ages (c. Pavelescu et al. 267 Ma in the Highig Mountains to c. The southern medium-grade Baia de Arieq assemblage yielded a Jurassic plateau age (156 Ma) near Surduc. because the c.suggesting Early Tertiary tectonism and surficial-water enhanced melting. 1969. 119 to 111 Ma) closer to the HBSZ. 191 Ma for muscovite from the same granite suggests Early p ~ indicate r Jurassic upliff and erosion.and low-grade rocks indicate a range of Variscan to Alpine ages (Somiu et al. a ~ ~spectra Alpine disturbance of the Variscan ages. but these rnay have no geologic significance because the dates are randomly distnbuted throughout the lithologic assemblages and recently obtained *Arr9Ar spectra indicate strong disturbance (Dallrneyer et al. Tectonothermal evolution is directly constrained by 'OAr/39~r results (Dallmeyer et al.or only slightly retrograded rnedium-grade Somes assemblage records late Variscan ages (c. The re-equilibratedgreenschist rocks of the HBSZ record Austnan tectonism (plateau ages of c.260 Ma Vinfa granitoid and the c. In the retrogradedArada assemblage. and the relic-bearing rock types have yielded disturbed spectra with various Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages.4. 372 Ma was obtained from a granodiorite and the amphibolites record Earfy Variscan ages (405 to 335 Ma). 114 to 110 Ma). 1996) and by U-Pb zircon data from granites in several of the lithologic assemblages outlined above (Fig. 390 Ma Mgdrigesti granite intnrde the Baia de Arieg assemblage we infer that the mediumgrade fabn'c in the Baia de Aries assemblage is pre-Van'scan and that the Middle Cretaceous dates record uplitt and cooling. 500 Ma in the Biharia Mountains (Pan5 et al.and medium.. 5-15). 1998). 295 Ma was obtained for the Muntele Mare granite that intnides the Somes assemblage (Panai et al. Early K-Ar data for both medium. or Austrian plateau ages.. The retrograded Sohodol assemblage yielded three plateau ages: c.to high-grade metamorphie rocks (see Tab.. their relation to the host rock is unclear and their significance is therefore uncertain (e-g. 169 Ma and 124 Ma and a disturbed Variscan spectrum. The retrogressive Trascau shear zone i s the locus of Paleogene intrusions ("Banatiten). 300 Ma). PROTOLlTH AGES AND TIMING OF TECTONISM Fossil microfora have been reported from both low.

.A G E DATA (Ma) U-Pb %% -O~CfoNic ASSEMBLAGES TO%NW PROrOUTH 1 Trascau asçembfge . COMPOSITE HIGHISBIHARIA * ' IGNEOUS CRUST ..- - .. 1998. \ \ ' .GRANITIC CRUST \ \ '\ MingeGmi&& \ assemblage + " \ ' \ " \ " ' \ ' \ \ " \ Somes + ' \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ' : " \ \ \ \ \ \ \ . \ \ \ \ . *Ar/?Ar data from Dallmeyer et al. ( ls&lli Baia de Anés 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 BAIA DE ARlES assemblage p P 186124 145 1 assemblage 1 Paiuseni 299-1 00 123-101 = 317303 + + Aradaass8mblage 253 : :. \ ' \ . Pmposed informal classification of the metamorphic-magmatic basement rocks in the Apuseni Mountains. U-Pb zircon dates indicate the approximate emplacement age of the granitoid plutons. - Figure 5-15. \ \ \ \ . . * + .\ \ SOMES GNEISS . + + + + -+--* . \ .-. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ .. ...

Centimetn'c to decarnetric mullions and mineral stretching lineations are strike-parallef along the lara and Aries rivers and gradually change to oblique or dip-parallel in the Bihana and Highis mountains.carbonate +/. from the core outward to the highly sheared matrix. and strain shadows show a dominant component of non coaxial strain (Fig.magnetite +/.5. REGIONAL ORIENTATION DATA AND EWDENCE OF STRAIN PARTïilONlNG ALONG THE BEL1 OF LOW-GRADE ROCKS A cornplex pattern of strain distribution is recorded by both planar (Fig. Calcite. feldspar. 5-1 8). grain size. There is no structural discordance between successions previously assigned to different nappes. phyllosilicate. Arieqeni. Isoclinal minor fofds are mostly subparallel to mullions. Shear-sense indicators including S-C fabric. quartz. rock bodies of contrasting Iithology are tabular or Iinear. Within the same low. Equilibrium textures are characterized by compositional layering and a simple rnineralogy of albite + quartz + sericite + chlorite +/. Microstructures indicate a change in fiow pattern from dominantiy continuous. rotated rernnants of fractured rninerals. 5-17) structural elements in the greenschist belts. shear bands. 5-16) and Iinear (Fig. Microscopie Fabri'cs. and mesoscopic fold axes are slightly discordant to subparallel with . On the basis of detailed sampling of massive pods. quartz-feldspar. steady-sbte defornation at high temperature to more localized discontinuous deformation at lower temperature.or very low grade of metamorphism. Around the Bihor autochthon. This flow partitioning alIowed the preservation of eartier-forrned microstructures at a range of stages of development Higher-temperature microstnictures are common at the periphery of the HBSZ in fine-grained amphibolite denved from diorite along the northern boundary of the Codru assemblage and in fine-grained biotite-bearing mylonitic orthogneiss along the southem boundary of the Sohodol and Belioara assemblages. and Biharia assemblages o f the HBSZ were derived from igneous textures by shearing and hydration. and interna1 structure. amphibole.5. sericite andlor chlorite. al1 protoliths of the HBSZ are of igneous origin. a range of stages of transformation can be seen for each protolith. As seen in road cut exposures at least several hundred square metres in area. and pyroxene set in a matrix of sub-granulated quark. Differences exist only in the relative propohon of particular minerals.epidote. low-grade rocks display a later set of normal-slip striations. Stretching lineations and mullions are parallel. and quark-feldspar-phyllosilicate lithons can be recognized in a continuum of microstnickires stretched in the foliation plane. Most rock types along the greenschist belt show non-equilibriurn textures with strained aggregates and clasts of quark. Tectonic fabric elements Vary in orientation along the HBSZ but show identiccil orientation across lithotectonic assemblages within a segment. Outcmp-Scale Structures. We consider that metamorphic textures within the Pauseni.

5-16. . Pianar structures along the belt of low-grade rocks in the Apuseni Mountains: lines from each stereogram define the domain boundaries of data displayed. contour lines are for poles to metamorphic foliation.Fig. numbers and brocken lines in each stereogram are calculated eigenvectors and the corresponding principal planes.

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The southern. suggesting a 'deck-of-cards" style of deformation within the thrust sheet. In the northem Highis Mountains. most foliations are steeply south-dipping and most lineations gradually change to an ENE trend. 5-1 8). Within the adjacent Sorneq assemblage. 5-20). which likely caused the observed northward tilting of some foliation and lineation. and Arieqeni assemblages indicate oblique to dip-slip displacement. in the lara Valley. To the north. strong E-W along-strike stretching lineation is developed. The independent maxima in the centre of the stereograms indicate late vertical displacement on young E-W faults. suggesting a similar defomation history. Biharia. Distinct tectonic regimes are apparent frorn a gradational change of strain axes between domains of uniforni orientation and a change of tectonic regime in time is obvious in some dornains.the stretching structures. 5-19). Poiana. The NW-SE trending faults in the eastern Highis Mountains are Iikely related to the development of the adjacent Neogene Brad-Gurahonf Basin (Fig. stretching lineation) and brittie (slickenside striae and striated dip-paraIlel cleavage) linear fabrics. The stnicturally overiying igneous complex to the south shows similar albeit more scattered orientations with a greater proportion of subvertical N S fault planes. similarly-orîented rnullions in plagiogneiss and stretching . Striated dip-parallet vertical fractures are cornrnonly invaded by Tertiary rhyolite dykes. which is at variance with the proposal of an early metamorphic record by Balintoni (1986). Timing remains ambiguous. 5-1 8) related to the upliff and erosion of the Muntele Mare granite in the core of the Bihor autochthon. foliation gradually changes to southeast-dippingand stretching lineations form a girdle as the belt wraps around the eastem boundary of the Bihor autochthon. dispersed maximum defined by normal dip-slip slickenside striations on southdipping foliation planes mainly in the retrograde Arada and Codm assemblages suggests normal-sense detachment (Fig. andlor post-thnist isostatic reequilibrationaccommodated by normal slip on the original thnist-related foliation (Fig. upper part of the Paiuseni assemblage shows foliation and stretching orientations similar to the northem one and a secondary. Shear-sense criteria in thin section indicate mainly nomal dip-slip. along the Aries Valley. poorly preserved E-W stretching fabric. No structural evidence of an older event is apparent. At several locations. suggesting that thrust-related anisotropy was a control during subsequent extension. Farther east. the average orientations of foliation and stretching Iineation within the P3iugeni. suggesting incornplete realignrnent of early structures along tectonic flow lines dunng later strain. In the Biharia Mountains. Shear-sense indicators in outcrop and thin section are compatible with thrusting to the NW and subsequent inversion (Fig. a second-order. the stnicturally lowest Paiuseni assemblage is thrust over Pemian and Triassic strata of the Codru assemblage and displays subhorizontal shear planes and mainly SE plunging ductile (rnullions.

Highiq Creek. foliation 180/45. foliation 160135. b) Domino structures show dextral slip on shear planes affecting previous foliation within sheared granite of the Pgiugeni assemblage. foliation 240135.6 mm).Fig. stretching lineation 190120. stretching lineation 125/15. Data indicate post-thmst extension to the south (crossed polars.6 mm) d) S. f) Sinistral sense of shear from asyrnetric "6" feldspar porphyroclast within sheared granite of the retrogressed Sornes assemblage.6 mm). southem Gilgu Mountains. structure in albite shows dextral sense of slip in sheared grztnodiorite of the Codru assemblage. Highiq Mountain. Data indicate local thrusting to the north aiong the southem margin of the Bihor "authochthonn. (crossed polars. foliation 182167. scale bar = 2-4 mm). scale bar = 0. Data indicate extension under greenschist facies conditions within the Codm assemblage (crossed polars. Data indicate normal-slip detachment to the southeast (crossed polars. . lertii Creek.6 mm). e) 6 structure of gamet shows dextra! slip in slightly retrogressed gneiss of Somes assemblage. on a nght tributary of Ar3neag creek. Bistra Creek. southem Biharia Mountains. stretching lineation 130127. southern GilCiu Mountains. 5-18. Paiuseni assemblage. Microscopic shear-sense indicators: a) Pressure-solution enhanced o structure showing sinistral sense of shear within highly sheared. scale bar = 0. c) Tail of rotated quartzxlast in urnetaconglorneratenindicates dextral shear. stretching lineation 190130. stretching lineation 170165. Highis Mountains.24 mm). upstream of the Muntele Baisorii village. foliation 200145. serpentinized gabbro/diorite of the Pgugeni assemblage. Neagu Creek. foliation 160125. s a l e bar = 0. Banesti Creek. scale bar = 0. lineation 50120. scale bar = 0. Data indicate oblique thrust to NW (crossed polars. Data indicate northeastward extension along the eastern margin of the Bihor autochthon (parallel polars.

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central tiighiq Mountains. subhorizontal thnist related shear planes (S. stretching lineation in al1 shear planes is subhorizontal.=160/5) with subsequent widefy spaced. . L.=I 1O/%. Gubului Creek.=80/18. b=140/50). Psiuseni assemblage. Fig 5-19. b) Sheared microgranite. on'ented perpendicular to the outcrop: L = 140fS. Cornului Creek. steeper normal-slip shear planes (S. eastern Highis Mountains. PSiiuqeni assemblage.. Outcrop scale kinematic indicaton: a) Prismatic "cleavage mullionsm(-2517)at the intersection of closely spaced.

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road cut along the Ariesut Mare River. foliation 160110. stretching lineation ?30/7. Data indicate initial top to the NW thrusting within the Biharia assemblage. 1km upstream from its confiuence with the Ariesul Mic River. . 5-19 (continued). Biharia Mountains.Fig. b) DetaiI of the same outcrop: dupiex-type structure in sheared granite. Outcrop scale kinematic indicators: a) Mylonitic layering developed within granite of the Siharia assemblage. c) Oetail of the same outcrop: granitic pods witbin the mylonitic layenng.

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5. Middle Jurassic tholeiitic rocks crop out over a limited area in the westernmost . Ladinian to Eariy Norian sedimentation took place on subsiding carbonate platforrns. sedimentation records existing topographic contrast a carbonate platform developed in the north and a rapidly subsiding trough in the south. However. 1976). and intense biochernical activity probably wntrolled by upweliing currents in the Pliensbachian to Oxfordian.5-18) and eastem boundaries of the Bihor autochthon. In one locality east of Beius.. a local thrust is stratigraphically constrained as intraTuronian in age. A red-bed sequence with interbedded basalt flows and ignimbrite is assumed to be Perrnian in age. TECTON1C EVOLUTION OF THE NORTHERN APUSENI SEDIMENTARY BASlN Permian and Mesozoic cover strata record the isostatic and tectonic evolution of the Variscan Someg and Codru medium-grade assemblages in the western part of the Apuseni Mountains. This was followed by mainly clastic continental sedimentation in the Hettangian. with basinal accumulation. 5. there is no evidence for the existence of large. Nappe correlation across the Neogene Beius Basin into the Codru Mountains is contradicted by facies correlations of the Mesozoic sequences (Bleahu et al. 1981). 5-18). shallow and slightly subsident shelf conditions in the Sinemurian.The distribution of rock units suggests a long-lived strain zone between the Gilau-Bihor and Codm rnountains which evolved as an arm of the Tithonian-Neocornian Mures Basin (Fig.Subsequent compression resulted in high strain in clastic sequences and northwestward thnisting.lineations in the gneissose tail of the Muntele Mare granite suggest formation by clockwise rotation of the Bihor autochthon followed by extension (Fig. 5-20). Characterized by a suite of tholeiitic to cale-alkaIine rocks extnided within a cornplex sedimentary environment.6. coherent. TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE SOUTHERN APUSENI SEDIMENTARY BASlN A tectonically active Middle Jurassic to Cretaceous basin overlying the gneiss-carbonate assemblage is presently exposed in the southem Apuseni Mountains and in the South Carpathians. a thrust fault cannot be rnapped unequivocally. The similarity of Perrnian to Jurassic extensional structures and of mafic rocks in adjacent carbonate-dominated successions currently assigned to separate nappes suggest to us oniy modest relative displacement. Beginning in the Tithonian. and fartravelled thrust sheets. with flysch of Tithonian-Berriasian age (Patnilius. phosphate and glauconite deposition in the Pliensbachian to Aalenian. consistent with kinematic indicators in the tectonically overiying rnetarnorphic assemblages of the Biharia Mountains. The mediumgrade basement exposed in the Codru Mountains is sirnilar to the Somes assemblage of the Bihor autochthon (Fig. Although thrust-sense shear indicators occur locally along the southem (Fig. Timing of thnisting is uncertain.7. its remnants are known as the "Mures Basin". 5-20).

"Mates Formationn(Upper Aptian to Albian). co-ma = Coniacian to Maastnchtian.-cm = Late Albian to Cenomanian. B Bihana Mountains. G . R .Plopis Mountains. 5 the "Ciuruleasa Formation" (Barremian to Aptian). M -Mezeq Mountains.the "Bejani Formation" (Barrernian to Aptian). ai.part of the Râmefi Formation (Vraconian to Maastrichtian).Figure 5-20. capital letters indicate the age of the platformal deposits: J. = Upper Jurassic Iimestone. ap-al = Aptian to Albian. st-ma = Santonian to Maastrichtian. br-ap= Barrernian to Aptian. 4 . interpreted here as shallow stmctural levels of major shear zones: 1.Poiana Rus& Mountains. srnaIl letterç indicate the age of fiysch and molasse deposits: th-ne = Thitonic to Neocornian.Drocea Mountains. ma = Maastrichtian.T . 2.southern part of the Suhani formation (Upper Aptian to Albian). 6 the "Valea Morgasului Formation" (Aptian to Albian). large letters refer to mountain segments rnentioned in the text H . cm. tu-ma = Turonian to Maastn'chtian. P . C Codni Mountains. 8 . D .Highig Mountains.part of the Grosi Formation (Barrernian-Aptianto Paleogene (?). Tectonic sketch of the Apuseni Mountains. - - - - . White numbers in black circles refer to the "wildfIysch" sequences.Trascilu Mountains.parts of the Ponor formation (Albian).-ma = Late Cenomanian to Maastrichtian. 3 .Gilau Mountains. 7 .

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They are intnided by granite stocks (e.8. the Mures Basin is cut by NW-trending dextral transtensional faults plugged by the Miocene to Pliocene Brad-Gurahonf andesite belt. REGIONAL CORRELATIONS The Perrnian-Mesozoic cover of the Somes and Codru assemblages of the Apuseni Mountains is lithologically similar to rocks in the Villany and Mecsek hills of southern Hungary (Patrulius. 1980. by Campanian wildflysch along the southem bank of the Aries Valley.part of the Mures Basin (Savu. Post-Middle Cretaceous tectonic relaxation is recorded by Cenomanian molasse (Fig. 5-20). Its continuity along the northern boundary of the Mures igneous arc (Fig. 5-20) is inconsistent with a nappe interpretation. 1979) of the HBSZ can be traced across some of the "nappesnpostulated in the southem Apuseni Mountains (SZindulescu. The retrogressive Trascilu shear zone projects into the northeastem extremity of the f ysch basin. West of Zlatna. Bordea et al. at Savâqin and Cerbia) and grade eastward into calc-alkaline rocks. A wide belt of slices and tectonic enclaves of the underfying carbonate and igneous rocks in a highly sheared flysch matn'x can be followed along the northem boundary of the Mures igneous arc. 1976). and on rocks of the Mures igneous suite (Fig. We suggest that the flysch basins that bound the Mures igneous arc record Middle Jurassic to Earfy Cretaceous tangential stretching of the Capathian crust and that wildflysch assemblages are Iinear domains of high strain accumulation that accommodated Middle Cretaceous compression through folding and local thrusting. 5. 1996) (Fig. the Baia de Aries assemblage (e-g. 1994). in the Trascau Mountains). and by sandstone flysch of the Bozes Formation (Santonian to Maastrichtian) in the southeast. An Oxfordian to Bemasian carbonate platforni was established both on the southem Apuseni continental cnist. 5-20).. 1975. Stretching along the poorly defined northem contact of the Mures igneous suite and the Apuseni continental fragment was accompanied by the deposition of Tithonian to AIbian flysch- like sequences interiayered with mafic detritus and intruded by calc-alkaline dykes and sills.g.. Nicolae. the Maastrichtiancover (Bordea. transversely oriented to the postulated subduction zone in the southem Apuseni. Tertiary reactivation of the Trascau shear zone is recorded by a discontinuous belt of Paleogene dioritic to andesitic rocks and by folding of Maastrichtian strata. Segments of these cnistal strain zones were reacüvated during subsequent tectonism. 5-20) previously assigned to different nappes. 5-20). Drillcore data indicate the presence of Pemian-Mesozoic strata beneath the .. The southern side of the Mures magmatic arc is afso bounded by an Early Cretaceous flysch sequence and a wildfysch belt that projects into the Tisa shear zone (Dinid et al. Late Cretaceous strain is recorded in the northeastem part of the basin by wildfiysch horizons in the Cenomanian-Senonian Râmefi Formation in the Trasdu Mountains. Constantinescu. 1984). It correlates with the wildflysch formations (horizons) of the Tithonic to Albian flysch (see Fig. Moreover.

and the Psunj-Kutjevo complex. An association similar to the Codru assemblage can be recognized in drill core from the Kdros-Berettyo and Szank areas and in outcrops in the Mecsek. 1986). The metamorphic sequences of the Apuseni Mountains are also recognizable beneath the Pannonian Basin and in the Slavonian Mountains. 1986. 1986. 1986). 1986). 1985) is similar to the record in the Somes assemblage (Hadopanu and Hârtopanu. 5-21). with the Baia de Aries assemblage. the Ravna Gora sequence. Intense sodium andlor carbonate metasomatism associated with shearing and retrograding resulted in Iocally complete pseudomorphingof mica and feldspar by carbonate (Nusszer. On the . 1975)(Fig. 1986. 1989). Along the Sava shear zone. 1981 fide Parnie. and SW. sorne variability is seen along strike.stn'king "metamorphic regional unitsn have been recognized in several hundred drill-core samples from the southem Pannonian basement (Szili-Gyémant. northem Papuk and Moslavacka Gora mountains (Szili-Gyémant. In the central Slavonian Mountains a belt of Iow-grade rocks similar those described in the HBSZ separate two mediumgrade "complexesn. 5-21) and farther west in the central Slavonian Mountains. 1981. between the Slavonian and Apuseni mountains. 1986).. 1986. 1986. 1986. Correlative Triassic cover of Eastern AlpsCarpathian affinity has been recognized to the southwest in the Slavonian Mountains (Siki~. Pamic. B a k s et al. 1986) of the Pannonian basernent (Fig. Grow et al. Nusszer.. with the proposal of a central Hungarian autochthon and a south Hungarian nappe system (Dimitrescu. and of mappable bands of graphite. The pre-Alpine polymetamorphic evolution proposed for the basement of the southem Pannonian Basin (Arkai et al. and the Psunj-Kutjevo complex (Parnie. 1982. Szederkenyi. 1986. North of the HBSZ.or chloritoidblastomylonite and gneissic or phyllonitized granite across the Psunj-Kutjevo complex (Pamic. 1986).south Pannonian Basin (Berczi-Makk. 1986). 1993). 1986) represents the westemmost exposure of the Baia de Arieq assemblage. As in the Apuseni Mountains. Facies sirnilarities and basementlcover thrust relations recognized in drill holes at two localities led to the application of the nappe mode1to the southeastern part of the Pannonian basement. shearing and retrogression of medium/high grade rocks resulted in the development of a phyllonitic belt across the PapukJenkovac cornplex. to the north. the Prosara-Motajica complex (ParniC.. Low-grade metamorphic rocks and associated granitic bodies similar to the HighigBihana lithotectonic assemblages occur in drill cores from the Vojvodine region of Serbia (Kamenci and Canovic. Nusszer. The Papuk-Jankovak complex correlates with the Codru assemblage in the Apuseni Mountains. The retrograde overprint diminishes northward.the Papuk-Jankovak complex. Cserepes-Meszéna. Cserepes-Meszena. drill holes have intersected a wide zone of retrogressed rnediumlhigh grade cnist. 1993).These match rock types in the westemmost outcrops of the Apuseni Mountains. The northemmost outcrop of the Bihor assemblage in the Plopiq Mountains correlates with the "~lmosdUnit' (SziliGyérnant.

arnphibolite-lense dominated assemblage. V . 12 .Codm assemblage.Sava fault zone. K-B . A . BA Baia de Anes. 1 exposed metamorphic/igneous basement of the Carpathian-Pannonian area. D DSmuc. Bmcc Banat systern of rnetarnorphic core complexes (eg. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 5 . to the Mecsek and Slavonian mountains.Vojevodina. Ps .Prosara-Motajica.Figure 5-21. 6 .mylonitic zones in the unexposed basernent of the southern Pannonian basement. 7 .Bükk Hills. Mo . S Slavonian Mountains.Plopis Mountains. P . 13 .Pleistocene alkaline igneous rocks (rnostly basalts). M . C .Neogene igneous rocks. 10 . Z Zemplin Hills. DVFZ Dragos Voda sinistral fault zone.Moslavacka Gora.. 4 -migmatite. Proposed correlation of the metamorphic assemblages h m the Apuseni Mountains along the unexposed basement of the southem Pannonian Basin. 3 -carbonate -lense dominated assemblage. 8 . TDR . Pi Pieniny. 9 diffuse chlorite zone retrogression.Pieniny-Dltrnuc belt of arc parallel shear at the transpressional contact between the inner and outer Carpathian units. P-Mj. Ra Ravna Gora. Rmcc Rodna metamorphic core complex.Peqani Mountains. Vo . Godeanu. B .Transdanudian Range. PoQiIede Fier.major faults related to its Tertiary 90-100"clockwise rotation.flysch sequences.Karas-Berettyo.~lmosd: Hi-Bi Highis-Biharïa upper crustal igneous complex. Bahna). 11 Eariy AIpine boundary of the "Tisiancrustal fragment.Villany Hills. SFZ . S . 2 . P-K Psunj-Kutjevo.Somes. K Kecsernét Sz Szank.Mecsek Hills. STFZ South Transylvanian dextral fault zone. P-J Papuk-Jankovak.granite-phyllonite assemblage.

1 . 5-21.1 Fig.

. The igneous petrachemistry and sedimentologic characteristics of the western part of the Mures Basin have also been interpreted as those of a marginal basin developed on continental CI US^ . Early attempts to integrate the Apuseni Mountains into Alpine plate tectonics (e-g. orogen-parallel shear zones. 1989) and for the rnetamorphic assemblages (Pan%and Erdmer. the Apuseni Mountains. In both regions. The Sava FauIt Zone defines the southwestern boundary with the South Afpine-Dinaric facies zones (Pami6. To the east. 1981). 1994). Bleahu. which casts doubt on a nappe interpretation.basis of the parallelisrn of rnylonite zones in drill holes and the Szolnok transcurrent fault zone (Fig. and Slavonian Mountains belong on the European margin as the south(west)emrnostexpression of the Carpathian cmst Facies correlations and similarities of the Apuseni-south Pannonian continental fragment with the present East. 1973. 1995) (Fig. MiSic et al. dual canverging arcs (Savu. the Middle Jurassic to Eariy Cretaceous Mures transcurrent shear zone separated the Apuseni from the Carpathian crust Beyond the present exposure of the Mures basin. In addition. S2indulescu. 1983). 1989). PROPOSED GEODYNAMIC MODEL In a paleotectonic reconstruction of Eariy AIpine evolution. 1973. or changing subduction polarity (Siindulescu. 1984) were proposed to accommodate the juxtaposition of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline rocks. and the enigrnatic "rnid-Hungarian line" to the northwest separates the Apuseni-south Pannonian facies zones (Tisia) from the ailochthonous Pelso unit (Haas et al.. 1994). 1976) inferred the Mures Basin to represent the main branch of the Tethys Ocean. Radulescu and Salndulescu. The vergence and style of deformation in the Apuseni Mountains preclude structural correlation with the thrust sheets interpreted in the West Carpathians. 5-21). In contrast. 5-21). 1984. significant facies differences between the Perrnian to Mesozoic sequences of the Apuseni Mountains and the West Carpathians exist (Patrulius. the graniteiorthogneissdominated Tatra (Jaraba) assemblage of the West Carpathians (Kamenicky and Kamenicky. its trajectory is difficujt to infer but there is no unequivocal evidence for the proposed continuation of a Tnassic branch of Tethys from Vardar along the Mures Basin into the Pieninny Basin(s) (e-g. 5-21). Models of a single arc (Cioflica and Nicolae. Villany Hills.to high-grade assemblages are cut by retrogressive.and South Carpathians fragments have been noted both for the Paleozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary cover (MiSik et al. 5. we infer a genetic relationship.. Bleahu et al. suggesting a cornmon Alpine evolution. 1986. These major long-lived transcurrent discontinuities may have obliterated the vestiges of the Vardar-BUkk-Meliata branch of the Triassic Tethys Ocean.9. medium. 1988) is similar to the Pietrosu-Hiighimas-Bretila granitelorthogneiss assemblage of the East Carpathians and occupies the same tectonic position as the first basement unit in transpressional contact with the Carpathian outer flysch (Fig. 1993). 1976.

Remnants of the Tethys Ocean were postulated to be obscured by Tertiary cover of the Transylvanian Basin (e. The presence of tholeiite records a specific rate and amount of cnrstal stretching in a particular region and does not require the existence of a major ocean. Tholeiites crop out only in the westemmost part of the Mures tectonic zone. 55 Ma. > 1380°C..g. Following a model of progressive extension of continental lithosphere (at P > 2 and T. 1994). East. Sgndulescu. age. 1995). An inherited population of zircon in the Savdqin granite that intruded the tholeiitic suit yielded a U-Pb age of c. 1981. and boundaries of the proposed nappes varied between authors (e-g. McKenzie and Bickle.(Lupu et al. During early extension. The Callovian-Kimmeridgian age of mafic igneous activity in the Mures . 1984. as well as in the Codru Mountains and Poiana Botizei klippen. 1998) and Cerbia granites within the tholeiitic cornplex. 1993) but core samples from the Transylvanian basernent are gneiss or calc-alkaline igneous rocks (1. and highly strained crust was intruded by mantle magma dissipating heat over a large depth range. We propose that general crustal extension of the European margin is recorded by igneous activity (comrnoniy alkali basait) in Pemian to Triassic platformal sequences in the West. Nicolae.. Balintoni. 1994. In this model (cf. The present spatial distribution of rock assemblages and their temporal relationships are incompatiblewith ocean opening and subduction. composition. Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous tangential stretching of the European continental margin resulted in a network of anastomosing crustal-scafe faults and local adiabatic upwelling of material from a mantle of constant potential temperature. 155 Ma which corresponds to the Callovian age of the oldest sediments interlayered with the tholeiitic rocks (Lupu et al. 1974) and KfAr ages of 168-143 Ma have been obtained (Nicolae et al. and mid-ocean ridge magmatism is not required.. Westward subduction beneath the Apuseni crustal fragment was considered to have resulted in subduction magmatism and the ttinrsting of a large nurnber of antithetic nappes but the number. McKenzie and Bickle. a hot rising sheet is not required to induce crustal spreading. Strongly Iayered crust below the brittle-ductile transition provided favourable conditions for sill intrusion. 1993).. Ianovici et al. where Rb/% dates of 180-140 Ma were estimated (Hertz et al. Bleahu et al.. we interpret that a gradua1 increase in the amount of melting was accompanied by a change in rnelt composition: the initial alkali basalts were replaced during the Middle to Late Jurassic by tholeiitic to calc-alkaline rocks.. and South Carpathians. cold. Sgndulescu. Intracrustal mixing and hybridization resulted in the emplacement of the Tithonian to Albian calc-alkaline suite in the adjacent subsiding flysch basins and in the Eocene emplacement of the S%vaqin(c. R&dulescuet al. 1995). mature. Pana et al. personal communication. 1976. 1992). 1988). 1988).. A releasing bend of a transcrustal strike-slip shear zone overprinting the gneiss-carbonate assemblage in Carpathian crust allowed the emplacement of most igneous rocks of the Mures Basin in the Kimmeridgian..

1990). et al.. Kinematic indicators in the Bucovinian and Getic cnist record Late Paleozoic to Alpine orogenparallel stretching (Pana and Erdrner. 5-20) suggests a clockwise rotation of the northern structural units during compression behrveen the Apuseni and the Carpathian/Moesian promontory.. Continued cnistal thinning and rifting led to the development of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous elongate flysch basins separating the Apuseni-south Pannonian (Tisia) and East (Bucovina) and South (Getia) Carpathians crustal fragments frorn the European continent. 1990. The overiapping Cenomanian molasse record post-Austrian tectonic relaxation and flysch. Campanian wildflysch exposed in the Aries Valley along the EW segment of the HBSZ indicate a long-lived zone of crustal weakness. Marton and Mauritsch. The bend of the sinistral TrascClu shear zone and of the associated fold system in the southem Apuseni Mountains (Fig. 1994). Middle Cretaceous compression was also accommodated by the wildflysch belts along the Mures igneous arc. West of the Bihor block. The Late Cretaceous to Eariy Tertiary Vladeasa taphrolite (Stefan.and wildflysch-type sequences indicate active Late Cretaceous tectonism in the southeastem part of the Mures Basin-Tertiary tectonism reactivated the Trascsu shear zone and resulted in Paleogene igneous activity and in a SSE-trending fold system involving strata as young as Maastrïchtian. Le Pichon et al. Similariy to earfier rnodels (e-g. 1986. 156 Ma Q A r p ~cooling r age of homblende within the rnost extemal Baia de Anes assemblage.. More data are needed to link the major structures described here with the paleomagneticdata which suggest that the Apuseni-South Pannonian crustal ftagment ("Tisia") travelled more than 1000 km northward and rotated about 90-100° clockwise during the Late Cretaceaus to Miocene (Mirton. ? 980) records breakup of the Bihor block (Fig. 1996) suggest a link along a Jurassic tectonic Iinearnent. Similar ages yielded by high-pressure rocks of the Meliata assemblage in the southem West Carpathians (Dallmeyer et al. Compression ceased at about 100 Ma. 1988) we assume Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sinistral displacement along the Mures transtensional zone. Neogene isostatic reequilibration resulted in post-orogenic collapse accommodated by major fault zones with associated igneous activity along the margins of the Apuseni- . Oblique compression of the Bihor autochthon against the Highiq-Biharia igneous complex and the Baia de Aries gneissic crust resulted in strain concentration within the igneous complex and uplift and thrusting of the Baia de Aries gneissic crust. Patrascu.. lateral extrusion of the sheared igneous crust resulted in a wide northwestward verging thrust zone and high strain throughout the cover sequences in the footwall. Subsequent extensional structures throughout the HBSZ were followed by deposition of Santonian-Campanian "Gosaun-typestrata that overlap the metamorphic assemblages in the central Apuseni Mountains.Basin correlates with the c. 5-20) and independent trajectories for the resulting crustal fragments.

The Neogene volcanism likely resulted from mantie processes unrelated to subduction. We propose a model in which extension of the European crust by tmgential stretching was accompanied by local mantle intrusion. overprinting the Baia de Arieq cmst along the eastem margin of the Apuseni Mountains. 5. In the western Apuseni Mountains. Middle Cretaceous compression and Tertiary compression and rotation were accommodated in wide shear zones that record deformation during complex plate interaction. a wide dextral NW striking fault zone is plugged by the Miocene to Piiocene BradGurahonf volcanic belt. We propose that they can be grouped into the Somes gneissic assemblage to the north and the Baia de Ades carbonate-lense dominated gneissic assemblage to the south. to the south-west. Widespread late extensional structures obliterate variably the Early to Middle Cretaceous cornpressional structures. and to the north by the sinistral Dragoq Veda fault zone. a NNW stnking. and the Tras&u shear zone. CONCLUSIONS The previous stratigraphie interpretation of metamorphic rocks in the Apuseni Mountains was intemally inconsistent. Post-Miocene eastward translation of the Apuseni-Transylvanian fragment was accommodated to the south by the dextral South Transylvanian fault zone which is overiapped by Pleistocene alkaline intrusives. Tectonosedirnentary and igneous activity in the Mures Basin is consistent with the evolution of a transtensional shear zone during the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. The widespread intemal strain in Cretaceous metamorphic assemblages indicates that revision of the previous model of coherent nappes is required.10. . separated by the Highis-Biharia upper crustal igneous comptex and the Codru amphibolite-dioritic assemblage. In the eastem Apuseni Mountains. Shearing and hydration of igneous and gneissic protoliths during Alpine tectonism resulted in the development of several low-grade lithotectonic assemblages. thrust-related structures within the low-grade assemblages are consistent with the imbrication and NW-thrusting of underlying Pennian-Mesozoic cover. We explain the intrusion of calc-alkaline plutons within the tholeiitic rocks of the Mures Basin by intracrustal hybridizationwithin a transcurrent setting. overprinting mainly igneous rocks across the central Apuseni Mountains. Two belts of high strain concentration have been mapped: the Highis Biharia shear zone. southward-propagating fault zone was progressively plugged by the Miocene to Pleistocene Cglimani-Harghita volcanic belt.Transylvanian block: to the east. conternporaneous transpressional structures are dominant throughout the low-grade assemblages and regionally significant thmst faults cannot be rnapped.

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corr6lations chronosbatigraphique et faciale, Revue Roumain de Géologie,
Géophysique, Géographie, ser. Géologie, 20, p. 49-57.
Pavefescu, LI, Pop, G., Ailenei, G., Ene, I., Soroiu, M., and Popescu, G., 1975, K-Ar age
determinations from the Apuseni and Banat Mountains, Revue Roumain de Géologie,
Géophysique, Géographie, ser.Géophysique, 19, p. 67-79.
Pattaqcu, S., Bleahu, M., and Panaiotu, C., 1990, Tectonic implications of the paleomagnetic
research into Upper Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the Apuseni Mountains, Romania,
Tectonophysics, 180, p.309-322.
Rildulescu, D., and Sauidulescu, M., 1973, The plate-tectonics concept and the geological

structure of the Carpathians, Tectonophysics, 16, p. 155-1 61.
Riidulescu, D., Siindulescu, M., and Borcoq, M., '1993, Alpine magmatogenetic map of
Rornania: an approach to the systematization of the igneous activity, Revue Roumain de
Géologie, Géophysique, Géographie, ser. Géologie, 37, p. 3-8.
Savu, H., 1965, Masivul eruptiv de la Barzava (Munfii Drocea), Memorii, Cornitekil Geologic
Roman, VIII, 148 p., Bucuresti.
Savu, H., Borcoq, M., Hanurnolo, I., Hanurnoio, A., Trifulescu, M., and lanidu C., 1967, Date
noi asupra stratigrafiei si petrologiei sisturilor cristaline din partea centrala a munfilor
Drocea, Dari de Searna ale lnstitutului de Geologie si Geofizica LIII, 1, p. 187-214Savu, H., 1980, Genesis of the Alpine ophiolites from Romania and their associated calcoalkaline volcanics, AnuaniI lnstitutuluide Geologie si GeofizicCT, 56, p. 55-78.
Savu, H, 1983, Geotectonic and magmatic evolution of the Mures Zone (Apuseni Mountains)Romania, Anuarul lnstitutului de Geologie $ GeofiUca, LVI, p. 55-77,
Shdulescu M., 1984, Geotectonica Rornaniei, 336 p., Editura Tehnica, Bucure@.
S3ndulescu M., 1994, Overview on Romanian geology, in Berza T. (Ed.):uGeologicalevolution

of the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian systemn,ALCAPA Il Conference, Covasna, Field

Guidebook, Romanian Journal of Tectonics and Regional Geology, 75, suppl. 2, p. 3-1 5.

Schwaru, H. P., Clayton, R. N., and Mayeda, T. 1970, Oxygen isotopic studies of calcareous
and pelitic metamorphic rocks, New England, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 81, p. 2299-2316.
Soroiu, M., Popescu, G., Kasper, U., and Dimittescu, R., 4969, Contributions préliminaires à

la géologie des massifs cristallins des Monts Apuseni, Analele Stiintifice ale Universitafii
P.I. 1. Cuza, Sect Ilb (Geol.), 15, p. 25-33.
Szederkényi, T., 1982, Lithostratigraphicdivision of the Crystalline Mass in South Transdanubia

and the Great Hungarian Plain, Newsletter of IGCP Project No. 5, Bratislava, 4, p.lOO-106SzepeshAzy, K., 1979, A Tiszantul és az Erdélyi Kozéphegység (Munfii Apuseni) nagyszerkezeti

6s rétegtani kapcsolatai (megatectonic and stratigraphie relationships of the TiszAntdl
and the Apuseni Mountains),

Ait F d d t Szernle, 12, p. 121-198.

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Alrnosd units, Acta Geologica Hungarica, 29, (3-4, p. 305-316.

Stefan, A., 1980, Petrographic Study of the eastern Part of the Vliideasa Emptive Massif,
Anuanil Institutului de Geologie si Geofizid, LV, p. 207-325.
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(Fe-Mg) phase relations, Am. J. Sci., 276, p. 425454.
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and '3C112C
secular trends in sedimentary

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(GeoL), 17, p.1-13.

CHAPTER 6

ALPINE STRAIN DISTRlBUTlON

AND LlTHOLOGlCAL CORRELATlON
OF BASEMENT ASSEMBLAGES I N THE
CARPATHIAN-PANNONIAN REGlON

6.1. INTRODUCTION

The cuvent tectonic mode1for the Romanian Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains has
been denved from the facies distribution of sedimentary cover strata and inferred suture zones
(e.g., Codarcea, 1940; Radulescu and S$indulescu,

1973; Sandufescu, 1984). Basernent units

have been regarded as rigid slices, and passive carriers of the sedimentary record. The
paradoxical interpretation of Carpathian metamorphic tectonites as tectonically irrelevant entities

was enhanced by the stratigraphic approach to the rnetamorphic lithology. Lithologic units have
been regarded as metamorphosed Precambn'an and Paleozoic strata in original stratigraphic
succession (e-g., KMutner 1980,1988; Dimitrescu, 1988; Gheuca, 1988). The metamorphic
record and lithologic content of the basement units were considered of little or no relevance for
the Alpine paleogeographic reconstructions. The kinematic indicators were overiooked (e-g.,
SCindulescu, 1984; Balintoni et al., 1983; 1989; Berza et al., 1994). At the scale of the CarpathianPannonian region, paleotectonic reconstructions based essentially on Alpine facies distribution
and interpreted suture zones resulted in confiicting evolutionary models (SZindulescu, 1975;
1988; Bala, 1985; Birkenmayer, 1986; Debelmas and S8indulescu, 1987; Haas et al., 1995;
Del Piaz et al., 1995).
It is now clear that the fragments of continental crust involved in Alpine tectonics record

polyphase tectonothennal evolution. @ ~ r P 8dating
~ r indicates that most lowgrade lithotectonic
assemblages record Alpine growth of syn-kinematic muscovite (e-g., Malusky, 1993; Dallmeyer

et al., 1996)- Metarnorphic petrogenesis of low-grade assemblages is likely related to synkinematic hydrationlcarbonation of older crust within crustal scale shear zones (e.g., Pana and
Erdmer, 1994).
This chapter emphasises the Alpine strain and accompanying rnetamorphic reactions
within basement uni& adjacent to the Apuseni Mountains and discusses their implications for the
tectonic evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region.
6.2. BASEMENT UNITS OF THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS

Lithotectonic assemblages of the Apuseni Mountains can be grouped into the Somes
gneissgranite assemblage to the nom and the Baia de Aries carbonate-lense dominated
gneissic assemblage to the south, separated by the Highis-Biharia upper crustal igneous
complex and the Codru amphibolite-diorite assemblage. Sheanng and hydration of igneous and
gneissic protoliths resulted in the development of several low-grade lithotectonic assernblages.

Two belts of high strain and retrograde metamorphkm define the Highiq-BiharÎa çhear zone
(HBSZ) and the Trasdu shear zone P Z ) , overprinting mainly igneous rocks across the central
Apuseni Mountains, and the Baia de Aries crust along the eastem margin of the Apuseni
Mountains, respectively.

In the westem Apuseni Mountains, compressional structures within the lowgrade
assemblages are consistent with local imbrication and NW-thnisting of underiying PermianMesozoic cover (Fig. 6-1). In the eastem Apuseni Mountains, wntemporaneous transpressional
structures are dominant throughout the low- and adjacent medium-grade assemblages (Fig. 6-

2), and regionally significant thrust faults cannot be mapped. Penetrative extensional structures
vanably obliterate compressional structures.
The two principal medium-grade assemblages yielded Eariy Proterozoic Tm model ages
and the most negative &Nd,

values, but show relatively distinct isotopic signatures (see chapter

3). The Someg gneiss-granite assemblage yielded the oldest TOM
of c. 1.8-1 -9 Ga and most

depleted &Nd,

values that reach -1 5.5. Various Paleozoic granitoids yielded Eariy to Middle

Proterozoic T,

model ages between 1.9-1 -4 Ga and less depleted &Nd,,, values, indicating

different degrees of cnistal contamination. Positive eNd,,, values of the Codni diorite and HighigBiharia alkali diorite appear to correspond to Paleozoic rift-like settings, whilst the most negative
&Nd,, values are similar to those of intrusions in the Sornes-Codw crust

60" -6C'3values of carbonate layers within the low-grade assemblages plot outside the
field of Iirnestone strata metamorphosed under low-grade conditions and suggest a mixing
pattern between igneous values and chemically evolved surficial fluids (see chapter 5).
Although, the data rnay be interpreted as the result of uncommon non-equilibrium metamorphic
reactions, widespread carbonate reactions within igneous protoliths favour a metasornatic origin
for the thin carbonate layers within the Highis-Bihana shear zone.
'OArpAr dating of medium- and low-grade assemblages from Vie Apuseni Mountains
indicates a complex tectonothermal evolution that included "Eariynand "Laten Variscan events
as well as polyphase Alpine tectonism. Homblende and muscovite within non-retrogressed
northem sectors of the Someg gneissic assemblage yielded ages behrveen c. 317 Ma and c. 300
Ma. The development of medium-grade textures during Variscan tectonism (Dallmeyer et al.,
1998) is speculative and the cooling ages may sirnply record Carboniferous uplift accompanied

by the emplacement of the Muntele Mare batholith at c. 295 Ma. Similady, the Codni
assemblage yielded 4 0 ~ r p Adates
r
that range from c. 405 to c. 335 Ma and may be interpreted
as stepped Devonian to Carboniferous uplift.
Retrogressed domains within the Sorneg assemblage record Mesozoic thermal and
structural effects. Shallowdipping phyllonites overprinting various Paleozoic granitoids
throughout western sectors of the HBSZ record effects of Aptian to Albian (114-100 Ma)
north-vergent thrusting and concomitant low-grade metamorphism. A penetratively sheared
Triassic siltstone in the footwall yielded a similar whole-rock plateau date of c. 117 Ma. Southem
sectors of the Baia de Aries carbonate-lense gneissic assemblage record both Jurassic (186 Ma;
156 Ma) and Early-Middle Cretaceous (124-1 11 Ma) plateau dates in different structural units.

Fig. 6-1. Stretching Iineation within the Highi$-Biharia shear zone; highly variable
orientation of planar structures contrasts with constant subhorizontal orientation of Iinear
structures: a), b) and d) sheared Ieucogranite in the upper crustal igneous complex
exposed in the norttiem iiighiq Mountains, Araneag Creek (1= 150-160 / 5-10);
c ) sheared granodiorite in the Biharia Mountains, Dedului Creek, L = 115/10. L - linear
structure; S - foliation.

axis of isoclinal folds are subparallel to L I stretching: B = 250110. . Stretching lineation within the Baia de Anes assemblage metre-size mullions and minera1 lineations are everywhere consistent and subhonrontal in the gametbean'ng plagiogneiss of the Baia de Aies assemblage along the contact with the HighiqBiharia shear zone: a) L = 7013.Fig. 6-2. b ) 80120. c) polyphase deformation in the Baia de Arieq assemblage: the main foliation S = 175145 contains two lineations L1 = 90110 (hammer) and L2 = 160125 (rnarker pen).

.

The retrograde overprint diminishes northward.to high-grade crust resulted in locally complete pseudomorphingof mica and feldspar by carbonate andlor albite (Nusszer. and that the Mures Basin separated the Apuseni and Carpathian basement units to the northwest Mafic intrusions in Albian flysch strata indicate extension during fiysch deposition.The Trascaiu shear zone has not been dated yet. Sedimentary record. indicate active Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous tectonism. Basement units of the Apuseni Mountains indicate that Alpine strain in interior sectors of the Carpathian arc was gradually accommodated within major shear zones. 1975). . 295 Ma.. 1986. Carboniferous (?) Permian conglornerate records post-Variscan exhumation of the Somes assemblage following the emplacement of the Muntele Mare batholith at c. BASEMENT UNlTS OF THE NEOGENE PANNONIAN BASIN Low-grade metamorphic rocks and associated granitic bodies similar to those exposed in the HBSZ have been reported in drill cores from the Vojvodine region of Serbia (Kamenci and Canovic. North of the HBSZ. Synkinematic hydration and carbonation reactions within wide Alpine shear zones overprinting older crust resulted in the devetopment of a low-grade lithology dominated bÿ phyllonite and thin carbonate and quartzite layers. indicates that the northern basin was facing the Mesozoic Vardar Ocean to the southwest. In the northwestern Apuseni Mountains. intense carbonate andlor sodium metasornatism associated with shearing and retrogression of medium. and southwest-trending "metamorphic regional units" recognized in core samples from the southem Pannonian basement (Szili-Gykmant. Transcurrent faulting and local thrusting are variably obliterated by widespread extensional structures around the central Somes-Muntele Mare basement unit and resulted in juxtaposition of contrasting structural units which include both metarnorphic assemblages and Permian-Mesozoic cover. in the Mures Basin. 6. No unequivocal data constrain the development of medium-grade textures to the time of Variscan tectonism. Triassic to Middle Jurassic strata record a passive continental shelf and Tithonian to Neocomian flysch-like strata indicate a subsiding trough between the central GiIClu Mountains and the western Codru MountainsFlysch-like strata along the southem and eastern margin of the Apuseni Mountains. Around 90-100"clockwise rotation since Late Cretaceous documented by paleomagnetic data (Piitrascu et al. it is cut by Late Cretaceous -Paleogene "Banatite" calc-alkaline intrusions. Interna1strain in low-grade metamorphic assemblages indicates that revision of the previous mode1 of coherent basement nappes is required. 1990). 1986). "Wildflyschn belts within fiysch sequences are spatially and rnost Iikely genetically related to zones of Alpine strain overprinting basement rocks. It pmjects southward into highly strained Late JurassicCretaceous flysch-like sequences of the Mures Basin.3.

1986. 5-21). Some variability is seen along strike.270 Ma (Svingor and Kovach. cut by Tertiary calc-alkafine intrusions. 1986. ParniC. 1989). Balas et al.. micaschist and rnafic protoliths. by the retrogressive Ofah assemblage. 1993) each with strata correlative with the Codni and Baia de Arieq assemblages. l986). 1986). 1988) can be traced southwestward into the Molve area of the Slavonian Mountains. pyroxenite with calc-silicate schist and marble define a 1-2 km wide NNE trending Iinearnent of high strain and retrogression sealed to the south by Upper Carboniferous m a l bearing strata (Fig. Several northwest trending mylonite zones in drill holes are parallel with the Szolnok transcurrent fault zone (Fig. Rb-Sr isochron dates and K-Ar dates indicate tectonism and metasomatism between c. phyllonite that overprints granulite rocks dnlled at Gorgeteg-Babocsa (Jantsky et al. Grow et al. An association similar to the Codnr assemblage can be recognized in drill core from the K6r6s-Berettyd and Szank areas and in outcrops in the Mecsek. Farther west. slightly retrogressed exposure of the Baia de Aries assemblage.Nusszer. 284 . As in the Apuseni Mountains. medium-pressure metamorphism .. Iow-grade rocks similar to those of the HBSZ assemblage separate the northern Papuk-Jankovak and the southem Psunj-Kutjevo medium-grade complexes (Pamic. Retrogressed gneiss. 1986). 5-21). suggesting a genetic relationshipwhich casts doubt on the current nappe interpretation extrapolated from the Apuseni Mountains (Dimitrescu. Post-kinematic Variscan granitoids exposed in the Transdanubian Mountains yielded R b S r and K-Ar dates of 310-330 Ma along Lake Balaton and K-Ar dates of 270-290 Ma at Velence (Balogh et al. 1986.. 1986. Szederkényi. roughly match Iithotectonic assemblages exposed in the westemmost part of the Apuseni Mountains (Fig. with eclogite and pyroxenite pods. shearing and retrogression of mediumlhigh grade rocks resulted in the development of the Ravna Gora phyllonitic belt across the Papuk-Jenkovac complex and of mappable bands of graphite. drillholes reached a partly retrogressed marble-bearïng assemblage that records medium-grade. 1986) represents the westernmost. Southeast of Lake Balaton. the Prosara-Motajica complex (Pamic. The northernmost outcrop of the Somes assemblage in the Plopis Mountains correlates with the basernent rocks dn'lled in the ~lmosd region of the Pannonian Basin (Szili-Gyemant. 1986). Along the dextral Sava shear zone. 1983). BaIogh et al. 5-21). Nusszer. 1983). Cserepes-Meszéna. In the western Mecsek.. a 200 m-wide zone of retrogression overprints migmatitic gneiss. Cserepes-Meszéna. 1981. granites. ln the Mecsek Mountains. and Moslavacka Gora mountains (Szili-Gyemant. 1986. 1982. 1986. respectively.or chloritoid-blastomylonite and gneissic or phyllonitized granite across the Psunj-Kutjevo cornplex (Parnic. northern Papuk. 1981. the Mecsek rnigmatitic gneiss is separated from the MoragyGorcsony sburolite and kyanite-bearing gneiss. in the central Slavonian Mountains. and west of the Mecsek Mountains. amphibolite.

stacked during M2 collision at intermediate crustal levels. Stelea. carbonate. 1990). Sebeq-Lotni. BASEMENT UNITS OF THE SOUTH CARPATHIANS In the northem part of the South Carpathians.9 Ma. this was followed by diapiric addition of lower crust during M3 (Siibaiu. the Sibigel shear zone in SebepLotru assemblage (Fig. sericite. the Sambata shear zone in Suru assemblage (Fig. the Cumpgna. Leaota. Panil. Piatra Dracului crystalline limestone and Boldanu Quartzite along the southem periphery of the Sâmbata shear zone. and Danubian assemblages define a granite-plagiogneiss cmst with scâttered ultramafic and edogite lenses and insignificant marble layers. respectively. The overprinting strain accompanied by retrogression is likely related to Alpine tectonism. To the south.(gamet and staurolite) followed by low-pressure overprint (up to andalusite) related to Variscan granitoid intrusions ( ~ r k a y1987). and Vidra chlorite 2 chloritoid phyllonite assemblages overprinting the Sum. the Suru and Pades micaschist plagiogneiss and amphibolite assemblages include kilometre-sized lenses of variably dolornitic marble. respectively. "Porphyroids" described in a limited area close to Zemplin. Vodna and . 6. gneissic rocks are replaced by various phyllonites with discontinuous layers or lenses of carbonate and white and black quartzite with graphite and sulfides which can be foIlowed tens of kilometres aIong strike (e. The most prominent transcurrent low-grade shear zones are the Lescovifa shear zone mainly in a composite igneous protolith and in the adjacent Sebes-Lotru assemblage and its Carboniferous cover strata (Fig. appear to be the result of shearing and retrogression of the adjacent gneiss-granitic crust Kyanite-staurolite-sillimanite bearing gneiss frorn Zemplin yielded K-Ar dates for amphibole and muscovite of 307+/-14 Ma and 222+/. Sebeq-Lotru. 6-3b and 64). Ursu. Sebes-Lotru and Danubian assemblages. 1994). The Sebeq-Lotru succession is regarded as a composite Precambrian assernbly of crustal slices with distinct M l evolution. sulfide and oxide. at the HungarianSlovakian border.. 1994). Kinematic indicators are consistent with strike-parallel and/or normal detachment. Several zones of retrogression throughout the South Carpathians show progression from intact medium-grade assemblages through rocks variably overprinted by chlorite.Ultimately. .expressed asymmetric normal shear zones are the Moldele..g. 6-5). The rock-type described as 'porphyroid" in the Bakony Mountains is Iocated along a wide lineament of Alpine tectonisrn defined by retrogression of the gneissic basement at Lake Balaton and prograde metamorphism of Paleozoic-Mesozoic strata in the Bükk-Uppony Mountains. to a zone of complete mineral and texturat reequilibration (see chapter 2). The best. 6-3a). the largest exposure of medium-grade rocks shows flat-lying lithologid units draped around granite domes (e-g. the Corbu.4.

The interpretation is questionable because contemporaneous cover strata in the western part of the Getic assemblage do not record rnetamorphism and c. 1996). K-Ar dates of c.5.. 1996) along the dextral transpression contact between the Danubian Drsgsani and Lainici-Piiiuq assemblages. fossiliferous OrdovicianSilurianstmta (Stanoiu. relatively high-grade Vanscan tectonothermal event (Dallrneyer et al. Consistency wÎth interpretations in the Alps would require Eariy Carboniferous collision (M2) and Late Carboniferous doming (M3). 296 Ma from rnediumgrade rocks of the Danubian units to represent Late Paleozoic cooling during isostatic uplift. One sample of a retrogressed plagiogneiss fmm the Suni carbonate assemblage yielded the same T. The sarne tectonic phase is recorded by a 40Arr9Ardate of c. 1982).Lainici shear zones in Danubian assemblages (Fig. 86 Ma along the Getic-Danubian contact at Petrosani from muscovite concentrate from quartzo-feldspathic and carbonate mylonite. Consequently. mAr/33Ardata record only the Late Carboniferous passage of the Sebes-Lotru assemblage across the c. 2 Ga and &Ndvalues of c. Fossiliferouseariy Paleozoic strata overlain medium-graddgranite units of the Danubian basement (Stanoiu... model ages of c. respectively (Ratschbacher et al. Sirnilarly. value of -10. -14. K-Ar dates of c.. 118. 76 Ma (Ratschbacher et al. 99 Ma and c. 400°C isothems.6 Ma within the phyllonite of the Lescovifa shear zone record Aptian dextral transpressionSirnilarly to the Apuseni Mountains. 1993) may record development of mylonitic fabric during Cenomanian-Santonian dextral transpression.5. 500°C and c. These data are in good agreement but a less negative data on the gneiss-granite and carbonate lense-bearing assemblages from the Apuseni Mountains. &Nd. 1982) consûain * A r p ~ rdates of c. = ~ r al ~ whole-rock of c. 99 Ma for a muscovite concentrate (Dallmeyer et ai. 6-6 and 6-7)Sm-Nd data for two samples of kyanite-bearing plagiogneiss from the Sebes-Lotni assemblage yielded very similar T. 1983) for phyllonite from the chloritoid-bearing Schela shear zone suggest Late Cretaceous tectonism along the contact of the southern Danubian Lainici and Schela units. Kinernatic indicators along tectonic contacts are in confiict with the previously inferred major thrusts. Scattered Carboniferous 'OArrg~r dates fmm muscovite and hornblende concentrates have been interpreted to record a penetrative. there are no unequivocal constrains for the development of rnedium-grade textures during the Variscan tectonism. 70 Ma (Grünenfelder et al.. . 1O My younger dates from muscovite (286-309 Ma) cornpared to homblende (322-319 Ma) suggest cooling dunng upli& Lithotectonic assemblages originally interpreted as Proterozoic stratigraphie units appear to be slices of the lower and middle crust assernbled sometime prior to Late Carboniferous. contemporaneous with the shearing of the northern Danubian uni& r dates suggested by a Rb-Sr data of c.. 1993).118 and c. suggesting similar protoliths with Early Proterozoic inheritance.

. a few tens of metres to the north.Fig. 63. carbonate-mica layer within the Sibisel shear zone display E-W stretching Iineation (L = 95120) in shallowly dipping shear planes (S = 140125).b) Kinematic indicators along the Sibisel shear zone in the northern part of South Carpathians. see Appendix 1). S . outcrop along Resifa-Bocp highway at Moniom: variably sheared granite pebbles and matrix of the assumed Carboniferous conglomerate underiaying the Getic crust are stretched (L = 37115) along a subvertical contact roughly oriented 320170. a) Kinematic indicators along the Lescovifa shear zone in the western part of the South Carpathians. L .lineation. south of Pianu village. Kinematic indicators along different segments of the shear zone through the Getic crust ("Supra Getic 1 Getic thnist contact".foliation. Strugari Valley. augen gneiss in the 'SupraGetic nappe" display simi1ar stretching lineation (L = 270122) in steeply dipping shear planes (S = 350180).

.

L2 = 255165.see Appendix 1). Sebes Valley ("Supra Getic / Getic thnist contactn. S = 185/75. Kinematic indicaton along the Sibisel shear zone overpnnting the Getic cmst in the northern part of South Carpathians. L . . a) progressively sheared and retrogressed augen gneiss of the Sebes-Lotru assemblage. looking towards the low-grade Sibisel assemblage. Sinistral shear along L i (c) is locally overprinted by steeply dipping normal detachment along L2 (b). 6-4.foliation.Iineation.Fig. L1 = 27013. S .

.

linear structures have variable plunges but very consistent trend throughout the retrogressed gamet-bearing plagiogneiss. Balea Valley. b) Wlea Lake. L = 290135.lineation. L . a) Bâlea Falls.Fig. 6-5. eastern part of the South Carpathians. . L = 80115. Kinematic indicaton in the northem Fàgiuag Mountains. ln both cases L is the orkntsthri of fold axis which is consistent with the mineral stretching and with the local trend of the orogen.

.

Fig.lineation. The sheared eastem periphery of the luti gabbro.S foliation. - . 6-6. Kinematic indicators along the Corbu shear zone overprinüng the Danubian cnist in the southwestern part of the South Carpathians ("theUpper Danubian Duplex". S = 237185. Ponicova Creek 7 km upstïeam from the confluence with the Danube River. 1-4. L = 155/2. locality 8 in Fig. L . see Appendix 1).

.

foliation. L = i 90120. see Appendix 1).S .Iineation. S = 130130. Kinematic indicaton in the southwestern part of the South Carpathians dong the contact between the Getic and Danubian units ("the Getic 1 Danubian thnrst contact". S = 30175.Fig.L = 305/5. c ) Urgonian limestone of the Danubian cover at Obaqia Closani. L . a) Armeniq village. biotite plagiogneiss interiayered with marble. . 6-7.b) along the Danube River at Portile de F i e the ~ foliation wraps around steeply plunging linear structures developed in two mica gamet plagiogneiss. L = 200147.

.

5. include metasomatic quartzite Iayers previously interpreted to mark stratigraphic unconformities (e. respectively. a succession of Vraconian to Coniacian strata overlie Supra-Getic and Transylvanide units... the Rebra assemblage dominated by the presence of crystalline dolollirnestone and arnphibolite within mica-plagiogneiss crops out mainly in the westem part of the East Carpathians (Fig. BaIaj "Formationn-Bindeaet al. . 6-8). Negriqoara uSeriesn-Balintoniet al. The Balan shear zone separates the westem carbonate and the eastern granitic cnist. in total confiict with their previous interpretation as Late Cretaceous nappes verging south and north. The axial zone of the phyllonite belts are dominated by graphite and mineralized quartzite and schist. Everywhere. Barremian-Aptian reef deposits of the Regifa-Moldova NouZi Basin on Getic crust extend as isolated outliers on the adjacent "Supra-Geticn basement indicating the same Eariy Cretaceous facies zone and modest relative displacernent between the two units. steeply dipping retrograde shear zones.. Along the Mures River. Lens-shape domains of granitic crust are preserved at Rarilu and HClghimaq (former "nappe outliersn)and of Rebratype crust at lacobeni (former "tectonic windown). 6. thin and discontinuous layes of caIc-silicate rocks and marble.g . Several faujts and fault zones are overlain by Cenomanian or Upper Senonian strata deposits. BASEMENT UNlTS OF THE EAST CARPATHIANS In the eastern part of the East Carpathians. The Tulgheg shear zone overprints the noncarbonate assemblage separating the eastern RarZiu-Bretila gneiss unit and the western Haghimaq-Pietrosu granitoid unit. stretching lineation is subhorizontal and orogen-parallel (Figs. Along strike. eastward in the central segment and is subvertical in the southem segment (at Dgmuc) (Fig. 6-9). 6-9 and 6-10). 1983. 1990). the northern segment of the Balan shear zone dips steeply mainly easlward (at Iacobeni) whilst the southem segment dips steeply mainly westward (at Balan). Gliganu Quartzite between the Vaser [Tulghes equivalent] and Rebra groups in the Maramures Mountains). Zones of incomplete retrogression along the low-grade shear zones previously mapped as distinct stratigraphic units (e-g. Chinl and Tbau "Series" -Nedelcul 1984.. the subvertical transcurrent shear zones dip east or west.Stratigraphie Record. The original relationships between the two mediurngrade assemblages are obliterated by a rnesh of north-south trending. Various stages of sheanng and retrogression are recorded from the Haghimag intact granitic crust to augen gneiss on the Rarau granite or to low-grade mylonites ("porphyroides") on the Pietrosu granodiorite. the Bretila assemblage includes the Haghimaq-Pietrosu-Rarh granitoids and gneiss. Thus. the Tulgheq shear zone dips generally westward in the northem segment (at Pojorita).

T Tomnatec. 1998.Balan shear zone.. - - - - . Tectonic sketch with the major lowgrade shear zones exposed in the East Carpathians.basins (highly exag-W Tithoriian to Albian fiysch deposits M m i c cover of tfie East Carpathian basement Rebra carbonate Iense bearing assemblage Iineament of maximum orogen-parallel sixain within îhe phyîlonite bdts and ftyçctr basins Fig.Cimpoiasa S Z Gneissic dome structure in the Rebra assemblage: 1-P . BSZ .Rusaia SZ: A Anies SZ. Normal detachment within the Bretila assemblage: Ci .Haghimas nappa Mantle derived inûusians within the ftysct. 8 Borsec Si. D . 6-8. N o m 1 detachment shear zones overprinting the Bretila and the overlying Rebra assemblages: Re . %rl% dates from Dallrneyer et al.Neagra SZ.lawbeni-Panaci. Normal detachment overprinting the Rebra assemblage: N .Damoxa. Ru .Repedea SZ. transcumnt shear zones: TgSZ Tulghes shear zone.

a right trïbutary of the DCimuc Creek (less than 10 metres from the unexposed contact of the "Bucovinic nappenwith the most intemal flysch unit in the Central East Carpathians).-- - -- - - Fig. - - . Kinematic indicaton along the contact of the East Carpathian basernent with the internat fiysch unit are consistent with kinematic indicators within the low-grade shear zones: a) S = 270180 and L = 0110: Glodu Creek. D h u c valfey 1. S foliation.3 km upstream from the confluence with the Glodu Creek. L lineation. b) detail of the same outcrop. 6-9. c ) linear structures in a mylonitized leucogranite of the Tulghes shear zone few hundred metres from the contact.

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L lineation. L = 145125. Stretching lineation within the Tulghes shear zone is everywhere parallel to the local trend of the orogen. c ) strain in the Bucovinian cover appears consistent wib the stretching in the basement: L = 1635 to 330125. the conf uence of Bistrifa Valley with the Chiril Vailey. . 6-1 0. Middle Jurassic - limestone along the Gheorghieni-8icaz highway.foliation. b) detail: S = 72/40.Fig. in variably oriented shear surfaces. a) mylonitic layering in a biotite granodiorite. S . central East Carpathians.

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In the Rodna Mountains. 1982. model age around 1. Stratigraphie record.In the Rodna Mountains. values around -10. 40ArfjSArdata from a few muscovite concentrates from the Tulgheq phyllonitic granite indicate Late Carboniferous syn-kinernatic developrnent of mica. 375 Ma from a hornblende concentrate and dates between c. Mesozoic strata. A gamet plagiogneiss from the Bretila assemblage yielded a TDMmodel age of 2 Ga and &Ndw.in Fig. 1975). It projects northward into the Tulgheg shear zone and farther north it follows the centre of the Rargu syncline rnarked by the middle Triassic limestone at Botus cut by a mafic dyke and by the large serpentinized dunite-gabbro at Breaza. 283 to 271 Ma from muscovite concentrates. especially Triassic dolomite. 6-1 1).85 Ga and &Nd. Mafic rocks interpreted as remnants of a far-travelled Transylvanian Nappe are located exclusively along these lineaments and are spatially associated with in situ vesicular and spilitic basaltic flows (Pana and Bindea. The second lineament is less well expressed. The dorne structure was likely achieved during several phases of Alpine tectonism related to the Cretaceous evolution of the Balan and Tulghes shear zones and to the Miocene evolution of the North Transylvanian sinistral fault zone. suggesting Devonian and Permian uplift above the 500°C and 400°C isothems. The main lineament is 1 to 1. in the assemblage (N . runs through the centre of the Hiighimas . indicating an evolution from intermediate to shallow structural Ievels during the rniddle Cretaceous. mediumgrade rocks yielded a range from c. An andalusite-bearing gneiss from the Rebra model age of 1. spectacular phyllonite belts separate the Bretita augen gneiss core from the mantle of Rebra micaschist-pagiogneiçs-marble assemblage defining the easward Anie9 and the westward Comiaia normal detachments (Fig.in the same range as the Paleozoic granitoids from the Apuseni Mountains. values of -13. In the Bistrifa Mountains a ~ r / 3 9 analyses ~r of medium-grade rocks yielded c. almost identical to those obtained from the gneissganite assemblages of the East Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains. incorporated in the low-grade shear zone in the Bistrifa and Maramures mountains indicate its Alpine exhumation and reactivation.of -14. However.5. unpublished data). The main remnant of the Mesozoic cover sequence presewed in the Hiighirnas syncline includes two Iineaments of megabreccias and mafic rocks previously mcipped as wildflysch horizons within the Albian flysch (Sbdulescu et al. 117 to c.6 Ga and &Nd. respectively. The Cimpoiasa normal shear zone cuts through gneissic crust in the northern Rodna Mountains and marks the contact with the overiaying Rebra assemblage in the central part of the Rodna Mountains. 6-8) yielded a TDM range obtained from carbonate-lense bearing assemblages in the other analysed segments of the orogen.5 km wide and stretches NNW-SSE on the eastern side of the syncline.6. 94 Ma. Granite phyllonite in the Balan shear zone yielded a very similar T.

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The only reasonably constrained nappe structure is a typical gravitational nappe with a horizontal displacement of a few kilometres. Similarly to the southern Apuseni Mountains. The denved generalization of huge and far-travelled basement nappes appears completely unsupported. 1984) is misleading. 6-12).Deeper levels of the high-strain zone expose the graphite-phyllonite Tulgheq shear zone developed on the Bucovinian basement6. Rock assemblages previously interpreted as wildfiysch successions in the East Carpathians are strîctly confined to a linear zone of orogen-parallel strain concentration within flysch strata with slices of the underlying Triassic and Jurassic cover ("klippen). The main body of the Haghimaq nappe consists in fact of the missing rnembers of the Bucovinian sequence in the western limb of the syncline (Fig.Ciemy Balog assemblage of plagiogneiss-micaschist-amphibolite-serpenthkedperidotite intruded by the Carboniferous Dumbier and other Tatric granitoids in the northem part. A normal detachment forrned approximately at the level of the Kirnmendgian jasper appears to have allowed about 10 kilometres of eastward gravitational gliding of the Late Jurasic-Earfy Cretaceous reef into the Albian flysch basin. iirolic. amphibolite. graphite quartzite. and by the Veporic and Hrancok granitoids in the southern part of the West Carpathians. the Kohut assemblage of micaschist. micaceous quartzite. extensional tectonism dunng Albian flysch deposition was acwmpanied by manue intrusions into the flysch basins. the Hgghimas nappe is a cover sequence that glided from the uplifted basement towards the extemal Cretaceous flysch basin. 6-8) The rock distribution along the eastem lineament suggests a transcrusbl discontinuity along the eastem margin of the East Carpathian cnistal fragment which provided a conduit for mantle derived materials. crystaliine dolo-limestone and metasomatic magnesite serpentinite and talc is the local . The compiled stratigraphy of the Transylvanian nappe (Sandulescu. Similarly to the Fatric nappes of the West Carpathians and to the Bajuvaric.syncline and projects into the spectacular northwest trending graphite-rnylonite at Capu Corbului (Fig. The extensional tectonic regime up to the Albian is in conflict with the interpreted phase of major Aptian-Albian ("Austriann)thrusting. To the interior of the West Carpathians arc.6. BASEMENT UNlTS OF THE WEST CARPATHlANS Gneiss-graniticcmst is represented by the Hron . and Juvavic nappes of the Eastem Alps (Northern Calcareous Alps). as the paleogeography of the Mesozoic Bucovinian shelf towards the eastem flysch basins can be reconstructed. Relia of the most "intemalnflysch trough on the Carpathian cmst are represented by the RarCIu and Haghimas synclines.

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1994). 4 986) around the Variscan Rimavica Ieucogranites (Bibikova et al. the Tatric granite-gneiss assemblage is overfain by the Hron micaschist. Variably dipping gneissic foliation shows stretching lineation consistent with the adjacent strike-slip briffle faults. The inferred Veporic sole thrust. plagiogneiss. Sheanng under low-grade conditions of the Tatric granitoids along the Certovica Iine resulted in mylonitic granite assemblages: to the north. the "Certovica linen. Quartz and feldspar rnicrostnrctures in the foliated granite indicate ductile deformation. Shearing and retrogression led to the developrnent of the Janov Grun complex of phyllonitized micaschist and V ~ ~ O U lowgrade S mylonitic granites..expression of the rnicaschist-carbonate cmst Flat-lying medium-gmde successions are overprinted by rnoderately to steeply dipping sinistral strike-slip and Iow-angle normal shear zones. and the breakdown of the granitic andfor rnediurn-grade paragenesis indicates mylonitizationtemperatures at and below 450' C and abundant hydration. 6-1 3). 1960) and subhorizontal stretching lineation with sinistral shear sense (PutiS. The sinistral Lubenik fault zone is the Cenozoic expression of long lasting intense tectonism within the Gemeride and Meliata . Wide zones of ductile deformation developed under rnid-crustal conditions were gradually exhurned and are obliterated by brittle faults with sirnilar kinematics. Intermediate and shallow structural levels of transcurrent shear zones are now exposed in the central West Carpathians (Fig. Lower Triassic quartzitic conglornerate/quarhiteand Middle Triassic dolo-limestone (Zoubek. 1994) is indicative of transcurrent kinematics. 1989) within the Certovica shear zone. and amphibolite assemblage Iocally associated with orthogneiss and small size lenses of serpentinized peridotiie. Associated thrust shear zones in the footwall dipping from 1O" to 60°and gently plunging E stretching lineation in the hanging wall suggest transpression along the Pohorela shear zone (PutiS. is a major strike-slip fault recently interpreted to cut Tatric basement (PutirS. suggesting post-Middle Triassic transpression. quartzite. and to the south the Lubietova zone of mylonite and retrogression is denved from Tatn'c granitoids. 1988). 1994). South of the Certovica tectonic Iinearnents.. Steeply dipping foIiation (Zoubek. Shearing and retrogression of the Kohut assemblage resulted in the Hladnornoma Dolina assemblage being overprinted by contact metamorphism (Vozarova and Kn'stin. 1960) of the Tatric cover sequence is locally strained and slightly metamorphosed (Plagienka et al. The gneiss and granite assemblage to the south is assigned to the "AustriannVeporic nappe. The Certovica and north Pohorela low-grade shear zones overprint gneiss-granitic crust The elusive contact between granite-gneiss and carbonate assemblages is overprinted by the sinistral Muran shear zone. the Boca Formation is derived from the Dumbier granodiorite. The tectonic contact is represented by the Pohorela sinistral shear zone which dips more than 50°south.

190. the Borinka and Modra phyllonitic assemblages mark westward and eastward normal detachments respectively. 1993) tectonically overiain by Carboniferous to Cretaceous strata of the Veporic (Middle Austroalpine units).N lm0 m O Mu: c. Malusky et al. 6-14. PutiH. 1988) postufates that the Vahicum branch of Tethys was subducted undemeath the Tatric-Veporic continental fragment (Apulian) of Afrkan origin which developed Cretaceous nappe stacking. 80 and 67 Ma (Fig. in the High Tatra Mountains.. the gneissgranite assemblage is exposed in isolated massifs consisting of a Taric core and Veporic cover of Paleozoic-Mesozoic strata. To the north. The best expressed event is the one at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (c. ln the Povazsky lnovec Mountains. There is no evidence of . S3ndulescu. The traditional mode1 (e-g. 1993). which corresponds to the initiation of the adjacent Paleogene Podhale Basin. 1994). Machel. Synkinernatic sericite on gently northward dipping normal shear zones overprinting the basement records several phases of Alpine rejuvenation at c. a northwestdipping normal detachment developed across the Tatnc gneissgranite core and resulted in the phyllonitic Hradok-Selec assemblage. 6-14). the Razdiel phyllonitic assemblage marks a normal detachment northeast of the Tribec granitoid pluton. 330 Ma ! Bi: c JO0 Ma / O 1 5 km J Fig. Late-Cretaceous and Paleogene low-grade normal shear zone developed within the gneissgranite core of the High Tatra metamorphic core complex (adapted fmm Malusky et al. locally porphyrÏtic Variscan ganodiorite (324-330 Ma. 1981.. In the Tribec Mountains. flanking the 347 Ma old (Rb-Sr data) Bratislava granodiorite pluton (Biely et al. In the Little Carpathians. 67 Ma). 1966. To the west. The "melaphire series" in the northeastern Lower Tatra Mountains defines a northdipping shear zone of uncertain sense between High and Low Tatra. lithotectonic assemblages. the basernent core is a rnedium-grained..

Stratigraphie record. and the granitoids of the Grobgneis complex. strong shearing/retrogressionresulted in a mylonitic assemblage dominated by homblende-beanng. that c m be correlated to the Grobgneis of the Eastem Alps. 1993. Permian(?) and Triassic cover strata and the underlying retrogressed assemblage in the Leitha Mountains are similar to the "Lamac formationnof the Little Carpathians (Tollrnann and Spendlingwimmer. c. medium. It is very similar to rocks exposed in the Liffle Carpathians and to the Grobgneis complex of the Eastern Alps. In both regions. the Sopron granite-gneiss and the Obrennberg andalusite-sillimanite-microcline gneiss/micaschist. The tectonism recorded by the Pieniny Klippen Belt is strike-parallei and affects Mesozoic to Tertiary strata (Birkenmayer. BASEMENT UNlTS AT THE JUNCTION OF THE WEST CARPATHiANS WITH THE EASTERN ALPS The Leitha Mountains (Fig.7. Granitoid intrusion is coeval: RbSr data fmm the Bratislava granodiorite pluton of the Liffle Carpahtians yielded 347 Ma. orogen-parallel shear zones. This assemblage is partly retrogressed to quartz-biotite-phyllonite and greenschist with carbonate layers. The Fatric units characterized by the uniform upper Triassic continental sediments (Carpathian Keuper) are gravitational cover nappes of Iimited extent and displacement around the Tatric granite-gneiss dome structures. The only regionally significant record of Alpine tectonism is represented by sinistral transcurrent shear zones accompanied by normal detachment of the Fatric wver. 20 km depth is welt constrained by deep seismic transects in the central and western parts (Tomek. Seisrnic data show that the Pieniny Klippen Belt is not overthrust by the Tatnc cnist The vertical orientation of the Pieniny Klippen belt is proven by deep boreholes and seismic profiles down to 10 km in its central-eastern area (Birkenmayer. suggesting a comrnon Alpine evolution. Tomek and Hall. 343 Ma.to high-grade assemblages are cut by retrogressive. 1986). 1993) (see Appendix 1). To the south in the Sopron Hills. 1978). 6. The granite/orthogneissdominated Tatra (Jaraba) assemblage of the West Carpathians (Kamenickv and Kamenicky. 1988) is sirnilar to the Pietrosu-HaghirnapBretiIagranite/orthogneiss assemblage of the East Carpathians and occupies the same tectonic position as the first basernent unit in transpressional contact with the Carpathian outer flysch.largesale Alpine thnrsting within the Tatric basement. chloritecarbonate phyllonite overlain by a distinct assemblage. respectively. 1986) and its extension down to c. Strong sheanng 1 retrogression and intense metasomatism led to the development of the chloritoid beanng . 6-15) expose plagiogneiss and staurolite-bearing micâçchist intmded by two mica granodiorite-granite-leumgranite. Striking similarities between the rock types and metamorphic evolution of the basement of the West and East Carpathians casts doubt on their interpretationas distinct African and European cnistal fragments.

1990)(see Appendix 1). intmded by various Carboniferous to Permian granites. strain at the sole of the Austro-Alpine basernent nappes interpreted to have acwmmodated 270 km of northwestward or westward thmst is in fact orogen-parallet. and as the Plankogel Complex in the south-central Eastem Alps. amphibolite. white or black quartzite and then decreases through phyllonitized micaschist to the overlying gamet-micaschist. b. homblende dioritegneiss. Several examples follow: 1. "Quartz phyllite series" appear to define normal shear zones developed asymmetrically around granitic-gneiss domes. a. BASEMENT UNlTS OF THE EASTERN ALPS Assemblages dorninated by plagiogneiss and various Paleozoic granitoids are known as the Grobgneiss Complex in the easternmost part.8. The Wiesmath leucogranite ('Waldbach Cornplex") grades stmcturally up into the 'Hangenden schiefer". The structuraily lower Wechsel plagiogranite is sheared and retrogressed to albite porphyroblast plagiogneiss towards its top.. Assemblages dominated by micaschist and marble are known as the Micaschist-Marble Complex in the central Eastern Alps (Munden). as the Core Complex in the north-central part and as the Koriden Cornplex in the south-central Eastern Alps (Fig. a southeastward low-grade normal shear zone that includes the "Semmering quartzite" at the bottom of the plagioclase micaschist of the Grobgneis Complex. to greenschist. Most prominent kinematic indicators consist of shallow to moderately SE dipping shear planes with south-west trending subhorizontal stretching lineation and fold axes (Ratschbacher et al. .VOr6shidi phyllonite with kyanite and gamet relics. incipient retrogression progressed upwards from an assemblage of albite plagiogneiss interlayered with epidote amphibolite (the "Variegated Wechsel gneiss unir). Therefore. It is Iikely related to the evolution of the Raba transcurrent shear zone. The eastemmost part of the Eastem Alps is dominated by the Grobgneiss Cornplex which consists of plagiogneiss and micaschistwith minor intercalations of amphibolitised gabbro and diorit. 6. respectively. sulphide-beanng black micaschist and quartzite. 6-15). mylonitization progressed to a phyllonite (the "Wechsel phyIlitem)that defines a low-angle normal shear zone to the north and west. to the south. which defines a subhorizontal shear zone of unknown sense of displacernent The Rechnitz quartz-phyllite and greenschist-serpentinite assemblages may represent a zone of intense shearing and retrogression overprinting a gneissic protolith and mafic pods.

Within the Tauern Window. amphibolite.The central part of the Eastern Alps. The HabachStorz Group wnsists of biotite plagiogneiss. rnicaschist. 516 Ma and 356 Ma in orthogneisses from the Frauenberg and Core. U-Pb lower intercepts at c. micaschist and quartzite. amphibolite. U-Pb zircon dates from the tonalitic rocks of the Core Complex yielded upper intercept dates near 3 Ga and 2.. gamet micaschist. The overtying Stubach Group consists of arnphibolite and gneiss. quartite. The overiying Speik assembjage is a few hundred meters thick. A spessartine-bearing mylonitic quarkite within the micaschist suggests a mid-cnistal tectonic discontinuity within the Core assemblage similar to the one interpreted in the Sebes-Lotru assemblage of the South Carpathians (Sgbau. This assemblage grades through a zone of high strain with sulfide-rich quartzite and retrogressed micâschist. 1993. 1993). and rare intercalations of thin calc-silicate rocks. granite gneiss and migmatite of the lowennost assemblage of the Eastern Alps range from Ordovician to Carboniferous and are interpreted as . The subdivisions and structure of the Penninic and Austro-Alpine basement are strikingly similar. 3. and variably dolomitic rnarble with abundant pegmatitic bodies.2. 1989). rnixed siliceous and dolornitic marble. which is widespread in the Alpine-Carpathians orogen. record emplacement ages of 2. respectively (Neubauer and Frisch. and quartzite with variably serpentinized layered cumulate (Neubauer et al. and subordinate cummulate pyroxenite. 518 Ma Frank et al. biotite amphibolite. 1991) and RbSr dating (c. rnantled by plagiogneiss. U-Pb and Rb-Sr dates from granites. U-Pb data from a homblende gneiss of the Frauenberg assemblage involved in the Kaintaleck tectonic slices. lnterpretations of crustal evolution in the Eastern Alps benefit from the greatest number of isotopic data in the orogen. Their adjacent location at about the same latitude within the orogen suggest their appurtenance to the same continental fragment.25 Ga (Neubauer and Frisch. 1994). Both micaschist and quartzite are locally graphitic and associated with phyllonite. black schist. with the more massive plagiogneiss of the stnicturally lowennost Core assemblage. 1976) suggest an Earfy Paleozoic (Caledonian) tectonomagmatic event Several dates from igneous rocks ranging behveen 460425 Ma suggest Late Ordovician-Early Devonian igneous activity. and dominated by gamet amphibolite with diswntinuous layers of augen gneiss. into a structurally higher assemblage of gamet micaschist. and serpentinite that contains relics of olivinegabbro and eclogite.Haiss.53 Ga for the igneous protolith and contamination with 2.. These data indicate that Precambrian granitoids are part of the plagiogneissgranite dominated assemblage. the Muriden complex shows a dome-like shape.8 Ma old crustal rnaterial. the Penninic Zentralgneis assemblage consists of various dome-shaped Carboniferous and Pemian granitoids generally defonned under low-grade conditions.

LC . P Pohoj e Mountains. 1993 and Dallmeyer et al. Gu GurMaler Alpen.Niedere Tauern.8 . non-rnetamorphosed strata ornitted. 6-15. - - - - - - - - - - - - .Wechsel Gneiss Complex.Kaintaleck slices and Ackeri Complex: 4 Carboniferous and Permian of the Veitsch Nappe. 2 . N .Koriden Gneiss Complex. 11 Micaschiçt-Marble Complex.Quartz-phyllite and fossiliferous Paleozoic formations. 5 Eisenkappel Complex.POST-NAPPE SEDlMENTARY COVER M I D D E A-A UPPER A-A LOWER A-A Fig. Simplified map of the Austro-Aipine basement units east of the Tauern Window (compiled afier Neubauer and Frisch.Leifha Mountain.Plankogel Cornplex and sirnilar micaschkt complexes. 1 Late Cretaceous Gosau strata.. 12 Speik Complex: 13 . 14 Gmbgneis Cornplex: 15 Tatric unit. 16 . K Koralpen.Core Complex. 9 Bundschuh Complex: 10 Sieggrabener Complex.M e Carpathians. L . W Wechsel. except for the tectonically significant Gosau strata. 7 .Pohoj e gamet-pendotite-granulite Complex. 6 . 1996). 3 .

1996). 84 Ma. 1994) clastic sequences comrnonly overlying Eoalpine thrust contacts. Deposition of the Senonian Gosau facies is regarded as a post-tectanic succession with the Santonian (86 Ma... Paleo-geographic reconstructions based on Permo-Mesozoic isopic zones (e-g. Schmidt et al. 82 Ma and c. 1991. Sharbert. Haas et al. and Transdanubian Mountains. Stratigraphie record. The Santonian clastic sequences of the "Gosaunbasins clearly overstep shear zones interpreted to be related to Alpine nappe assembly.and post 'Gosauiann ' O A r p ~dates r reported from ductile shear zones in the Eastern Alps record extension which led to Gosau basin development (c. 1994). 1995) indicate 300-400 km of eastward lateral dislocation of the Drauzug. 1981). 1978. Rb-Sr data from coarse-grained porphyritic granite-gneiss of the Grobgneis Complex are interpreted as Carboniferous emplacement ages (326+/-+i1Ma. Malm to Eariy Neocomian compression resulted in the uplift of the basement and gravity nappes gliding northward t ~ w a r d the Neocomian Rossfeld flysch.. 4~r/39Ardates from basement rocks in the northcentral Eastern Alps range from c. 1993. Intra.. E-W trending facies zones are stacked in the Alpine nappe pile. 98 to c. 86 Ma. similar to the granitoid intrusions in the basement of the West Carpathians (Neubauer et al.. To the east. . Bechstadt. Late Terb'ary strike-slip and normal faulting suggest a pattern of eastward extrusion tectonics. with the southernmost zone in the northemmost and stnicturally uppennost position. 71 Ma. as required by local isostatic re-equilibration of the crust No Tertiary overprint has been detected in the Austro-Alpine units. 4ArPgAr data on muscovite throughout the Grobgneis Complex range between c. 353 Ma). 108 and 136 Ma (Dallmeyer et al. syn. and two dates from homblende concentrates from amphibolitised eclogite yielded c. Overlapping pre-. in contrast with the currently interpreted major phase of Eocene thrusting. Gradstein et al...assemblage ofthe Eastern Alps range from Ordovician to Carboniferous and are interpreted as Vanscan tectonomagmatic events. Gradstein et al. 338+/-12to 343+/-20 Ma.and post-Gosau date ranges obtained From muscovite in rnedium-grade rocks and syn-kinematic muscovite within phyllonite belts record uplift and cooling of intermediate structural levels and diachronous normal shear zones respectively.

S2ibau. LlTHOTECTONlC ASSEMBLAGES WlTHlN THE OROGENIC BASEMENT Medium-grade rocks discontinuously exposed along the Carpathian orogen can be roughly assigned to two distinct lithotectonic assemblages: one dominated by various gneisses subordinate micaschist. No classical Barrovian metamorphic zonation on a sedirnentary protolith can be mapped. Sgbiiu. 1993) are suspect. and exclusively based on geochernical data. graphiteore schist andlor quartzite and subordinate granitoids. recent petrologic and petrostructural studies agree upon the tectonic assembly of medium. Although the timing and tectonic significance of rnetamorphic events is still wntroversial. Attempting to recover original stratigraphy in the medium. Neubauer and Frisch. Sebes-Lotni and Leaota in the South Carpathians. 1987.g. superposed parageneses. PutiS. 1993. Speik in the central Eastern Alps. amphibolite.. 1985. Several generations of granitoids were incorporated into the medium-grade metamorphic assemblages as orthogneiss... and amphibofite. Various models for the incorporation of upper mande rocks within the cmst (e.to high-grade rocks of the Carpathian-Pannonian system (e. medium. lancu et al. 1994. intruded by Paleozoic granitoids. Medium-g-rade assemblages record a cornplex polyphase pre-Alpine tectonometamorphic evolution and variable Alpine rejuvenation. Routinely applied in the Eastern Alps. Mafic-ultramafic and eclogite lenses are scattered throughout both lithotectonic assemblages and were variably overprinted during their evolution under intermediate and shallow crustal conditions. this interpretation has resulted in a wnfusing tectonic model that includes westdirected obduction of the "Plankogel ophiolitic mélangenand southdirected obduction of the 'Speik ophiolitic complexnin a relatively limited area of the central Eastern Alps (e. Unless obliterated by Alpine strain. 1978.g.. Frisch et al.g. No plausible evidence exists for interpretation of mafic-ultramafic assemblages as oceanic assemblages obdocted dun'ng Variscan tectonism. Pohorje in the southem Eastern Alps) . Hartopanu. Mikuntiu. 1993).. 1994). 1988) is unrealistic.to high-grade assemblages display flatlying fabrics with a record of coaxial strain and two. 1987. Seclaman et al... 1994). 1994) challenge the simplistic Variçcan obduction model. locally three. 1984.. 1987.. and another dominated by kilomeire-sire rnarble lenses within a matrix of micaschist. Arkai. Sabgu..6.9.9.g. CONCLUDING REMARKS 6.to highgrade rock units (e-g. and several phases of anatexis are documented mainly in the non-carbonate assemblage. lnstead various decompression PTt paths through the high.1.and medium-grade fields have been modelled (e-g. Detailed paleogeographic reconstructions of the pre-metamorphic environment based on sedimentary facies zones inferred from the Iithology of metamorphic assemblages (Neubauer and Frisch. The cornmon association of ultramafic and eclogitic relics with granulite and granites (e. Kwutner in Zoubeck et al.

suggests that most of them reached mid-crustal tevels during gneissic doming andior granite emplacement Sm-Nd data from gneiss samples from two Iithologically distinct assemblages in the mode1 ages. 4 0 ~ r Pdates record various Middle to Late Paleozoic and Cretaceous events. Anastomosing low-grade mylonite belts throughout the Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains define an irregular mesh of transcurrent and normal shear zones overprinting continental c w s t Sm-Nd analyses from low-grade rocks yielded a wide range of &Ndvalues that overlap with the medium-grade rocks and the Paleozoic granitoids. The shallowest structural levels may have incorporated cover sequences (e. Cretaceous ages are commonly recorded within medium-grade rocks involved in the developrnent of Alpine gneissic dome structures. Field relations and stable isotope data suggest that carbonate layers traditionally interpreted as evidence of a sedimentary protolith may be metasomatic. Most low-grade assemblages in the Carpathian-Pannonian region show retrograde metamorphic reactions (e. Hann and S a s z . Pana. these data suggest that basement units involved in the Alpine tectonism are fragments of ancient crust multiply and vanously rejuvenatedthrough tectonism. from Late Carboniferous to Late Cretaceous.. ~r There is no unequivocal evidence of Paleozoic addition of sedimentary protoliths. Stelea. 1977. the zones of . Balintoni. magmatism. Lithologic associations previously viewed as slightly re-crystallised sedimentary sequences are here interpreted as lithotectonic assemblages derived from preexisting crust. Triassic sequences within the Certovica shear zone in the West Carpathians and within the Tulghes and Balan shear zones in the East Carpathians). aArfQArdata from whole rock phyllonite and synkinemaüc muscovite indicate that fabnc developed in different segments of the low-grade shear zones at different times.g. 1990. Mineral and lithologic relics are consistent with their derivation from the adjacent rocks. Apuseni Mountains and Rornanian Carpathians yielded Eariy Proterozoic TDM Corroborated with the U-Pb data from lithologically similar assemblages in the central Eastern Alps. 1994). Progressive deformation and exhumation of shear zones with continuous texturai reequilibration resulted in the evolution of microstructuresfrom ductile to bnttle accornpanied by mineral reactions. Synkinematic metasomatic reactions comrnonly contributed to the development of carbonate.. Followed aiong strike. 1969. 1994). A large component of non-coaxial strain associated with retrogression indicate that most low-grade rocks fonned within hydrated shear zones (Pan6and Erdmer. quartzite and metallic oxide andlor sulphide layers. without any stratigraphie connotation. G i q d et al. 1986.g. Low-grade rock units resulted from sûain concentration and hydration rnetamorphic reactions in formeriy higher grade and igneous rocks.. U-Pb zircon data and field relationships constrain the Paleozoic ages to represent cooling during uplift associated with granitoid emplacement There is no unambiguous evidence of Variscan development of the medium-grade textures. and anatexis.

a variety of rock assemblages may trace the same tectonic Iineament (e. 6. the Trasdu and Tulghes transcurrent shear zones are marked by subvertical phyllonite belts that project into highly strained fiysch strata previously interpreted as uwildflysch"). is regarded as the final plate interaction in a region of long lasting subduction. Le Pichon et al.9. Consequentiy. The direct continuation of the West Carpathian lithotectonic assemblages into the Eastern Alps makes the interpretation of the .. Kautner. Bucovinic/Subbucovinicnappe contact in the East Carpathians.. 1988). The current interpretation of such relationships as nappe contacts obliterated by late faulting is unsatisfactory. paleornagnetic and geochemical data. lnterpretations of Alpine nappes derived from omission in the stratigraphy of metarnorphic assemblages (e.2 OCEANIC REMNANTS IN THE CARPATHIAN-PANNONIANREGION Combining classical Alpine overthrusting explanations with actualistic plate tectonics..g. 1988) are unrealistic and inconsistent with observable kinernatic indicators.Where exposed. relatively well constrained by kinematic analyses. The Eariy Alpine evolution is inferred frorn traditional nappe interpretations rnodified to accommodate Alpine facies zonation with respect to one or several hypothetical basins floored by oceanic crust The cornplex Tertiary evolution. The stratigraphy of metarnorphic rocks is an unacceptable oversimplification. No stnictural evidence of major overthrusts is preserved at the contact of the basernent units with the peri-Carpathian flysch previously interpreted as upper plate and 'subducting wedgen respecüvely.. Black Flysch-Damuc in the East Carpathians. The projection of lithotectonic assemblages and structures from the East Carpathians into the West Carpathians and similarities between the Tatric crust of the West Carpathians and the adjacent Moldanubicum crust of the European Bohemian Massif may be regarded as additional evidence of litüe travel of the Carpathian crust away from stable Europe. the existing evolutionary models postulate several subduction zones in the CarpathianPannonian region.sttain concentration may expose different structural levels. A) Mesozoic oceanic cmst between the European and the Carpathian continental crust ? Danubian and Stara Planina basernent and cover units indicate direct continuation of the European Moesian platform into the Carpathian and Balkan segments of the orogen.g.g. Quantitative evafuations of continental collision based on these interpretations arrive at the paradoxical conclusion that about half of the total amount of continental crust involved must have disappeared into the mantle (e. Severin in the South Carpathians) in shear planes dipping steeply towards the interior or towards the exterior of the arc. the contact of the Carpathian basement with strata from the peri-Carpathian basin invariably shows orogen-parallel stretching (Pieniny Kiippen Belt in the West Carpathians.

isochronous heteropic facies development (e. SIices of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the East Carpathians are located along an orogen-parallel zone of high strain accompanied by basalt fiows and various intrusions. Birkenmayer.Austto-Alpine nappes as Afn'can crust.g. Major tectonostratigraphic assemblages defining a subduction zone are not present a) The boundary between the 'subduction wedge" and the "overriding plate" is elusive: Cretaceous flysch sequences of the peri-Carpathian basin are in contact with wntemporaneous flysch troughs located on the extemal margin of the Carpathian cnist Moreover. The reconstmction of an Early Alpine Severin suture between the Danubian and Getic units in the interior of the South Carpathians is at variance with several lines of evidence. Visarion et al. 1981) and show a calc-alkaline chernical . the oceanic and island arc Cretaceous paleogeography inferred exclusively from rock chemistry is unrealistic. Radulescu. untenable. There is no evidence that a significant Mesozoic ocean opened between the Carpathians and the European continental crust 8)Mesozoic oceanic crust between the Carpathian and Apuseni-South Pannonian continental cnrsfal fragments ? East of the presently exposed Mures belt of flysch and calk-alkaline igneous rocks. Tarcilu) and intervals of inward migration of the furrow axis (Stefanescu. rather than steady cratonward migration of a classical subduction wedge. Sotrile vs. 1984. S2indulescu. indicate complex translation with local compression or extension kinematics. 1973. 1993). 1985) and the continental fioor of the extemal fiysch troughs (eg. Mafic rocks were only sampled in drill hofes near Ocna Mures and Zoreni along steeply dipping mantie penetrating fractures (Visarion et al. l983). b) The evolution of flysch troughs associated with rnantle intrusions on the West and East Carpathians continental cnist. StefSinescu. 1973. Bancila. 1981. the basement of the Transylvanian Basin consists of continental crust underlain by a slightly elevated Moho (e-g. 1965.to cafc-alkaline rocks are located aiong a transcurrent shear zone. 1986) do not support the - current interpretationof an oceanic cmst (Sinaia Mggura = Vahicum) in front of the Carpathian arc.. In particular. the Balkanic Trojan and Kotel fiysch strab are located in a zone of gradational structural transition from the Moesian plaffom to the Balkan segment of the Alpine orogen. Radulescu. rapidly evolving morphology of the fiysch basins indicated by the change of transport directions. 1983.. the intracontinental basalts in the intemal fiysch (RussoSandulescu and Bratosin. Honrath. the location of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Severin sequence (Sinaia flysch associated with peridotite pods and pillow-basalt) exclusively on the extemal Danubian units suggests that the Sinaia flysch trough rimmed the East and South Carpathians segments of the orogen in a similar tectonic position to the Trojan and Kotel fiysch of the Balkans. Continuously. Because tholeiitic..

There is no unequivocal evidence for the proposed continuation the Mures Basin across the Carpathian arc into the Pieniny Basin(s).. TOWARDS A NEW TECTONIC MODEL FOR THE CARPATHIAN-PANNONIAN REGION: BLOCK ROTATION AND OROGEN-PARALLEL TECTONICS Time and space relationships between major lithotectonic assemblages and tectonic events discussed in previous chapters suggest that the inferred allochthoneity of adjacent crusta! fragments is less significant. Seindulescu. Mantle intrusions (commonly alkali basalt) in Permian to Triassic platformal sequences . Sandulescu and Visarion.. in the centre of the anomaly (S2indulescu and Visarion. 6-16 and 6-18). the proposed direct correlation of facies zones and structures from the Apuseni Mountains into the West Carpathians (e. Misi6 et al.g.. 6. PreMesozoic basement everywhere in the Carpathians and Eastern Alps records strong Late Paleozoic to Cretaceous orogen-paraIlel strain. 1975) is contradicted by significant facies differences in the Permian to Mesozoic sequences (Patrulius. the poor evidence of subduction and the ovenrvhelming evidence of transcurrent motions point to an alternative tectonic model (Fig. The proposed Transylvanian (Tethys) origin of sparse rnafic and ultrarnafic rocks on the extemal margin of the East Carpathian basernent (Rar3u and Haghirnas synclines) is contradicted by their association with in sifubasalts and by the lack of correlative rocks in the basement of the Transylvanian basin.. Moreover. The postulated subduction1obduction in the southern Apuseni Mountains is at variance with rock unit distribution and their space-tirne relationships (see chapter 5). 1996). 1971). The interpretation of an eastward-obducted slab of oceanic cmst (R2hdulescu et al.f0. 1976.character (Nicolae. 6-16). unpublished report). and by gneiss core samples at Pogkeaua. and thnisting less dramatic than currentIy interpreted. Geophysical data and core samples from the unexposed basement of the Tertiary Transylvanian basin constrain the focal expression of Tethys to a narrow vertical zone at the southem and eastem periphery of the Apuseni Mountains (Figs. 1978) is contradicted by mathematical modelling of a magnetic anomaly in the western part of the Transylvanian Basin which suggests a deep crustal magnetic source (Botezatu et al. 1976. None of the facies zones reconstructed from the Pieniny Klippen Belt can be correlated with the Poiana Botizei klippen in northwestem Transylvania (Birkenmayer. Nevertheless. 1989) and by opposite vergence of the interpreted Cretaceous nappes. Direct dating of deformational fabiics and kinematic analysis along individual zones of strain cannot yet constrain a consistent kinematic picture. 1986). 1978). A vertical conduct to the upper mantle is suggested by magnetotelluric data in the southem Apuseni Mountains (Stainid and Stgnid. personal communication.

oceanic cnist and loci of mantle leaking along Jurassic sinistral transcurrent shear zones. Proposed kinematic mode1for the Alpine evolution of the CarpathianPannonian region. 11 -Miocene to Pleistocene volcanics along faults related to the orogenic collapse. 9 -sense of displacement for individual cmsbl panels. 6 -wedged flysch strata. 4 -PaIeozoic composite igneous arc: 5 -active flysch basins. H -WZighirnaq granitoids. Paleozoic granitoids: MM -Muntele Mare granite.Fig. 2 thinned continental cmst. 1 -continental crust: a. 6-16. T . 12 -PIeistocene shoshonite and mantel xenolites bearing alkali basalts along late transcurrent fault zones.Tatra granitoids. 8 -regional sense of displacement. - . 10 -fault. 3 . 7 elc-alkaline rocks along the Mures transcurrent.

- MIDDLE JURASSIC EARLY CRETACEOUS Tangentid süetching Dextral trampression (local extension) MIDDLE CRETACEOUS EARLY TERTlARY Cornoressian& Rotation (local extension) LATE TERTlARY Compression I orogenic callapse .

. Consequently. Extension within the Mures basin and rejuvenation of the basement in the eastern Apuseni Mountains (c. However. Extension probably never reached the spreading stage and the Wo fragments were never wrnpletely separated from each other and from stable Europe by intervening oceanic cmst (Fig. Cretaceous spreading at higher rates documented in the southem Atlantic requires northward migration of the African plate and reversai in the displacement of cnistal fragments Iocated between Africa and Europe (Fig 6-16 b). 6-16 a). East. Sirnilarly. Le Pichon et al. the Albian age of the youngest basaltic rocks associated with flysch deposition (e-g.. Thickening and uplift of the Carpathian basement and gravitational gliding of cover sequences is locally recorded along the orogen. Global-scale geodynamic analysis (e-g.in the West. Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous tangential stretching of the European continental margin resulted in a network of anastomosing crustal-scale shear zones and southeast migration of crusta1 panels. The earty Late Jurassic age of the oldest mafic rocks preserved in flysch troughs of the southern Apuseni and the East Carpathians indicates initiation of extensiori at about the same time and does not support the notion of a Tnassic Tethys ocean along the southem Apuseni Mountains. and South Carpathians. uAustriannphase of general thmsting interpreted in the entire orogen.. the Haghirnas Nappe) to a wilde involvement of the basement in thrusting is unrealistic. Narrow flysch troughs developed on thinned continental cmst and releasing bends of the transcurrent shear zones allowed the emplacement of various mandederived materials within the fiysch basins. the Fenes trough in the southem Apuseni Mountains) cas& doubts on the rniddfe Cretaceous. the Rarau-HZighimag trough on the Bucovinian basement in the East Carpathians. as well as in the Codru Mountains and Poiana Botizei klippen record local extension and cannot be directiy correlated with each other. the Mures basin is intmded by tholeiitic rocks in the Drocea Mountains and calc-alkaline rocks elsewhere. the Zliechov trough on Tatric basement in the West Carpathians. 155 Ma) synchronous with high-pressure metamorphism in the southem West Carpathians (Meliata sequence) indicate complex Jurassic strain partitioning at the interior of the Carpathian Orogen. 1988) indicate that Jurassic opening of the southern Atlantic basin resulted in a largescale sinistral transcurrent system marking the southem rnargin of Europe. Early Cretaceous oblique compression is recorded in the western part of the South Carpathians. nappes of the Northem Calcareous Alps.. Various degrees of extension along the peri-Carpathian flysch troughs are suggested by variably serpentinized peridotite intrusions at Severin (within Danubian / Moesian crust) and 8reaza (Bucovinian crust) and by intracontinental basalts of the Sinaia and Black Flysch sequences.g. Regional Late Jurassic to rniddle Cretaceous flysch troughs Iocally intruded by manüe materials define the Carpathian-EasternAlps and the Apuseni-South Pannonian tenanes. the Faûic nappes. The extrapolation from reasonabIydefined gravitational cover nappes (e. Early and .

6-17.WEST CARPATHIANS Strain partitioning in oblique convergence EAST CARPATHIANS Fig. . Proposed model of strain paititioning during oblique compesslon between the Carpathians and stable Europe: orogen-parallei strain in the basement and imbrication in the peri-Carpathians basin.

Trans-Carpathian basins).g. to its present position (Piitrascu. the Apuseni-South Pannonian crustal fragment travelled more than 1000 km across latitude. Jurassic and Cretaceous tectonisrn was accomrnodated in wide shear zones that record deformation during cornplex plate interaction with phases of compression and stress release altemated with phases of tectonic relaxation. The boundaries of the initially detached terranes migrated over time. probably on an oblique trajectory. The diverging fan of transcrustal vertical faults documented in the Moesian basement. indicate widespread Late Cretaceous extension. in front of the Carpathian . 6-18) suggests that oblique compression against the northem part of the Transylvanian basernent was rnostly accommodated in southward escape towards the Carpathians bend.middle Cretaceous 40Ar139Ar dates routinely interpreted to record the major 'Austriann phase of nappe stacking require revision. 1986.. The fault pattern in the basernent units in Rornania (Fig. About 100' clockwise rotation of the Apuseni-South Pannonian crustîl fragment (Marton. and Vraconian to Paleogene basin development along the contact of the Apuseni Mountains and South Carpathians. 1990) during Tertiary compression and eastward translation of the fragment south of the Szolnok sinistral transcurrent system may have been driven by Eocene eastward crustal extrusion from the Alps. The development of Gosau basins.. defining new domains with independent kinematics. Widespread Cenomanian molasse overlapping intemal units of the Carpathian Orogen records post-rniddle Cretaceous tectonic relaxationLocal stratigraphic unconfomities indicate Late Cretaceous tectonism. whilst orogen-parallel shear zones accornmodated strain in the internat units (Fig. while in front of the advancing continental arc strain was partitioned: a coherent thnist-and-fold belt devefoped in the peri-Carpathians flysch strab and rode up obliquely on the surrounding thinned continental crust. MArton and Mauritsch. Neither the sedimentary record nor the kinematic indicators in the basement rocks are consistent with the interpretation of two distinct phases of Cretaceous general thrusting. 6-16 c).. Conternporaneous aArrgAr dates and the kinematic indicators from phyllonite belts in the Eastern Alps and West Carpathians are consistent with transcurrent motion accompanied by the developrnent of gneissic dome structures and normal detachment shear zones. During the Early Tertiary compression. accornpanied by front lengthening and curving through intemal stretching of the arc to fiIl a bay sketched on the European continental cmst Lateral rarnps developed along the West and South Carpathians. 6-17). The most stretchrd and thinned portions of the arc were transgressed by the Pannonian sea (e. Late Cretaceous oblique compression in intemal units of the South Carpathians prevents regional generalizations. et al. Piitraqcu et al. 1990) (Fig. The Carpathian crustal fragment(s) advanced progressively frorn west to east. However. 1990. Vienna.

Socolescu et al. Visanon et al.Cretaceous flysch sequences of the Mures Basin. 4 . 1 . 1977. 1964. 6 . Riidulescu et al. - - - . Major fractures significant for the Tertiary kinematics of the Apuseni and Carpathian cnistal fragments. 1963. 1976.. 5 . 8 Neogene to Pleistocene volcanic centres.Airinei..inferred sense of displacernent of the crustal fragments during the eariy Tertiary tectonism.Calc-alkaline and subordinate tholeiitic rocks of the Mures Basin..Rodopian crustal fragment: 3 . 1964. Data compiled from Ainnei et al.Late Jurassic .Fig.Pen-Carpathian Cretaceous Paleogene fIysch sequences.relative sense of rnovement along major fault zones. 6-18. 10 .The southem margin of Europe.Carpathian . 7 Neogene to Pleistocene weakly defomed mainly clastic sequences. 2 . as defined by Socolescu et al. Capital and srnaIl letters are first and second order basement fractures respectively. 1973.Apuseni-South Pannonian crustal fragment ("Tisia")... 9 .

.

bend. mixing. The recess north of Moesia was Iikely smaller than assumed in previous models that regard Moesia as a stable promontory. storage. suggests the propagation of Tertiary strain in the foreland and independentwestward migration of the western part of Moesia. . with weakly expressed trends of propagation outward from the Pannonian Basin and southeastward. 6-16 d and 6-18 ) .which precludes any relationship with inferred former plate boundades. The Miocene developrnent of the Pannonian Basin accornmodated by contemporaneous divergent thrusting in the Outer Carpathians suggests that unloading of the dome apex resulted in a general rnass-transfer towards the circular periphery of the dome and loading of the surrounding European foreland. Miocene to Quaternary igneous activity has a diffise and discontinuous character. lgneous activity appears to have initiated through cnistal melting and the development of magma-charnbers at mid-cnrs?al levels. Spatial and temporal distribution of Neogene volcanos suggest Miocene orogenic collapse and decompression melting of the overthickened cnist or altematively. and homogenization processes within the cmst resulted in an uenrÏchedn chernical character. Therefore. Miocene dextral shearing at the western tip of Moesia is the combined result of north and eastward Tertiary translations of microplates as required to fil1 a sketched Carpathian recess and the westward indentation of Moesia. the advection of a thermal anomaly by rnantfe upwelling. The volcanos pinpoint loci of extension cutting previous structures (Figs. assimilation. Geochemical data suggest that a basalt derived from depleted mande sampled a rnatkedly different lower cmst and mixed with crustal rnelts.

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APPENDIX I OUTLINE OF THE MAJOR TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHE UNITS OF THE CARPATHIANS-PANNONIAN BASIN SYSTEM AND OUTSTANDING PROBLEMS IN THE INTERPRETATlON OF THE ALPINE EVOLUTION OF BASEMENT ASSEMBLAGES .

.

To the east. The legend for lithostratigraphic columns is in Fig. and structurally upward.a firçt step towards a new tectonic model for the Carpathian-Pannonian region.1. 1-1) for pre-Alpine stratigraphy (Zoubek et al. 1-3).1. the Vienna and Danube Tertiary basins cover the link with the Western Carpathians segment of the orogen(fig. Janoschek and Matura (198O). 1994). Heterogeneous approaches and levels of detail and the proliferation of local names along the orogen. i98O).1986. The Mesozoic Hochstegen and Schieferhülle cover sequence in the central Eastern Alps and the Jumssic succession from Rechnitz at the eastern extremity are assigned to the South .. as well as the complexity of the geological processes have prevented a straightfowrd interpretation of the geologic evolution of the region. 1989). Major tectonosfratigraphic units From north to south. followed ocean-ward by the Cretaceous-Eeocene Rhenodanudian Rysch. while the molasse basin can be regarded as the northem geological border. Inconsistencies in the current evolutionary models relevant to the alternative interpretations proposed in this study are pointed out Recent contributions which depart from the traditional stratigraphic approach to rnetarnorphic terranes and from their currently interpreted Alpine kinernatics are discussed in the final chapter . Figures adapted from these and other published papers are used here to present the distribution and currentiy inferred evolution of the major tectonostratigraphic units in the Carpathian-Pannonian system. 1988) and for AIpine stratigraphy (Tan. INTRODUCTION The following review of the main tectonostratigraphic units in different segments of the Carpathian-Pannoniansystem introduces the tectonic setting for the study area. Flügel and Faupl(1987). the main Alpine tectonic units ernplaced on the European foreland during the Alpine tectonisrn are the Helvetic-Ultrahelvetic foreland thrustand-fold-belt that involves shallow-water carbonates. The major Neogene Insubric (Periadriatic) transcurrent fault marks the sharp southern boundary of the Eastern Alps. 1. The following brief summary of the geology of the Eastem Alps is based on synthesis work by Oberhauser (1974. Tollrnann (1977. mariy facies or coal-bearing Lower Jurassic "Gresten" facies. The traditional Alpine nappe concepts in the central part of the Alps were extrapolated to different segments of the Carpathians at different times. The model was extrapolated in recent compilations to the scale of the entire Carpathian-Pannonian region (Fig.2 EASTERN ALPS An arbitrary boundary between the Eastem and Western Alps corresponds to the N S trending outline of the Austroalpine overthrust on the Penninic units. (1994). 1-2. The least controversial and rnost explicit tectonic and stratigraphic representation of the Alpine geology appearç on the geological map of Austria. Neubauer (1992) and Schmidt et al.

i sandstone. 1994). mafic volcanics. . caarse Iimestone.1-1 non-depositional hiatus erosiona! hiatus Iimestone. . 1-2. pelagic '2rnmonitico rosso" Iimestone. . platfom .. . neritic . acidic intemediate tut? ophiolites metamorphics. r r sandstone. cherty p. in generai very 10 w-grade meramophics io wgrade rnetamorphics high-grade metamotphics Fig. volcanics. ~ e ~ e of n dthe lithoçtratigraphic columns cornpiled for the segments of the AlpineCarpathian orogen discussed in text (affer Tan.

Fig. 1-3. . 1994). b) Alpine stratigaphy. a) Simplified tectonic sketch of the Eastern Alps. (adapted fmm Tan.

1993. the Habach-Storz Group.. 1996) (Table 1-1). Tonalite. The ophiolitic assemblage is defined by the Stubachtal and Ochsner ultramafidmafic rocks and several splinters of serpentinite within a matrix of plagiogneiss. It is commonly separated into fossil free medium to high-grade lithotectonic assemblages (uAltkristallinn). The Stubach Group consists of arnphibolite and gneiss. Pemo-Mesozoic sequences exposed in the northern Calcareous Alps are high-level gravitational nappes. the Stubach Group is interpreted as an ophiolitic association obducted during Vafiscan tectonisrn (Frisch et al.Penninic oceanic basin. The Austro-Alpine basement is relatively homogeneous west. 14). and highly diverse east of the Tauern Window. arnphibolite.. 1990.g. 1993). 80th micaschist and quartzite are locally graphitic and associated with phyllonite. Ratschbacher et al. 1993). 1989). U-Pb and Sm-Nd minera1 isochron ages in the range of 660-640Ma on a gabbro-amphibolite are interpreted as formation ages (von Quadt. In different parts of the Eastem Alps. The Afncanderived Austro-Alpine nappe cornplex dominates the structure of the Eastem Alps. The HabachStorz Group consists of biotite plagiogneiss.. granite batholites are exposed in dome-like or antiformal structures ('kerne" = core). and Variscan granitoids of the Zentralgneis (Frisch et al. and nearly un-metamorphosed fossiliferous Paleozoic sequences. and quartzite with variably serpentinized layered cumulate (Neubauer et al. adjacent to the Periadriatic lineament. A Late Proterozoic to Early PaIeozoic age is assigned based on rnicrofossils and U-Pb zircon ages and Sm-Nd whole rock ages ranging from 640-490 Ma. 1989). similar lithotectonic assemblages are separated as distinct "complexesnand assigned to a mulütude of Variscan and Alpine nappes (e. Neubauer and Frisch. 1993)... Geochemical data are considered to document ail stages of the Variscan Orogeny (Neubauer and Frisch. and subordinate curnmulate pyroxenite interpreted to represent a volcanic island arc association.. Basement assemblages The metamorphic basement of the Central and Eastern Alps belongs to the AustroAlpine nappes and the Penninic Tauern window (Fig. micaschist and quartzite.The Zentralgneis Group consists of sheared 1-type and subordinate S-type granitoids ranging in age from Carboniferous to Pennian. From the chernical characteristics of the ultramafic lenses which are similar to MORB and island arc tholeiite. The eastemmost part of the Eastern Alps is dominated by the Grobgneis Complex which mnsists of plagiogneiss and micaschist with rninor intercalations of amphibolitised gabbro and . basement units and isolated Pemo-Mesozoic cover are interpreted as stnicturally lower units. micaschist and amphibolite. The age of the protolith is unknown and the age of the rnedium-grade textures is uncertain. Dallmeyer et al. granodiorite.low-grade "quartzphyllite units". In the south. micaschist. The Penninic basement exposed in the Tauern Window consists of the Paleozoic Venediger nappe system that includes from top to bottom: the Stubach Group.

The nature of the protolith and the age of eclogitkation are uncertain.g.diorite (e. Plankogel micaschist complex - Lower Austro-Alpine Semmering system: Grobgneis Raabalpen(=Tatric) Wechsel system: Waldbach and Wechsel gneiss complexes Tauern Window Venediger system: Stubach group. gamet micaschist. and a micaschist marble assemblage. into a structurally higher assemblage of gamet micaschist. mantled by plagiogneiss. black schist. Lithostratigraphic and tectonic units of the basement in Central and Eastern Alps (compiledfmm Tollmann. Zentralaneis Group - In the central Eastern Alps up to the Tauern Window. The more massive plagiogneiss of the Core assemblage shows a dome-like shape. The overlying assemblage (the Speik Complex) is a few hundred meters thick. mixed siliceous and dolomitic marble. This assemblage grades through sulfide-rich quartzite and micaschist. To the south in the central Eastern Alps. 1993) 1 Upper Austro-Alpine 1 Kaintaleck slices. and manganese-rich mylonitic quartzite. 1994). Structurally upwards. wehrlite.. Lowgrade retrogression resulted in various phyllonite assemblages (Murztal and Birkfeld) with quartzite and talc schist Table 1-1. Frisch et al. and variably dolomitic marble with abundant pegmatitic bodies.complexes. 1977. amphibolite. Neubauer and Frisch.- 1 Muriden complexes: Core. the Muriden Complex is subdivided into a plagiogneiss-amphibolite ("Coren). quartite. Gneissic layers of the lowermost assemblage include relics of tonalitic rocks: porphyritic biotite granite and assorted amphibolite gneiss or amphibolite with pyroxenite. Micaschist-Mahlecomplexes Koriden gneiss. and gabbro. and dominated by gamet amphibolite with discontinuous layers of augen gneiss. and serpentinite that contains relics of olivine-gabbro and eclogite.. biotite amphibolite. at Birkfeld and Kulm). calc-silicate rocks marble. the Koriden Complex consists of plagiogneiss enclosing up to kilometer-sbed lenses of amphiboliüzed eclogite. 1993.a metaophiolite - ("Speik"). and rare intercalations of thin calc-silicate rocks. Habach-Storzgroup. the Grobgneis assemblage can be correlated with the "Core assemblagenof the Muriden Complex. Speik. intruded by various Carboniferous to Perrnian granites. gabbro. homblendite. A spessartine-beafing mylonitic quartzite within the rnicaschist suggests a mid-cnistal tectonic discontinuity within the Core assemblage similar to the one interpreted in the Sebes-Lotru assemblage of the South Carpathians (Sgbgu. Ackeri complex I I Middle Austro-Alpine . the plagiogneiss shows kyanite pseudomorphs after andalusite. Kyanite-bearing low-Ti eclogite and kyanite-free high-Ti eclogite are interpreted to be . typically.

Konden gneiss complex. 11 . 12 Speik cornplex. W Wechsel.Bundschuh complex. Simplified map of the Austro-Alpine basernent units east of the Tauern window (modified aRer Neubauer and Frisch.uGrobgneisncornplex. L .Eisenkappel crystalline complex. P Pohorje Mountains.Gurktaler Alpen. 10 Sieggrabener cornplex. 1993). 8 . Upper A-A nappes: 2 fossiliferous Paleozoic formations and 'Qquartzphyllites' 3 Kaintaleck slices and Ackeri complex. LC Little Carpathians.UPPER A-A MIDDLE A-A LOWER A-A Fig. 6 Pohoj e gamet-pendotite-granulitecomplex. 9 . Middle A-A nappes: 7 Plankogel complex and related micaschist complexes. N Niedere Tauern.Carboniferous and Pemian of the Veitsch nappe. 13 Core complex. Lower A d nappes 14 . Geographic markers: Gu .Leitha Mountain. 15 Tatnc uni$ Wechsel gneiss complex.Permian to Cenozoic formations.1 . - - - - - - - - - - - . 5 . 4 .Micaschist-Marble complex. K Koralpe. 1-4.

Lithotectonic assemblages sirnilar to the Koriden Cornplex are known east of the Tauern Window as the Bundschuh-Einachand Ackerl complexes. serpentinized peridotite. The Sieggrabener Complex consists of gamet 4.25 Ga and a lower intercept of c. rare orthogneiss.8 Ga. Frisch et al. U-Pb zircon (c. Similarly. A population of brown. 1993).. 2. 356 Ma. the Stubach assemblage is also interpreted as an obducted ophiolite complex (Frisch et al. and the 2. quartzite and amphibolite and concordant phyllonitic shear zones. Frauenberg and Prieselbauer assemblages) and are bounded to the north by the highly strained Kalwang trondhjemite and covered by Carboniferous fossiliferous greywacke. amphibolitised eclogite. micaschist. . The age of metamorphism is suspicious because it corresponds to the c. U-Pb zircon dates from the tonalitic rocks of the Core Complex yielded upper intercept dates near 3 Ga and 2.53 Ga with a lower intercept of c. and quartzite with thick arnphibolite lenses. variably serpentinised ultramafic lenses.g. The lower intercept is interpreted to date the Caledonian metamorphisrn.derived from gabbro and MORB basalt. 1993). 500 Ma age of emplacement of the Kalwang trondjemite of the Kaintaleck slices suggested by the U-Pb zircon upper intercept However. In the basement of the Tauern Window. these U-Pb zircon data indicate that Precambrian granitoids are part of the plagiogneiss-granite dominated assemblage. In the Austro-Alpine nappes.. The Bundschuh-Einach Complex consists of plagiogneiss and granite gneiss. which is widespread in the Alpine-Carpathians orogen.Within the Frauenberg assemblage involved in the Kaintaleck tectonic slices a population of rounded zircons from a hornblende gamet gneiss yielded a U-Pb upper intercept of c. the Plankogel Complex is interpreted as a pre-Alpine east-vergent ophiolitic melange (e. To the south. the Koflden plagiogneiss assemblage is overlain by the Plankogel complex of staurolite-gamet micaschist matn'x with up to kilometer-size lenses of silicate-marbIe. arnphibotite. Interpretations of crustal evolution in the Eastern Alps benefit from the greatest nurnber of isotopic data in the orogen.kyanite plagiogneiss.8 Ma date to indicate crustal contamination of the igneous source (Neubauer and Frisch. and marbleThe northern basement exposures are represented by the Kaintaleck tectonic slices with diverse rock types (Ritting. The Ackerl Cornplex consists of staurolite-beanng plagiogneiss.. the Speik assemblage of the Muriden Complex is considered an ophiolite sequence obducted southward (Neubauer and Frisch. respectively. 2. All mafic assemblages of the Eastern AIps are routinely interpreted as pre-Alpine ophiolitic sequences. metamictic zircons yielded an upper intercept of c. the 2. manganese quartzite overiain by the Kwuping micaschist. 1984).53 Ga date to be the crysbllization age of the protolith. calcsilicate rocks.500 Ma -Haiss. 1993). 516 Ma. and further east as the Sieggrabener Complex.

1991). Rb-Sr dating (c. 518 Ma - Frank et al., 1976) in the plagiogneiss matrix (tonalite gneiss)
also suggests an Eariy Paleozoic tectonomagmatic event Several dates from igneous rocks
ranging between 460425 Ma suggest Late Ordovician-Eady Devonian igneous activity. Other
othogneisses yielded Carboniferous ages (Sharbert, 1981). The assemblage is invaded by
trondjemitic migmatite at c. 353 Ma (Neubauer et al., 1993), indicating an Early Carboniferous
magmatic event U-Pb and Rb-Sr dates from granites and granite gneiss of the lowerrnost
assemblage range from Ordovician to Carboniferous. Rb-Sr data from warse-grained
porphyntic granitegneiss of the Grobgneis Complex are interpreted as Carboniferous
emplacement ages (326+/-11Ma; 338+/-12 to 343+/-20Ma ), similar to the granitoid intrusions in
the basement of the West Carpathians.
In the Muriden Complex, evidence of Early Carboniferous Variscan tectonisrn consists of
U-Pb zircon Iower intercepts of c. 425 Ma and c. 365 Ma from an augen gneiss and a

metatonalite lense, respectively (Neubauer and Frisch, 1993). These ages correspond to the
main phases of plutonism docurnented within the Lower Munden succession between 460-425
Ma and 360-350 Ma. a ~ r / 3 9 plateau
~r
dates of c. 364 and c. 375 Ma are in the Keintaleck
nappes are interpreted to record Early Variscan orogenesis40Arp9Ardata from homblende concentrate of the Sieggrabener eclogite yielded c. 136
Ma and c. 108 Ma whilst a muscovite concentrate yielded c. 82 Ma, in the range of ail ArIAr ages
obtained on the subjacent Grobgneis Complex. The Sieggrabener is interpreted as a klippe of
the Koriden Complex emplaced during Cretaceous thrusting. The interpretation is suspect

because rock types of the Grobgneis and Koriden complexes are similar and the eclogite pods
may have been incorporated in the gneissic crust prior to the Alpine tectonism.
4 0 ~ r f dates
9 ~ r from basement rocks in the northcentral Eastem Alps (Dallmeyer et al.,
1996) range from c. 98 to c. 84 Ma. To the east, a ~ r p gdata
~ r on muscovite throughout Me
Grobgneis Complex range between c. 82 Ma and c. 71 Ma, and two dates from hornblende
concentrates from arnphibolitised eclogite yielded c. 108 and 136 Ma, Intra-Gosau (c. 86-65 Ma)
dates on non-mylonitic basement are interpreted to date exhumation and cooling following
nappe assembly (e.g., Ratschbacher et al. 1989; Neubauer et al., 1995). Dates within ducüIe
shear zones of the Lower Austro-Alpine uni& range between c- 78 and c. 71 Ma and are
interpreted as thrusting in deep crustal levels (Dallmeyer et al., 1992).

Paleogeographic and tectonic evolution
After the Hercynian orogeny, during the Late Permian, the area of the original Eastern
Alps was invaded by sea. The Lower Tnassic neritic sandy shales and sandstones were
replaced by Anisian carbonate platforrns, followed in the Ladinian, rnainly to the south, by the
deep-water Hallstatt facies strata probably reiated to deep faultcontrolled troughs. A broad Late
Triassic carbonate platforni suggests a phase of regional thermal subsidence most active in the

south. In the Early Jurassic, the centres of subsidence shifted to the northemmost part of the
North Alpine shelf as a result of the initial extension of the South Penninic ocean, and by the end
of the Jurassic, deep-water environments with radiolarite deposition prevailed in the whole
region. The Malm to Early Neocomian initial phase of compression resulted in the uplift of the
basernent and gravity nappes gliding towards the north. E-W trending facies zones are stacked
in the Alpine nappe pile, with the southernrnost zone in the northemmost and stnicturally
uppermost position. The whole edifice was pushed northward toward the Neocomian Rossfeld
fiysch trough interpreted as a trench in front of a N-vergent accretionary complex. The Austro-

Alpine nappe pile overthrust the Penninic facies zones during the Albian-Turonian. The
Engandine, Tauern, and Rechnitr tectonic windows expose the Penninic foreland of Europe.
Deposition of the Senonian Gosau facies began in the Coniacian. It is regarded as a
post-tectonic succession commoniy overiying Eoalpine thrust contacl. The Gosau strata are
comrnonly involved in Tertiary thrusting and folding. Late Tertiary strike-slip and normal faulting
suggest a pattern of eastward extrusion tectonics.

Geophysical data
Most data indicate subhorizontal seismic reflectors dipping north or south toward an
inflexion zone outlining a low-velocity cnistal root along the southern boundary of the Central
Alps (Moeller, 1989)(Fig. 1-5) and major upper rnantle heterogeneities interpreted to record
subduction (Spakman, 1990) (Fig. 1-6).

lnconsistencies
Recent structural data and paleogeographic reconstructions have largely improved
knowledge of the tectonic evolution of the Austroalpine domain, but their accommodation in the
traditional nappe stacking interpretation appears speculative:

- Austro-Alpine lithotectonic assemblages on the northem and southem side of the
Tauern Window are different,

- the subdivisions and structure of the Penninic basement and of the Munden Complex
of the Austro-Alpine nappe system (A-A) are almost identical: the Zentralgneis unit correlates
with the Grobgneis and the Holbach-Stoiz correlates with the assemblage of plagiogneiss,
micaschist, amphibolite, phyllonite and quartzite forming the matrix of the Grobgneis in the
Eastern Alps. The Stubach ophiolitic association comprises few lenses of more or less
serpentinized layered gabbro-cumulate, common in al1 basement units of the Alps. Their location
at about the sarne latitude within the orogen casts doubts on the current tectonic interpretation
that places Penninic basement on the lower European plate and A-A on the upper Afncan plate
following subduction of the South Penninic ocean and complex collision.

- the interpretation of the Sieggrabener eclogite-bearing cornplex as a klippe of the
Koriden Complex emplaced during Cretaceous thrusting is suspect because rock types of the

Representative lithospheric cross section along the 'Swiss Geotravcne' from Bascl to ChiassdComo

(cf. Mueller 19823). P-wave vcfocities in k r n k RRL = Rhine-Rhdne Linc; IL = Insubric Linc; M =
Cnrst-mantle boundary (MohorovitiCDiscontinuity). The base of the lithosphcrc ('fenct' hachures. cf. Fig.
11) has becn dcttrmined from a regional analysis of seisrnic surface-wave dispersion (S-wave velocitics @ v a in
bnckets).

Prcliminary intcrprctation of the explosion-xismic reflection data for the traverse through ustcrn
Swiucrland (cf. Fig. 3b). The most conspicuous reflection 'bands' a r t reprcsented by hand-rnigrated linr
drawings (after Finckh efa1. 1987). In the north the Iower and middlz c m t with thc C,X and h.l. reflcaors
appear to be 'dccoupled' from thc upper crust and scem to move intact down into th<:stecpIy southward
d 3
dipping subduction zone (cf. Figs 1I.13b and 14a), In thc upper cnist the Aar Massif which is e x p o ~ in
%indow' near Vatris separares the Hclvetic domain with its distinct Triassic rnrirkcr (cf. FÏg. 5) from the
Penninic domain with the Suretta, Tambo and Adula nappes (cf. Fig. 33). The 'Pcnninic Front' (PF) ourcrops
at the Rhine-Rh6nc Line (RRL)near Tamins (shotpoint 9 ) - The stecply nonhunrd dipping rcfftaors in the
southernmost pan of the seaion have not becn properly rnigrated. Thcre is a distinct gap in the reflection bands
(C. X and M) delineau'ng the lower crust berween shotpoinu 10 and 12 in the nonh and shotpoints 16 and 17 in
the south which has not yet bccn explained. When approaching the Engadine Line (EL) the M-dixontinuity
seems to rise gently towards the south. It should be noted t h t the cnist-mantle boundary (M) as dcnved from
seisrnic rcfraction mcasurcments appean to be continuous.

Fig. 1-5. Deep structure of the Alps (from Moeller, 1989).

CROSS S E C T I O N A

N

sa0

S
1500

1000

CROSS SECTION 8

-

CROSS SECTION C

CROSS SECTION O

CROSS S E C T I O N

E

Fig. 1-6. Tomographie images of the upper mantle under the Alps (from Spakman, 1990).See
caption on next page.

adjacent Grobgneis are similar and the eclogite pods rnay have been incorporated in the
gneissic crust prior to the Alpine tectonism.

- the HelvetidPenninic facies zone exposed in tectonic windows is only present west of
the windows and not north or in front of the originally interpreted Austro-Alpine front

- the thicker Triassic and the low-grade Radstatt (Jurassic?) succession of the lower
Austroalpine units, are sirnilar to conternporaneous Penninic successions; existing differences
can be explained by lateral facies variations of cover strata similar to those documented in the
Austro-Alpine units (e-g., the facies of the Upper Triassic changes from peritidal carbonate
(Hauptdolomite) in the west to continental variegated clays (Carpathian Keuper) to the east

- there are significant facies differences between the Upper Triassic carbonate facies of
the upper Austroalpine nappes (lagoonal-Hauptdolomite, reefal platform-Dachstein limestone, to
basinal carbonate-Hallstatt limestone) and conternporaneous sequences in the supposed root
zone, in the Drauzug area (Upper Triassic and Lower to Middle Jurassic sequence of Licicum).

- the Triassic Hauptdolomit facies of Drauzug and the Transdanubian mountains (Fig. 1-23)
is also exposed on the Austro-Alpine basement, in the "Gurktal Nappen. Clasts of South Alpine
origin within the Gosau strata from Graz suggest a relatively uniform cover of South Alpine affinity
for the southern Austro-Alpine basement

- no structural evidence exists for the involvernent of Drauzug and Transdanubian(Figs. 1-3
and 1-23) mountains in a gigantic pre-Gosau uUltrastyriannappenaspostulated by Tollmann (1987),
to explain the Triassic facies distribution and Gosau clasts. lnstead paleo-geographic
reconstmctionsbased on Pemo-Mesozoic isopic zones (e.g., BechsBdt, 1978; Schmidt et al., 1991;

Haas et al., 1995) indicate 300-400 km of eastward lateral dislocation of the Drauzug,
Transdanubian mountains, and implicitiy the "Gurktal Nappen.

- the northwest-trending displacement vectors in the lower basement "nappes" are
parallel to dextral strike slip faults in the upper cover nappes of the Northern Cafcareous Alps
(Ratschbacher and Frisch, 1993) and suggest widespread dextral interna1strain in the AustroAlpine units.

- there is no kinematic evidence for the popular interpretationof al1 mafic assemblages of
the Eastern Alps as pre-Alpine ophiolitic sequences obducted during the Variscan tectonism;
consequently, the confusing kinematic picture incfudes Van'scan abductions in difierent directions:
eastward for the Plankogel "ophiolitic mélangen (Frisch et al., 1984), southward for the Skeik
"ophiolitic assemblagen(Neubauer and Frisch, 1993).

- the vergence of Austro-Alpine nappes is highly controversial (Oberhauser, 1991); the
vergence of cover nappes was originally inferred to be northwest or west (e.g., Tenier, 1903;
Rothpletz, IgOS), then north (e.g., Tollmann, 1963). Recent models argue for Cretaceous westdirected thrusting and Tertiary piggyback transport of the whole nappe pile to the north (e.g.,

Schmid and Haas, 1989). A paradoxical orogen-parallel nappe stacking model resulted from the
cornbination of modem kinernatic analysis (e-g., Ratschbacher, 1986) with the originally
interpreted outlines of the "Penninic windowsw:a narrow (less than 100 km) wedge of African
crustal slices would have travelled from east to west over 260 km of the narrow Penninic
continental fragment. Moreover, no Tertiary overprint has been detected in the Lower AustroAlpine Nappes, in contrast with the currently interpreted major phase of Eocene thmsting.

- micro-structural work showed that many faults and shear zones previously interpreted
as thrusts are in fact low-angle extensional faults (e.g., Nievergelt et al., 1991, Werling, 1992;
Handy et al., 1993). Even some spectacular recumbent folds (e-g., the Ela "frontal foldn) are not
related to thntsting and cnistal shortening, but to crustal extension (Froitzheim, 1992).

- sinkinematic muscovite in ductile shear zones are contemporaneous with the
development of Gosau basins; 'intra-Gosauiann mineral ages cannot be interpreted as thrust
related.
It appears that previous models have largely overestirnated the thrust tectonics and
overiooked tangential strain and displacernent.
1.3- THE JUNCTION BETWEEN THE EASTERN ALPS
AND THE WEST CARPATHIANS

The Neogene fil1 of the Vienna Basin prevents direct correlation of major tectonostratigraphie units of the Eastern Alps and Carpathians. However, the Leitha Mountain exposes

the same plagiogneiss-micaschist association intruded by granitoids as the eastem extremity of
the Alps and the Little Carpathians (Fig., 1-4). South of the Leitha ridge to the Raba fracture
zone, metamorphic assemblages in the southeasternmost spurs of the Eastern Alps c m be
recognized in isolated exposures in the Rechnitz-Koszegand Sopron regions and in drill holes in
the Little Hunganan Plain (Fig. 1-7).
The Rechnitz-Koszeg series (Schonlaub, 1979) consists of three low-grade Iithotectonic
assemblages; from north to south, these are quartz phyllite, phyllite, and greenschist with pods
of metadiabase and serpentinite. The protolith is considered to be a Jurassic to Lower
Cretaceous sedimentary sequence that correlates with the Penninicum sequence. Glaucophane
relicç suggested affinities to the Meliata lithotectonic assemblages of the West Carpathians.
Zircon fission track data ranging from 19 to 13 Ma (Dunkl, 1992) indicate a Miocene
rnetamorphiccore-complex evolution, interpreted ta have partly obliterated structures related to
major Cretaceous thrusts (e.g., Tan, 1996). To the north, it is tectonically overlain by Lower
Austro-Alpine units (the Wechsel Series and the Grobgneis unit), and to the south, by Paleozoic
to Mesozoic rocks assigned to the Upper Austroalpine units (essentially the Graz Paleozoic).
The model implies that the Lower and Middle Austro-Alpine units are missing on the southem

S3 subçequent foliation. 63 . - . L2 main stretching lineation. afferRatschbacher et al.Stereographic projections of mesoscopic planar and linear fabrics in outcrops.Neubauer et al. 1-7. (1992). Subsurface geology around the Rechnitz window campiled aRer Flugel and Neubauer (1984). (1988).VOLCANICS (UM W E N E PLEISOCENE) PERMORESOZOK= (UPPER AUSTROALPINE) - El (UPPER AUSTROALPtNQ k=j PEAMOMESOZOtC (LOWER AUSYROALPINE) RAABALPEN SERIES (LOWER AUSTROALPINE) A WECHSEL SERIES (LOWER AUÇTROALPINE) 1 I Fig. (1990):S2-main foliation.minor fold axis.Kroll et al.

The continuity of the Graz Paleozoic succession overiying different Austro-Alpine nappes makes the thrust interpretation suspect In contrast to the Alps. Veit klippen Pieniny klippen Upper and Middle Austroalpine Hronic. Gemeric Lower Austroalpine J Tatric Sopron Fertorakos. the lowermost nappe of the West Carpathians occupies the northemmost position.gneiss is tentatively correlated with the Wechsel series of the Eastem Alps (Jantsky et al. although assigned to distinct events (Ratschbacher et al. are roughly parallel (Fig. Their subhorizontal plunge and NESW trend in a subhorizontal foliation are inconsistent with the NWor W-ward thnisting of the Austro-Alpine nappe cornplex. 1990). 1988). Correlation of the main tectonic units in the Alpine-Carpathian transition zone (modified afferHorvath. Iimb of the nappe antiforrn and that Paleozoic strata in northem Hungary represent a Vinist sheet In the Sopron region.. Leitha Grobgneiss Wechsel South Penninic + - HW Hungary Alpine U n b 1 Rechnitz I 1 Veporic Transdanubian Central Range Drauzug 1 South Alpine I 1 1 Igal-Bükk-Meliata zone lncons~stencies Stretching lineations and axes of minor folds. no sharp contact can be traced between the FertWkos and Sopron-Orennberg assemblages. which implies that the horizontal transport of the upper nappes in the 1 . Strong shearinglretrogression resulted in a mylonitic assemblage dominated by chloritoid-bearing phyllonite with kyanite. 1993) Carpathian Pannonian Units Carpathian molasse foredeep Alpine molasse foredeep I Alpine flysch zone I Carpathian flysch zone St. The Graz Paleozoic strata cover Middle Austroalpine units in the Eastern Alps and Penninic units at Rechnitz No unequivocal data exist to support a thrust contact between the Paleozoic strata and the Rechnitz sequence. 1-4). within the Rechnitzwindow. In contrast to the Eastern Alps where the Grobgneis and Wechsel series are interpreted as distinct Lower Austro-Alpine nappes. Table 1-2. the Ferter3kos-Csapodassemblage of amphibolites and two-mica It is overlain by the Sopron granite-gneiss and the Obrennberg andalusite-sillimanite-microcline gneisslrnicaschistthat can be correlated with the Grobgneis unit of the Eastern Alps. gamet relics ..

1-9) along the arc.West Carpathians is wnsiderably less significant than in the Alps.(1990)and Putis (1994). 1987).. 1988).oceanic trough. 1995).l986). The southern boundary with the north Pannonian unit is marked by the Meliata oceanic sequence (Fig.4. chaotically disrupted.. WEST CARPATHIANS The West Carpathians segment of the orocline is exposed between the Neogene depressions of the Vienna basin to the west and the Transcarpathian basin to the east. . Basement assemblages Metamorphic and igneous rocks of the West Carpathians crop out in the central part of the lnner West Carpathians and in several isolated exposures (Fig. Kamenicw and Karnenicq (1988). The Klippen belt is subdivided into four northvergent units (Csorsztyn. Chrome spinel. 1. Birkenmayer (198S. Cadomian.g. pelagic radiolarites. Misik and Marschalko. The South Penninic oceanic trough closes eastward. separated by the Pienniny Klippen Belt. The West Carpathian are traditionally subdivided into the Outer Tertiary and lnner pre-Tettiary units. and glaucophane grains are interpreted to be clasts denved frorn a composite nappe stack including multiple subduction-derived metamorphic units (Dal Piaz et al. and shaltow-water carbonates. 1-8). The Mesozoic cover and Miocene molasse of the European foreland is tectonically overlain by Malm to Oligocene age deep-water clastic strata involved in the Neogene Sub-Silesian and Silesian foreland thrust-and-fold belt.The northem boundary is located between the molasse and the European foreland. Klape and Manin) based on facies differences of generally deep-water Jurassic to Cretaceous strata (Birkenmajer. whereas older sedimentary rocks include both abyssal carbonate rocks. 1988. Penninic oceanic remnants from Rechnitz project along the orogenic trend into the rernnants of the Meliata assemblage of the West Carpathians Vardar-Bukk. Along the Ukrainian Carpathians. Major Tectonostratigraphic units The following geologic surnmary is based on work of Andrusov (t968) Mahel (1974). they were interpreted as products of the Dalslandian. correlative rocks now juxtaposed record widely contrasting facies with quite different faunas. serpentine. the polymict mélange loses its identity and its southward continuation in front or behind the East Carpathian basement is a matter of debate. Based on isotope and palynological data. and in the Paleogene Magura thrust-and-fold belt which includes Early Cretaceous flysch. Balla. and jumbled Triassic to middle Tertiary rocks. Pieniny. which extends along the inner side of the thrust belt The Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene component of this mélange is rnostIy deep-water clastic sediment. 1986. The Meliata sequence is geometrically above equivalents of the AustroAlpine nappes and shows south Alpine (?) Dinaric facies affinities (e. Rakus et al. The Pieniny Klippen Belt is a 1-20 km wide belt of highly deformed.

- . - CHOC SUCE GD 8 Fig 1-8. b) Alpine stratigraphy. a) Sirnplified tectonic sketch of the West Carpathians. 1994) . (adapfed from Tari.

since most basement assemblages inwrporated in Alpine nappes were recently reinterpreted as south-vergent Variscan nappes (e-g..). 1994). The stratigraphie classification appears obsolete. Various names are in use and the contacts between most lithologic associations are controversial.. overprinted by late Middle Jurassic (Dallrneyer et al.. graphite quarfzite. 1-9) of deepwater Mesozoic strata associated with basic and ultrabasic rocks. Janak. Serpentinite-amphibolite-gneiss associations found at isolated locations were interpreted as a Table 1-3. Several lowgrade assemblages are dominated by rnetarhyolite. 1996) low-temperature high pressure metamorphism (glaucophane schist). Lithostratigraphic units of the West Carpathians basement (afterKamenicw and Kamenicky. 1992. 1988) Group 1 Subgroup 1 1 Formation Vepon'de Tatride Gemende Raztoky Rakovec Harmonia(Litt1e LatePz tlron W-Carpathian MiddPz Klinisko (Law Tatra) (Variscan) Upper Hladomoma Gelnica EarlyPz X (Caledonian) Lower Hladomorna Kohut Jaraba Bystra (Low Tatra) (Cadomian) Muranska Lehota Podbrezova X X Boca Lübietova Mid-Piz Kazimir (Dalslandian) 1 -- . and arnphibolite is assigned to the Early Paleozoic Kohut (Kokava) Group. the Meliata sequence. For example. and Variscan cycles (Table 1-3) and partly affected by Alpine tectanism. phyllite. An association of granite-gneiss and migmatite with subordinate kyanite andior sillimanite plagiogneiss and amphibolite is assigned to the Proterozoic Jaraba (Tatra) and Kazimir (Zemplin) groups.- 1 1 1 . carbonaceous rocks. Fritz et al. The association of micaschist.Caledonian. The southernmost rnetamorphic assemblage is a discontinuous lineament (Fig. Correlation between individual exposures along the arc is uncertain due to isolated exposures and multiple phases of tectonism. 1992. metasandstone and graphite schist are assigned to the Middle-Late Paleozoic. the Tatra and Cierny Balog gneiss-granitoid association were considered as Vafiscan thrust sheets overlaying the micaceous/amphyboliticHron association (Putis.

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284 Ma. . 1-9). 1990). Fig. Veporide. 1986). Hronmk. Rb-Sr isochron age by Bagdasaryan et al. Extension culminated with the Barrernian-Early Albian emplacement of basanitic rocks in the Tatric and Fatrïc units.g.. Biely. and (1-type) Sihla granites (c. 1986. 1993). In the Outer West Carpathians.280 Ma. 1978). 1988. South-vergent tfirusts are also reported in the lnner West Carpathians (e. and vertical tectonic boundaries and recorded strain are consistent with sinistral strike-slip (Birkenmajer. 1992). Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous extension of the Tatric basernent resuIted in deep-water basins. Tatric and infra-Tatric basement (PutiS. 1988. U-Pb zircon dates by Bibikova et al... and the Veporide nappe complex was restricted to the basement units to the south covered by the Foederata succession (PutiS. c. 1990).dismernbered leptina-amphibolite complex. and Gemeride (e. The North Veporicum region was recently assigned to Supratatncum nappe based on similarities of the PermianMiddle Cretaceous Velky Bok cover succession ta the Tatncum cover. and were backthrust along the Pieniny Klippen Belt ont0 the lnner West Carpathians. the Magura nappes forrned between the Early Oligocene and Middle Miocene.. Birkenrnajer. Other interpretation considered the basement of the West Carpathians as a rigid tectonic lid with minor Alpine internai thrusts (Grecula and Roth. 303 . Basement rocks are assigned to three north-vergent Middle Cretaceous nappe complexes the Tatride. Extension progressed to the Middle Triassic opening of the Meliata oceanic basin south of the Gemeric basement Middle Jurassic subducüon of the Meliata ocean is conternporaneous with extension of the European shelf to the north recorded by the Velky Bok cover succession of the North Veporic (Supratatric). The Pieniny Klippen Belt marks the elusive boundary between the lnner and Outer West Carpathians. The Vahic furrow is regarded as the eastern continuation of the Penninic ocean (Plasienka. Hamilton. It consists of tectonically juxtaposed rock types originating in separate deep-water basins and is currently interpreted to represent a subduction mélange (e-g. 1989). Tectonism within this narrow belt is post-Paleogene. Paleogeographic and tectonic evolution The Foederata cover succession records Triassic extension on the South Veporic basement. Andrusov. The Jaraba Group is inûuded by Late Variscan Vepor. evidence of a Paleozoic suture (Hovorka and Meres. Csontos et al. 1968).. 1994.1993). It coincided with the development of a flysch sequence in the Zliechov trough on the Tatrîc basernent Flysch deposition apparently ceased first in the southern and then in the northern lnner West Carpathians: in Cenomanian tirne in the Krizna unit in the Cenomanian-Turonian of the southern Tatric and in the Turonian-Coniacian of the northern Tatric unit During the Turonian. units of the KNna zone gravitationally spread north over the Tatric units.g.

. 180 km in the axial zone under the Little Carpathians and is cut by steeply dipping to vertical. Deep tectonic discontinuities dip steeply towards the European foreland. an almost symetrical Iithospheric root reaches c. The tornographic image of the upperrnost portion of the mantle under the central West Carpathians indicates a high velocity domain dipping northward under the European cmst (Spakman. Similady. Inconsistencies The far travelled Eoalpine nappe complexes of the West Carpathians are inferred exclusively from the interpretation of the Pemian Mesozoic cover sequences. 1973. at the eastern extremity. 1990. Chekunov and Sollogub. 1-10). 1989. Several subhorizontal reflectors in the lnner West Carpathian crust were interpreted to define shear zones and Cretaceous thrust sheets (Tomek. Pohorela. 1-11). Tomek and Hall. the Pieniny Klippen BeIt . The tectonic juxtaposition of cover sequences previously interpreted as major Eoalpine thrusts may be the result of Cenozoic faulting. Muran.. PutiS. Moreover. the Tokaj-Presov volcanic lineament is perpendicular to the proposed subduction zone and the Vihorlat volcanic lineament in the eastem extremity of the West Carpathians segment overlaps the postulated suture.. PospiSil et al. several subhorizontal reflectors define a cnistal root under the West Carpathians-East Carpathians junction region reaching 60 km depth. The proposed basement thmst sheets are separated by steep southdipping tectonic discontinuities that coincide with major çinistral Cenozoic strike-slip faults: Certovica. 1994). A mesh of splays with various kinematics related to the main Cenozoic tectonic Iineaments overprint the whole region. respectively. 1989). The projection of the inferred nappes and thnists into the shear zones at surface (Tomek.Geophysical data The cnistirnantle interface under the Outer West Carpathians is horizontal and no relic of subducted slab has been depicted by any geophysical method (Sologub et al. Lubenik (e-g. 1993) is contradicted by the subhorizontal stretching in outcrop. The interpretation of subhorizontal seismic reflectors in the West Carpathians basement as a nappe stack (Tomek. The main exposures of calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from Central Slovakia and TokajPresov are clearly related to the Tertiary Muran-Hurbanovo and Hemad strike-slip faults. 1993) (Fig. 1989. 1993) is speculative because basement assemblages on'ginating at middle and lower crustal levels are inherently sub-horizontal. In the western extremity of the West Carpathians. Fig 1-6.continued). deep-reaching tectonic discontinuities (Chekunov and Sollogub. 1993) (Fig.

Geologic map lsopleth for Eumpean foreland is Iabeled 7. Tme scale velocity of 6 kmfs. M .5 km Migrated tirne section of line 8HR betweenkm 50 and 100. S. 1-10. i)e& structure of the weçternmost West Carpathians imaged by deep seismic reffection (frorn Tomek and Hall. Depth-converted. - Fig. 1 near-horizontal reflectors. interpreted geologic section of line 8HR.horizontal refiectors at base of cmst.eastdipping refiectors. 1993) .

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Sub-Bucovinian. EAST CARPATHIANS The East Carpathians are the only segment of the orogen with a subduction zone anatomy: accretionary wedge. Krautner (1980. continental island arc. Jurassic to middle Tertiary inner-shelf strata. 1984. the Bucovinian nappe. The nappes are supposed to have been emplaced between Aptian (Infrabucovinian) and Late Albian (Bucovinian). these are: the Infrabucovinian nappes. 1-14). .5. (1976). and the Transylvanian nappes. The following presentation is based on syntheses by Bancil3 (1958). l988). interpreted as Cretaceous nappes from an intemal trough floored by oceanic or thinned continental crust are assigned to the 'Extemal Dacides".1. 1988).and Balintoni at al. suggests an island arc succession. Tectonic units to the east are interpreted as Miocene syn-collision nappes and assigned to the "Moldavidesn(Dumitrescu et al. the Olt succession suggests a shelf margin. Sandulescu (1975. Concentn'cally inward away from the European ptatform. From bottom to top. Bercia et al. The Infra-Bucovinian. 1Q88). the Subbucovinian nappe. and the stratigraphy of the Hgghimas reconstnicted in part from olistoliths found in the Bucovinian wildflysch. The SubBucovinian nappe is exposed mainly in the northern part of the ECC fragment and has reduced Mesozoic cover.. The thin Mesozoic sedimentary cover typically starts with the Lower Jurassic sandstones and coal seams (Gresten facies) and is charactenzed by several stratigraphie gaps attributed to erosion. Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata define the following facies zones: foreland-basin syn-thnrst Neogene strata. and Bucovinian nappes are crystalline basement nappes with distinct Mesozoic cover strata (Fig 1-13) postulated to originate in different facies zone facing the Tethys ocean. The upper plate represented by the East Carpathians continental crust (ECC) is currently interpreted as a stack of four Alpine nappe complexes (Fig. The Triassic to Jurassic of the Persani Mountains showing a typical Austroalpine development with mafic rocks and Hallstatt limestone is interpreted as an oceanic slice. 1962. The Transylvanian nappes would cary rocks fmm different oceanic environments. Shdulescu. 1-12). and volcanic arc (Fig. 1-1 3 and 1-14). (1983). Major tectonostrafigraphic units The outer part of the Carpathian arc consists of a coherent thnist-and-fold belt generally interpreted as an accretionary wedge related to westward subduction. The uppennost nappes would cany deep-water strata from the most internai facies zone and slices of the Transylvanides oceanic crust The lowennost Infra-Bucovinian nappes are exposed in small tectonic windows or as slivers pushed in front of the overlaying nappes (Figs. The most widespread Bucovinian nappe is characterized by a Lower Cretaceous flysch and an Upper Barremian to Lower Albian wildfiysch. Tectonic units derived from the innermost strata. mostly Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary outer-shelf strata. deep-water strata of Jurassic to Late Cretaceous age. 1984.

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3) Cailimani-Gurghiu-Harghita(CGH). 1. 2) Tibles-Toroioaga-Rodna-Bârgâu (TTRB).. 1983). Mesozoic sedimentary rocks (the"CrystallinoMesozoic Zone"). Royden. Balintoni et al. large occurrences of calc-alkaline rocks are clustered in three principal segments: 1) Oas-Gutâi (OG). The assumed nappe contacts show various dips and have led to conflicting interpretations regarding the vergence of the thrusts. 1-12). 1980)..... the inner part of the Carpathian arc is an irregutar and poorly defined tract of wd i ey l vaned and highly stretched crystalline rocks and sbatigraphically overlying and tectonically interspersed upper Paleozoic. 1976. The East Carpathians Volcanic Arc From north to south along the inner part of the Romanian East Carpathians (Fig.g. geochemica1 and isotopic data for the East Carpathians volcanic arc (ECVA) (e.the longest (160 km) continuous volcanic range in the Carpatho-Pannonian region. Most of the low-grade rocks are assigned to the Cambrian Tulgheq Group and to several Middle Paleozoic formations.. The medium-grade rocks are assigned to the Middle Proterozoic Bretila and Rebra groups. 1 S u ~ e f Y r n u1~G ~ U P 1 Senes (Formations) - Bistrifa nappes C Marisian Bucoviniari Tulgheg (U. Boccaletti et al. Based on extensive published and unpublished petrographic.300 Ma which may suggest a Variscan record.Delovets k) Carpian Aluta Rebra (Negrisoara. Cernii Div) - - Maramure$ nappes Bretila (Belipotok) at c. 1973. Peltz et al. Bala. 100 Ma.g. Principal lithostratigraphicgroups of Precarnbrian rnetamorphic rocks and their position in the main structural units of the East Carpathians (affer Kriiutner. AI1 basement assemblages are currently separated in distinct Vanscan nappes (e. 1988) (Table 14).g. The general location behind the East Carpathians accretionary prism and calc-alkaline geochemical signatures led Radulescu and Sgndulescu (1973). Bercia et al. Radulescu et al. 1988). 1988).Delovetsk) BretAa (Radlu. The model has been extrapolated to accommodate Neogene to Quatemary volcanism at the scale of the entire Carpathians-Pannonian Basin system (e.Basement rocks West of the flysch basin. 500 and c. K-Ar dates from the Bretila and Tulgheq groups are generally spread between c. K-Ar dates from the Rebra Group are widely spread (Krautner. (1973) to interpret these successions as a subduction-related volcanic arc. of the Carpian Supergroup (Krilutner. (1973) and Bleahu et al.. 1 . with a maximum Table 1-4. 1982.

.. 1-14. 1981).-90s: Mesacetccecus sred~nenmr. c a e c Sub -8uccvtn~cn N c ~ p e Fig. . 1976. SLlndulescu et al. The main Alpine nappes involving basement rocks in the East Carpathians (simplfied afferBercia et al.

and Infra-Bucovinian. Transylvanian nappe(s) would have been transported piggyback fashion on the Bucovinian nappe. Paleogeography and tectonic evolufion The Eariy Alpine developrnent of the lnner Eastern Carpathians includes the opening of a Triassic to Late Jurassic Transylvanian-Pienniny branch of the Tethys ocean west of the ECC. A relatively large intracontinentai basin resulted from Jurassic rifting and separation of the Carpathian cnistal fragment from the edge of stable Europe. are representativeof parental or close to parental mantle-source partial melts (Fig. even the most basic ones.1974.. 1958. 3) in areas of large volumes of erupted magmas (Calimani. fractional crystallization was combined with cmstal assimilation and magma mixing. Udubaga et al. None of the ECVA rocks. 1995. Rodna). Bancila. The original location of the deep water (internai) facies zone and mafic rocks would be to the west. most of the volcanic rocks belong to the calc-aIkaline suite. Tibles.. Sub-Bucovinian. Masson et al. but andesites are most abundant. the cornplex petrogenetic evolution can be summarized as follows: 1) magma shows a "subduction-relatednchernical signature. thin and lacunar successions have been assigned to successive facies zones facing the ocean: the Bucovinian. Sandulescu. 1995). Peccerillo and Taylor 1976. weak tholeiitic trends are shown by some of the earliest rocks in the Calimani Mountains. in areas of smaller volumes of erupted products (Oas.. The present reversed order would have resulted from nappe stacking with hinterland nappes (originating in the Tethys domain) overthnisting underlying nappes (originating in the ECC fragment). 1984). 9987. ranging from basalts to dacites and rhyolites. on the Transylvanide oceanic cnist Cratonward. An ensimatic basin was assumed for the Black flysch and for the outer (Radulescu and S2hdulescu. in the South Harghita. the petrogenesis is the result of extensive rnixing between magmas derived in deepseated intracrustal magma chambers. A compiicated morphology was charactenzed by elongated ditches and furraws filled with flysch deposits separated by swells (with condensed successions) or even transient "cordifleras". 1-15). Seghedi et al. Two sedirnentary cycles have been separateci* a Peno-Triassic-Liassic one and a AalenianNeocomian one (e-g.. lsolated exposures of Perme(?)-Mesozoic cover strata on the ECC have been interpreted as relics of facies zones stretching parallel to the postulated ocean ( S ~ d u l e s c u1975. 1973) or inner part . Cover strata of the ECC show an evolution typical of the European margin. Toroioaga. characterized by the absence of Upper Triassic and of Lower Jurassic Gresten facies. 1984). 1983. Gutâi). the dominant petrogenetic processes are fractional crystallization combined with crustal assimilation. 2) the rocks in South Harghita have a different mantle source and resulted from a graduaily decreasing degree of partial melting.

1-15. Sr diagram for volcanics frorn the East Carpathians Volcônic Arc ( fmm Seghedi et al. PML Paru'al Melting Line.CFL Tible$ Toraiaga Rodna C6ltman1 Gurghiu N. CFL . numbers represent phases of volcanic activity. - . 1995). Fig. . b) =Sr VS.Harghtto ------=- ---- /- 0 :a' 9a/Co .Crusta1 Fractionation Line.B a C a systernatics of rnagmatic rocks from the Eastern Carpathians Volcanic Arc. a) SrlCa ..

1958). The third trough was located east of the Audia sedimentation zone and consists of Barremian-Late Badenian poly-facial deposits. and Aptychus. Teleajen. Deep-water materials were pushed up onto the outer continental shelf and shelf strata were pushed further cratonward. They were uplifted and were subject to tectonic erosion as accretionary-wedge materials were stuffed beneath them. Four distinct areas (PutnaSuceava. and CeahlClu-Zaganu flysch.and Calpionella. Vrancea) with correlative sequences are interpreted to represent tectonic half-windows under the Medio-Marginal Unit The first thin flysch-like sequence is of Paleogene age. the Black Flysch is defined by a Pienniny-type facies with graphite-bearing schist. 1983) of the Sinaia flysch. basalt. This sequence is involved in highly imbricated Late Cretaceous folds and interpreted ta define the intra-BurdigalianAudia nappe. 1933). The oldest strata in the first (most intemal) flysch trough to the east are Kirnmeridgian. and black limestone. Similar successions known both in more extemal units (the Tarcau nappe) and intemal units (the Pienniny Klippen-Birkenmajer. followed by the Late Cretaceous Bistra Comamic. Dunng the Eocene. 1977) would indicate andesite volcanism related to an island arc within the basin in front of the East Carpathian crustal fragment related to Middle Cretaceous subduction (Radulescu and Dimitrescu. Albian . a furrow with non-flysch sedimentation contains Lower Cretaceous to Vraconian black argillaceus schist and siltstone with subordinate bituminous strata (Bancila. folding and thrusting started in the Middle Cretaceous but the main thnist phase is intra-Turonian.Vraconian (locally up to Cenomanian) Curbicortical flysch strata were involved in the Ceahlgu. To the east. Breccia and coarse sandstone beds with red granodionte fragments are interpreted to originate in a string of Vraconian-Turonian islands between the Audia and T a r a u furrows.bearing limestone. In the inner part of the flysch belt (Extemal Dacides). To the north. tuff. Flysch deposition started in Eady Senonian. 1982).(Stefanescu. and consists of a 2200 m thick sequence of schist. Bistrifa. during the initial phases of collision the inner deep-water facies and strips of associated oceanic cnist were scraped under the Bucovinic tract (eg. Baraolt. The upper strata that include banded mudstone and q u a e or glauconite sandstone correlate with the Silesian facies of the Western Carpathians and Eastern Alps. argilite. flysch strata were . sandstone. the "Cuman Cordilieran(Murgeanu. Meanwhile. but subsidence and sedimentation of the Sinaia flysch took place in Late Tithonian to Late Albian. The Lower Cretaceous Black Schist series is similar to the Silesian lithofacies of the West Carpathians. Maramures Mountains). but its existence and extent remain speculative. sandstone. VraconianTuronian banded argillaceous strata with tuffite and cherty intercalations record volcanism. Oituz-Casin. and Macla nappes during the Early Miocene. This sequence is assigned to the Medio-Marginal Unit.

A detailed discussion is offered in the last chapter.Lower Badenian molasse strata interpreted to define the Pen-Carpathian Nappe (or sub-Carpathian Nappe) (BancilCi. Recent attempts to integrate new data in the subduction model (Linzer. 1993)(Fig. The Oligocene-Miocene sequence is characterized by biturninous lithofacies (Kliwa sandstone) with coarse clastic strata. Oligocene cherty and bituminous facies including the Kliwa sandstone is overiain by Burdigalian . 1952). Inconsistencies The presence of Transylvanian deep-water strata and rnafic rocks only on the eastem edge of the ECC fragment in contact with the deep-water sediments of the eastem basin is inconsistent with the interpretation of far travelled basement nappes. (1979) and Oncescu (1986) interpreted seismic data in the Vrancea region to indicate to weshnrard subduction. 1-17). Geophysical data Roman (1970) defined a vertical lithospheric slab oriented NESW located in the Vrancea region in front of the East Carpathians bent.. Constantinescu et al. 1995) have major shortcomings (Pana and Erdmer. 1986) (Fig. (1973) interpreted the same data as Msubductionstreamsnin the upper mantie. Magnetotellunc data in the central East Carpathians depict h o subvertical discontinuities. 1958). . 1996). and by both longitudinal and transversal facies variations that define the Extemal Unit (Dumitrescu. 1-16).deposited only in parts of the Vrancea region. and the weaker eastem one is located under the most external Carpathian units (Stania and Stiinid. Relationships between tectonic processes and magmatism in the East Carpathians show that a subduction mode1cannot be applied (Sackaci and Seghedi. 1995). A lithospheric root and subvertical mantle reaching fractures are depicted by a combination of geophysical methods (Sollogub et al.Fochs et al. the western discontinuity corresponds to the Neogene volcanic Iineament.

3. high-conduaing zone. 15. sedimentary m e r of plarform. 8. fault. 12. 7. Deep structure of the East Carpathians as depicted by magnetotelluric data (fmm StiinicH and Stbica. borehole. Tornquist-Teisseyre zone (TIZ). 10. 13. 1993). r u w i l ~ aL s each Iocation (b). volunic scdirnentary fomxttian. 5 and 6. foIded basement of the Scythian and Moesian Platforms. 16. 17. 9. cnistal fautt. Post-nappe sedimcntary cover. 1. 1-16. 2. subvolcanic formation. Moho discontinuiry. detp MT [oution: 14. Carpathian elearid wnduaivity anomaiy (CECA). Ryxh Nappes systcm: 4. Fig. foidcd sode of the Transylvanian Depression. MT Iocation.k W - ? ( A resisiin'ty pseudo-section (a) and a pscudo-2D model acated by cornpihg the ID nsuIts of the p h . . Il. isortsinmt~curves: 18.

V=7. 1-17. 6-low-velocity layer in upper mantle. 4-upper mantle boundaries and density contrasts. 12-transcrustal bults Density distribution in the lithosphere beneath the Apuseni Mountains and Romanian Carpathians along Geotraverse V: 1-mean density in crust and upper mantle. 7-boundary velocity. lltop of the asthenosphere from heat fiow data. 9-Vrancea body of anomalous velocity from earthquake data: 10-velocity from earthquake data. Deep structure of the East Carpathians along Geotravene V (for location see Fig.= 8. 7-boundan'es between blocks of different density.5 km/s.. 8-isovelocity line.4-7.2 k d s . 6-isodensity line. S-crust-mantle Iayer. 1986) .9-8. 9-mass-excess body in upper rnantie. V. 5-top of astenosphere. 1-1) as depicted by seismic and gravimetric data (fmm Sollogub et al. 2-intrusions of basic and ultrabasic rocks in cnist. V=7.Velocity structure in the lithosphere beneath the Apuseni Mounatins and Rornanian Carpathians along Geotraverse V: l-top of the rnetamorphic/magmaücbasement: 2-cnistmantle layec 3-Moho discontinurty.14. 8-crust-mantle layer.0 km/s. 1O-faults from seisrnic data. 3-fault zones and calculated densities. Il-Moho discontinuity from seismic data Fig. 13-mantle faults.

Griinenfelder et al. SOUTH CARPATHIANS The geographic boundaries of the South Carpathians may be arbitrarily placed along the Prahova and Timis rivers towards the Eastern Carpathians and along the Danube River towards the Balkans. The molasse also covers the deep Getic depression with a 3 km-thick Middle Eocene to Lower Miocene sequence. 1983.. recalculated by Liégeois et al. (1981).2. 1996).. quark-feldspar or mica gneisses. The Senonian Mokranje flysch is Iocated in a similar tectonic position as the intemal flysch units of the Moldavides in the East Carpathians. Balintoni et al.. These dates probabiy record uplift and cooling following the intrusion of the granitic batholiths. the Negovanu Mare complex . 1996). 1983. The sedimentary cover of the Danubian units is slightly metamorphosed. metapelite. (1989). These granites intrude the rnedium-grade Lainici-Paius assemblage which has yielded several Cambrian K-Ar dates (Grünenfelder et al. The lowermost Schela nappe has a Liassic cover with metasandstone. (1994). The Getic nappe involves mainly crystalline basernent rocks assigned to the Sebes assemblage which includes (SabCiu. Sandulescu (1975. 567 Ma. The following surnmary is based on syntheses by Niist&eanu et al. A Late Paleozoic-Early Cambrian tectonomagmatic event is represented by the Tisrnana granite (565-507 Ma K-Ar. 1983) and a 560 Ma '"'ArpAr plateau date for muscovite concentrate (Dallmeyer et al. 1988).6. 1994): the Armeni9 complex of sillimanite-bearing biotite gneiss. Ta the north. Liégeois et al. and anthracite suggesting a mal-bearing Gresten facies. 1996) and the Novaci granite (588+/-5 Ma. Major tectonostratigraphr'cunits The Moesian plaffom is regarded as a promontory of the European foreland covered by the Neogene to Recent molasse basin. Late Proterozoic oceanic crust is interpreted from Nd and Sr isotope data from amphibolites of the Dragsani assemblage (Liégeois et al. Griinenfelder et al.. In the South Carpathians. Krautner et al. 1984. subordinate calc-silicate and marble layers.. and Berza et al. The Severin nappe overlies the Danubian unit and consists of the Lower Cretaceous Sinaia fiysch and slices of basalts and ultrarnafics interpreted as Jurassic ophiolite... 1996). by the Moesian platform... (1 98l). U-Pb zircon data from an orthogneiss in the DrCiggani assemblage suggested a 777+/-3 Ma emplacement age of the protolith. U-Pb zircon date.. quartz-feldspar and homblende gneiss. the South Carpathians are bounded by the Transylvanian Basin and to the south. the Vaideeni complex dominated by ultramafic and eclogite pods associated with anatectic granitoids in a rnatrix of amphibole. The Danubian units crop out only in the western half of the South Carpathians and are grouped into upper and lower nappes. discontinuous layerç of mylonite gneiss with microblastic biotite throughout this package. U-Pb zircon date.

1-18. 1994). . (adapted from Tan'. a) Simplified tectonic sketch of the South Carpathians.Fig. b) Alpine stratigraphy.

Table 2-5. It was interpreted to date the first Getic phase (Codarcea.dorninated by gamet-kyanite-staurolite-rutile-bearing micaschist. Sopot) and wildflysch (Rusca Montana) sedimentation. Ddgsani. Lower and Middle Triassic strata are known at the eastem extrernity (Braqov). this was followed by diapiric addition of lower crust during M3 (SZibgu. At the base of the Lower Jurassic Gresten facies. Upper Paleozoic strata exposed in the western extrernity (Resifa-Moldova Noug) are considered as Variscan molasse. span frorn the Upper Carboniferous to the Upper Cretaceous with several unconfonnities. Corbu Lainici Paiuq. Bistra. Leaota Marisian Carpian Getic nappe 1 Mansian Carpian Leaota nappe I1 Series (Formations) I Ger Marisian Cibin Carpian Sebes-Lotru 1 Marisian Carpian I Riul l Paring. 1940) of nappe emplacement. Cover strata preserved in isolated exposures. Petreanu Bistra-Bucovei. Rusca Montana. an angular unconformity was recognised in the Post&aru Massif. Atmaj Ses. 1 Supergroups 1 Groups I 1 1 Variscan Fagaras nappe Danubian nappes . Bodu. lelova. Neamtu. The Sebeq-Lotru succession is regarded as a composite Precambrian assembfy of crustal sfices with distinct M l evolution. The first regional unconformity is pre-Albian. Poiana Mraconia 1 . The Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous succession is generally cornplete. arnphibolite. The Upper Cretaceous shows local episodes of fiysch (Hafeg. The principal Iithostratigraphic groups of Precambrian rnetarnorphic rocks and their position in the main structural units of the South Carpathians (aRer Kmutner. Petreanu. 1-19). the Ursu cornplex includes orllioclase-biotite-siIlimanitecordiente gneiss. 1994) (Fig. 1980). the interpreted tectonic boundary behnreen the Vaideeni and the Negovanu assemblages is rnarked by a Mn-rich discontinuous package of spessartine quartzite and schist or by a thin discontinuous quartzite layer. quartz-feldspar gneiss and leptinite. stacked during M2 colfision at intermediate crustal levels.

.

.

Tithonian. The Upper Triassic. the very condensed shallow-water Early Alpine successions suggest a proximal facies of European affinity.. ted to the reinterpretationof the Danubian as an allochthonous cnrstal fragment (e. imagined as a "suprafoiding nappen. 1996).g. The intra-Senonian "second Getic phasenresulted in a main detachment in front of the Severin . The Getic and Supra-Getic nappes involve two phases of thrusting with complex cross-cutting relationships between different thrust sheets. The Urgonian-Aptian strata of the eastern Fagaras Mountains are similar to those of the Transylvanian nappe in the Perqani Mountains. Geophysical data Megnetotelluric data in the western part of the South Carpathians revealed a crustal depression on the Getic foreland in front of the Danubian units. 1897). and Neocomian are absent Middle Triassic strata similar to those in the Median Dacides of the East Carpathians crop out only in the eastem part (Stan Valley and Fagaras Mountains). No transcrustal discontinuity has been recorded in the postulated suture zone between the Danubian and Getic units (St&ni&.. Palogeography and tectonic evolution Sirnilady to the East Carpathians. 1907. It was later realized that the Alpine cover is in fact more or less flat-laying . The reinterpretationof its intemal structure as a stack of pre-Alpine and Alpine nappes. The intra-Aptian 'first Getic phasen resulted in the closure of the Severin basin and partial overriding of the Severin flysch units by the Getic nappe. pers. The Danubian unit was initially regarded as an autochthonous basement (Murgoci. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata known in few small exposures are thin and with many stratigraphie gaps. The Supra-Getic nappe system is also interpreted to have been emplaced during the Middle Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous (pre-Maastrichtian) phases of overthnisting. Lower Jurassic. The Jurassic ophiolites of the Severin nappe are interpreted as remnants of an oceanic basin between the Getic and Danubian crustal fragments. This suggests that paleogeographic relations did not change by thrusting. Poiana Ruscg Mountains. and of the Late Paleogene Getic depression as a foredeep setting. lnconsistencies The nappe structure of the South Carpathians was developed starting from the classification of the metamorphic basement in two groups (Mrazec. The original mode1invoked a mechanism of regional folding common for the basement and cover sequences. communication. Berza et al.The Supra-Getic nappes described in the western Banat. 1910) due to its southward projection into the Pre-Balkans which are a continuation of the Moesian platform.Ceahlau flysch units. 1910) assigned them to the Danubian Autochthon and the Getic nappe. 1994). Murgoci (1905. and the Fi4garas Mountains involve mainly basement rocks.

1996).. diamond . Dallmeyer et al. ~A~ circle muscovite. 1994.amphibole concentrates (fmm Dallmeyer et al.Fig... 1-21. square whole rock phyilonite. b) ldealized scheme of the tectonostratigraphy of the South Carpathians (compiled from Berza et al. 1996). a) Sirnplled tectonic sketch of the South Carpathians with the existing ' O A ~ / ~data. Numben are locations refered in text - - .

To the north. The Danubian units are regarded as a complicated Alpine duplex that includes several Variscan nappes (e-g. 6-7 a). 1934) and the Severin nappe (Codarcea. 1-21). 1-21). 1994).. the premises of the original nappe interpretation have been disproved. The Getic nappe is now regarded as a large rigid nappe. strain recorded within the Getic nappe a few hundred rnetres from the inferred thrust contact is represented by steeply dipping foliation with spectacular horizontal stretching Iineation (Fig. the nappe mode1was further enriched with the Supra-Getic nappes (Streckeisen. 1-21). Codarcea. the mechanism of nappe emplacement was reinterpretedas a huge thrust shear zone at the sole of the Getic basement Thus. Berza et al. 1994) (Fig. extremity a wide northwest trending fault zone with subhorizontal stretching partly obliterated by normal faults overprints both the Getic (Tumu Ruieni) and the Danubian (Maru) units (locality 3 in Fig. Most of the northern contact is represented by the Zeicani low-grade mylonitic assemblage . 1934. 1-21). In the last two decades an impressive nurnber of local nappes have been added in different parts of the South Carpathians. 1994) exposed in a large tectonic window under the Getic structural cover (Fig. The presence of calc-alkaline "Banatitic" intrusions within the lelova assemblage conflicts with its interpretation as the lower plate. The southwestern and northern outline of the Danubian nappe complex with the Getic Nappe is supposed to be the locus of the major suture along which the Sevenn Ocean was subducted and its remnants squeezed and dragged under the advancing Getic front. thnist more than 100 km from the west or northwest during Cretaceous subduction of the Severin Ocean (e-g. Kinematic indicators along the postulated thrust surfaces of the huge basement nappes interpreted in the South Carpathians record oblique compression or extension associated to major transcurrent shear zones (see Chapter 6). A simplified scheme based on correlation of basement units as nappes along the South Carpathians includes some 22 Cretaceous nappes and several pre-Alpine nappes (Balintoni et al.. The kinematics of al1 basement overthrusts was never a mater of concem. similarly to the 'unquestionable' Getic Nappe.. The Getic thrusi. In the nothwesteni. The southwestern contact is represented by the Miocene northeast-southwest trending Rudaria fault (Iocality 1 in Fig. Precambrian. a vergence normal to the orogen was implicitiy assumed. Nevertheless. Berza et al. 1989. Sandulescu. 1940... The Danubian basernent originaily regarded as uautochthon"is currently interpreted as a stack of Alpine and pre-Alpine nappes (e-g. at Amienis (locality 2 in Fig. 1-21) which follows the Iithological boundary between the lelova gneiss amphibolite assemblage and the Sebeq-Lotru plagiogneiss-micaschist assemblage. Berra et aI. Le.277 b and since the intemal structure and stratigraphy of the metarnorphic assemblages was considered synrnetarnorphic. 1984) (Fig. 1-21). 1940)... Tectonic contacts along the shear zones have been consistently interpreted as major thrusts.

6-7 b). 1988). 6-3a) consistent throughout the adjacent Lescovifa shear zone. retrogressed assemblages mapped throughout an area of c. 1-21). the analysed region is located along the Cema-Jiu fault zone. Similady. 1-21).(Berza et al. Strain analysis along a segment of the inferred thnists of the Getic and Severin nappes on the Danubian basernent (locality 5 in Fig. 1-21) is orogen parallel (Fig.. within the Urgonian limestone cover of the Lower Danubian Lainici nappe (locality 7 in Fig. 6-7 c). 1994) is in fact a low-angle normal detachment shear zones defined by the Vidra chloritechloritoid-bearing phyllonitic assemblage (locality 3' in Fig. These data have been interpreted to record top-to-northeast shearing during Cretaceous nappe emplacement (Ratschbacher et al.. However. 1-21). KHutner et al.. 1-21).. Similariy to the Eastern Alps. 1993) record in fact orogen parallel. Strain within the Sebes-Lotni assemblage at PoQile de Fier. the contact between the main Danubian Dragsani and Lainici-Paius assemblages. interpreted as a Getic outlier on the eastem limb of the nappe antiform (locality 6 in Fig. 64). 1-21). The contact between the Cgleanu and Petreanu "nappesn(Berza et al.. stretching lineation records dextral transpression (Fig. dextral transpression as previously inferred from regional criteria (Berza and Draganescu. Within one of the Supra-Getic "nappesn(locality 14 in Fig.. 6-6). 1990) display orogen-parallel stretching lineation (Fig. 1996). 80 x I O km in the northern Fagaras Mountains (Pana. 1989). is an Alpine orogen-parallel shear zone (Dallmeyer et al. The eastem contact of the mafic-ultramafic lufi complex (locality 8 in Fig. is in fact consistent with orogen parallel shearing and associated normal detachment on transfer shear zones bounding a metamorphic core complex (Fig. 1994). 6-5). 1-21] showed that a penetrative foliation defined by low-grade mineral assemblages parallels the moderately northwest dipping contacts and contains a subhorizontal northeast trending stretching lineation.. 1988) with yet unknown kinematics. (locality 9 in Fig. 1-21) traditionally interpreted to be a major preAlpine thrust (e. At Moniorn (location IIin Fig. Strain under the sole thrust of the huge Getic nappe. In the northern Sebeq Mountains (localities 12 and 13 in Fig.. The western outline of the Supra-Getic Nappe corresponds to the Oravifa N-S trending vertical fault which is cut by Late Cretaceous "banatitenintrusions. Sm-Nd data for two samples of kyanite-bearing plagiogneiss from the Sebeg-Lotnr . kinematic indicators interpreted as "top-to-northeast" (Ratschbacher et al. The Infra-Danubian thnrsts. the southdipping contact was interpreted as a Laramian backthrust (Balintoni et al. Berza et al. strain analysis indicates material flow parallel to the local trend of the orogen in contrast to the originally inferred nappe vergence. 1981. 1-21) interpreted as a pre-Alpine abduction-related thrust is in fact a vertical low- grade shear zone with spectacular horizontal stretching lineation consistent throughout the Corbu shear zone (Fig.g. The Supra-Getic Thrusi.. consequently. 1993). The recorded strain is consistent with sinistral shear followed by high-angle nomal detachment (Fig.

296 Ma from medium-grade rocks of the Danubian units to represent Late Paleozoic cooling during isostatic uplit K-Ar dates of c. 118. Consequently. Codarcea. 3 9 ~a r / ~whole-rock r dates of c. respectively (Ratschbacher et al. These data are in good agreement with data on the gneiss-granite and carbonate lense-bearing assemblages from the Apuseni Mountains. 1940. 350°C isotherms. 1982) constrain 40AflArdates of c. 1996). One sample of a retrogressed plagiogneiss from the Suru carbonate assemblage yielded the same TDM but a less negative &Nd. suggesting similar protoliths with Early Proterozoic inheritance.. 70 Ma (Grünenfelder et al. 10 My younger dates from on muscovite (286-309 Ma) compared to homblende (322-319 Ma) suggest cooling during uplift Lithotectonic assemblages originally interpreted as Proterozoic stratigraphie units appear to be slices of the lower and middle crust assembled sometime prior to Late Carboniferous..5. 2 Ga and &Nd values of c. Consistency with interpretations in the Alps would require Eady Carboniferous collision (M2) and Late data record only the Late Carboniferous Carboniferous doming (M3). 500°C and c. relatively high-grade Vanscan tectonothemal event (Dallmeyer et al. 1989). 1983) for phyllonite from the chloritoid-bearing Schela shear zone suggest Late Cretaceous tectonism along the contact of the southem Danubian Lainici and Schela units. mode1ages of c. S&ndulescu. Balintoni et al.6 Ma within the hanging wall phyllonite close to the Getic / Supra-Getic contact record Aptian dextral transpression. 76 Ma (Ratschbacher et al. 1988. -14.. 99 Ma and c. The interpretation is questionable because conternporaneous cover strata in the western part of the Getic assemblage do not record metamorphism and c. K-Ar dates of c. "The first Getic phasenis interpreted to be Middle Cretaceous because the youngest strata in the underlaying Severin sequence are Lower Aptian. 1993). 99 Ma for a muscovite concentrate (Dallmeyer et al. aAr/39~r passage of the Sebeq-Lotru assemblage across the c. 1996) along the dextral transpression contact between the Danubian Dragsani and Lainici-Paiuq assemblages. and the Late Cretaceous 'second Getic phasen(e.. Similarly. 1993) may record development of mylonitic fabric during Cenomanian-Santoniandeml transpression.. value of -1O S . Tectonic contacts dip eastward and the oldest strata overlying both the Getic basement and the Severin sequence are Miocene. Scattered Carboniferous m ~ r r 9dates ~ r from muscovite and hornblende concentrates have been interpreted to record a penetrative.g. The large number of nappes is currently assigned to the first two acts of the three-act drama of catastrophic thrusting events in the Carpathians: the Middle Cretaceous 'first Getic phase".118 and c. fossiliferous OrdovicianSilurian strata (Stgnoiu. contemporaneous with the shean'ng of the northern Danubian units suggested by a Rb-Sr data of c. No unequivocal constraint exists for the timing of thrusting..assemblage yielded very similar T... . 86 Ma along the GetioDanubian contact at Petrosani from muscovite concentrate from quartzo-feldspathic and carbonate mylonite. 1984. The same tectonic phase is recorded by a 4 0 ~ r / 3 9date ~ r of c.

in a region of polyphase Tertiary strike-slip displacement (Ratschbacher et al. There is no constraint on the Late Cretaceous (*Laramiann)thrusting of the Severin-Getic nappes.. The main phase of Supra-Getic thrusting is interpreted to be Middle Cretaceous. ambiguous contacts of Jurassic limestone assigned to the Getic nappe and BammianAptian flysch strata assigned to the Ceahlàu nappe are covered by the Albian Postavaru conglomerates. in total confiict with their interpretation as Late Cretaceous nappes verging south and north. 1984). This is considered as the evidence of Middle Cretaceous ('Austrian") thrusting of the Getic nappe onto the Ceahlàu nappe (Siindulescu. a succession of Vraconian to Coniacian strata overlie Supra-Getic and Transylvanide units. The angular unconforrnity underlying the Cenomanian-Turonian Nadanova Strata would record the "first Getic phasenof thrusting. 1993).. respectively. their local westward thrusts are likely related to Tertiafy dextral transpression at the tip of the Moesian Platform Calealkaline intrusions located on the Danubian units contradict the current tectonic model which postulates westward subduction and underthnisting of the Danubian. Tectonic contacts overlain by Upper Senonian strata are believed to record "the second Getic phasen. "The second Getic phaseuinterpreted to have resulted in the final overthrust of the Severin and Getic nappes on the Danubian units is supposed to be intraSenonian because the youngest strata on the underlying Danubian units are Lower Senonian. although a thrust contact of the basement can not be mapped anywhere in that region. Le. on the extemal rnargin of the orogen similarly to the East Carpathians. Along the Mures River (locality 15 in Fig. There is no stratigraphie constraint on the two Cretaceous phases of thrusting in the Danubian units. conternporaneous with "the first Getic phasenbecause several tectonic contacts are overlain by Cenomanian deposits.along the Danube River. Barrernian-Aptian reef deposits of the Resifa-Moldova Noug Basin on Getic crust extend as isolated outliers on the adjacent Supra-Getic basement indicating the same Early Cretaceous facies zone and modest relative displacement between the two units. . Barremian-Aptian reef deposits of the Resita-Moldova Noua Basin on Getic crust are also present as isolated outlien on the adjacent Supra-Getic basement. The Tithonian-Neocornian Sinaia and Comamic flysch sequences assigned to the Severin nappe and interpretedto represent the subducting wedge dragged eastward at the sole of the Getic nappe are only located on the eastem margin of the Danubian units. 1-21). 1984). The first strata with pebbles of both Getic and Danubian rocks are Eocene strata at Bucova. Several hundred kilometres to the east near Brqov. at the juncüon of the South and East Carpathians. and the Turonian-Senonian 'wildfIyschn is interpreted to correspond to the initiation of the "second Getic phasen(Sandulescu. on the other side of the orogen.

the uppermost tectonostratigraphic unit is the complicated accretionary wedge of the Vardar zone s. Major tectonosfratigmphicunits From bottom to top. In the southem Dinarides.Kreasta zone of the Hellenides.) zones (Fig. To the north. Thnists in the Vardar Zone s.1. and the Vardar zone S. Rare Ladinian pillow lavas and radiolarites in the Dinarides suggest a Tnassic opening of the Vardar Ocean. f-22). Along the Adriatic coast. they merge into the Southem Alps of Ibly. 1976. Dimitrijevic and Dimitrijevic (f 973. 1976). consists of Late Jurassic serpentinite and gabbro foming isolated blocks within the mélange. It is geographically subdivided into the High Karst Zone to the southwest and the Pre-Karst Zone to the northeast. it is overridden by the Mesozoic deep-water deposits and Paleogene flysch of the Budva zone which represent the nortbemmost - continuation of the oceanic Pindos Cukali . Dinaric. 1991. are assumed to have involved the crystalline basement and to be responsible for largescale allochthony. Dimitrijevic.S. the bulk of the Vardar zone S. in the Istrian Peninsula and on the islands south of Split. Kovacs (1992) . To the NE. comprising the Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene Bosnian fiysch. Channel and Horvath. the following four southwest-verging major tectonostratigraphic units were differentiated: the Adriatic zone in an autochthonous position. 4 982.1. Pamic (1 986. and lntemal (or Vardar s. Locally. The ophiolitic melange and btueschist-facies rocks fomed during the Late . To the west. between the Vardar suture and the median line of the Adriatic Sea. DINARIDES The Dinarides are located south of the Pannonian basin. Herak (1986).1.1. Several strips of ophiolitic rocks in the intemal zone are interpreted as obducted oceanic crust dismembered by subsequent tectonism. the Adriatic zone is an almost unintempted LadiniamMiddle Eocene carbonate platforrn succesion followed by Eocene flysch strata. Mesozoic carbonates in the Pre-Karst Zone are overlain above a major unconformity by Upper Paleocene-Lower Miocene clastic strata. and to the south into the Hellenides.S. The Dinan'c zone is involved in a nappe cornplex that consists of the vast Triassic Cretaceous plafform carbonate sequence intempted by bauxite horizons rnainly in the Cretaceous. Lower Cretaceous intemediate and acidic calc-alkaline volcanics and granites are interpreted as island arc rnagrnatism. overttinist by the Durmitor Upper Jurassic ophiolitic melange and flysch.19931. the Vardar zone is covered by Neogene to Recent succession of the Pannonian Basin. f987). The following summary of the geology of the Dinarides is based on Aubouin (1970). the Drinja-lvanjica units. Paleogeogmphic and tectonic evolution The Dinaric zone is interpreted as a thin-skinned thrust-fold belt overlying the carbonatic platforni of the Adriatic promontory of Africa (Channel and Horvath. However. overthnist by the Budva.7.

1994). b) Alpine stratigraphy for the Dinarides-right and Southem Alps-left (adapted from Tari. a) Simplified tectonic sketch of the Dinandes. . 1-22.Fig.

Bechstadt et al. The Lombard basin has a distinct deep-water Jurassic sequence.. when an E-W fiysch trough developed perpendicular to the direction of the underlying Early Alpine zones. 1986) which itself.Bigi et al. To the south. the Eocene Friuli flysch correlates with the Late Eocene flysch of the Adriatic zone. Major tecfonostratigmphic units The following summary is based on several synthesis papers including Winterer and Bosellini (1981). Tectonic evolution of the Southem Alps The Alpine evolution of the Southern Alps started with Middle Triassic rnagmatism. The Adamello..g. The Belluno Trough has a distinct deep-water Jurassic facies overlain by Cretaceous pelagic carbonates. irnbricates or as a local subduction zone.. The subdivision of the Southem Alps is based on eariy Alpine facies zones. 1978) with a cornponent of left-lateral strike-slip (Doglioni. (1990). Bergell..8.1. and the Friuli Plafform (Fig. Although geochemical studies were inconclusive. and Pohoj e intrusions suggest an Oligocene . above another major unconformity. Schanborn. the Trento Plateau. SOUTHERN ALPS The Southem Alps are bounded to the North by the Insubric (Periadriatic) Line. Doglioni and Bosellini (1987). It is unconforrnably overiain by an Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene clastic sequence (Massari et al. (1990). and subrnarine fans - accumulated during the Middle Oligocene Eariy Miocene.. is overlain by Late Neogene to Recent clastics. Jurassic strata record the opening of the Penninic ocean to the west Subsequent compression is indicated by the development of a south-vergent thrust and fold belt involving the Late Cretaceous Lombard Rysch. the magrnatic activity is related to rifting (e. 1990) and thnists within the Eocene Temate Formation (e-g. the Belluno Trough. Bernoulli and Winkler. 1987). Miocene calcalkaline igneous activity including andesite are spatialIy related to the Sava SE-trending dextral strike-slip fault zone. characterized by - deposition of radiolarites during the Bathonian Oxfordian. These roughly N-trending zones include from W to E the Lombard Basin. The Maastrichtian Paleogene Bosnian flysch is interpreted either as a flysch basin in front of the major thrusts of the Vardar s. (e-g. 1. Bernoulli et al. The stratigraphic sequence of the Friuli Platforrn dominated by shallow-water carbonates is comparable to that of the Adriatic zone of the Dinarides.. The Trento Plateau represents a relatively elevated and undeformed carbonate platforni from Early Mesozoic to Jurassic age. the Southem Alpine foreland is hidden below the Po Plain. Water depth remained considerable throughout the Cretaceous until the Turonian. In the Vardar zone. covered unconforrnably. Similady. 1992).Jurassic-EarIy Cretaceous closure/subduction of the Vardar ocean. by Upper Eocene carbonates. 1-23).. Massari (1990).

1-23. . a) Simplified tectonic sketch of the Southem Alps. 2-1 3 b) Paleogeographicreconstruction of the South Alpine realm and its northem prolongation in the original position of the Drauzug and the Transdanubian Mountains (modiied aRer Winterer and Bosellini. 1981).Fig. for Alpine straügraphy see Fig.

Its heterogeneitieswere interpreted as distinct Variscan complexes (Fig. and accretion. The upper. 1986).9. in general by deltas prograding from the northwest. THE INTRA-CARPATHIAN REGION Three major tectonostratigraphic levels suggest three main stages in the Alpine evolution of the 400 km wide intra-Carpathian region. "Tisia". A south-vergent Middle Miocene thnrst and fold belt in the Southern Alps accommodateci up to 100 km shortening and cuts the eariier Dinaric structures in the eastern part 1. byproducts of subduction between crustal blocks and island arcs now inside the Carpathian arc. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies whose amplitudes increase with the thickness of fill in the Bekes Basin of Hungary and Romania and in the southeastem-most Slovakian basin are interpreted to indicate syn-depositional shortening of open oceanic-lithosphere gaps (Hamilton. drifting.extensional stage along the Periadriatic lineament (Laubscher. consisting of a Miocene to Quaternary succession that covers almost the entire area and occurs in a number of small. the Carpathians and the Dinarides (eg. Seismic-reflection profiles across many basins show no clear structure other than compaction of their fill. the subdivision and age problems of the crystalline basement are very controversial. mainly subsurface Cretaceous and Tertiary volcanic rocks are currently interpreted to be. The lower level is interpreted to consist of a collage of numerous Mesozoic-Paleozoic tectonostratigraphic units distinguished by their Eariy and Eoalpine lithofacies andlor structure. which suggests that they were widely separated before aggregation. situated beniveen the Alps. Mesoalpine level consists of isolated Paleogene basins with either 'flysch" (Szolnok-Maramures and Podhale) or 'epicontinentaln(Krappfeld. Neoalpine level comprises the Neogene Pannonian 8asin S.S. followed by lacustrine and terrestrial sedimentation. The basement of the Pannonian Basin S. Regional tectonic interpretations include: -an aggregate of accreted terranes that record Mesozoic and Cenozoic riffing. Kober. 1990). As isotopic age determinations have yielded very dispersed data. Slovanian. The upper strata represent largely passive filling. 1931). a number of small continental and island-arc fragments were squashed together . Hungarian. and Transylvanian) sequences. Abundant Neogene volcanic rocks are known in outcrops and subsurface. was initially considered a median mass. Paleozoic to Mesozoic facies and sequences differ behiveen neighbouring crustal blocks. irregular and diversely oriented subbasins (locally over 8 km thick).. 1987). The middle.S. The Oligocene Venetian basin is considered the foredeep of the SW-vergent Eocene Dinaric thrust-and-fault belt that extends to the Southem Alps (Doglioni. 1-24). The widespread.

.

The Permo-Mesozoic succession of the Bakony unit unconformably overlies Hercynian Iow-grade metarnorphic rocks. A thick (>3 km) Upper Triassic carbonate platfom sequence is overiain without interruption by deep-water Jurassic radiolarites. 1988). (1995).9. the Bakony platform to the Trento platfom. the TDM can be divided into three paleogeographic units. The following summary is based on Balla (1982. continuous Mesozoic sedimentation was terminated in the Aptian. Bükk. the Bükk and Meliata sequences show a Dinarictype evolution.Jantsky et al. 1985. 1975.1987a. 1987b). in contrast to the coeval clastic Gosau facies of the Eastern Alps. In the Zala Basin. 1982. 5-21). 1984. Pre-Tertiary rocks are exposed in the Transdanubian (TDM). To the northeast. 1986. According to Winterer and Bosellini (1981) and Kazmér and Kovacs (1985) these units c m be correlated with the South Alpine paleogeographic units in the following way: the Gerecse platforni corresponds to the Belluno trough. The Senonian is unconformably overfain by a Middle to Upper Eocene carbonate and clastic sequence including Upper Eocene andesite and tuffs. 1. to the south and southeast. By the Early Cretaceous. 1-25) is bounded to the northwest and north by the Raba-Hurbanovo-Didsjen6 Line and the northern tectonic boundary of the Meliata sequence. An unconformity-boundedAptian to Cenomanian . 1990). and Haas et al. While the early Alpine successions of the Transdanubian Mountains show a clear South Alpine affinity. (1988). Arkai (1985. 1985. the boundary is uncertain as the pre-Tertiary basement is covered by Miocene volcanics and the Neogene fil1 of the Transcarpatian Basin. and southem West Carpathians (Meliata) mountains. 1988. Based on contrasting pre-Miocene stratigraphy and structure. the Panonnian Basin can be subdivided into the northern (Pelso) and southem (Tisia) units (see Fig. and the Zala basin to the Lornbardian basin with deep-water black shales (Fig. Royden. Based on the Liassic sedimentary record. Kihmér and Kovdcs (1989). whereas those in the southem part are much more like those of Europe to the north. Hamilton. a Senonian carbonate succession was deposited above a major unconformity. by the poorly understood Mid-Hungarian Line.during Tertiary time (Szadeczky-Kardoss. 1987).1 The North Pannonian Unif The North Pannonian Unit (Fig. Their paleogeographic positions have been reversed by cornplex plate motions: Jurassic fossils in limestone on the crustal fragments of the northern part of the inter-arc region are of southem Mediterranean types. 1-23). -moderate Tertiary dismption of a previous coherent mass by Iinked strike-slip faults (Sandulescu. Balla. shallow-water carbonates were again being depasited. The Middle Triassic volcanoclastic sequence is similar to that of the Southem Alps.

1-25. . 1994). a) Sirnplified tectonic sketch of the North Pannonian Unit: b) Alpine stratigraphy: (adapted from Ta ri.Fig.

To the norlhwest.and 'daten from the Bakony Mountains are interpreted as Ordovician formations with a low-grade Variscan overprint. the eariy Mesozoic succession is similar to the units above but a significantly different Eariy Cretaceous evolution is suggested by Barremian fïysch depositç. and acritarchs. close to the HungarianSlovakianborder. psammites. as no other Middle Proterozoic ages are known in the region. A Late Eocene transgressive sequence is overiain by Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene continental clastics. and Soshartyan). carbonate beds. the basement is known from a few outcrops and numerous boreholes.Lower Albian clastics. conodonts. behrveen the Balaton lineament and the Raba Fault zone. A Rb/Sr date of 962+39 Ma is suspect. 1987). maris with graptolites. no Vafiscan rnetarnorphisrn has affected the area ( ~ r k aet i al. in the Uppony Mountains. At the northern extremity. . The gneiss-graniticcrust with kyanite-sburolitesillimanite K-Ar data on amphibole and muscovite yiefded 307+/-14 Ma and 222+/-9 Ma. and volcanics. metamorphoseci under very-low to lowgrade conditions during the Variscan orogeny (?). medium-pressure metamorphism (gamet.1987). The distribution of the very-low grade rocks suggests over 20 km left lateral offset along the Raba Line. To the northeast. an area of 2 km2 exposes basernent rocks of uncertain affinity. staurolite) followed by a low pressure overprint (up to andalusite) related to the Variscan granitoid intrusions (~rkay. several boreholes encountered gamet micaschist and gneiss in a structural position that may correspond to the SW extension of the Veporic basement in the West Carpathians. Intense shearing and retrogression resulted in quartz. respectiveiy. drillholles reached a pady retrogressed rnarble-bearing assemblage that records medium-grade. Petrographic descriptions suggest that the porphyroid-bearing sequence from Bakony and northeastern Hungary is an Alpine Iow-grade rnylonitic assemblage contemporaneous with the retrogression of the Balaton gneissic basement and prograde metamorphisrn in the BükkUppony Mountains. Middle Devonian to Middle Carboniferous strata includes basaltic lavas and pyrodastics related to subsidence and are affected by very-low to low-grade Alpine metamorphism.and feldsparporphyroclast-bearing low-grade mylonite ("porphyroids"). In the Gerecse unit. Significantiy. In northem Hungary (Szecseny. Diosjeno. Paleozoic strata of uncertain age include pelites.sequence is followed by the Senonian carbonate succession in the Zala Basin. MetamorphicAWagma tic basement Basement rocks of the Northern Pannonian unit are very pooriy exposed in the Transdanubian Mountains (Figs 1-24 and 1-25). These are followed by deepwater Aptian . Post-kinematic Varisan granitoids intruding along the Balaton fault zone yielded Rb-Sr and K-Ar dates of 310-330 Ma at Balaton and K-Ar dates of 280-290 Ma at Vefence (Balogh et al. The K6drhegy umetasiltstonenIAlso6rs "porphyroidn. Southeast of Lake Balaton. 1983)..

and the contemporaneous calc-alkaline volcanics in the Bükk Mountains. Oallmeyer et al. and Mesozoic ophiolite fragments with chert and shales. and deep-water - sedimentation with turbidites and olistostromes persisted during Late Triassic Jurassic time. 1-24). 1996). 1985). between the Balaton and Zagreb -Tokaj Hernad tectonic lineaments is the Igal-Bükk region (Fig. In the Bükk Mountains.e. To the northeast. 1993. It is involved in north-verging thnists in the West Carpathians and in south verging thrusts in the Bükk Mountains. No pre-Alpine crystalline basement is known. ~ r Malusky et al. 1985). Upper Permian fluviatile and iagoonal siltstone and dolomite. the carbonate shelf was drowned. a ~ r p data. 1992).. Tectonic evolution of the North Pannonian unit Widespread Middle Triassic volcanism in the Transdanubian region was regarded as an "aborted rift" (Bechstadt et al. i. the northem end of the Vardar oceanic realm. marine mainly carbonate Triassic with tuffitic intercalations. Lower and Middle Perrnian sandstone. The lgal unit is generally interpreted as the connection between the Dinaride and Bükk-Meliata. The Meliata sequence is correlated with the Vardar zone of the Dinarides. The long Iived sedimentary basin records no Van'scan metamorphism. the lgal unit projectç into the Bükk. Andesite volcanism is dated by tufk intercalated in the fossiliferous Late Eocene strata and K-Ar on lavas (30 Ma). as subduction magmatism (Kovacs. Uppony. The Lower Triassic is developed in a neritic carbonate facies with characteristic black dolomites. The pelagic Jurassic sedimentation in the Transdanubian units suggest an oceanic realm to the NW in present-day coordinates (Galacr et al. the Meliata branch of the Vardar Ocean opened in the Middle Triassic and expanded as an oceanic domain until the Jurassic.. Formations of uncertain Paleozoic age are similar on either side of the Balaton tectonic lineament suggesting that this is not a sharp cnistal discontinuity. but more likely a wide fault zone. - To the southeast.. 155 Ma.Extrerne alkali magmatism: monchiquite dyke 60 Ma. The whole eariy Alpine sequence is metamorphosed to zeolite to lower greenschist grade (~rkai et al. slate. 1978). The Middle Triassic includes calc-alkaline intermediate to acidic volcanics. The Meliata sequence crops out in the southwestem part of the Bükk Mountains and in the southem West Carpathians.. dolomite and Iimestone. The Eariy Cretaceous flysch in the Gerecse Mountains is interpreted to be related to the closing of the .. and Szendro Hills where a continuous sedimentary sequence from Devonian to Upper Triassic shows close reiationship to the Southem Alps and Dinarides.. It consists of deep-water Triassic-Jurassic strata with ophiolites of Middle Jurassic (Darnd Hill) and Upper Jurassic (Szavaskt)) age. and records Middle Jurassic high pressure low temperature metamorphism (c. It includes marine Upper Carboniferous limestone. The stratigraphie column ranging from Devonian (?) 1 Carboniferous to Oligocene is poorly known. By the end of the Camian.

the belt is interpreted to record subduction of oceanic lithosphere. 1983).. The belt of strained strata and the volcanic rocks are considered the evidence of a long and wmplex history of rifting. 1980).. 1988). 1975. 1990). a belt of strained Middle Cretaceous basalt and abyssal pelagic sediments. the belt swings north-eastward into northem Romania. 1987) about 50 km wide trends northeast across Hungary (Fig. 1988. and Upper Cretaceous through Upper Oligocene maris and tuhidites (Dicea et al.. Csontos et al. Baldi-Beke and Nagymarosy.... 1984). 1992). was accompanied by low-temperature and high-pressure metamorphism (Arkai. the "Maramures Transcarpathian zone" consists of broken formation and scaly clay that includes abundant fragments of ophiolite and disrupted deep-water clastic strata at least as young as Oligocene (Dicea et al. An alternative interpretation suggests that the Szolnock - Maramures cornplex is the Palaeogene fiIl of a narrow transtensional basin fomed in a strikeslip system (Royden and Baldi. (e-g. The Senonian of the Zala and Bakony units and the whole Pateogene of the Northem Pannonian are considered to be post-tectonic.. 1982. Hamilton. although large-scale allochthoneity was suggested based on subsurface data (Horvath and Rurnpler. Fiilop et al. 1988). Royden and Baldi. Here.g.Vardar ocean (Sztanb. 1986. Haas et al. Balla. convergence and subduction in the intra-Carpathian region (Szadeczky-Kardoss. 1990). The emplacement of numerous south-verging Eoalpine nappes - (including the MeliataSzavaskll nappes) between 115 90 Ma (K-Ar dates. and sparse well data (FUlop et al. Exposed and subsurface Miocene volcanics (andesite and allied) north of the belt are interpreted to define the paired vokanic arc trending west-southwestward frorn the southeast border of Slovakia across Hungary. It merges with the polymictic melange belt of the main Carpathian arc. Defined as a Tertiary mélange in an accretionary wedge. epiwntinental or molasse-type sequences. . 1986). 1-26). It is overiain by undefomed upper Miocene and younger strata. In contrast. Nagyrnarosy. Szolnock-Maramureg@ch belt Approximately between the North and South Pannonian units. Along strike in the other direction. 1980. 1987) suggest its continuation in the subsurface across southwest Hungary. The west-southwest prolongation of the Iinear magnetic anomalies related primarily to Cretaceous basalts within the strained belt.. 1981. 1990) The Paleogene basin was also interpreted as a pull-apart feature related to regional dextral strike-slip (e. A w a ~ o et s al. only minor Middle Cretaceous thnists have been recognized in the Transdanubian region (Balla.

Bleahu et al. 1981. The igneous petrochemistry and sedimentologic characteristics of the western part of the Mures Basin have also been interpreted as those of a marginal basin developed on continental crust (Lupu et al.1. staurolite. Bleahu et al. The basement of the Great Hungarian Plain between the Apuseni Mountains to the east and the Zagreb -Tokaj fracture zone crops out only in the Mecsek Hills. personai communication.g. sheared and retrogressed to quartz-albite-epidote schist with interbedded marbles (Kamenci. Balintoni. 1976. age.2 T The Eariy Pliocene subsidence of the Panonian Basin imposed a limitation on direct obsewation. 1973. 1984) were proposed to accommodate the juxtaposition of tholeiitic and calc-atkaline rocks. staurolite-bearing plagiogneiss was interpreted to represent the Baia de Aries nappe of the Apuseni Mountains (Dimitrescu. in Vojvodina (Yugoslavia) and in northem Banat (Romania) core samples indicate a mediun. micaschist and arnphibolite are variably retrogressed. 1995). or changing subduction polarity (Sandulescu. Models of a single arc (Ciofiica and Nicolae. . Riidulescu et al. composition. 1993).1994. Granitic bodies are present around Szeged and North of Endrod. Mecsek-type granite and migmatic gneiss are intensely retrogressed. 1993) but core samples from the Transylvanian basement are calc-alkaline igneous rocks (1. gamet-bearing plagiogneiss. 1984. . 1975).. Westward subduction beneath the Apuseni region was considered to have resulted in subduction magrnatism and the thnisting of a large number of antithetic nappes but the number. west of Szeged. 1994)..to high-grade metamorphic basement that includes almandine. lanovici et al. 1-1) (S~ndulescu. 1983). In the divide between Danube and TÏsa rivers and Trans-Tisa regions. sillimanite gneiss and migmatites. Nicolae. Silndulescu. Eariy attempts to integrate the Apuseni Mountains into Alpine plate tectonics (e. 1981). Intercalations of marble and dolomites are known only at Kiskundorozsma. and boundaries of the proposed nappes varied between authors (e-g. Bleahu. 1973. From Mohacs to Szeged and Debrecen. In the south-eastern part close to the Hungarian-Romanian border the migmatic gneiss crust and the Battonya granite may represent the westward extension of the Cadnt assemblage exposed in the Apuseni Mountains. At Backa. Radulescu and Sandulescu.. Near Battonya. dual converging arcs (Savu. Data are provided by lithological logs and isolated exposures from the Mecsek and Apuseni mountains (Fig. The present spatial distribution of rock assemblages and their temporal relationships are incompatible with ocean opening and subduction. suggesting Alpine reactivation. 1-26). Remnants of the Tethys Ocean were postulated to be obscured by Terüary cover of the Transylvanian Basin (Fig. 1981). 1976) inferred the Mures Basin to represent the main branch of the Tethys Ocean.

- . A . (adapted fmm Tan. 1-26.Fig. M Mecsek Mountains. a) Simplified tectonic sketch of the South Pannonian Unit. b) Alpine stratigraphy. 1994).Apuseni Mountains.

The thirteen nappes originally defined by Bleahu et al. The Transylvanides of the southern Apuseni Mountains originate in an island arc and a marginal basin related to Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous subduction under the Apuseni continental crust (Nicolae.The Alpine nappes in the Apuseni Mountains (Fig.and references therein). 1976. Bleahu.. a cover nappe of Pemian to Aibian strata. . 1-27). 1981) involving at least seven "Auskian" nappes (Balintoni. the pre-Gosau tectonism resulted in the emplacement of the Apusenide and the Laramian tectonism in the reactivation of the Transylvanides (Balintoni. c) the Arieseni Nappe of metabasites and Permian rhyolite-bearing clastic rocks overlain by Triassic carbonate cover strata. b) the Biharia Nappe consisting of the Biharia. The sedimentary cover consists of Permian to Turonian strata. (1981) were redistributed by Balintoni (1994) to Middle and Late Cretaceous (Fig. Cladova lithotectonic assemblages. Middle Cretaceous tectonism resulted in the emplacement of the Transylvanides.. b) the Moma Nappe consisting of Permian to Triassic cover strata. The interpretation of the Mures igneous suite as an ophiolite cornplex led to ophiolite abduction models (lanovici et al. The Codm Nappe System includes frorn top to bottom: a) the Vasdu-Colesti Nappe consisting of Triassic to Lower Jurassic strata. e) the Valani Nappe. The Lararnian Transylvanides are nappes resulting from the Late Cretaceous reactivation of the Middle Cretaceous nappes interpreted in the southem Apuseni Mountains. From top to bottom these are: a) the Baia de Anes Nappe represented by the medium-grade Baia de Arieq assemblage. Poiana. 1936). The Apusenides are considered pre-Gosau nappes north of the Transylvanides. Nappes consisting mainly or only of basernent are assigned to the upper Biharia Nappe System and nappes consisting of basernent and cover sequences are assigned to the lower Codru Nappe System. d) the Finis Nappe consisting of the medium-grade Codni assemblage and associated granitoids and a Permian to Neocornian sedimentary cover. and Belioara low-grade assemblages. Pgiuseni. The outline of the interpreted Laramian overthnists in the southern Apuseni Mountains is roughly parallel to the Carpathian bend and interpreted to have resulted during clockwise rotation of the Apuseni and South Carpathians crustal fragments around the Moesian promontory of stable Europe (Ratschbacher et al. 1994). 1994. 1-27) are inferred to have been emplaced during three tectonic events: middle Cretaceous. i992). The Codru Nappe System overthnists the Bihor "Autochthonous Unitnconsisting of the medium-grade Somes assemblage intruded by the Muntele Mare granite. 1993). pre-Gosau and Laramian. Middle Cretaceous ("Austriann)tectonism was originally inferred to have resulted the emplacement of a single nappe (Ilie. The Biharia Nappe System consists of three major basement nappes. the Biharia. the Upper Paleozoic Highis granitoids and the Pemian(?) Bgisoara conglomerates. c) the Dieva-Batrinescu-Vetre Nappe represented by three tectonic slices of Permian andfor Triassic cover strata.

V. 38 Variscan overthrust. 22 . 12 .Muncelu Scale. 3 TuronianSenonian. 41 . 42 strike-slip displacement.Fenes Nappe.Vagdu-Colesti Nappe.Neogene strata. 18 Valea Muntelui Nappe. 28 . plate boundary.Bihor Unit. 15 .Vâlcani Nappe. P-G . Li . 19 .Colful Trasc&lui Nappe. Tectonic sketch of the Apuseni Mountains with the traditional Alpine nappe interpretation ( a mBalintoni.Middle Cretaceous overthrust.Senonian. 6 Banatite igneous rocks. 1-27.South Carpathian basement.Dieva-BamnescuVetre Nappe. 27 . 31 .30 .HighisPoiana Nappe. 40 outline of igneous rocks. 7 Eocretaceous granite.Lararnian overthrust. Apusenides-Codru Nappe System: 26 .B.fault. 34 reverse fault. 1994): 1 . 9 Curechiu-StLlnija Nappe. 36 . Laramian Transylvanides: 8 . 13 .Bucium Unit.lzvoarele Nappe. 37 .Grosi Unit. 2 .Moma Nappe.Piatra Graitoare Scale.Baia de Arieq Nappe.Coniacian.transfomi fault. 5 Neogene igneous rocks.Lipova Nappe.Bejan Unit Apusenides-Biharia Nappe System: 23 . Vultureasa-Belioara Series.CClpâlnag-Techereu Nappe. M .Bedeleu Nappe. 10 .dip-slip displacement. 24 Biharia Nappe. 43 . 11 Cris Nappe. 4 Vreconian . Middle-Cretaceous Transylvanides: 16 .Bozeq Beds. 44 tectonic contact in general. 21 CZibesti Unit. H-P . 33 . 45 . 14 .Fig. 29 . 32 .Vulcan Nappe.Pre-Gosau overthrust.Finis-Ferice-Garda-Urdt Nappe@). - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 39 transgression. 35 .Frasin Nappe. 20 Ardeu Unit. 17 .25 Arieqeni Nappe.

~Ccotdlnpk M 81-hu cf 0 1 t19811.d and inl.rpre!rd ûy I Balinlonr.STRUCTURAL MAP MOUNTAINS OF THE APUSENI Comp1. 1-27. . Geoioqicoi Wop of Romania scole I YI000 ond persanal dala Fig.

They are of Eariy and Middle Miocene age in Slovakia. In the Apuseni Mountains the interrnediate calc-alkaline volcanic rocks occur mostly along a NW-SE alignment that cuts the supposed Tethys suture.2 Ma.. In the Pannonian Basin. shoshonitic. No age andfor geochemical distinction can be made between the Neogene volcanic rocks from . K-trachytic. Back-arc extension would thus be contemporaneous with subduction and collision along the Carpathians arc. The space and time distribution of the Neogene to Quaternary volcanism are interpreted to suggest three patterns: 1) Miocene acidic volcanism. Neogene to Quaternary volcanism in the Carpathians-Pannonian Region The following summary is tased on synthesis articles by Kovacs et al. intnide the Pienniny belt generally interpreted to mark the main Tethys suture zone. considered arc-type subduction-related. calc-alkaline mainly interrnediate stratovolcanic complexes were fonned first in the West Carpathians and later in the East Carpathians.10. the Neogene volcanic rocks become younger eastward (Balla 1981. Similarly to the structures of the Carpathian arc. 2) Miocene to Pleistocene rnostiy intemediate calc-alkaline arc-type magmatism related to contemporaneous subduction beneath the Carpathians arc. 1995 a. Where both are present. Middle to Late Miocene and Pliocene age in Ukraine. Their assignment to two distinct tectonic phases does not seem justified. and the volcanic arc consists of a lineament that intersects the local trend of the inferred subduction wedge. alkali-basaltic. Calc-alkaline subduction-related magmatism interpreted to have started at c.5 Ma. KaliEiak and f e c (1995). andesitic eruption centres are located on the intersection of major NESW tectonic lineaments with a set of perpendicularfaults.. 1992. 3) alkaline (shoshonitic. From 17 to 0. and of Late Miocene and Pliocene in Romania.6 Ma).. The NeogeneQuatemary rnagmatic event does not show interpretable age progressions and chernical zoning. KoneEny et al. Recent K-Ar data indicate a more complex picture of volcanic events (Pécskay et al. and alkali basalt volwnism overlap in time and space.. 1995 b). The only region where a clear age progression was documented is in the East Carpathians but the progression is along the postulated subduction zone. Pécskay et al. Lyashkevich (1995). Rocks of this cycle (12. (1995). Poka 1988). (1995 a. and ultrapotassic) volcanisrn postdating convergence and related to back-arc extension. 20 Ma with acid calc-alkaline explosive high-volume eruptions in the Pannonian Basin and West Carpathians. the alkali volcanism is younger and follows calc-alkaline volcanism usually after a gap. However.1. in central Slovakia and the south Harghita and Peqani mountains. The alkaline rocks interpreted to record back-arc extension following convergence have yielded two date groups: 17 to 7 Ma and 6 to 0. 1995 b). calc-alkaline. lnconsistencies Magmatic rocks cannot be confidentiy matched with correlative sutures.

High initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.the Carpathian volcanic arc and the Pannonian Basin.51245) in Me oldest erupted rhyolite and dacite indicate a crustal source. e-g. 1995..710-0. Lexa et al. 1996). Trace elements and Sr. 1995).. Except for the southernmost segment.. are representative of parental or close to parental manüe source partial melts (Seghedi and Szakacs. and Pb isotopes in most of the East Carpathians chain are more consistent with a depleted MORBsource mantle ( the European Asthenospheric Reservoir) than with enriched mantfe. This is in conflict with the supposed cuwed subduction wedge which would imply a bent subducting slab and a curved isobath corresponding to the depth of magma generation. Multi-system isotope studies concluded that there is no unequivocal evidence of enriched isotopic characteristics of parental magmas by addition of sediments to the mantle source via subduction (Mason et al. volcanism started with acid rocks which precludes their genesis through magmatic differentiation from basaltic magma. K-enrichment. The Neogene-Pleistocene igneous activity in the Carpathian-Pannonian region appears to have initiated through crustal melting and the development of magma-chambers at midcrustal levels. Alternative tectonic models for Neogene to Quaternary magmatism can incorporate plausible heating or decampression rnechanisms for regional magma generation. a mande-derived basalt sampled a rnarkedly different lower crust and mixed with cnistal rnelts. %/Ca vs. BalCa. Nd. or by fractional crystallization within a crusta1charnber of a mantle-derived andesitic magma. in the following stages.. even the rnost basic. and homogenization processes in a deep crustal zone.5127. is evident at the southem end of the range.6180>7%. Differences in the isotopic characteristics of parental magmas in different parts of the Carpathian-Pannonian region may have resulted from mixing. storage. The evolution trends on fractionation plots start at a certain distance from the partial melting line and are parallel to the crustal fractionation line. assimilation.71 1) and low 'ONdpUNd (0. and Sr-Nd systematics indicate that none of the ECVA rocks. Their assignment to contrasting tectonic environments (arc vs. Masson et al. back-arc.). resulting in smail-volume shoshonitic bodies. . The arc-like geochemical patterns could result from mantle geochemical processes unrelated to subduction. Coupled variations between radiogenic and oxygen isotopes indicate that crustal assimilation and fractional crystallizationwere the most likely processes to produce the enriched radiogenic isotopic signatures in most magmas ('"NdrWNd ~0. 1993) does not seem justified. The East Carpathians Neogene to Pleistocene volcanoes (ECVA) define a 160 km long chain that cuts the strongly divergent inner flysch units. It can be explained either by partial melting of the lower crust that has facilitated the intrusion of mantle derived materials and accornpanying magma mixing and assimilation processes.

a mantie-derived basâlt sampled a markedly different lower cmst and mixed with crustal melts. in the following stages. The arc-like geochernical patterns could result from mantle geochemical processes unrelated to subduction. Alternative tectonic models for Neogene to Quatemary magmatism can incorporate plausible heating or decompression rnechanisms for regional magma generation.The Neogene-Pleistocene igneous activity in the Carpathian-Pannonian region appears to have initiated through crustal melting and the developrnent of magma-chambers at midcrustal levefs. .

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APPENDIX II GEOCHEMlCAL DATA FROM ROCKS OF THE HIGHIS-BIHARIA SHEAR ZONE APUSENI MOUNTAINS .

Average compositions within the unsheared igneous cornplex.Table 11-1. Highis Mountains (%) .

- Table 11-2 Chernical composition of Si02 rich rocks within Paiuseni assemblage of the HBSZ Major elements concentrations (%) Minor elements concentrations (ppm) .

Chernical composition of the granitic rocks from HBSZ in the Biharia and Gilau mountains Major elernents concentrations (%) Minor elernents concentrations (ppm) .Table 11-3.

Highis Mountains Major elements concentrations (36) Minor elements concentrations(ppm) . Chernical composition of mafic rocks within Paiuseni assemblage of the HBSZ.Table 114.

Chernical wmpositions of the sheared mafic rocks fiom HBSZ in the Siharia and Gilau mountains Major elements concentrations (%) Minor elements concentrations (ppm) .Table 11-5.

Chernical compositions of rocks within the "Black Series" Major elements wncentrations (%) Minor elements concentrations (ppm) .318 Table 114.

BiharÏa and southem Gilau mountains. Major elements discrimination plots for the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Highis-Biharia shear zone. .. sheared grey homfels associated layered phyllonite similar rocks in the Biharia Mts. Highis Mountains. a) Paiuseni assemblage. Biharia assemblage mafic rocks massive sheared aadic rocks massive sheared Arlesenl assemblage A (b Fig. 11-1. b) "theBlack Series". c) Biharia and Arieseni assemblages.Pafuseni assemblage mafic rocks 0 massive Ir sheared aadk rocks igneous texture 6 'metaconglomerate' + average composiîionsof particular rocktypes in the Highis igneous complex + The Black Series 0 igneow texture rn black homfels sheared black homfels c grey homfels .

.AFM ' . 11-1. Symbols as in Fig. Geneal petrochernical characteristics of the igneous and rnetamorphic rocks within the Highis-Biharia Shear zone. . . .. -+ ACF .+ 2 -*7- - --' + . b) 'the Black Series". Biharia and southem Gilau mountains. . ' Fig 11-2. a) the Paiuseni assemblage. Highis Mountains. C) Biharia and Aneseni assemblages. + . . -.

II-?.Pearce 1975 Shervais 1982 (fig 2) A 550 l- Pearce & Norry 1979 (fig 3) ' 1 I Fig. b) "the Black Series".c) Biharia and Aneseni assemblages. .Highis Mountains. 11-3.tectonic discrimination plots for rocks of the Highis-Biharia shear zone. Biharia and southem Gilau mountains. a) Paiuseni assernblage. Trace elements . Symbols as in Fig.

B Pearce 8 Cann 1973 (fig2) Pearce & Cann 1973 (Fig. - Fig 11-3 (continued). Trace elements tectonic discrimination plots for rocks of the HighisBiharia shear zone. . .. Highis Mountains.nllw Pearce 8 Cann 1973 3) (m. b) 'the Black Series".c) Biharia and Arieseni assemblages. .a . 8- ~ i lrm WP&D OFB: 8 LKE A. . . 11-1.. Symbols as in Fig. . n11m . Biharia and southem Gilau mountains. a) Paiuseni assemblage.4) .

igneous rocks from the Biharia-Gilh rnountains are well grouped in the gabbroquartz dionte and tonalite (trondhjernite) fields suggesting bimodal magmatisrn (Fig. Mafic rocks show a transitional tholeiiticicalc-alkaline character (Fig. The SiO.-rich rocks are presented in Table 11-2 (Highis Mountains) and Table 11-3 (Biharia and GiBu mountains) and for rnafic rocks in Table 11-4 (Highis Mountains) and 11-5 (Biharia and GiICliu mountains). the tectonic significance of the igneous belt separating the two gneissic assemblages. &O diagrams emphasize the wide range of K concentrations of the late acidic intrusions in the Highis Mountains. The tectonic significance of the igneous belt The chemical compositions of igneous rocks from the Highis Mountains are spread over the gabbro-diorite-monzodiorite and tonalite-granite fields (Fig. 'witfiin platen(Fig. Rocks from the western segment of the HBSZ with a more pronounced tholeiitic affinity show V-Ti ratios indicative for "ocean floor" (Fig.DlSCUSSlON In an attempt to reconstruct the pre-Alpine tectonic framework of the region. 11-3. 2. Average chemical compositions for the most common igneous rocks of the unsheared igneous complex in the Highis Mountains (Tatu et al. 1.Further discrimination using Ti-Zr (Fig. indicative for ocean fIoor basalts (Pearce and Cann. whilst rocks from the eastem segment evenly distributed between the tholeiitic and calc-alkaline fields (Fig. The rnafic rocks from the HBSZ show ambiguous chernical characteristics inconsistent with the classical patterns constrained for major tectonic settings. In contrast. 1993.3a). 11-1.6c). The alkali vs. II-1.2).In the Zr/Y-Zr diagrams samples from the western HBSZ are spread over the 'within platenand "mid-ocean ridgenfields (Fig. 11-1-2 and 11-1. most samples plot outside the "within platenfield.3~). 85 samples from the igneous pods and 74 samples of metamorphic rocks have been analysed for major and trace elements at the Chernical Analysis Laboratory of the Geological Survey of Romania. Il-3.1).l .3~and Fig.5~and Il-3.1 .4).4a) whilst sarnples from the eastem segment plot rnainly in the "within plate" and "island arcn fields (Fig. In the Ti-Zr-Y diagrams (Fig. 11-3. Il-3.4~). 11-3.5). Il-3. Il-3.3) indicates a gap between acidic and mafic compositions better expressed in the Biharia and Gilau mountains. the geochernical study has addressed h o pmblems: 1. Most acidic samples fa11 in the narrow adamellite field. l I 4 . Chernical analysis for Si0.6) and Ti-Zr-Sr (Fig. Il-3. II-3. and %land arc" (Fig. 11-3.Most samples have Y-Nb ratios higher than 3. 1 ~ are ) spread over the "ocean floor" and "arcnfields (Fig. vs. We suggest that the tholeiitic and "ocean floor" character of some rocks al1 along the Highis-Biharia igneous beit is the evidence for an extensional tectonic setting and that the calc-alkaline (Fig. 11-3. 1973) and Ti-Cr ratios of ocean floor basalts (Fig.4~)affinities only indicate different degrees of differentiation and/or larger participation of continental crust The wider igneous . 11-3. silica diagram (Figs.7) diagrams is not possible as the same samples plot on different diagrams in different fields or outside the diagram.a).c). the nature of protolith within the low-grade assemblages of the HBSZ. Il-3. unpublished report) are presented for cornparison in Table II-?.

the rocks were considered black quartzite and shale (Giusc2. 1988). Similar rocks. and were defined based on their inferred original grain-size. Both massive (igneous) and sheared rocks of acidic composition are plotted in the discrimination diagrams of colurnn a) in Figs. 1985. For comparison metamorphic and igneous rocks are plotted on the same diagrams. The quartz-clast bearing schists occupy large areas and do not correlate along strike. for several other rock types the nature of the protolith rernains uncertain. 1979. later described frorn additional locations were shown to be low temperature homfelses up to biotite isograd. Giusca. 5-3 and 5 4 ) . lnitially mapped in a limited area near the westem extremity of the Highig Mountains. Most quartz-clast bearing schists plot outside the field of igneous rocks. The original chemical characteristics of the lowgrade metamorphic rocks from the HBSZ have been altered to various degrees either by diagenetic and metamorphic processes or only by the shear zone metamorphisrn. Pana and Ricman. Behind this veil at several locations. One of the most characteristic metamorphic rocks within the HBSZ mainly exposed in the Highig Mountains. is a quartr-clast bearing schist interpreted either as a "metaconglomeraten(e-g. a common process in extensional shear zones. may have drastically altered the bulk whole rock composition (see chapter 5 Fig. Chernical analyses on SiO. The chemical analysis on these controversial rocks are presented in . basaltic and aplitic textures have been noticed. Dimitrescu. 1988). 11-2 and 11-3.. 1979) and interpreted to represent a post-Variscan Carboniferous (Permian?) sedimentary cover named the "Black Seriesn(BS). For some of these rocks an igneous protolith could be traced by detailed sampling. Quartz veining. Controversial interpretations also exist for an association of black to gray massive rocks and their sheared equivafents.rich rocks are presented in Table 11-2. a very fine grained mesh of micaquartz-albite-magnetite with epidote nests overprints and obscures the original texture. partly re-equilibrated igneous rocks as well as pods of massive igneous rocks. The nature o f pmtolith f i i n the iow-grade assemblages of the HBSZ The wide belt of Iow-grade assemblages contains a variety of sheared. Commonly. spatially and genetically related to the Highiq igneous cornplex (Savu. All diagrams indicate an intriguing partial overlapping between the field of igneous acidic rocks and that of the quartz-clast bearing schist (umetaconglorneraten)samples. Nevertheiess. 1965. They may represent the locus of intense crack-seal processes in acidic protoliths within the wide HBSZ. 2.cornplex from the Highis Mountains with stronger tholeiitic and "rnid-ocean ridgewcharacter of the mafic rocks suggests more advanced extension across the westem segment the Highiq-Bihana igneous belt The narrower igneous belt from the southem G i l h with more prominent calc-alkaline chemical characteristics suggest that extension across the eastem segment was less advanced. Rock types completely re-equilibrated under lowgrade conditiuns have been traditionally considered metamorphosed clastic sediments.) or as a secondary quartz-clast phyllonite derived from igneous rocks (Pana and Ricman. this does not necessarily indicate a sedimentary origin. . The interpretation is questionable since al1 low-grade rocks record a large component of non-coaxial strain accompanied by extensive hydration reactions.

diagrams the "BS"occupies a separate field (Figs. The particular alkaline character of the "BSncould not result f m n mixing of sediments originating in the acidic and mafic end rnembers fmm the adjacent igneous rocks (Fig. Although diagenetic K-rich clay minerals rnay eventually cause the shiit. .2. Zr diagram most rocks faIl in the within plate basalt and MORB fields. 11-2. b) the interlayered highly sheared rocks show chernical affmities with the adjacent igneous rocks. 11-3 and 11-4. 11-1. Most samples of the 'Black Seriesnplot in the latibasalt and trachyte fields. 11-2. The AFM and ACF diagrams (Figs. The geochemical data allow the foflowing general conclusions: a) the Highis-Biharia igneous belt plugged a pre-Alpine transtensionat setting separating two gneissic assemblages. &O diagrarns emphasise a continuous transition between the "BSnand the high-K rhyolite of the late acidic intrusions in the Highis Mountains . in diagrams that consider also the Al concentration (Fig.2) the %Sn rocks occupy an intermediate field between the essentially peraluminous acidic rocks and the mainly metaluminous mafic rocks. SiO. II-3.4) suggest a closer chernical afinity to the mafic suit TVCr ratios for most mafic rocks correspond to the ocean floor basalts (Figs.c) while most of the homfelses show an intermediate character between ocean floor basalts and low potassium tholeiites (Fig. In the ZrlY vs. and 11-24.Table 1 1 4 and in discrimination diagrams of column b) in Figures 11-2.2. c) the homfels rocks of the "Black Seriesn most probably represent a subvolcanic differentiate of the mafic suit (phonolite/trachybasaltltrachyandesite).b). 11-1-2c). Whilst in the alkali vs.thermally affected by the late granitic intrusions. The SiO.2. 11-1-1.1 b). The zone of cnistal thinning favoured the development of the wide HBSZ during the Alpine tectonism.The field occupied by most %Sn samples corresponds to the high-K basalt and basaltic andesite and includes again the spatially associated aplitic rock. The lack of volcanic rocks in the unsheared domains and the presence of plutonic and subvolcanic pods throughout the Iow-grade metamorphic assemblages dominated by non-coaxiaI deformation favours the first interpretation.a and Il-3. II-3. and outside the fields of their plutonic equivalents. Spatially associated igneous rocks partly overprinted by sirnilar homfels texture are quartz-latiandesite and trachyte.2. vs. Completely homfelsed rocks show a more alkali character than the associated igneous rocks (Fig. II-1.3 and 11-2. we note that al1 massive and sheared hornfels samples plot around one of the igneous subvolcanic rocks in the phonolite-trachybasaltfields. They may be interpreted either as low-grade mylonites or as proximal epiclastic deposits in a narrow basin following the igneous lineament.

APPENDIX III 40~r13g ANALYTICAL ~r DATA .

03 Ton1 wirhour 620-795°C.Table 111-1.13 795 f .45 720 11-68 755 i101 750 IO3 800 9.15 885 7.02 Ton1 9.21 895 7.93 915 7.3 f Fusion 9.52 720 --- 25-99 133 19. fùsion 900 . fusion 620 139.35 Tan1 wirhout 610-800°C.* BALA DE ARIES ASSEMBLAGE 620 77. 'OArpAr analytical data for incremental-heating experiments on homblende concentrates frorn structural uni& comprising the Apuseni Mountains.13 SSO 7.09 7.9s Fusion 9.69 4. Romania Re1-e ternp (OC) (*Arp 'Ar)* ( 3 6 ~ r ! J 9 ~ r ) *(37~r/39Ar)f 39At ?/o of tom[ %maAr '&ArG non- 0% amos.98 940 8.1 1 915 7.3 780 10.16 850 7.25 83 3 7.10 320 S .85 Toul 10.02 830 7.45 870 7.16 565 -- 830 7.

36 0.57 900 23.0 1020 100.43 0.04046 0.00459 3 1-70 Fusion 15.00509 29.3 1 770 14-59 790 13.03 Tord without 610-790°C Sample 22: J = 0.00 .46 IO7 0.0404S 0.0 I O 3 224 560 26.0 10045 (amphibolite) 620 35.55 750 34.02755 0.90 865 9.56 940 l1.43 0.33 610 53.26 535 10.Table III4 (continued) Sarnpk 18: J = 0.79 Toul 15.22 670 37-83 0 .97 910 9.214 13 O.09179 0.76 0.009744 (amphibolite) 500 161.O4 I59 0.00764 9.0 1706 0.U Fusion 11-12 Total 13.04 0.29 700 19." 530 53.26 950 3 .43 0.79 505 10.00934 6.67 720 1537 755 14.63 0.S-r 820 17.65 0.70 335 9.09903 0.36 520 10.4 1 0.38 350 9.74 0.5 1 0.008 12 17.37 740 5 1.56 520 100.07 0.31 0.O6 0.57 0.60 1000 15.14 640 J0.

C .5 700 25.83 1-9 ns 44.T 9.1 1 1.: 9 3 z4.6 0.? 350 28-01 3' 875 2735 o.7.64 0.* SGC 2.: 0.46 03 730 3268 0.î 24.Table 1i1-1 (continued) 620 6939 3. 880.3 29.= 750 30.93 01 895 24.38 0-1 1000 25.: 350 29.92 A.42 Tom1 wi&cur 6ZO-790JC.07 G.2 23-94 03 381) 24.02 0.5 950 14.4 700 3714 26 805 W93 os 820 2927 01 Sfl 292 o.3 Ton1 wkhorn 600-875°C fnrion 0.1 600 lIS.48 O.2 .5 755 51.1 1 o.0 865 910 Fusion 24-76 To~l 30.fision !.65 0.: 800 $1.6 700 37.0 1 2.15 (3.53 6.50 O .2 975 23. 1 Fusion Totd 25-56 O .

0.07 0.00749 800 19-69 0.4 Fusion 2010 0.92 0.01077 770 1534 0.00595 83 5 20.39 0.00508 S90 Il -46 0.Table 111-1 (continued) Sâmplc 25: 1 = 0.00620 Total 18.52 0.00549 510 1- I 820 20.009654 (amphiholite) 17.00759 950 20.00520 820 20.65 0.008 19 0.033:6 -0 13.00697 865 20.01 166 920 20.8.77 0.01051 .02 0.

331 Table 111-2.~ ratio) in the age squation. = 0. intercept.4 2 O. Sample CaicuIated Plateau Age (Ma) Isotope ComIation Age (bfa)' BAIA DE ARLES ASSEMBLAGE CODRU ASSEMBLAGE 404.2 366.8 0.'9. 36Ar/(OArVS.b.7 = 306. Romania.3 373.5 .1 1 0. SOMES ASSEMBLAGE 3 16-7 Cdculated using the inverse zbscissa intercept ("0. 40Ar/)3Arplateau isotope-correlations for hornblende concentrates from structural units comprising the Apuseni Mountains.9 s: 0. ' Inverse ordinate " Table 111-1 OC..

18 Fusion 15.79 Tom1 without 380-560°C.Table 1113. Release temp ("C) ( " ~ r f ' ~ ~ r ) *(s6Arf39Ar)* (37k/39Ar)c nAr %of total 3 80 40. - 590°C h i o n %wAr '"Ar..39 665 1 3.31 -- 770 17. nonatmos.43 890 18.18 420 12-09 455 11-89 490 14-53 5 3 15-86 560 17-50 595 18-13 630 1 S. aAr/JgAr analyücal data for incrernentai-heating expenments on muscovite concentrates from structura1 uni& cornprising the Apuseni Mountains.37 3 10 13-15 550 18.+ YO Apparent Age (&la)** .21 1'5 17.53 Toul 17.40 700 1S. Romania.

Table III-1 (continued) Fusion 20.54 Tom1 without 620. ' corrected for post-imdiation decay of ".('6ks. . ..Ar (35. (198 1): two sizaa.1 d q 1/2-life).5)] / a&mL " - cdculated using correction tjcton of Dalqmple et al.. Fusion ' measured. intdaboratory mors.os) (295.

75 0.045 0.00033 0.00077 0.019 620 11-21 0.00019 715 750 15.095 Fusion 18.13 0.084 880 13.95 0.010 15.00357 O.00041 0.00857 0.096 550 11-21 0.025 850 17.23 0.0100% (mylonitic schist) 500 1 1.00022 0.05 1 650 12.16 0.67 0.40 15.00055 0.037 Total .02 1 755 16. 1-C 585 1120 0.42 0.00061 320 16. Sampte 5: 500 550 530 610 640 670 700 740 750 820 860 900 Fusion Ton1 Sample 7: J = 0.00069 0.257 0.9 1 0.Table 111-3 (continued).011 0.66 0.0004 1 0.66 0.00 106 0.020 655 13.01521 0.00367 0.

002 670 15.3 0.008902 (mylonitic -te) 500 13.00069 0.01 I 610 12.1 860 --- 900 - 500 53'0 580 6 10 670 700 740 730 820 950 Fusion Ter31 --- -- 0.21 0.00082 0.003 320 14.1 0.74 0.10 0.002 780 13.2 0.06 0.00 173 0.72 0.00041 0.00065 0. I .00071 0.00013 O.00068 0.0 1 1 Sarnple 10: J = 0.004 700 14.045 550 11.009 560 13.003 640 12.1 0.00056 0.012 740 1517 0.04 0.00303 0.2 '.58 0.83 0.1 0.1 0. Sample 9: J = 0.00078 0.024 Fusion 1328 0.1 0.67 0.01012 0.J2 0. 123 Total 14.012 580 12.91 0.02247 0.009782 (mylonitic -gmite) - 0.2 9.O 0.00162 0.03 1 900 13.1 O.Table 111-3 (continued).1 0.72 0.

1 12 755 7.0007 1 0.009 865 7.062 I J Ton1 without 5 IO-595°C .043 665 7.552 560 t 1-37 0. = 0.001 19 0.038 25 1 0.- 0.009155 (mylonitic peiss) 510 10.05 740 7.0 14 785 7-08 0.15 Fusion 7.30 580 7.03 950 7.-- 0.40 Total 7-24 Toul without 500-6 IO°C.42 0.00 177 0.00793 t .12 0. 900°C-hion Simple 16: f.75 610 739 640 7.498 59 5 .OOXO 0.009802 (schist) 500 I I 3 550 9.066 695 -7-14.0 14 Toul 7.55 670 7.00038 0. B X W DE AEUES ASSEMBLAGE Sample 14: J = 0.07 0.00973 0.336 Table 1113 (continued).00040 0.J> 0.21 0.95 0.0 13 630 739 0.00103 0.0 16 825 7.38 0.04 780 7.00 165 0.00072 0.09 0.00 140 0.34 700 7.49 820 7 31 860 710 900 7.002 19 0.037 Fusion 7.

02 O. CODRü ASSEMBLAGE Sample 20: J = 0.04 0.09 0.3 950 22.Table 111-3 (continued).07 0.O6 0. 950°C-fusion O.O2 0.2 750 22.1 0.009432(schist) 500 19.84 '.66 0.99 21.2 0.O 1 o.03 670 700 Ton1 withaut 5 10-580°C. 1 02 . 1 550 610 17.2 Totai 21-64 Ton1 widiour 500-700°C.05 0.01 o.: 0. 840°C and Fusion 01 O -2 0-2 0.0 1 0.35 0.33 2 1 .96 335 O .2 0. la 860 21-98 0.O 0.2 560 900 22.4 1 Fusion 2 1.10 0.20 0.29 0.2 610 20.03 O .09 0.14 0-2 640 20.2 2151 0.05 900 2-14 0.82 780 2 1-86 820 21.09 0.96 0.02 2 1.O3 700 750 0.43 0.3 550 15.4 550 580 18.09 0.3 0.77 20.1 O-1-t 0.1 0.48 21.75 0.07 '.2 Fusion 2 1.1 1 0.: o.40 O.98 0.13 0.79 740 31.05 O. I 0.03 22.I Toul 11.Z 520 21-98 0.1 SampIe 21: i = 0.2 0.80 O.13 640 670 19.009645(schist) 500 29.05 0.58 17.13 0.1 0.99 0.

Table Ill-3 ( c ~ ~ n u e d ) .43 (335 825 560 895 930 Fusion 18.39 19.4 Tord without 5 10450°C.44 18-30 13.53 615 795 17.103 18. 930°C -fusion .51 19.00 18.009202 (retrogressed schist) 550 580 6 10 640 670 700 740 780 530 560 900 Fusion Ton1 510 540 550 17. SOMES ASSEMBLAGE SampIe 26: J = 0.75 19.09 16.94 13.27 17.45 13.05 Tord 1822 650 680 7 1O 740 -.

1 9 15 12-90 0.3 PL 1 1.' 0 O. 0.Table 111-3 (continued).: 595 9.16 0.76 02 Fusion 19.2 Tonl 1 1-69 Totai without 5 10-665°C.009695 (retrogressed gneiss) 1 .OS o. Sample 29: J = 0.010025 (bIuntele Mare .6 Ton1 19.2 O.3 855 19.3 Fusion 13.2 O.p.2 .70 1.nite) 5 10 1 1.2 02 03 0.74 630 IO-13 0.: o. 1 .2 0-2 0.3 O.64 0.2 560 13.18 0. UYC-fiision 0.' 695 11.2 0. 1 0. and h i o n 02 SampIe 3 1: J = 0.O 0.4s O.1 0..38 0.2 0.73 O-3 Total witfiout 5 1 0-i9SbC. I 605 10.

595 7.40 0.4 560 8-59 0. -[%rüI.: 755 8. 1 7-23 6. 1 630 7-73 0.-i2 2 0.a (395.' S15°C-Lion SampIe 33: 1 = 0.p~r. 1 0.008552 (reuogressed myionitic gneiss) Si0 17.32 0.94 0.65 o.2 0.3 855 719 02 920 7.7 850°C-hion 'corrected for post-irradiation decay of5'& (35.90 0. 19 0. O.2 SI5 8. .2 755 6. 1 o.3 350 7..5)j / "'Ar.1 day 1/2-Me)..69 0.3 595 6. inhaiaboratory errors.50 0.63 0.3 630 6.1 6.76 725 8.2 S 15 6.54 o.5 955 7. Sampie 32: J = 0.340 Tabte 111-3 (continued).3 665 695 6.3 Tord 9.J Fusion .2 Toul wirhout 5 IO-595".74 O. " calculated using correction factors of Dairyrnple et al.. two sigma.34 0.04 0..52 Tanl without 5 10-630°C. 1 755 S. 1 Fusion 6-32 Ton1 6. .2 725 6.09 0.03 o. (198 1).2 665 7.1 885 6. O.60 0.70 0.74 0.59 o.1 550 635 0.9 560 10.W O.66 02 695 7.009295 (retrogressed gneiss) 510 3-92 0.

1 .16 o. ReI-e temp CC) (SOArPAr)* ( J 6 ~ r'Ar)* f ("ArP9Ar)' "Ar %of tom1 %"Ar non- I6Ar.1 560 7. 8I O 6. Romania. 1 595 7.49 O.I 665 7.64 O..16 Taml witfrout 420-560°C. % Apparent Age (Ma) ** amios*- KIGHIS-BIIURW SHEAR ZONE 420 8-44 O. I 700 6.t3 O.1 S90 7.Table 1 114.19 630 7. Ion1 7.22 O. 1 735 6-35 O.52 O . 850°C-hion O. 1 770 6. I 490 7.83 o.08 o.55 O.90 O. 1 o.1 525 7. I o. " ' ~ r f j g ~analyücal r data for incremental-heating experiments on whole-rock samples of slatelphyllite or phyllonite from structural u n h compnsing the Apuseni Mountains.2 8 50 7.08 o.' 455 7-39 O.. I Fusion 7.

52 O -2 800 8-04 0.70 O. 78O"C-bion 02 .00960 1 (phyifonitic z d t e ) 430 8-05 0.4 1 O.49 0. 800°C-fusion 0. I JO0 8.58 O-3 750 7.58 O. 1 840 8. I 650 6-44 o.2 Fusion 7.1 7-25 7.94 02 625 6. 1 830 7.3 Fusion 9.JO O.15 0.55 O.10 O.4 575 6.66 O.Table 1114 (continued).68 0. 1 600 6.94 0-4 590 720 O.6 775 7.6 Tot31 7.83 0.' Tom1 without 500-600°C. 1 700 6.89 0.64 0.69 O. 1 700 7.57 O. 1 63 5 6. i 475 835 03 550 7. 1 680 6.16 440 7.3 800 7. o.6 780 7.96 0.56 0. 1 750 7.1 825 3.56 O.3 Sample 4: J = 0. 650 6.2 600 6.91 O.43 0.94 02 Ton1 without 420-500°C.4 500 12.3 Total 6.' 675 7.13 0. 1 720 6.92 0-2.

85 700 8.47 Tan1 I2. Sample 6: I = 0.52 820 11-45 350 1 1.78 720 17-50 775 1826 800 16.20 530 6.38 6 10 16-87 640 17.78 800 13-77 820 13.67 840 14-34 Fusion 14.63 580 91.J = 0.75 900 Il30 Fusion 113 Ton1 14-90 Tonl wichour 5 IO-800°C .59 700 18.009655 510 54.96 670 8.Table I I I 4 (continued).14 780 13.009375 510 S.57 600 1221 630 8-39 650 8.83 575 1 1.95 675 17.76 720 12-44 740 13-38 765 14.S-t Tord without 510-74PC Siunpie 8: .

65 0.0034S 0.00037 730 9.32 T o d without 5 10-815°C .49 610 .0 1 0.00 0.00030 840 10.00 790 13.70 0.00039 760 3-69 0.02606 675 7.57 0.48 0.00 1 42 810 9.27 0.0046S 700 6.96 0.31 710 14.37 875 1 l .43 0.04 Tonl 11.00 160 722 6.95 Fusion 11.69 0.32 530 10.43 0.00 124 860 10.37 740 1 3-45 775 16.13 0.78 0.008545 (phyllits) 450 52174 510 20.21 675 20.00103 Tani 10.00537 650 9.Table 1114 (continued).17 MO 10.009625 (phyilonitic onhogneiss 510 51.-- 640 9.00171 630 9.OS 900 10.65 815 14.04 1.045 14 580 10. Sample 11: J = 0.01467 600 7.76 0.00131 S m p i e 12: J = 0.00066 Fusion 1 1.

56 800 820 9.75 Ton1 wirhout 430-69O0C.14 10.43 1135 Fusion 9.20 600 610 650 670 7.Table 111-4 (continued). Sample 13: J = O.60 Toul 10.009 103 (phyllonitic orthogneiss) 430 5IO 580 8.46 927 934 690 720 750 775 8.45 10.43 9.32 9.33 5. fusion 3 80 420 455 490 5 3 560 600 640 680 700 740 775 800 850 Fusion Totai .14 8.

94 6.-U.0 6. 1 7.. ' corrected for pon-imdiaùon d s c q of".07 0.llr. 1 6.09 0-2 6.. 1 0. .2 O.0 i O. " (395.1 ' rnemed. .43 7. 1 6.* -[JOXr.05 02 O.96 O.) Yl.. . 1 Total without 450-810°C 0.1 da? L'3-IirS 1. ( 193 I ): nvo sigma... - TRWSSIC COVER CODRU ASSEMBLAGE Sample 34: J. 7. O . 1 675 5.98 625 640 5.94 O. cdculrited using correction factors of Ddrynpls cr al.99 0-1 810 850 375 900 Fusion Tom1 0.3 O'. = 0.9 I 6-37 O.Table 1114 (continued).J 9.5)I/ 135.: 8 0.( ".74 O -3 6.71 6.009672 450 500 600 8.90 700 720 750 775 6. inrdabontory errors.

APPENDIX IV MlCROPROBE DATA .

...0051 Total S.......4551 338.:Lz<.. . .32 O..........15 grain 3 lame vain - Mn0 Total - grain 4 name min ........0048 0.....4e?l6a:.... .. 2......... : ... . Fe0 ... normwt% Ox atdch X-MgC03 grain 1 .a.-.... .. ..:.:>A ..... ...(Clg w h ...13 0.c:*:.::.......<r:. : : .. ... : .....<..' ' ' .... ...:.:' ..... ... : < x.......15 Mn0 0-1 58..:.. : .. ......2fi6:5..0042 ...: ..: .... :.......21 - -2360 -0. 0...... ..... 0.: ._...-. ~ a .... ...487101 ___....>.15 093 .:. . : ..0044 Mn0 Total grain 8 - - qrain 6 mme vein .. .0055 ..... . .............019101 613... .:......... . :...07 40-4Q 024 0.......... ......85tl 334 0..00 Mn0 0... c.. .. Fa0 0.....: 0.... 0 1 û 6 -2360 -0..:.... .....14 58.....'.. ..........01345 -2380 4.. ....0aOQ 0...:. ...~-~....... .....2<~*~~j7~:.. : . .. 2808 2808 2608 0.. .:x ............-....... ....... * 32-76 ' 59......"'5.. .: :.....477801 0. ...... :..... ...... .... ..... .12 022 0....... 2% ... .-.537 1-4599 0. '9825 ::"..< : 2 2 .-.......-.488113 0.! .. * .....27 0-18 0....4881 13 0.. ... O 016825 -....::........ ........01345 -2360 4 . . ~ :.:...:...._... ......04 anin 4 -5::.%......as ... . :..>.: ........_. f i.......4551 334 0.....z'<....:.:..*ii...8085 334 334 O 55. . ..z$-$!.. i...._.. .-.. ..4535 340.:... _ _ ... - Fe0 0......__ .<x3$:$?g7...' :.... . 328 -.. ...:.....:-... .. ........ ..& :. 0. ' . .__. .-..... . ....... : 0..01345 -0.. : ... ..... ~ > ~ ~ ..... -. ~~ -.018 9 s 611.18 0...._. 30. ' 0. ....01345 -24.7.......: ~.. ..iz 2 ...::> s:33:...4535 0.:...::.. ..::....485171 0.: ' ..sj.:. .. ~ ~ ~ ' : : ..44 273 273 î73 273 381. ....i(.......ûû7S Mn0 0... ................... c. . ........:. 0.....:< ::. . ..... .. %y....wt%..:!:' .. s .:...:>....... Il .0038 0...... >..... : . ..::5<~::*~4-.....0 ::ti?ii2i2...::.+:.<.. .0062 0.........:.. ..... . 3 ....................i .... ....:: .. .. ....... ..... . ...-...1 1 55-16 59...~..._ .021148 634.................07 O O Ce0 3258 Mg0 22.* .8571 3128085 1........1-.:..::i.fi:'$..- l h ..L.. .......:.a..... ! ~ . ~ < y : ...: . .. ... '..... ......016825 585.%..L. as....MgO . ..-.:~ ~ :... .... .... . - ......: ". .G*6:.....2 : :....:~?..........33 Fe0 Mn0 Total 0.676734 i....-..: ".......:'.01345 -2380 Dolomite limb X-MgC03 . >....16 Total grain 5 mrne vein :. : . ... ...85 TotaI grain 5 Cao... ........MN !~:. ....... ... ..... . .. -. . ..$.02 55..:. Y......._........:.. ....o ........... .. .: ::... 2820 2620 2620 2820 2620 2620 2608 2808 2808...:.... 4 s e s .y! '2-2 :..48 Calcite limb T A8x + üix-2 + C'x-2 *0'r04 + E A B C O 0.: ..2:... 0...:y~<:f.. .:-....478552 0...:.

.

486479 O& 0. ....F... . . .-= ..0001 .... 'e" - hi16 . .. Yi. ........~::~~.arain 1H Fea Mn0 Total arain tl2 Mn0 Total grain 212 0. .51 O 0. .<?.. 1.12 O 0. 200 0.04 0.11 0..03 58...fi... .. a 024 O 0...02 0. .:.........05 0... O 0...03 60. .... .. t.86 S ' ..~&f :::~...02 O O .. ..-.. .:&..: :.*.:-:.-. :..-...(j& -:. . :>. :M... . i. .0008 0.442 0. .. ..95 0...$&.....::. 3287 220.0001 ....:. : ....07 O 58. .. fi0 Mn0 Total ...:.38 59-38 ?S3û2 40.:... :... y-s . 0. .12 O 55. .01 0...:$--.. . .05 O 0...07 0.<..&. .. ......01 O O .32 0.- . .....0035 0. 3-..... : .:. .17 0...... 0.::c'....7--. . .. .. .. 1 O 55.. .... .::.0012 o..53 O 5 6 .2212 ......0013 arain 311 Mn0 Total qrein 312 .-.. ..?...mn DOLOMITE norm wt% 0% doich X-MaC03 wt% Fe0 Mn0 Total arain 112 0.481 ... . ""...6 M'JO Fe0 Mn0 Total Fe0 Mn0 Total grain 5 0..< ..0044 0.. * 30. Fe0 Mn0 Total 2...38 . .....y.i+..... ..0028 O O 55..... :::.._ ..42 ...07 58. . . &$5:.a048 O O 55....... O..94 arain 313 Mn0 Total :~ a '. ... .....

.

...+....f:::....5 + E A B C O -2360 -0....:::.4m5a 021 0......r......6s grain 5 .... : : ?i'1.. .01345 2620 2808 -2380 4...:-::.. Fe0 Mn0 Total - Total S.4T13g8 : .......0041 - Mn0 0.:::. .. .08 arain 4 mailer vein 0. .x.......52 .. ....- . .......1 t O ..r.-. .....::j .83 0.(C) graph. C ~ O ...0028 - Mn0 O O O TOM 54grain 4 .01345 2820 2608 -2380 4...14 028 0..07 0.484421 0.Qya * : fffNN ' . . 36.0018 0... ..53...: .4f73ge 0...........: .::..0012 TW 55.......0042 0............ ...0001 0.n0........01345 2620 2608 -2360 ..0 .r..05 Mn0 0......SAMPLE 1 1 O ~ E 2 CALCITE gtain ln wt% normwt% Or udch X-MaC03 Mn0 Total kO 0. ? ci -2 <..'.... .08 0...:..01 0. . .b arain 5 same vein 0.. . ...:.1 TotaI 57..0001 ' 5523 Mn0 0.. :+..>..' +...01345 2820 2608 Ddomite limb X-MgC03 . ..<..67 Mg? ! ....0015 .'39.18 0... .....01345 2820 2608 -2360 4... Fe0 0.y........ ..&9f. .: .....:~..A.:. O O Calcite limb T = A-x + 81x-2 + C-X-2 +o*x-0.... ......r.17 0.............03 0.0052 Mn0 0.<::{...48271O 0.. ::0....*..48727 ......: :.... 1.07 Total 5933 grain 2 v vdnla 0.479823 0....4TIOS1 0.... .... +:>f..... Mn0 0.. ::.... .. .......: ....A.... . ...... .04 Total 55..08 0...... 0 1 ~ 5 2620 2608-2380 -0..... ::..1 TotaI S7.....88 0...L. 0...:...0042 Mn0 O 58.....:........:..m 1-8:>:..:<..... .2...... .. ......Ji...12 O 54.r...r....i:..01 0.'....:.. ..... .... 33%6027 1.....5086 .4291 0....... .

Mn0 Total p.08 O O.001 Tarai -58.0007 0.nt 4 Fe0 O O 0.01 O O O-t2 0.02 0.1 .03 0....01 O 0..51 at contact with Ool 0.oan 0.G d n III point 1 Fe0 O 0..07 0..0048- Fe0 O O Mn0 0.0006 0.02 55.3 O 0. O 0.0001 O o.08 0.04 O 0.02 .02 O 0.04 O 0.07 0.Oû18 Mn0 O 0.04 0..0024 Mn0 point 2 Fe0 point 3 Fe0 Mn0 pdnt 3 0.. 0.12 am1 O 0.0017 Il Grain point 1 Fe0 Mn0 point 2 F ~ O Mn0 rotai" .. 56-37.0006 . point 3 Fe0 .

0047 0. ... . .... Fe0 0." ....... 1.. 1 ..12 0.4888 0.4989 0. .05 0... MgO:.00 Mg0 -... . . 1.........02 .0021.....4-2 .32 58.av. ..024 0...4946 near oppotsite edqe 0-14 O25 0.62 31...08 0..-.....:5& .4882 Ool incl... ..:'r.....".... . ....l n m wt% Grain point 1 wt% Ox stoich X MgC03 Fe0 0.....&j ..81 .........13 53.4948 0.. .22 O.:'.*!??niA ......:' r' 13.. Mn0 Mg0 Mg0 ..0056 0..39 caq. .. 0 5 0...42 58... ...0014 '......16 0... .03 away from pdnt 2 fi0 .0018 O E 334 +38 .W 53.006 Mn0 0 ..:.)::. 0 7 0......... Total point 4 Cc contact 0...004 Fe0 Mn0 " ......5 0.0045 0.28 *- ?.... .ci'":<......0006 023 0. ..14 1.. . Value -550 425 420 400 380 375 355 A -2380 4. . .13 0."-...11 O21 Mn0 MN 0..0s ZiS' 0.. .0021 1..03 54.5105 Gm-n IV 0.... -:::":..y.....: ......... ' 1 A852 ' 0.. 1... .W7 0..1 8 . :::iij?...........08 0..:' .. 11 0..a =se 0..~... .53û7 ..: i.. . .... 0.... ".13 0.. a * Total 54-09 ' 0... .... .09 pdnt 1 ...12 .52 Ca0 Total point 6 Fe0 Mn0 Mg0 Ca0 rotai ...4991 %- - Fe0 0.08 "21...4827 0..14 41. .. 0..0017 1. . :<...' ' 57-92 Ca0 Total 30....... .2Z1 4123 1.........0042 0. 53...4857SS ..0029 53.0010 0 .. ' W.96 40. .. : 2233 ..815 ..... :..-Ca0 .:....' 4 1 m .:.004 Mn0 0 .22k ..@#g . ...' :' ...Y.....graph. ..0056 ."i' ..488842 1-50? TC. . ...... : 0. : 57.1 & 47...0049 0. Tacal 5929 point 2 Fe0 0.:.... .15 0...501302 _:_ 53... ....3 0. .20 54.... Grain III near Cc contact 0 ......"..." .....05 0.53 0.. '5827 .. .. ..3i. . . .82 point 3 Fe0 0.06 0.0028 1.. .. .07 024 0...... Ca0 Totai point 2 Fe0 Mn0 Mg0 iotai O 54...12 Fe0 Mn0 0.....43 1. . Cod...15 Total @nt 3 F ~ O 0.....:....0016 ..04 0.4671 M O 0. .: : ...:..niis .. "......498032 1.500718 4. ..15 Mn? . ':...84 -58..'::....33::..4544 0.-::. .: .....1 1 OP 0... ......1"4*1 ...2 0. && 0..' 54....... O 4Q441* . . ' .-.. ....01345 C 2620 2608 354 -300 <300 c m <300 0.. ....0051 0..1 r oa 0. * 0....13 &O Totai point 5 Mn0 . . ...*..78 ' 31 .8 ' at oppo edge 0.... Ca0 . ...f .' ho 0. r Total point 3 Fe0 Mn0 54.. .. : > LJ...:. 0 4 0 ............495356 3T32 58. 1 41...004 0.:.. .... point 4 Total 0. .... Total point 4 ka0 point 1 Fe0 'Mgo... .". &.

.033197 0:00& 0...........0006 Fe0 0..... ..99 0.....0006 0..484529 0. :....032047 334 0...03 Calcite limb T = A*X + BH + c 9 r 2+ D-X-...: ..:-:..487131 0..002 Ca0 Mg0 Fe0 Mn0 Total Q7..4 Fe0 0..:~. ... (C) graph O .......0......DOLOME grain 1 wt% ...01345 2820 -2360 -0. ::. ..02 0......: ...43 ......07 . K.-...l...8 1.... m * ... Fe0 0-54 Mn0 0. ...i.....~:-~-*~. i... ..1912 7215165 714.. .. r::... ... .... . : .0006 .... .. n m w t % ..........B.030731 ....$>.09 0.. : .102 ......02 0.! i:.05 57....01345 2620 Dolomite limb X-MgC03 T..34. ::...84 Mn0 Total O O 0. m..033197 334 0.8863 273 273 273 273 273 a875207 451-1912 4485165 441433....... ...487531 0. 1.... ....01345 2620 -2360 -0.......4526 0.44 0.....r. . ..:.. >....l-..r...........- 13ûQ 1...483054 0. ..' :.j.?..03 57. -.0 ...0151 0....01345 2620 -23ûû -0.:.......55s 0. ........ 58i78 .23 ' 0...036694 334 0..487531 0.S + E A 8 C -2360 4. M F...38 2.'.033889 334 0.78 Mn0 grain 5 Ca0 grain 5 - 3227 ..: Fe0 Mn0 O Total: 56.... 0......... ...<.::... ..... .. Tg(c) TJK) 740-5207 724. .&:.02 55-72 0.......... ..0994 ~......::::... ....... .....z..0293 0.22..42 0...-::..: ...... . .......:. - 0...::.... .03 Total 2 .......04 0..4 0.ii... .:..a ...... ....5.&&mt ... i ..8392 708... ....:: ...488661 O 2608 2608 2608 2608 2608 E X-MgCO3 334 0.02 Toial 54-89 ' .13 ........ ..02 0..$ ~ : ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ < : j : ....001 0.....:<!:::... . .!-::::>:........ Or doich X-MgC03 .. .. .Z .01345 2620 -23ûû -0. ..

-f*:~<'::.. .::..05 58....... 0.08 0.:...: Y j'j'ii::i5 i ..05 0. .12 0. :::& . .a. .....~.01 0.......:k. .. 0.:..36 talcite at tontact with ddomite ...<* .i...........- .07 -' 58:~ 40........ 6 . X-MgC03 0. .013 0..-...028488 .483341 0..01345 -2360 -0. ~ .... .23 grain5 ...81 0.. . y:....028488 0..=m.023821 0...:.i...18 F ~ O Mn0 Total grain a2 darker phase ardn 4 0...... .-.' 1-14 0.. .... ...Y 2 ....1 .01345 -2380 -0. .480463 0...44 Mn0 0..... ...:.. .<$~$~. .Mn0 0. ..41 ..a.0853 .. ~ : : .\..:......85 ' Total . .. .:o....84 3231 - ~ g ..53 97.491648 0.82 0.. ...07 .... &O 35.0026 58.... Mn0 Total grain 5: Fe0 Mn0 Totai grain 4 ........O7 0...81 ..: :::... . :<. . .1.0015 l.........:j'.. . .. .. e0 Mn0 grain 6 C ~ O .035388 0.A.2 . ... ...:. :..0003 57.~ ....:. .....002 60.0027 0...4581 031 0..17 0......... .* m ..0....:'. y .. ...002 ...... ....... :...&.17 0. .....5 Mn0 0. Fe0 0............07 1-71 0.:.0-3 ... ....... 54.04 Total 55.:.. .... .-... . .....0184 0. .:: :S:..01~ 0.-..01345 -2360 -0...w::~$..... .09 Mn0 O Total 56...... ... ......-r... 46..05 H.:ja:i--. : .. .018 0.035288 0.........:..... .d.. z.... ...16 O 0.C (graph) 0......-.0037 O **- +D Y . ... O-. ..:j2.... ....... ..... 0. 0.01 Total 57. ...01 kt&..... .. .::...78 2311 .01345 -2360 4...m Calcite limb of soi vu^ T = A'x + Eh<-2 + C'X-2 A B -2386 -2380 -0.4aôôô8 0.. 22..:. :.:i. ..~. .. MQO a 4 3 Fe0 0.8 0.. .... ... 1:&: :..... :..:..zk..0 .........:....:< @<<..:..':"2~ggt'. ....489614 0...01 0. .....$~:::......033667 0... ... .. ..32 F&' " 0... . .0231 0.... ... ci... ... . .. .1-17 . 5 +E C 2820 2820 2620 2620 2620 2620 2620 0 2608 2808 2608 2608 2608 2608 2608 E 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 . ... ..:.01345 -0...:j3a: .. :...01345 Dolomite Rmb of sdvue X 4 g C O 3 T.:z:::..:~>::::.m 1.....': .. . .. ..:-...01345 -2380 -0.j:: ~.... ... '-." Mn0 Tatal grain 3 0....Mu0 0.....ï....481399 ' 0. <.a......489611 0.... :: - .l......... 0..6 .::.:::: .. 1..030081 0..$ j o ~ .:: 0... . .. ....ua:....4Stt 0......::.79 0 0. . ' ~ ~ ~i: ... ..-- O 6207 55. ""X....''f.88 . ... .. Mg0 Fe0 Mn0 Total grain 7 Ca0 .... . .... ...0003 grain 2 ...12 O O 0.09 0.0021 51..026717 0. " ... ....03 98-18 29265 4-06 0...0027 0.0023 ...0708 o...06 Total 55.u ..ti308 1.:..521 && ...408668 0.. .......:. ....... ..

@phci Image.IMAGE. NY 14609 USA Phone: 71W482-0300 F s 716/2û8-5989 O '993. -= --- APPLlED 1653 East Main Street Rochester. Inc. lnc = -. W Rights R e ~ e ~ e d .IMAGE EVALUATION TEST TARGET (QA-3) ..