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49/50 

Breaking up is hard to do – Separating Sand & Salt
Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to separate a mixture of sand and salt.
 Small beaker
 Electric balance
 Sand
 Salt
 Water
 Graduated cylinder
 Stirring rod
 Filter paper
 Flask
 Rubber policeman
 Wash bottle
 Funnel
 Bunsen burner complete with rubber tubing and a source of gas
 Hot hands
 Insulator pad
 Ring stand complete with a ring
 Wire gauze
 Striker
Pre-lab Questions:
1. Water will be useful in separating the salt and sand because salt is soluble in water, which
allows it to dissolve into a homogenous mixture, allowing for filtering of the sand.
2. Properties of sand and salt that will help separate them are that salt is water soluble, and
the sand is insoluble in water.
3. The three things that could go wrong in this experiment are:
 During the evaporation of water while using the Bunsen burner, the flask might
crack or explode – this can be avoided by not heating the flask over a prolonged
period of time, and not heating it too intensely.
 Some of the sand may be lost during the filtration – this can be avoided by
carefully filtering the mixture, and making sure that all of the sand has been
washed off from the beaker, and the rubber policeman.
 Some of the salt may be lost if the salt doesn’t dissolve completely or if some of
the salt water is spilled – this can be avoided by making sure that all of the salt
has dissolved, and by being very careful while stirring the mixture not to spill it.

Make sure all the sand stays inside the filter paper. 6. and then use a rubber policeman to scoop out the remaining sand. When filtering is complete. When all the water has been evaporated. If time allows. as well as on the class website. She will distribute this data in class on Friday.GOOD STUDENT LAB REPORT! 49/50  Procedure: 1. Press the rezero button to make sure to take the mass of only the sand and salt sample and not the beaker. Set up your Bunsen burner and flask as directed by your instructor. Evaporate the water in the flask by boiling until the contents are dry. dry flask and use the balance to determine its mass as well. 9. Rinse off the rubber policeman and the beaker with as little water from the wash bottle as possible – TOO MUCH WATER WILL SLOW DOWN THE FILTERING PROCESS! 8. 5. Record the mass in your data table. If there is not enough time. Record the mass of the flask in the data table. Use the balance to mass the filter paper and record this mass in the data table. use the balance to mass the cooled flask and its contents. Obtain a clean. BE CAREFUL NOT TO HEAT TOO LONG OR TOO INTENSELY – CONTINUING TO HEAT A DRY FLASK WILL CAUSE IT TO CRACK OR EXPLODE! 10. Place a small beaker on the balance. 13. Add the water to the beaker and gently stir the sample with a stirring rod for several minutes. leave a slip of paper with your names on it next to the cooling flask and the instructor will mass it for you. Prepare a filtering set-up as directed by your instructor. on BOTH sides. carefully remove the filter paper from the funnel and place on the indicated tray to dry overnight. BE SURE TO CLEAN UP BEFORE LEAVING! Data Table: . use the hot hands to place the hot flask on an insulator pad to cool. 3. 4. Carefully pour the sand and salt mixture onto the beaker. 7. 12. 2. First pour out as much water as possible. Measure out 10mL of water using the graduated cylinder. Obtain a piece of filter paper write your names near the top. DO NOT PLACE HOT FLASK DIRECTLY ON THE COUNTER – IT WILL CRACK! 11. Slowly and carefully filter the mixture. The instructor will also mass the dried filter paper and sand. Be careful not to spill.

02 132.87 Mass of dry filter paper (with names already written) (g) Mass of cool flask and contents (g) 1. .18 g 10.87g = 2. small pieces of salt were popping out of the flask  Not all grains of the sand were collected from the beaker Calculations: 1. 2.18g.51g. empty flask = Mass of salt 132. According to my data the sum of the percent salt and sand equals 101%.6 . Post-lab Questions: 1.4 . Mass of salt Mass of sand∧salt mixture 2.51g The mass of sand is 8. Mass of sand∧salt mixture x 100% = Percent of sand 8.53g – 1.6% The percent of salt is20.59 Mass of dry.GOOD STUDENT LAB REPORT! 49/50  Mass of dry sand and salt mixture (g) 10. The separation techniques that were practiced in this lab were filtration and evaporation.02g = 8.05 Mass of dry sand and filter paper (g) 9.51 g 10.59 g x 100% = Percent of salt x 100% = 20.53 Qualitative Observations:  Upon boiling the salt water. Mass of sand 3. 4.05g – 129. Mass of cool flask and contents – Mass of dry. The percentages do not equal 100% because there was an error in the experiment which resulted in an additional 0.59 g x 100% = 80. 2.18g The mass of salt is 2. empty flask (g) 129.4% The percent of sand is80.1g of matter. Mass of dry sand and filter paper – Mass of dry filter paper = Mass of sand 9.

18 grams of salt.GOOD STUDENT LAB REPORT! 49/50    Filtration is effective in separating solids from liquids. The sand makes up 80.4% of the mixture. the final mass of sand and salt is 0.51 grams of sand. leaving solid particles behind. The salt can be separated from water through evaporation. The mixture of salt water and sand can be then filtered through a funnel fitted with filter paper. The solution is heated so that the solvent will evaporate. In order to filter the sand from the mixture. not all grains of sand were collected. due to intensive heat salt started popping out of the flask. The overall results from the experiment are that the 10.6% of the mixture. Conclusion: The objective of the experiment was to separate a mixture of sand and salt. Also during the evaporation process. This could have been prevented through providing a longer amount of time for the sand to dry. Filter paper has tiny holes allowing only liquid to pass through and solid particles to stay on the paper. to ensure that both samples are completely dry.1 grams heavier. allowing for the sand to stay inside it. Even though matter was lost. and the solid substance is left behind. In conclusion it is possible to separate various substances from one another through different techniques without changing the chemical makeup of the substance. This is also the reason why the percentages of salt and sand do not add up to 100%.59 grams of the heterogeneous mixture consisted of 8. Through using given materials. What might have affected the results were errors. Filter paper only allows liquids though. During evaporation the solvent evaporates. It would also be helpful to place the separated particles in hot oven for a period of time. The additional mass comes from an error in the separation processes. or evaporating. the objective was met. while salt makes up 20. salt must first be dissolved in water. . and following the procedure. During the filtration process. Evaporation is effective in separating particles in solutions. The sand can be separated from the mixture through filtration. The water that was used to separate salt and sand could remain in the samples either from inadequate time period for the sand to dry. than the original mass. as well as for the boiling of the solution. The mixture can be separated into sand and salt through filtration and evaporation. and 2. During filtration a mixture is poured through a funnel fitted with filter paper.