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LOAD COMMUTATED INVERTER FED

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE

4

CONTENTS
ARTICLE

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Certificate……………………………………………………………………………. …..ii
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………… …….iii
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………….…..iv
Contents……………………………………………………………………………….…...v
List of figures ……. …………………………….………………………………….……viii
Glossary of symbols…………………………………………………………………….…xi

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
General introduction………………................................................................................1
LCI fed synchronous…………........................................................................3
1.3 Scope of the project………………………………………………….…....4
1.4 Organization of the report …………………………………………….….4
CHAPTER 2
Literature survey…………………………………………………………………………….6
CHAPTER 3
LCI FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE
3.1 System description….............................................................................. ….8
3.2 Basic drive control……………………………………………..……….….8
3.3 Twelve pulse operation…………………………….……………………..18
CHAPTER 4
MODELING THE LCI DRIVE
4.1 Basic LCI scheme……………………………………………………..20
4.2 Implementation of the model…………………………………….…...21
4.3 Six pulse LCI drive ………………………………………………..….21
4.4 Twelve pulse LCI drive…………………………………………….….26
4.5 simulation of LCI drive……………………………………………….29

CHAPTER 5
SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Six pulse LCI drive operation………………………………….…...............................................30
Starting of six pulse LCI drive………………………………………..35
Dual channel drive operation (with two motors)………………...……38
Starting of dual channel drive (with two motors)…………….……….41
Dual channel drive operation (six phase machine)……………………44
Starting of six phase machine………………………………...……….49
CHAPTER 6
MODIFIED LCI DRIVE
6.1 Introduction of the Model………………………………...…………...51
6.2 Implementation of the Model………………………………...……….52
CHAPTER 7
SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS OF MODIFIED LCI DRIVE
7.1 LCI drive operation…………………………………………………..56
LCI drive operation of Lab machine………………………...……….61
Starting of the LCI drive (Lab Machine)……………………………..64

CHAPTER 8
HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MODIFIED LCI DRIVE
Introduction to the DSP controller………………………………...……66
Description of Hardware set up……………………….…………..…….67

CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSIONS AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK ………………….……………..71
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………...……72
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
SPECIFICATIONS OF THE LCI DRIVES………………………………………...……….73

APPENDIX B S-FUNCTION FOR LOAD SIDE FIRING……………………………………….…………80 .

81 S-FUNCTION LOAD FIRING……………………………………………………..82 vii ..……...S-FUNCTION FOR FIXED FIRING…………………………………………….….………..

7 Synchronous Machine of two channel drive 27 4.1 Load commutated inverter fed synchronous motor 3 3.4 PI Speed controller 26 4.9 Torque profile during starting 36 5.10 Back EMF profile during starting 36 5.6 Two channel drive 28 4.3 Stator current profile 32 5.6 Motor Voltage and Current in the Self-Commutated Mode 17 3.LIST OF FIGURES Figure Description No.8 Speed profile during starting of the machine 35 5.7 12 pulse (2 Channel) LCI drive schematic diagram 19 4. Page No.5 Dc link voltage profile 33 5.6 Supply current profile 33 5.3 Switching motor/inverter current from one leg to the next 12 3.2 Firing sequence of the thyristors 11 3.1 Speed profile under the load and speed variation 31 5.5 PI current controller 26 4.4 Back EMF profile 32 5.2 Profile of the Torque developed 31 5.8 Two channel drive with six phase Machine 29 5.1 Typical schematic of the LCI fed synchronous motor drive 20 4. 1.2 Model of the six pulse LCI Drive 22 4.4 Phasor diagram of a synchronous motor 13 3.5 Forced Commutation Firing Mode 15 3.7 THD of input current 34 5.14 Torque profile of dual channel drive 39 viii .3 Details of the controller 25 4.11 Back EMF profile showing the spikes during commutation 37 5.13 Speed profile of dual channel drive 38 5.1 A detailed diagram of a single channel LCI 10 3.12 Motor current profile 37 5.

26 Instantaneous torque profile 45 5.29 Input current profile of both channels 47 5.2 Block Diagram of LCI Drive with chopper rectifier configuration 51 6.3 Model of rectifier chopper based LCI drive 54 6.32 Speed profile of Six Phase Machine during starting 49 5.17 Supply current profile 40 5.31 THD analysis window 48 5.5.4 Controller block diagram 54 6.15 Input currents of two channels 39 5.6 THD of supply current 60 7.5 Supply current profile 59 7.22 Back EMF showing the spikes 43 5.6 PI current controller 55 7.4 Stator current profile 58 7.20 Speed profile of synchronous motor 42 5.21 Back EMF profile during starting of Dual channel drive 42 5.30 Supply current profile of the drive 48 5.24 Speed profile of Six phase Machine 44 5.33 Torque profile of Six Phase Machine during starting 49 5.16 Motor stator currents for both Machines 40 5.27 Motor stator current profile for both windings 45 5.1 Block Diagram of LCI fed Synchronous Drive 51 6.1 Speed profile under the load and speed variation 57 7.25 Torque profile of Six Phase Machine 44 5.18 THD analysis window 41 5.19 Speed profile during starting of Dual channel LCI drive 41 5.3 Back EMF profile of the Machine 58 7.28 Motor Back EMF profile for both windings 46 5.7 Speed profile under the load and speed variation 61 9 .23 Machine stator current profile 43 5.34 Back EMF profile during starting of Six Phase Machine 50 6.2 Instantaneous torque profile 57 7.5 PI Speed controller 55 6.

2 Sensor circuit diagram 69 8.13 Inverter pulses during stating 64 8.8 Stator current profile 62 7.10 Supply current profile 63 7.11 THD analysis of supply current 63 7.12 Speed profile during starting 64 7.3 Optocoupler and isolation circuit 69 .9 Back EMF profile of the Machine 62 7.7.1 Outline diagram of hardware set up 66 8.

GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS AC Alternating current DC Direct current ID Induced draft FD Forced draft CSI Current source inverter LCI Load Commutated Inverter P Number of poles pu per unit J Moment of inertia in kg/m2 PI Proportional Integral wb Base speed in radian per second wr Rotor speed in radian per second wbm α β Base mechanical speed in radian per second Thyristor firing angle Commutation lead angle  Commutation overlap angle γ Margin angle .

the continuing trend was towards the more robust AC motors. In order to reduce the harmonics injected both in the network and in the motor and to minimize the torque pulsations and losses. covering ranges from few Watts to tens of Megawatts. In the high power range.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION GENERAL Ever since the industrial revolution and invention of the electricity. For critical applications requiring precise speed and torque control requirements. motors have been the workhorses of modern industries. The DC motors suffer from complex design and increased maintenance cost due to the increased wear and tear of the commutator and brushes etc. Synchronous motors are employed in these drives as these have a higher full load efficiency and power factor than induction motors of comparable rating. resulting from the association of electrical motors and power electronics converters [1-3]. the industry gradually migrated to widespread use of Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD). for applications like compressors. These motors suffered from the fact that speed control was not easy in these machines. Because of its simpler control. the ASDs have become even more attractive due to the energy savings that could be obtained by making use of modern control techniques. the industry relied on the DC motors for years. fans. such as vector control and direct torque control. Load Commutated Inverter (LCI) fed wound field synchronous motor is commonly used. After the appearance of the electronics in the last century and the development of components like transistors and thyristors. After the oil crisis and the environmental problems faced by the world. Electric Drives technology is now strong and mature. it is normally used in a twelve-pulse version. LCI functions on the natural commutation of thyristors. but after the advent of microprocessors and new control algorithms. Seventy percent of the motors used in the industry are AC induction motors. pumps and electric traction. the first ASDs were based on brush DC motors. Wound field synchronous motors can be designed for a higher power rating than induction 1 .

In true synchronous mode. Induced Draft (ID) fans. Variable frequency control can be done in two modes: (a) true synchronous mode or (b) self-controlled or self-synchronous mode. Speed of the synchronous motor is directly proportional to frequency and can be controlled by varying the frequency. In self-control mode. a larger air gap suiting the mechanical design can be chosen. 2 . one of the major disadvantages of the synchronous motor is that it is not self-starting. as the rotor speed changes.motors. In the power generation industry. blowers. Hence rotor runs at synchronous speed for all operating points thus eliminating hunting oscillations. When the desired synchronous speed is reached the rotor pulls into step after hunting oscillations. Since the air gap flux is not produced solely by the magnetizing current drawn from the armature. Thus. But we can use LCI as soft starters . the synchronous motor presents an excellent alternative to the induction motor in the high power and variable speed applications. However.It requires more maintenance and it is costlier than an induction motor of similar rating. stator supply frequency is gradually changed from an initial value to the required value so that the difference between the synchronous speed and rotor speed is small. The rotor can thus track changes in the synchronous speed. High efficiency and controllable power factor are the advantages offered by the synchronous motor which offset the higher initial cost of the synchronous motors in the megawatt range applications. air compressors for the pneumatic control devices and transportation of ash in the dry ash handling systems etc. stator supply frequency is changed proportionally to make the synchronous speed same as the rotor speed. such drives find use in the Forced Draft (FD) fans. Such motors when used in conjunction with the current source inverter are best suited for compressors and fan loads.

The load side converter performs a similar function as Commutator in a dc machine. Merits of load-commutated inverter are:  It does not require commutation circuits made up of bulky inductances and capacitances and hence reduces the size and cost of the inverter. The motor counter emf (CEMF) commutates the thyristors of the load side converter. the firing pulses may be derived either by using rotor position sensors or machine terminal voltage sensors. Fig 1. at low speeds (below 10%) motor induced emf is insufficient to commutate the thyristor of load side converter. In load commutation.  It can operate at power levels beyond the capability of forced commutation.SELF CONTROLLED LOAD COMMUTATED INVERTER (LCI) FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR [1.  Frequency of operation can be much higher which depends upon the machine’s sub-transient inductance and the turn off time of the inverter thyristors. the synchronous motor here is also called a brushless DC motor. However. 3 . The output of the rectifier is subsequently converted into a variable frequency AC by the load side inverter before being fed to the synchronous motor drive.2] One important reason for preferring wound field synchronous motor drives over induction motor drives for high speed and high power ratings is its capability to operate in leading power factors which is the basic criterion for the load commutation in an inverter.1 Load commutated inverter fed synchronous motor [4] The AC line is connected to the source side rectifier through an isolation transformer which acts as a large inductor. In fact.

An attempt also has been made to develop a laboratory level prototype for the LCI drive which would be controlled by DSP 2812. Chapter 4 presents the complete simulation model of the LCI drive based on the data of the LCI drive installed at Dadri power station and being supplied at Kahalgaon power stations.SCOPE OF THE PROJECT LCI synchronous motor drives are commercially available from reputed manufacturers for almost 20 years now. Chapter 3 presents the basic operation and working of the LCI fed synchronous motor drive. a motor with two sets of windings is used.e. The windings are positioned 30 electrical degrees apart in space. In the latter. Chapter 2 presents the literature survey carried out during the course of this project work. ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT This report presents the simulation and analysis of the LCI fed synchronous motor drive under various operating conditions for both six pulse and twelve pulse configurations in MATLAB/ SIMULINK environment. Two models for the LCI drive have been developed using the standard synchronous machine block available in Sim Power Systems toolbox. Chapter 6 presents the modified i. It also specifies the scope of work and presents the organization of the report. These are normally available in both six pulse and twelve pulse configuration.. uncontrolled rectifier chopper fed LCI drive 4 . Chapter 5 presents the simulation results. Two channel drive is implemented in two ways (i) by interconnecting two 3 phase synchronous machines and (ii) by using six phase synchronous machine. The process of starting and commutation principles have been discussed. discussions of the same and the limitations thereof. Both the 6 pulse and 12 pulse configurations have been modeled and presented. Chapter 1 deals briefly with the introduction to the LCI fed synchronous motor drive and its advantages. The object of this project is to develop a model of the load commutated inverter fed synchronous motor drive for both six pulse and twelve pulse configuration using MATLAB / SIMULINK software.

Chapter 9 gives the conclusions and scope for future work to be carried out in this direction. Appendix A gives the complete specifications of the LCI drive installed at NTPC DADRI and NTPC KAHALGAON and the machine in the PG MACHINES lab Appendix B gives the various S functions used for the commutation and firing of the load commutated inverter and other MATLAB program listings. Chapter 7 explains about the simulation results and discussions of the modified LCI fed drive.and its modeling. 5 . Chapter 8 explains about the hardware implementation of the project.

The available literature on the LCI fed synchronous motor drive has been studied for comprehending the functioning of the drive unit. drawings and other reference material of General Electric LCI drives [4] have been studied in detail. Bimal K Bose[2] in his book titled “Power electronics and AC drives” describes the basic principles of the power semiconductor devices. Datasheets of the various components and systems have been referred to. G K Dubey’s [1] book titled “Power semiconductor controlled AC Drives” is a standard reference book for understanding the principles of operation of the modern AC Drives. Finney [3] in his book titled “Variable Frequency AC Drive Systems” has explained the operation of the six pulse current source inverter fed motors in a very simple and easy to understand manner. the various systems and subsystems of the commercially available equipments etc.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY The previous chapter presented the objectives of the project work as developing a model for LCI fed synchronous motor drive in both six pulse and twelve pulse configurations. Development of the model involves understanding the concepts of the synchronous motors. AC machines . Chee-Mun Ong [6] in his book titled “Dynamic Simulation of Electric Machinery Using MATLAB” deals with the simulation of electric machines using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Operation of such drives at low speed with a large load torque poses a great challenge. voltage fed and current fed inverters and control of synchronous machines in a very concise manner. 6 . LCI drives. the power electronic converters. Hoang Lehuy [5] in his paper on “Modeling and simulation of electrical drives using MATLAB/SIMULINK” has described a method for modeling and simulation of electrical drives using state-space formulation and power system blocksets in MATLAB/SIMULINK. which are commercially available from various manufacturers and to study the performance under various operating conditions. Operation and maintenance manuals.

Singh. Ranganathan[17] paper “Starting scheme for load commutated inverter-fed wound field synchronous machine using an auxiliary low-power voltage source inverter” gave the exposure for various starting techniques of the LCI fed synchronous drives. Alcaso and Cardoso [9] in their paper “Modeling and simulation of LCI drive systems under normal and faulty operate conditions” have explained the operational principles of the twelve pulse drives very well. J. Tu Xuan.Manoj Barsaiyan [8] in his M Tech dissertation has explained the concepts of the synchronous motors and the application of the DTC to high capacity synchronous motor drives and LCI control.T. R. Sanjeev Singh. 7 . Wetter. Hemanth Chender [13]paper “Harmonics Mitigation in LCI-Fed Synchronous Motor Drives” and B. transient behavior and troubleshooting of the drive system. P. Hemanth Chender[14] paper ” Power quality improvement in load commutated inverter-fed synchronous motor drives” gave the exposure to the various power quality improvement techniques Bhim Singh.P. Burmeister[12] paper “12Pulse LCI synchronous drive for a 20 MW compressor modeling. Jain and V. In view of this the objective of this project has been set to model the Load Commutated Inverter fed synchronous motor drive in both 6-pulse and 12-pulse configurations. Sanjeev Singh and S. T. Sanjeev Singh[15] paper ”power quality improvement using optimized passive filter for 12-pulse rectifier chopper in LCI fed synchronous machine” is the one by which developed the model of rectifier chopper based LCI drive and made an attempt for implementing Hardware of the same model Amit Kumar Jain and V. MATLAB reference [11] manuals are very helpful for modeling in the drive. have given the concepts of the six phase synchronous machines. Sapin . P. “Hybrid LCI/VSI Power Circuit—A Universal High-Power Converter Solution for Wound Field Synchronous Motor Drives” and A. Ranganathan[16]paper. M. an attempt has been made to model this drive to understand its dynamics. Simond . simulation and measurements gave industrial exposure to the LCI drive Bhim Singh.-J.and S. Schiferl and Ong [10] in their paper “Six phase synchronous machine with AC and DC stator connections Part I: equivalent circuit representation and steadystate analysis”. Though a lot of information is available in the literature regarding the hardware of the LCI drives.K. A.

though these have been very costly. The transformer provides isolation from the ac system bus and provides the correct voltage at the terminals of the rectifier. conventional Induction motors and hydraulic couplings have normally been used for this application. In view of the system reliability and potential power savings in the Induced Draft fans. 1. phase controlled thyristor converter which feeds a load commutated thyristor converter through a dc link reactor.1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The basic block diagram of the LCI drive has already been presented in Fig. Also. textbooks. It has a lineside converter fed by a 50 Hz three phase supply feeding the motor side converter which converts its input DC to variable frequency AC supply. the internal impedance of the transformer limits the magnitude of any downstream bus faults. The principle of operation of the Load commutated Inverter fed synchronous motor drive is presented in this chapter. So far. adjustable frequency drive system which controls a synchronous motor from near zero to rated speed [3]. Typical details of the LCI Drive installed at NTPC Dadri are also discussed. 8 . The basic system consists of a line commutated. The output of the rectifier is fed through the dc link reactor.CHAPTER 3 LOAD COMMUTATED INVERTER FED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE The last chapter discussed about various research papers. the LCI fed synchronous motor drive is being chosen for these fans. The rectifier is a thyristor bridge whose gating is controlled to produce a variable dc voltage at its output. BASIC DRIVE CONTROL The Load Commutated Inverter (LCI) is a static. whose function is to make the current ripple-free and to keep it continuous over the complete operating range of the system. The following sections give the basics of the LCI drive operation. standards and manuals relevant to this project work.

Speed reference signal. Process commands such as stop. start. A more general nomenclature is to call the line side bridge the source converter. A more detailed diagram of a single channel LCI is shown in Figure 3. and to call the motor side bridge the load converter. Its rotor voltage and thus the synchronous motor field excitation varies with motor speed [4]. Attenuated line and load current signals from current transformers. Attenuated line and load bus voltage signals.1. The brushless exciter is a wound rotor induction machine whose rotor voltage is rectified by rotating diodes to supply the necessary field current to the synchronous motor. 4. 9 . 2.The dc link reactor output is then fed into the inverter bridge which produces variable frequency ac at the stator terminals of the synchronous motor. The synchronous motor field is usually excited by a brushless exciter coupled to the motor shaft. 3. The exciter stator is connected to auxiliary AC supply. In this case the motor would be braked by pumping its energy back into the ac line. the electronic control receives the following signal inputs: 1. The inverter bridge and the rectifier bridge use the same power hardware and are controlled by microprocessor-based electronics. As shown in this figure. Although the bridges are labelled "rectifier" and "inverter" it is possible for the reversal of their roles and hence power flow can reverse. etc.

started. to provide voltage sensing across the thyristor cells. and to provide electronic over/under voltage detection. If in a started condition. alarmed. or faulty condition. the electronics provides gate signals to control 10 . The electronic control evaluates the process commands and internal status signals to determine whether the drive should be in a stopped. electronic overcurrent detection. and software-implemented fault detection.1 A detailed diagram of a single channel LCI drive [4] The attenuated bus voltage signals are used by the control to synchronize thyristor firing with the line and load voltages.Fig 3. The attenuated current signals are used for regulator current feedback.

Thus. it can be triggered into conduction.2. double way type and the Thyristor Bridge legs "fire" in the order that they are numbered in Figure 3. These signals are low level and are conditioned in the power bridge circuitry to provide the necessary isolation and power level.1 and as shown in Figure 3. with a margin angle. and (2) it will not permit current flow in the reverse direction.2 Firing sequence of the thyristors [4] The source converter current is successfully transferred from one leg to the next by the ac line voltages.the thyristor bridges. the inverter current is successfully transferred by the motor stator voltages. The process of switching motor/inverter current from one leg to the next is illustrated in Figure 3.3. This phase-controlled switching is accomplished by using the following two thyristor characteristics: (1) when the voltage across the thyristor is positive. thyristor conduction will cease and reverse voltage will begin to appear when the current becomes zero. Similarly. 11 . Current transfer must be completed before voltage cross-over. Fig 3. The power bridges are of the six pulse. in an alternating voltage circuit. The principles illustrated here apply to a rectifier bridge as well as to an inverter bridge.

γ is the margin angle and μ is the overlap angle of the load side converter. where α is the firing angle of the machine side converter.4. but cannot become zero.Fig 3. the fundamental component of current will always lag the voltage. but for successful commutation. This is why the fundamental component of current must lead the voltage. the angle =180° -β = 180°-μ. from an inverter/motor viewpoint. The LCI control system must conform to the characteristics of the synchronous motor operating at leading power factor.3 Switching of motor/inverter current from one leg to the next [4] This angle must be long enough to allow the previously conducting leg thyristors to recover to their blocking state before reverse voltage is applied. a practical limit is 155°. 12 . Correspondingly. a practical minimum value for γ for the inverter bridge is 25°. From the rectifier/source viewpoint. β = 180 – α.γ must always be less than 180°. A phasor diagram for a synchronous machine operating at leading power factor is shown in Figure 3. The motor power-factor angle is always less than. β is called the commutation lead angle.

Ef. until equilibrium is reached at a new operating point..e. which further increases stator current. respectively.Fig 3. which will increase IDXAD. The primary feedback for accomplishing this is the attenuated bus-to-ground signals for both converters.4 Phasor diagram of a synchronous motor [4] The motor voltage characteristic is mainly a function of the rotor field-excitation. At low speed. the ac line provides the means for transferring conduction from one thyristor to the next. Attenuated bus-to-ground voltages are brought into the electronic control and combined to produce line-to-line analogs for both converters. The source side converter for the LCI always operates line-commutated. thereby increasing displacement angle θ. the zero crossing marks are used as a timing reference for firing the next incoming thyristor. 13 . which in turn decreases the machine voltage Vt available for commutation. before the phase locked loop is effective on the load side. An increase in stator current will result in higher direct-axis current. and the de-magnetizing action of direct-axis current which produces the IDXAD voltage in opposition to the voltage produced by field excitation. The zero crossings of these signals are used in the synchronization of the phase locked loop for the firing control of both source and load converters. etc. When operating in any mode the electronic control must synchronize firing of the source and load converters to the ac line and motor bus voltages. i. These line-to-line voltages are then integrated to obtain flux signals.

the load converter is fired at a fixed low frequency. depending on motor speed and flux level. When in forced commutation. the motor may initially move backward unless the control is specifically programmed to prevent reverse rotation when starting. This mode is used to start the motor and obtain a speed with sufficient counter emf to allow the control to lock on to it. the near-sinusoidal shaped field flux cuts the stator windings to produce a set of three sinusoidal voltages in the stator which are angularly displaced by 120 electrical degrees. At low speeds the induced counter emf is insufficient to commutate the thyristors in the load side converter. conduction of the load converter is stopped by pushing the firing angle of the source converter to inversion limit until the dc link (reactor) current is zero as shown in Figure 3.6.The load side converter may operate either load (self) commutated or forcecommutated. The magnitude of this counter emf is proportional to speed and field strength. the control must operate in a forced commutated mode. This frequency is adjustable and optimized at startup for best operation. In this mode. 14 . There are two forced commutated modes: fixed frequency firing and segment firing modes. As the synchronous motor rotor (field) rotates. In fixed frequency operation. Thus the dc link current appears chopped into 60-degree-wide segments of motor frequency (angle). When fixed frequency mode is begun.

At this point. As soon as the control detects sufficient balance and level of the stator flux waves. it transitions to segment firing mode.Fig. the voltages present at the output of the motor voltage integrators (flux) are sufficient to allow the control to 15 .5 Forced Commutation Firing Mode [4] If the field is moving backwards before starting. 3. the control will stop the field (rotor) and accelerate it in the desired direction.

synchronize load thyristor firings to the motor voltage. and the voltage difference between the lines involved in the attempted commutation. At this point. For a given load current and motor inductance. where the synchronous motor counter emf is sufficient to commutate the load side converter. current and load commutation is still controlled by source thyristor bridge shutoff. The electronic control acts to keep the motor power factor.6. Using the current and inductance. This is accomplished by firing the load converter as close to inversion limit as possible while maintaining sufficient margin for successful commutation of current from one device to the next. motor (commutating) inductance. the latest possible time to fire is calculated to give a specified margin after commutation is completed. The commutation time required is a function of motor current. currents. a corresponding amount of volt-seconds is required for successful commutation. the motor must be operated at a leading power factor in order to be able to ensure commutation of the load converter. Using this value of volt-seconds and the peak volt-seconds of the previous flux wave. the control transitions to load commutated operation. The relationship of the system voltages. The control compensates for the imperfect integration at low frequency and fires the load thyristors to operate the motor at near unity power factor. Segment firing mode continues until the motor has reached approximately 10% of rated speed. The control reads the peak volt-seconds of the integrated line-to-line motor voltages and the motor current. the amount of commutation volt-seconds required is calculated by the microprocessor. as high as possible. and flux waves are illustrated in Figure 3. In the self commutated mode. The motor commutating inductance is a constant stored in the microprocessor system memory. which is the principal operating mode. but now thyristor firings are synchronized to the motor counter emf. In the segment firing mode. 16 . and therefore torque per ampere.

The corresponding notch in VAB (A and B are the two lines which are commutating together at this instant) is twice this amplitude.Fig 3.6 Motor Voltage and Current in the Self-Commutated Mode [4] The commutating "notch" identified in the line voltage VAC is equal in amplitude to the simultaneous commutating "bump" in the line voltage VBC. the notch area is twice the commutating inductance per phase times the current. where the lines 17 . The voltage at the commutating point.

TWELVE-PULSE OPERATION [4] Twelve-pulse operation is like two identical. and fire at the same relative firing angle. including a common field. This construction. will decrease. This utilizes the 18 .are temporarily connected by the thyristor legs. the apparent power factor "seen" by the power source increases.7 Inter-channel communication allows one channel to be the master and the other the slave. This reduces the motor cost. This is achieved by separating the stator winding into two identical windings. and reduces the torque pulsation amplitude while raising the torque pulsation frequency. Typical connections of twelve pulse LCI drive is shown in Figure 3. At high load on the motor. the line-to-line voltage is only the forward voltage drops of the conducting thyristor legs. between the two drive channels. separate. due to commutation "notching". take equal current. but also 30º apart between the two channels. utilizing a common magnetic frame. is practically zero during commutation. This communication allows the two motor winding currents to be balanced. but isolated and phase-shifted by 30º. Thus the channels deliver equal power. The transformer design makes the source-side converter voltage equal. It is not necessary that source-side and load-side voltages be phaseshifted. six-pulse drives operating from a common source at the same current and firing angle. with the firing reference angles shifted by 30º using the isolating transformers. including installation. which takes its torque reference from the master. The harmonics in the current and the resultant harmonics in the voltage. The transformer windings are shifted to reduce the harmonic distortion on the power system and to raise the harmonic frequencies. the dc link voltage is increased. This is because the source converter firing advances (is reduced) to obtain more current. The fundamental control strategy is to increase motor current in response to a load torque increase. The motor windings are shifted to obtain smoother torque for equal current. causes the load-side converter voltage to be equal in amplitude and frequency. The two motors are combined into one frame. thereby raising motor current so as to keep the motor speed constant.

but their amplitudes are m ch smaller. Other higher-order harmonics will be present. Details of the control strategy of the commercial drives were also discussed. it may be returned to service without interr upting the drive system. as the first two harmonics present i each six. 19 . When the out-of-service channel is ready for operation. The next chapter will present the modeling aspects. u a Fig 3.7 Twelve pulse (2LChannel)CI drive schematic di gram [4] o A twelve-pulse system also has the capability of shutting downne channel fo maintenance while the motor continues to run on the other channel (with reduced torque and usually reduced speed range).u n p h c annel cancel (5th and 7th harmonics).motor and drives’ capabilities to the best extent and also minimizes the harmon distortion on the power system. This chapter presented the basic principles f operation of the LCI synchronous o motor drives.

4.1 Typical schematic of the LCI fed synchronous motor drive [7] 20 . [7] Fig.CHAPTER 4 MODELING THE LCI DRIVE In the present chapter the models of the LCI synchronous motors developed using the MATLAB/ SIMULINK shall be presented. THE BASIC LCI SCHEME A standard schematic of the LCI fed synchronous motor drive is shown in Figure 4.1.

Line voltage and frequency is specified. The S Functions may be written in C++. Present model of the LCI Drive has been implemented using the standard blocks and user defined blocks. thyristors. Almost all blocks for implementing the power sources. voltage current and power measurement. The impedance of the source is specified either by the short circuit level or as actual values of resistance and inductance.2. MATLAB / SIMULINK also gives flexibility to create custom blocks either by modifying the existing blocks or creating these in the programs form known as ‘S Functions’. FORTRAN or MATLAB languages. 21 . are available. motors etc. iii) Source side Thyristor Converter: Thyristor converter consists of six power electronic switches connected as bridge. . ii) Two winding transformer: The two winding transformer is implemented by the two winding transformer block available in the SimPowerSystems library. SIX PULSE (SINGLE CHANNEL) LCI DRIVE LCI fed synchronous motor drive model has been implemented as shown in Figure 4. transformers. synchronized firing control. Phase to phase voltage of primary and secondary windings and other parameters are specified as per the dialog box. However suitable compilers must be installed to convert these functions into user Blocks. i) Power source: The power source is standard three phase source. The data for various components of the drive system has been taken from the drawings and documents of the GE make LCI drive installed at Dadri power station of NTPC for the Induced Draft Fan of one of the Boilers (210 MW).IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MODEL IN MATLAB/SIMULINK The modeling in the MATLAB / SIMULINK environment is carried out by using the various standard blocks in the SimPowerSystems Library. Various component blocks of the model are explained below.

4.2 Model of the six pulse LCI Drive V in powergui Lo ad P C Speed reference m A B A Synchronou pu Stan .motor current dc link current <Rotor speed input voltage +v - [Vabc] Voltage dc voltage [dclink] -1 DC LINK INDUCTOR Ba b C c input current <Electromagnet g + Vabc A Iabc <Rotor mechan LOAD SIDE INVERTER i g Vabc A + DC LINK MEAS A Iabc + B C V-I M Ba C b B C c So u rc e P Continuous CONTROLLER [theta] [w] [Vabc] [dclink] S p eed R ef An g le S p eed D C L in k Fig.

Field voltage and Load torque are to be given as inputs. iv) DC link Reactor: This inductor acts as a filter to smooth out the DC link current and to allow the two converters to operate independent of each other. b) Synchronized pulse generator: Source side converter firing is controlled through a synchronized 6-pulse generator. Output of this block is 3 phase currents. Input to this block are the three phase line-to-line voltage signal and converter firing angle. The main subsystems of the controller are explained below. vii) Controller: Controller is the heart of the LCI drive as this is the unit which controls the firing of the source and load side thyristor bridges through the feedback signals of the speed current voltage etc. Input to the armature comes from load-side Converter Bridge. vi) Synchronous Motor block: This block has been created using the synchronous machine model available in SimPowerSystems (Power System Blockset) in per unit configuration and the machine measurements demux.3. This is achieved through the firing angle controller and passing the 23 .The three input terminals are connected to the transformer block output. The fourth input terminal is for the firing pulses for the control. Pulses generated through pulse generator at power frequency are passed on to the thyristor converter. which changes the firing sequence based on rotor position. flux linkages. currents and power. a) Voltage signals: the voltage signals are derived from the source to synchronize the firing of the source Thyristor Bridge with the supply voltage frequency. Model for the Controller developed for the LCI drive is shown in Figure 4. electromagnetic torque. Firing pulses to this block is given through an Sfunction. v) Load side Inverter: Input to this block is DC voltage from the source side converter and firing pulses. the source thyristors must be force commutated to make the DC link current zero. The machine parameters are defined in per unit representation. Outputs from this block are various quantities that can be measured from the machine such as speed. This block has been created for both single winding and double winding synchronous motor. However upto 10 % of the rated speed of the motor. which flow through the machine.

the source thyristors are line commutated. Beyond 10% of rated speed.7. 24 . Further the DC link reference signal output from the first PI controller (speed controller) is compared with the actual DC link current value by the second PI controller (current controller) to arrive at the value of the source side converter-firing angle (α). d) PI controllers: PI controllers are used to generate the reference DC link current value (which is an index of the torque requirement) by generating the error signal by comparing the reference and actual speed of the motor. c) Firing angle control: This subsystem has been developed using SFunction. This speed error is also needed to control the closing of the circuit breakers of the other channel when the drive is operated in the twelve pulse mode. DC link current and the rotor position to decide whether the system shall be operated in the fixed firing mode or the self commutated mode.output of both the subsystems through an AND block.6 and Figure 4. It senses the rotor speed. The two PI controllers are shown in Figure 4.

alpha_deg AB BCpulses CA Block 1 Vin m 0 4 Angle 1 Source Pulses Pulse Generator ANGLE SPEEDOutput CURRENT 3 DC Link 2 Speed Firing Angle Control SOURCE SIDE CONT ROL DC LINK wm 5 Speed Ref o Wref speed controller -K- OUTPUT FROM S C Fig. current control ler S-Function1 4.3 Details of the controll fixedfiring er LOAD SIDE CONT ROL DETAILS OF THE CONTROLLER MODULE 2 Load Pulses .

4 PI Speed controller Fig 4.Fig 4. It has implemented in two ways.5 PI Current Controller TWELVE PULSE (DUAL CHANNEL) LCI DRIVE Implementation of the six pulse LCI drive is rather straightforward as standard blocks for most of the components are available. 1) With two independent motors rotors coupled 26 . The twelve pulse operation of the drive is rather complex as the two sets of windings are placed in the same stator core with 30º space shift.

7. In fact the second or the slave channel gets the speed reference signal from the first channel. 1 Pm m Pm A Add1 2 <Rotor mechanical angle theta (deg)> B Vf_ C 2 Vf 1 W1 <Rotor speed wm (pu)> 1 A1 2 B1 theta1 <Electromagnetic torque Te (pu)> 3 C1 Synchronous Machine pu Standard1 -1 5 Add m 3 w A B Vf_ <Rotor speed wm (pu)> 4 A2 5 B2 6 C2 4 theta2 <Rotor mechanical angle theta (deg)> <Electromagnetic torque Te (pu)> C Synchronous Machine pu Standard Product Fig: 4. The drive is normally switched on with one channel and as the speed reaches the rated one for the first channel. A lot of literature survey was done and it was understood that the two windings of the synchronous machine are working independently of each other but the torque output of both the windings is actually adding up to give more resultant torque with less pulsations and harmonics.2) With the recent six phase machine model in MATLAB 2012 The motor is like as if two motors having been built in the same frame.7 Synchronous machine of two channel drive -1 W2 torque . the other channel is switched on to makes the speed reach the final value. control software embedded in the controller memory takes over to equalize the loading of the two channels. The block created for the two winding motor is shown in Figure 4. The power electronics and control electronics are exactly replicated in the two channel operation as explained earlier in Chapter 3. After both the channels are powered on.

The model for the second type of two channel drive is shown in Figure 4. s = 1e-005 s [Vabc2] curr entd torque[theta2] Speed13 Synchronous V-I M w2 theta2 B2 V-I M4 V-I M1 Three-Phase Transformer (Two Windings) b C c W1 Vf Vabc A Iabc g + A i B C a c load LOAD SIDE INVERTER current voltage Load P Source P [V1] Speed R ef CONTROLLER D C L in k Speed V in [V1]w1dclink1theta1 CONTROLLER1 speed ref w2dclink2[theta2] 1 [Vabc2] Fig: 4.8 torque machine . for the first type of the two channel drive.6.1 speed referrence voltagestar Vabc A Iabc Ba A ngle dclink1 a b + - g Vabc A Iabc currentstar B + A b C c Pm w1 theta1 A1 2.6 Two channel drive Complete model of the twelve pulse LCI fed synchronous motor drive is shown in Figure 4.1 theta1 VF B B C B1 a b C c W2 C1 A2 C2 voltaged dclink2 + A a + i - Vin powergui Vabc A Iabc B C B a b C c V-I M3 Speed R ef Source P V-I M2 Three-Phase Transformer (Two Windings)1 g + A Load P B C b C c Angle B LOAD SIDE INVERTER1 DC LINK INDUCTOR1 D C L in k b g Speed a Vabc A Iabc c Discrete.

5 theta w b2 B C a3 Network b3 X Vf_ S p eed R ef A ngle Load P CONTROLLER1 D C Link Six Phase Synchronous Machine 240V 100KVA Speed V in Z Source P Y Vf step C c3 Measurements6 240 V / 240 V 150 KVA v2 V-I M4 Continuous powergui Measurements4 dclink2 V-I M3 Vabc g A B b c i - + + g Vabc B - C A Iabc + A Iabc a + DC LINK INDUCTOR1 C c A a B b B C C Figure 4.5 CONTROLLER2 a Speed R ef th e t m ec Lo ad P S our c e P V in <Ro to r hanical angle theta (deg)> S pee d w <Rotor speed wm (rad/s)> agnetic torque Te (N*m)> Measurements2 <Electrom dclink1 Measurements1 V-I M1 Vabc i .8 Two channel drive with six phase machine SIMULATION OF THE LCI DRIVE MODEL At the start of the simulation. power supply is applied to channel 1(Master). In the next chapter simulation results of these models shall be presented. The speed of the machine now increases to the final value due to the contribution of the two channels.one installed at NTPC Dadri and the other for NTPC Kahalgaon are given in appendix A. 240Vrms LL .dclink1 theta Angle w D C Link v1 188.10 MVA .+ A Iabc Pm step b B C + Vabc A a2 Iabc B A B - c V-I M2 From2 A + A B A Pm g + g m v1 DC LINK INDUCTOR2 a C C b c dclink2 v2 C A c2 B C B 188. Complete specifications of the two LCI drives. This chapter dealt with the simulation models of LCI fed synchronous motor drive implemented in the MATLAB / SIMULINK environment. The power supply to the other cannel is controlled through circuit breakers which close only when the speed error of the first channel is zero.

4. The current limit is set at the rated value as per the specifications of the drive manufacturer and the usual operational practices adopted for starting of the drive. Three phase motor currents are shown in Figure 5. Three phase back emf profile is shown in Figure 5. .5 sec and speed variation from 1 p.3 p. SIX PULSE LCI DRIVE OPERATION: As we know synchronous motor is not a self starting one the simulink just modeled so that it starts from the synchronous speed. The torque output of the machine is shown in Figure 5.2. The motor is started with an initial load of 0.CHAPTER 5 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the previous chapter MATLAB/SIMULINK models of the LCI synchronous motor drive and its standard subsystems were discussed.u.8 p. which is full of notches and spikes due to current commutation. Complete specifications of the drives are given in Appendix A.3.1. So let we start with the speed and load variations of the LCI drive.u with rated load condition.u and the speed reference is given as 1 p. This is the first LCI drive installed for Induced Draft Fan for 210 MW boilers among NTPC power stations. Specifications and data used for this simulation have been taken from NTPC Dadri power station. 1 p.3 to rated load i.u at 0.u to 0. The speed variation with these variations is shown in Figure 5. Then we set the load variation from 0.e. This chapter presents the simulation results obtained from these models under various operating conditions of the drive.

.Time in seconds Figure 5.2 Profile of torque developed In this torque profile we can see the variation according to the load and speed variation commands. The band is the ripple in the actual developed torque.1 Speed profile under the load and speed variation Time in seconds Figure 5.

Time in seconds Figure 5. The overlap varies with the load conditions also.4 Back EMF profile of the machine The current overlap will be heavy with loaded conditions than lightly loaded conditions as current is low with light loads and hence inductance stored energy is limited. .3 Stator current profile In the above profile we can clearly see the commutation overlap of the currents due to the motor inductance. Time in seconds Figure 5.

One of the parameter which indicates the power quality index is THD (total harmonic distortion).6 Supply current profile With the advent of power electronic devices we have lot of advantages like good control on machines. energy conversion and non-renewable energy sources.the same problem effects LCI drive fed synchronous machine. Figure 5. .7 shows the THD of the input current of the drive being 29.95%.Time in seconds Figure 5. Along with these above advantages we have the big problem of power quality due to switching .5 DC link voltage Time in seconds Figure 5.

6) we are able to see it as it is quasi square wave in nature with high THD around 30%.2) with sudden decrease of speed at rated load the torque has increased more than rated for attaining load which can we get a clear picture from profile. STARTING OF SIX PULSE LCI DRIVE LCI drive also has an application of soft starters for large gas turbines.7 THD of input current The controller used consists of PI controllers here we have the problem of steady state error which can be noted from the speed profile (Figure 5.4).Figure 5. Starting of the motor from rest is achieved by switching the current into the motor windings so that interaction between this current and the motor field flux will cause the correct direction of torque to be developed so that motor terns in the required direction. In the back EMF profile (Figure 5. We are able to see the voltage notches during the switching instants of motor side converter.1). This . With supply current profile (Figure 5. In the torque profile (figure 5.

concept is already well explained previously. The speed variation for the motor can be checked in the Figure 5.9 Torque profile during starting 35 .8 Speed profile during starting We can see the variations very high during lower speed as we look for the maximum torque combinations we commutate the thyristor by making the DC link current zero and switching other combination of thyristors. Time in seconds Figure 5.8 Time in seconds Figure 5.

The increase in torque profile at 4. in figure 5. Time in seconds Figure 5.10 Back EMF profile during starting In the above profile we can see the increase in voltage as speed is building up of the motor and in next figure i.e.11 we can see the shape of the back emf. Time in seconds Figure 5.5 seconds is due to load on the motor..11 Back EMF profile showing the spikes during commutation .

Time in seconds
Figure 5.12 Motor current profile
The machine started from zero speed and up to 10% of the speed there will be
some inner loop which takes care of giving the pulses of the currents to develop the
maximum torque at all the instants. We can see from speed profile (Figure 5.8)
variations up to 10% of the speed and afterwards it tracks the command of the speed.
From the torque profile (Figure 5.9) also we can see the torque pulsations of very high
in nature during the speed range from 0 to 10%. As we know the back EMF depends
upon speed as well as excitation. As it is at rated excitation the EMF increases
proportionality with speed. The shape of the back EMF (Figure 5.11) is fully with
voltage notches due to switching. With current profile (Figure 5.12) initially it draws
more current and as speed picks up the no load currents frequency increases and
magnitude decreases.
DUAL CHANNEL DRIVE OPERATION (WITH TWO
INTERCONNECTED MOTORS):
First we see the operation for load and speed variations. The two motor combination
started with 0.7 p.u load at rated speed. Then gave command to vary speed to 0.95 p.u

at 1.5 seconds from 1 p.u. then load is increased to 1.6 p.u with speed at 0.95 p.u .the
speed variation can be seen in Figure 5.13

Time in seconds
Figure 5.13 Speed profile

Time in seconds
Figure 5.14 Torque profile
The below profiles are of input currents for star and delta channels. We can observe
the phase difference in the currents

Time in seconds
Figure 5.15 Input currents of two channels
The following profile of Figure 5.16 shows the supply current is which the
rd

th

combination of star and delta current in which the dominant harmonics of 3 and 5
order nullifies and THD decreases as shown in Figure 5.16

Time in seconds Figure 5.16 Motor stator currents for both machines Time in seconds Figure 5.17 Supply current profile .

Figure 5.18 THD analysis window STARTING OF DUAL CHANNEL DRIVE As though dual channel but drive starts with single channel up to particular speed and then both channels taken into service speed raise up to rated speed we can see the speed variation in Figure 5.19 Time in seconds Figure 5.19 Speed profile during starting of dual channel LCI drive .

20 Torque profile during starting of dual channel LCI fed drive The following Figure (5.21) gives the picture of increasing back EMF during the speed built up of the motor Time in seconds Figure 5.Time in seconds Figure 5.21 Back EMF profile during starting of dual channel LCI drive .

23 Motor stator current profile In the above figure as speed increases the frequency increase and current magnitude decreases DUAL CHANNEL OPERATION (SIX PHASE MOTOR): 43 .Time in seconds Figure 5.22 Back EMF showing the spikes Time in seconds Figure 5.

24 Speed profile of six phase machine We can see the torque profile for the entire simulation period in figure 5. Initially the motor was started with 30% load and then we increased the load at 0. We can see the speed variation of the machine in the following figure (Figure 5.In this section the simulation results for the six phase machine for load variations have been included.25 shown below and we view of the instantaneous torque can be seen in figure 5.2 second to 100%.24 ) Time in seconds Figure 5.25 Torque profile .26 Time in seconds Figure 5.

Time in seconds Figure 5.27 Motor stator current profile for both set of windings .26 Instantaneous torque profile Time in seconds Figure 5.

28 Motor stator back EMF for both set of windings . With comparison to previous model of rotor coupled double channel these currents do not have of phase shift and it leads to less pulsations in the torque developed and increase in magnitude also. With the above said mechanism we can come out of the problem of sharing. It can be noted that there should be some mechanism to equalize the currents so that load will be shared equally. Time in seconds Figure 5. In the above profile there is slight mismatch and one channel is always attending for slight variations in the speed tracking.In the above profile we can see there is no phase shift between the current drawn by the both set of motor windings as the motor windings are all ready 0 30 phase shifted.

28) we can see the voltage notches due to the current commutation and these are more compared to previous double channel. These can be reduced to acceptable limits through proper design of the components like inductor as well as input transformer.In the above figure (Figure 5. The previous case of transformer is designed for the drive equipment which is installed at the NTPC station Time in seconds Figure 5.29 Input current profiles of the two channels 47 .

30 Supply current profile of the machine Figure 5.31 THD analysis window .Time in seconds Figure 5.

STARTING OF SIX PHASE MACHINE In this section simulation results were compiled for the starting of the machine with both the channels and loading it from there. Time in seconds Figure 5. .33 Profile of Torque developed In the torque profile the sudden increase of torque at 0.9 second is due to the sudden application of load on the machine and after some time it came down and settled. At 0.32 speed profile during starting Time in seconds Figure 5.9 second it is able to reach the rated speed and it was immediately loaded to rated load and after some time it settled at the synchronous speed.

Firstly the simulations for single drive are presented and the supply current THD came out around 30%. In this chapter we have seen simulation results for both single and dual channel drives for speed and load variations along with startup also.Time in seconds Figure 5. The back emf is still increasing trend as the speed is still increasing and the drive has still not reached the rated speed.these drives has less complexity when compared with double channel drive.34 Back EMF profile during the speed build up In the above shown profile. the commutation notches are clearly visible. The complexity can be in the controller as well as we have the mutual coupling effects when we implement the machine with two set of stator windings .

With this dual drive the supply current THD drastically reduces to half of the single channel and if we design a suitable passive filter it can be within the IEEE recommendations. As these drive motors are with single rotor and the starting of the machine can be handled with single channel only.o phase shifted with 30 between them .Advantages of these drives can be in improvement of power quality in the supply current as well single machine used for increasing power rating applications. .

most of the applications of these drives are of not regenerative nature and hence there are several modified front end configurations possible.CHAPTER 6 MODIFIED LCI DRIVE The previous chapters discussed two different LCI drive configurations namely six pulse and twelve pulse (dual channel) where the front end converter is a phase controlled thyristor converter as shown in Fig 6. The one which will be discussed in this chapter is one of the configurations which are reported in literature [15]. The thyristor converter is replaced by the diode bridge rectifier and for improvement in power quality twelve pulse AC to DC converter is used which is shown in Fig 6. For the controllable action. Motor side converter Fig 6. Source side converter Motor side converter Fig 6.1 Block diagram of LCI fed synchronous drive INTRODUCTION: In this configuration the modification is done at the front end converter. However.1. an extra conversion stage has been added in the form of a buck chopper and then a controlled DC voltage is fed to the motor side converter through a DC link inductor for emulating a fairly constant current source.2.2 Block diagram of LCI fed synchronous drive with chopper rectifier configuration [15] .

iv.. Buck chopper: It is nothing but a single IGBT switch connected in series to control the DC voltage to motor side converter. we have used two transformers one for star and other for delta iii. The pulse to the switch will be from the current controller output which finally controls the speed of the machine. The S Functions may be written in C++. Line voltage and frequency is specified. However suitable compilers must be installed to convert these functions into user Blocks. Outer loop is speed control and inner loop is the current control. Present model of the LCI Drive has been implemented using the standard blocks and user defined blocks. i. LCI fed synchronous motor drive model has been implemented as shown in Figure Various component blocks of the model are explained below. The impedance of the source is specified either by the short circuit level or as actual values of resistance and inductance. Power source: The power source is standard three phase source. ii. FORTRAN or MATLAB languages. Dc link capacitance: a large value of capacitance is connected for getting a constant dc voltage as input to the buck chopper v.IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MODEL IN MATLAB/SIMULINK The modeling in the MATLAB / SIMULINK environment is carried out by using the various standard blocks in the SimPowerSystems Library. MATLAB / SIMULINK also gives flexibility to create custom blocks either by modifying the existing blocks or creating these in the programs form known as ‘S Functions’. . Two winding transformer: The two winding transformer is implemented by the two winding transformer block available in the SimPowerSystems library. Diode Bridge: Diode bridge consists of six power electronic switches connected as bridge. We have used two bridges so that it makes twelve pulse AC to DC converter three input terminals are connected to the transformer block output.

Model for the Controller developed for the LCI drive is shown in Figure 6. f) PI controllers: PI controllers are used to generate the reference DC link current value (which is an index of the torque requirement) by generating the error signal by comparing the reference and actual speed of the motor. electromagnetic torque. currents and power. Input to the armature comes from load-side Converter Bridge. Motor side Inverter: Input to this block is DC voltage from the source side converter and firing pulses. Field voltage and Load torque are to be given as inputs. e) Firing angle control: This subsystem has been developed using SFunction. . flux linkages.vi. DC link Reactor: This inductor acts as a filter to smooth out the DC link current and to allow the two converters to operate independent of each other. Synchronous Motor block: This block has been created using the synchronous machine model available in SimPowerSystems (Power System Blockset) in per unit configuration and the machine measurements demux.3. It senses the rotor speed. Controller: Controller is the heart of the LCI drive as this is the unit which controls the firing of chopper and load side thyristor bridges through the feedback signals of the speed current voltage etc. The machine parameters are defined in per unit representation. vii. This speed error is also needed to control the closing of the circuit breakers of the other channel when the drive is operated in the twelve pulse mode. DC link current and the rotor position to decide whether the system shall be operated in the fixed firing mode or the self commutated mode. Firing pulses to this block is given through an Sfunction. viii. which flow through the machine. Outputs from this block are various quantities that can be measured from the machine such as speed. ix. The main subsystems of the controller are explained below. which changes the firing sequence based on rotor position. Output of this block is 3 phase currents.

dclink theta2 LOAD SIDE INVERTER A + i +- Vabc A a A Iabc B b B a g m C E g A IGBT B Synchronous Machine pu Standard + A Vabc m Iabc B b C A Vabc Iabc c - - C c B a C C C B c C Pm step2 Vf_ Three-Phase V-I Measurement V-I M2 Three-Phase Transformer (Two Windings) A b Pm step1 Pm B a b C c B a D C Link C Speed c C Source P1 CONTROLLER B b c - [w<] Rotor speed wm (pu)> S peed R ef b A ngle B + A Load P Vabc a Iabc A S ource P M A theta1speed1 Rotor me Three-Phase Transformer (Two Windings)1 V-I M3 C < [w] speed3 dclink DC_Link2 [theta] theta3 Discrete.3 Model of rectifier chopper based LCI drive fed Synchronous Machine ANGLE SPEED mod 360 Output CURRENT Math Functi on1 Firing Angle Control Constant2 2 DC Link 1 Speed 1 Source P DC LINK 0 3 Speed Ref Switch OUTPUT FROM S C wm Constant1 speed controller Wref S-Function1 -Kfixedfiring 1 s mod Integrator Math Function 2*pi Constant Fig 6. s = 1e-005 s powergui [theta] chanical angle theta (deg)> Speed reference Fig 6.4 Controller block diagram 2 2 Load P .

6 PI Current Controller The rectifier chopper based LCI drive is modeled for three phase synchronous machine.6. The front diode bridge rectifiers can be connected in parallel or series connections.5 and Figure 6.in the conventional LCI the voltage is controlled by front end Thyristor Bridge where as in this model the voltage is controlled by DC-DC buck chopper. As we know LCI drive control can be compared with DC motor. Fig 6. If we connect them in parallel the voltage level increases and current level decreases in the DC link area and the converter efficiency can be increased without and the .Further the DC link reference signal output from the first PI controller (speed controller) is compared with the actual DC link current value by the second PI controller (current controller) to arrive at the pulse for the chopper. The two PI controllers are shown in Figure 6.5 PI Speed controller Fig 6. In DC motor the speed is controlled by voltage supplied to it and the same is with the LCI .

overall drive efficiency will not be hampered with adding one more converter stage in the drive. . The starting of the machine also done with the help of pulsed mode of operation.e. The controls include two parts i. In this chapter the complete model has been developed along with controller part also. For this model simulations are carried out for both types of machines of different power ranges. dc link current and these are compared with reference values and generate the switching signals. The simulations are carried for load and speed variations. In the next chapter the simulation results are presented for both NTPC machine as well 3. rotor angle.5 KVA machine the PG machines lab. These controls require the inputs as speed. one is speed control and other is frequency control.

4. . This chapter presents the simulation results obtained from these models under various operating conditions of the drive. Simulation for the machine which is available in the PG machines lab also done whose specifications are given in Appendix C LCI DRIVE OPERATION: As we know synchronous motor is not a self starting one the simulink just modeled so that it starts from the synchronous speed. The instantaneous torque output of the machine is shown in Figure 7.u to 0.1 p. Three phase back emf profile is shown in Figure 7. which is full of notches and spikes due to current commutation.u at 0.u.CHAPTER 7 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In the previous chapter MATLAB/SIMULINK models of the modified LCI synchronous motor drive and its standard subsystems were discussed.3. Three phase motor currents are shown in Figure 7. The current limit is set at the rated value as per the specifications of the drive manufacturer and the usual operational practices adopted for starting of the drive.5 sec and rd speed variation from 1 p.u and the speed reference is given as 1 p.1. The motor is started with an initial load of 0. Then we set the load variation from 0.1 to rated load i.e. So let we start with the speed and load variations of the LCI drive.u with rated load condition at 3 second. Specifications and data used for this simulation have been taken from NTPC Dadri power station. The speed variation with these variations is shown in Figure 7. 1 p.9 p.2. Complete specifications of the drives are given in Appendix A.

1 Speed profile under the load and speed variation Time in seconds Figure 7.Time in seconds Figure 7.2 Instantaneous torque profile .

3 Back EMF profile of the Machine Time in seconds Figure 7.Time in seconds Figure 7.4 Stator current profile .

6 THD of input current The controller used consists of PI controllers here we have the problem of steady state error which can be noted from the speed profile (Figure 7.Time in seconds Figure 7.5 Supply current profile Figure 7.2) with sudden decrease of speed at rated load the torque has increased more than rated for attaining load which can we get a clear picture from . In the torque profile (figure 7.1).

profile. In the back EMF profile (Figure 7.3). We are able to see the voltage notches
during the switching instants of motor side converter. With supply current profile
(Figure 7.5) we are able to see it as it is not quasi square wave in nature with high
THD around 30% but is on the side of sinusoidal nature.
SIMULATION OF THE 3.5 KVA MACHINE INTHE LAB:
The motor is started with an initial load of 0.3 p.u and the speed reference is given
as 1 p.u. Then we set the load variation from 0.3 to rated .8 p.u at 1st sec The speed
variation with these variations is shown in Figure 7.7. The current limit is set at the
rated value as per the specifications of the drive manufacturer and the usual
operational practices adopted for starting of the drive. Three phase back emf profile
is shown in Figure 7.9, which is full of notches and spikes due to current
commutation. Three phase motor currents are shown in Figure 7.8

Time in seconds
Figure 7.7 Speed profile under the load and speed variation

Time in seconds
Figure 7.8 Stator current profile

Time in seconds
Figure 7.9 Back EMF profile of the Machine

Time in seconds
Figure 7.10 Supply current profile under the load

Figure 7.11 THD analysis of Supply current

12 Speed profile during starting Time in seconds Figure 7.STARTING OF THE LAB MACHINE WITH MODIFIED MODEL: Time in seconds Figure 7.13 Inverter pulses during starting .

By noticing the THD window we can conclude that with this model also we cannot limit the supply current THD under the recommendations.13 shows the inverter firing pulses for the six switches. speed as well as rotor angle theta. . speed and dc link current and developed the logic of pulsed mode of operation until the speed is up to 10% of the rated speed The input command (speed) is given as ramp command and given a command to raise its speed up to rated speed in 1 second time span.The Fig 7. For restricting within the limits with this model we have to insert the passive filter for dominant harmonic elimination.e.2 nd second the machine suddenly loaded up to rated load and we can notice some speed dropped suddenly which came back after some time. In the previous model we have taken both the feed backs i. For proper design of filter components we have to adopt some advanced technique so that there will not be any tuning problems.12.As we know the synchronous machine is not starting we have to make some special arrangement for starting. At 1. In the next chapter this model hard ware implementation documentation has been provided with the detail description of the each and every module and interfacing circuits are explained. In this we can see the frequency of the pulses is increasing as the machine speed increasing smoothly which is the technique of self controlled synchronous machine With this rectifier chopper based LCI drive model simulations results are presented for both machines of different power ranges in this chapter. Then as previously we gave three inputs angle. The other profiles of Back EMF and currents are same as we seen for the previous starting of other machines which have shown in previous chapter . We can see the speed profile of the machine in the Fig 7. But in this controller we have taken only one feedback that is speed and we integrated to get rotor angle.

1 Outline diagram of the hardware set up INTRODUCTION The eZdspTM F2812 is a stand-alone card--allowing evaluators to examine the TMS320F2812 digital signal processor (DSP) to determine if it meets their application requirements. the module is an excellent platform to develop and run software for the TMS320F2812 processor.CHAPTER 8 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MODIFIED LCI DRIVE Without the implementation of hardware no project will be a fruitful job. The eZdspTM F2812 allows full speed verification of F2812 code. This project also consists of hardware implementation of the project. The eZdspTM F2812 is shipped with a TMS320F2812 DSP. The modified (chopper) LCI fed synchronous machine hardware implemented along with the help of TMS320F2812 DSP controller Fig 8. Furthermore. a C2000 Tools Code . Two expansion connectors are provided for any necessary evaluation circuitry not provided on the as shipped configuration. To simplify code development and shorten debugging time.

The entire setup can be divided into three groups namely controller.e. SENSOR CIRCUIT As we know for closed loop operation we have to sense the quantities and compare with the reference values to nullify the error but the quantities should be fed into the controller through the ADC channels which are compatible with very low values that is why we require an interface between the power quantities and controller This circuits meets the requirements above discussed points i.1. an onboard JTAG connector provides interface to emulators.1 JTAG emulation connector Description of Hardware setup A complete overall block diagram of the set up is shown in Fig 8.the power circuit consists of twelve pulse diode bridge rectifier. Firstly we discuss about the interfacing circuits which can be subdivided as sensor circuit and opto coupler and isolation circuit . The eZdsp TM F2812 has the following features: • TMS320F2812 Digital Signal Processor • 150 MIPS operating speed • 18K words on-chip RAM • 128K words on-chip Flash memory • 64K words off-chip SRAM memory • 30 MHz clock • 2 Expansion Connectors (analog. I/O) • Onboard IEEE 1149. dc link inductor and three phase synchronous machine.1 JTAG Controller • 5-volt only operation with supplied AC adapter • TI F28xx Code Composer Studio tools driver • On board IEEE 1149. We have already discussed about the controller in previous sub section and the rest part will be discussed here. In addition. . the ADC input to DSP will be in the range of 0 to 3 volts.Composer driver is provided. Thyristor Bridge. interfacing devices and power circuit components. operating with other debuggers to provide assembly language and ‘C’ high level language debug. We will be discussed each one separately in the following discussion. buck chopper.

Fig 8.3V will provide an output high pulse of 15V. These diode bridge rectifiers give plenty of options with variety of configurations for achieving twelve pulse . Fig 8.2. There is no inversion in this circuit and an input high pulse of 3.3V whereas the inverter needs the pulses at a voltage level of 15V. we make use of the opto coupler circuit shown in Fig 8.3 Opto coupler and isolation circuit The input transistor’s base resistance was designed so that more than 2mA would not be drawn from the 2812 output pin. TWELVE PULSE DIODE BRIDGE RECTIFIER As we shown in the model it is two six pulse bridges connected in parallel to obtain a smooth dc voltage than compared to six pulse one.2 Sensor circuit diagram OPTO-COUPLER AND ISOLATION CIRCUIT As mentioned before the signals generated by the 2812 processor are at a voltage level of 3.3V ground. For this voltage boost up and to electrically isolate the 15 V ground with the DSP’s 3.

To control voltage we have inserted the chopper stage. In this set up we used the available module (25 KVA) for our application. As we have thyristors we cannot switch in very high ranges so it can be maximum up to one kilo hertz THYRISTOR BRIDGE INVERTER At the last stage of conversion the controlled DC is converted into the AC to feed the three phase synchronous machine. This high value inductor also gives advantage that both converters operate independtly without affecting each other. . DC LINK INDUCTOR After the stage of getting controlled voltage it is get a constant current to feed the inverter which is realized by connecting a high value of inductor in the DC link so that a constant current flows through the inverter legs. In this we don’t have any gate drive circuit as they provide with the IGBT inverter modules therefore we require proper drive and isolation circuit to fire the thyristors properly without shorting there cathode terminals each other.0 configurations which can be implemented with maintaining 30 between two six pulse bridges so that effectively we get twelve pulse AC to DC converter DC-DC BUCK CHOPPER The next stage of conversion after AC to DC conversion is to get a controlled DC voltage at the input of the LCI inverter so that we can control the speed of the drive. These inverters are available in modules of semikron make. The value of inductor will be in the range of milli henrys. This can be available in the module of Semikron make the voltage level we want along with input capacitor for maintaining the input voltage constant to the chopper switch. In this chapter each and every important module as well as interfacing circuits for proper functioning of the drive. The whole setup has been implemented except the thyristor firing isolating circuit so that cathodes will not be shorted of two device. The operating frequency of the inductor depends upon the switching frequency of the buck chopper.

In the first step of improving the power quality we have taken the double channel LCI fed synchronous drive. The simulations for speed and load variations have done and analyzed the wave forms.For both these machines load and speed variations are carried out and waveforms analyzed. By proper estimation or sensing the rotor angle drive can be successfully implemented with this controller With this configuration the power quality is increased but it is not within recommended limits and it can be bought by inserting a passive filter designed for dominant harmonics in the supply side current.. . It is implemented in two ways i. Single channel model was developed with data pertaining to NTPC station machine. As synchronous machine is not a self starting it has started from zero speed with the help of controllers which take care of proper pulses for getting the starting torque. FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK With module used as LCI converter gate drive circuit is not present and the proper gate drive along with isolation circuit to be designed and prepared for firing thyristor of the inverter In this controller the rotor angle used in S functions is obtained by integrating the speed command. Without passive filter by going for higher pulse we can achieve the power quality norms under the limits .e. In this direction first the model was developed for the single channel that is for three phase synchronous machine. The same as single channel starting mechanism has been implemented for the double channel machines in both configurations As further improvement of the LCI drive front end converter replacement has done for improvement in drive performance and it has been implemented in hardware.CHAPTER-9 CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK The project aim is to improve the power quality improvement of the LCI fed synchronous machine. with two three phase 0 machines rotor coupled and with six phase machine (in which stators are 30 phase shifted).

C. 29 Nov. 7. Ong. Prentice Hall International. 2001 Pages: 1603 – 1611. . General Electric. Bimal K Bose “Power Electronics and AC Drives”. Inc. June 1988. USA.” 1 edition. C. K. “M Tech Dissertation” Indian Institute of Technology. 2. Englewood Cliffs. R. LCI drive Drawings and Manuals.Load Commutated Inverter Synchronous Motor Drives 8. 2001. Manoj Barsaiyan. Schiferl. 1991. David Finney. 9. Prentice Hall Inc. 1983. 1984 onwards. Volume: 3. January 30-February 4. “Modeling and simulation of electrical drives using MATLAB/SIMULINK and power system Blockset” Industrial Electronics Society. New Jersey. 3. 6. Anupam khetrapal “Simulation for a VFD in NTPC Dadri Power Station” Indian Institute of Technology. The 27th Annual Conference of the IEEE. G. ANSI/IEEE Std 995-1987 IEEE Recommended Practice for Efficiency Determination of Alternating-Current Adjustable-Speed Drives Part I. Dubey “Power Semiconductor controlled drives”. IEEE/PES 1983 Winter Meeting. Delhi May 2006 10. 1996. New York.-2 Dec. “Six phase synchronous machine with AC and DC stator connections Part I: equivalent circuit representation and steady-state analysis”. Delhi May 2005. “Variable Frequency AC Drive Systems” IEEE Power Engineering Series. 4.. “Dynamic Simulation of Electrical Machinery Using st MATLAB/SIMULINK.REFERENCES: 1. M. New Jersey. Ong. IECON '01. Hoang Lehuy. M. F. Prentice Hall. 1998. 5.

A.K. “Hybrid LCI/VSI Power Circuit—A Universal High-Power Converter Solution for Wound Field Synchronous Motor Drives” IEEE transactions on industrial electronics. Sanjeev Singh.11. J. vol.mathworks. september 2011 17. Singh. Hemanth Chender “Harmonics Mitigation in LCI-Fed Synchronous Motor Drives” IEEE transactions on energy conversion. SimPowerSystems. 2. Burmeister “12-Pulse LCI synchronous drive for a 20 mw compressor modeling. no.and S. M. Ranganathan “Starting scheme for load commutated inverterfed wound field synchronous machine using an auxiliary low-power voltage source inverter” Published in IET Electric Power Applications 2010 . T.com) 12.P.-J. 25. 9. Simond . MATLAB and SIMULINK Reference Manuals. P. Bhim Singh. R. Ranganathan.. Mathworks Inc. USA. Sapin . Sanjeev Singh and S. JUNE 2010 14. various editions. VOL. Bhim Singh. Wetter. Jain and V. Hemanth Chender” Power quality improvement in load commutated inverter-fed synchronous motor drives” Published in IET Power Electronics 2008 15. (www.T. P. A. Amit Kumar Jain and V. NO. sanjeev Singh ”power quality improvement using optimized passive filter for 12-pulse rectifier chopper in LCI fed synchronous machine” world congress on information and communication technologies 2011 16. Tu Xuan. simulation and measurements” published in IAS 2005 13. 58. B.

2x369 A. 704 RPM.9pf. 36. reactances and time constants referred to 1 system. 2x3 phase.0197 . 550 RPM.9pf. 1x1170 V. 1x352 A. 0. 2x1200 V.7 Hz 12 PULSE OPERATION: 1325 KW. at 75°C r1 Ohm 0. 0. 46. the other being disconnected Rated impedance per phase ZN Ohm 1. 1x3 phase.9 Hz Saturated Resistances.APPENDIX A Specifications of the LCI drive installed at NTPC Dadri MOTOR DATA 6 PULSE OPERATION: 607 KW.88 Armature winding res.

04 Negative sequence reactance x2 p. 0.016 Quad. oc time constant Tdo'' s 0.u.u. 0. 0. r0 p. axis subtrans.22 Direct axis subtrans.u.086 Direct axis armature reactance xhd p. 0.02 Direct axis transient oc time constant Tdo' s 1.u. 0. axis subtrans.085 Quad.02 Armature sc time constant TA s 0.027 DC LINK INDUCTOR DATA DC LINK INDUCTOR NO INDUCTANCE RESISTANCE 1 10 mH 28.u.80 Quad.72 Direct axis synchronous reactance xd p. sc time constant Td'' s 0.u.095 Direct axis transient sc time constant Td' s 0.024 Quad. axis subtransient reactance xq'' p. 0.07 Zero sequence reactance x0 p. sc time constant Tq'' s 0. 1. axis synchronous reactance xq p.75 Armature winding leakage reactance xs1 p.5 milliohm SNUBBER DATA RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE NO 40 OHM 0. at 75°C r2' Ohm 0.81 Quadrature axis armature reactance xhq p.u.u.1 MICRO FARAD 1 TRANSFORMER DATA .Field winding res. 2.9 Direct axis subtrans.5 milliohm 2 10 mH 28.0 Direct axis transient reactance xd' p. 0.u.u.u.37 Zero sequence res. 0. oc time constant Tqo'' s 0. 0.11 Direct axis subtransient reactance xd'' p.

S NO DESCRIPTION 1 Rating 900 KVA 2 HV winding 6600 V 3 LV winding 1250 V 4 Positive sequence impedance at 75 deg c principal tap 11 % .

1. Zero sequence res. 2. Rated impedance per phase ZN Ohm 2. Field winding res.90 PF. 0. Armature winding res.08 Hz.50 3. r0 p.748 kV 12 pulse operation: 4286 KW. reactances and saturated time unsaturated constants referred to 1 system.75 .92 Hz.3 5.40 2. 565 RPM.350 kV Resistances.90 PF.21 1. 0.u.05 9. 10 Pole. 32. at 75°C r2' %o 1. at 75°C r1 %o 9. 2. Damper winding res. 395 RPM. 10 Pole.22 2.75 2. the other being disconnected 1.Specifications of the LCI drive for NTPC KAHALGAON MOTOR DATA 6 pulse operation: 1602 KW. at 75°C r3' %o 14. 47.9 16.33 4.

Field winding leakage reactance xs2' p. Negative sequence res.043 0.095 0.34 0.022 0. Quadrature reactance 19.11 16. 0.82 0. 0.u. 0.082 0.071 xq p.u.28 0.64 13. 0.72 p.044 0.027 xs1k p. Quadrature axis subtransient sc time constant 22. Negative sequence reactance x2 p.u. Armature sc time constant Tdo'' s s s s Tqo'' s 0. 0.74 0.u.017 2.077 0.040 8.u.80 0.u. 0.u.052 9.045 0.068 0. Direct axis transient oc time Td' Td'' Tq'' Tdo' constant 25. 0. Direct axis subtransient sc time constant 21.075 s 0.u.062 0.035 11.6. Quadrature axis reactance 14.u. Quadrature axis subtransient oc time constant 24. Direct axis transient reactance xd' p.10 0. Direct axis transient sc time constant 20. p. Armature ri winding leakage reactance xs1 p.5 0. Direct axis armature reactance xhd p.175 0. 0.5 13. Zero sequence reactance x0 p.u. Quadrature axis synchronous axis subtransient xq'' reactance 18.032 0.u.023 0. 0. Direct axis synchronous reactance xd p.88 0. 0. 0.u.065 xs1e p.039 10. Direct axis subtransient reactance xd'' p.u. 7.029 . 13.u.14 0.016 17.08 12.80 15. 0.017 0. Direct axis subtransient oc time constant 23. Damper winding leakage reactance xs3' p.u.152 TG s 0.75 armature xhq p.011 0.42 2.036 0. 0.

4 kW 9 Copper loss at full load and 75 deg C 37 kW .3 KV 4 positive sequence impedance at 75 deg C Principal tap 8 No load loss 3.DC LINK INDUCTOR DATA DC LINK INDUCTOR NO INDUCTANCE RESISTANCE 1 10 mH 10 MILLIOHM 2 10 mH 10 MILLIOHM SNUBBER DATA RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE NO 40 OHM 0.8 MICRO FARAD 3 TRANSFORMER DATA S NO DESCRIPTION 1 Rating 3250 KVA 2 HV Winding 11 KV 3 LV Winding 2.

APPENDIX B S-FUNCTION . *************************************************************** For motor speed below 10%. sys=[0 0 0 0 0 0].1).x. x0 = u(1). sys=[1 1 1 1 1 1].end. if (w<=0.end.1).1).end. else .1)&(x0==9)&&(dclink<0. sys=[1 1 1 1 1 1]. sys=[1 1 1 1 1 1]. sys=[1 1 1 1 1 1]. sys=[0 0 0 0 0 0].end.end. % rotor speed dclink = u(3). sys=[1 1 1 1 1 1].1)&(x0==4). x0] = lscf(t. if (w<=0.1)&(x0==5)&&(dclink<0.1)&(x0==2). if (w<=0. sys=[1 1 1 1 1 1].1)&(x0==7)&&(dclink<0.flag) if flag == 3.1).end.end. if (w>0. sys=[0 0 0 0 0 0].end. if (w<=0.1)&(x0==11)&&(dclink<0. if (w<=0. if (w<=0.1).end.end. if (w<=0. sys = [0 0 6 3 0 1].u.end.1)&(x0==6).end. elseif flag == 0.1)&(x0==3)&&(dclink<0. x0 = []. sys=[0 0 0 0 0 0]. sys=[1 1 1 1 1 1]. *************************************************************** if (w<=0.LINE SIDE CONVERTER FIRING function [sys. sys=[1 1 1 1 1 1]. if (dclink==0). if (w<=0. if (w<=0.1).1). sys=[0 0 0 0 0 0]. % rotor angular position w = u(2). if (w<=0.1)&(x0==10).1)&(x0==8).1)&(x0==12).1)&(x0==1)&&(dclink<0.end. if (w<=0. sys=[0 0 0 0 0 0]. line side converter firing is stopped every sixty degrees to make dc link current zero for load side current commutation.end.

. sys = [].% Output is set to [].

end.FIXED FIRING function [sys.ebn=0.5).end S FUNCTION .ebn=1.flag. %inputs: position.5)&&(sin(pos+pi/4)<0).ebn=0.ibr=0.x.ibr=1. iar=1.ebn=0.ibr=1.end..5)&&(sin(pos+pi/4)>=0).ebn=0.ibr=0.5). sys=[0 0 6 1 0 1].5)&&(sin(pos+pi/4)<0). elseif flag==0. iar=0. if (sin(pos+pi/4)<-(sqrt(3))/2)&&(abs(cos(pos+pi/4))<=0.ecn=0. pos=u(1).). if (sin(pos+pi/4)>-(sqrt(3))/2)&&(cos(pos+pi/4)>0. x0=[].ean=0.ecn=1. sys=[iar ibr icr ean ebn ecn]. if (sin(pos+pi/4)<(sqrt(3))/2)&&(cos(pos+pi/4)>0.end. if (sin(pos+pi/4)<(sqrt(3))/2)&&(cos(pos+pi/4)<-0.ibr=0.ean=0.ecn=0.ean=1.ean=0.ecn=0.k) if flag==3.ecn=0.60-120. if (sin(pos+pi/4)>(sqrt(3))/2)&&(abs(cos(pos+pi/4))<0.icr=0.icr=1.end.ean=1. iar=1.icr=1. if (sin(pos+pi/4)>-(sqrt(3))/2)&&(cos(pos+pi/4)<-0.icr=0.5)&&(sin(pos+pi/4)>=0).icr=0.ebn=1.end.ean=0. else sys=[].end. iar=0. %sector selection from 0 degrees (0-60.ibr=0.u. x0]=fixed(t.icr=0. iar=0. speed controller output/k (reference current amplitude). %ir=u(2). end . iar=0.ecn=1..

% rotor position if (x0==3).x. if (x0==5). it is used only once. x0 = u(1). sys=[0 0 0 1 1 0]. x0] = loadfiring(t. if (x0==1). sys = [0 0 6 1 0 1]'.end. if (x0==2). % The system has no states.flag) if flag == 3.end. sys=[1 0 0 0 0 1]. % Output is set to [].end. sys=[0 0 1 1 0 0]. else % Flags not considered here are treated as unimportant. six outputs. sys=[0 1 1 0 0 0].end.end. if (x0==6). %****************************************************************** % Based on rotor position. sys=[0 0 0 0 1 1]. thyristor combination firing is decided %****************************************************************** elseif flag == 0. end . if (x0==4).end. sys=[1 1 0 0 0 0]. and one input. x0 = [].u. sys = []. % This part takes care of all initialization.LOAD FIRING function [sys.S FUNCTION .