You are on page 1of 31


The CAAS has always been concerned about the possibility of unapproved parts being used on
aircrafts and helicopters. Evidence indicates that these counterfeit parts originated largely from
North America. There has also been evidence of such parts originating from the UK and other
foreign sources. In addition to manufacturing and marketing unapproved parts, falsification of
release documentation is also a problem.
For the purpose of this Notice, an unapproved part is a material intended for installation on a type
certificated product/ aircraft, which has been neither manufactured according to approved
procedures, nor conforms to an approved type design; or which fails to conform to declared
specifications or accepted industry standards.
Parts specified in the illustrated parts catalogues (IPC) of a type certificated aircraft, but which
have been manufactured, reclaimed or reworked and then marked by an authorised source and
provided with documents which indicated falsely that the parts are genuine and conform to the
approved type design, or meet a particular industry standard and are offered for use as
conforming with an aircraft manufacturer's authorised IPC. Parts shipped directly to users by
manufacturers, suppliers, or distributors who do not themselves hold appropriate production
approvals for the parts, and have not been authorised to make direct shipments to users or
stockists, by the type certificate holder, who alone has production approval. Parts which have not
been maintained, overhauled or repaired in accordance with the requirements of approved
airworthiness data and statutory requirements, or that have been maintained, overhauled or
repaired by persons not authorised to perform and certify these functions
Aerospace industry users are reminded that it is possible to confuse a stockist's certification with
an original manufacturer's certification. Therefore, great care is necessary when assessing
incoming documentation in relation to the terms of the original order. Appendix 1 to Sub-part D
of SAR-145 of the Singapore Airworthiness Requirements gives a list of documents that
accompany parts obtained from other than CAAS approved sources and this should be referred to
as necessary. CAAS stresses that CAAS-approved stockists have to operate in a responsible
manner and supply satisfactory parts. Any evidence of unapproved parts must be immediately
reported to the Airworthiness and Flight Operations Division of the CAAS.

The Singapore Air Navigation Order prescribes the requirements in respect of operation of an
aircraft without a valid Certificate of Airworthiness. The conditions for approval and conduct of
such flights are stated in the Schedules to the Air Navigation Order as 'A' Conditions, 'B'
Conditions and 'C' Conditions.
The Singapore Airworthiness Requirements require flight tests to be undertaken in the following
circumstances. Prior to the issue of a Singapore certificate of airworthiness. Annually at
certificate of airworthiness renewal or at such other intervals as may be agreed by the CAAS to
determine whether the handling characteristics, functioning and performance of an aircraft
continue to comply with the requirements that were acceptable to the Director-General of Civil
Aviation when the aircraft was issued with a Singapore certificate of airworthiness. On
completion of a modification or other work likely to affect the handling characteristics,
functioning or performance of an aircraft. In lieu of an annual flight test, a programme for aircraft
performance and engine condition monitoring must be approved.
Flight test schedules shall be prepared in conjunction with the CAAS and must be acceptable to
the Director-General of Civil Aviation. The flight test schedules shall, except where otherwise
agreed, include tests as outlined in the SAR Section 5 Chapter 5.3 paragraph 3.3 and paragraph
3.4. A copy of flight test reports in an acceptable format shall be submitted to the
Airworthiness/Flight Operations Division of CAAS on completion of all airworthiness flight
The qualifications and experience of flying staff and other persons engaged in flight tests,
together with the facilities and equipment provided for the tests shall be acceptable to the
Director-General of Civil Aviation.

The Air Navigation Order states that a Singapore aircraft shall not be flown if the aircraft or a
component fitted on the aircraft has been overhauled, repaired, replaced, modified or maintained,
unless a certificate of release to service or an equivalent release document has been issued for that
aircraft or component. In the case of components, this certificate of release to service is usually in
the form of an Authorised Release Certificate. It is the responsibility of the SAR-145 organisation
and/or the AOC Holder performing the installation of the component on a Singapore aircraft to
ensure that the component is accompanied by correct documentation and is fit for installation on
the aircraft.
Unless otherwise approved by the Authority in a particular case, only aircraft parts accompanied
by the correctly completed maintenance release documents listed in Advisory Circular 145-3 (2)
are acceptable for use on Singapore aircraft.
Parts which are not supported by the documentation listed in Advisory Circular 145-3 (2) are not
acceptable for installation on a Singapore aircraft or aircraft component. In addition to these parts,
the installer must also ensure that suspected unapproved parts are not inadvertently installed on a
Singapore aircraft or aircraft component.
Suspected unapproved parts that are not accompanied by release documentation acceptable to
CAAS as indicated in Advisory Circular 145-3 (2). Parts that have not been manufactured or
repaired in accordance with an approved procedure or process. Serialised parts which have lost its
manufacturer’s serial number identification. Parts which do not conform to an approved type
design. Parts which do not conform to established industry specifications. Counterfeit or
fraudulently marked parts. Stolen parts available on the surplus aviation parts market. Parts
available from manufacturers or suppliers that do not hold the appropriate certifications to
produce or supply those parts.
Identification of unacceptable parts is often difficult, due to the similarity of characteristics
between unacceptable parts and acceptable parts. Unacceptable parts pose a significant safety risk
when installed on aircraft, either intentionally or unintentionally.

The installer, being a CAAS approved organisation authorised to issue a certificate of release to
service for the installation of the part on an aircraft or aircraft component, must ensure that the
part is appropriate for fitment onto the aircraft or aircraft component. The installer must
determine the part’s eligibility for installation and ensure that the item is serviceable and unused
since the issue of the maintenance release document. The installer must ensure that the part is to
the required design and modification standard for fitment. Inspection alone may not provide this
assurance and documentation should be assessed to ensure compliance with manufacturing or
maintenance quality standards, airworthiness directives, and life limitations.
The installer should be aware of situations where a part should be considered unaccept able and
removed from service, such as the case of life-limited parts, the status of the part cannot be
established and the historical records are not available. The part cannot be traced back to the
manufacturer or certificated maintenance organisation that performed work on the part. A
serialised item is not identified with the genuine manufacturer’s data plate or other markings.
Installers are cautioned that the accompanying documents should be carefully assessed for
compliance with the requirements of issue. Incorrectly completed forms immediately indicate a
possible problem with the part. Suppliers of suspected unacceptable parts often fill in supporting
documentation incorrectly in the false belief that incorrect documentation absolves them of any
fraudulent actions. A part accompanied by an incorrectly completed release certificate should be
Other documentation should be carefully assessed for the required information to reflect a part’s
suitability for use. The responsibility for the use of a part that is not accompanied with an
acceptable maintenance release document lies firmly with the installer. The reliance on the
certification of an unapproved organisation does not absolve the installer of the responsibility for
the use of a part subsequently found to be unacceptable.

Certificates of airworthiness will be renewed on application form CAAS (AW) 29 provided that
the procedures prescribed by the following are adhered to. Renewal application form must be
forwarded direct to the Airworthiness/Flight Operations Division of CAAS with cheque for the
appropriate fee made payable to the "Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore" one month prior to
expiry of the certificate.
The aircraft should be flight tested in accordance with the relevant airworthiness flight test
schedule approximately one month prior to expiry of the certificate, and a flight test report
completed in accordance with the requirements of the schedule submitted two weeks prior to the
certificate of airworthiness expiry. This report should be checked, including the climb
performance against flight manual requirements and all defects investigated and corrected prior to
submission. If a programme for aircraft performance and engine condition monitoring has been
approved by CAAS, the relevant data should be submitted.
Other documents to be submitted with flight test report are certificate of airworthiness, flight
manual, aircraft log book, engine log books and propeller log books (if applicable), copies of log
book entries in duplicate for the aircraft, engines and propellers, weight and centre of gravity
schedule in duplicate whenever the aircraft has been reweighed or a revised schedule is raised
without weighing; and a copy of the insurance certificate or cover note.
Log book entries must contain the following information are type and serial number of aircraft,
engines and propellers, total hours flown and total hours since last C of A issue or renewal, For
engines and propellers total hours flown since complete overhaul or since New, Routine
maintenance check details showing date and hours at each check and where carried out, since last
C of A issue or renewal quoting approved maintenance schedule reference. Any concessions
granted to check times must be shown. In the appropriate log book entry, list all airworthiness
directives applicable to the equipment and instruments, the aircraft, engine and propeller type
since last C of A issue or renewal, indicating positively whether complied with and date of
compliance or not applicable (N/A). If N/A, the reason must be stated, e.g. N/A due to this
aircraft serial number not affected. In the appropriate log book entry record all service bulletins
and service letters complied with and details of modifications not covered by service bulletins or
service letters incorporated since last C of A issue or renewal. Radio station maintenance details
since last C of A issue or renewal including the type and serial number of equipment fitted.
If the aircraft commences a major maintenance check within one month prior to the C of A expiry
date, notice of this should be forwarded to the Airworthiness Section, of the CAAS. In this case
all the documentation including the flight test report will be required before renewing the C of A.
This will inevitably result in some delay to the aircraft resuming operations.

The Airworthiness Authority of the country of import usually requires evidence from the
Airworthiness Authority of the country of export as to the airworthiness of the aircraft concerned.
The evident of airworthiness adopted and accepted internationally is usually in the form of an
Export Certificate of Airworthiness. The Export Certificate of Airworthiness does not, by itself,
give authority for the aircraft to be flown. Such authority will have to be obtained from the
Airworthiness Authority of the country in which the aircraft is to be registered. Application shall
be made on Form CAAS (AW) 36 and submitted to CAAS Airworthiness/Flight Operations
The documents and other evidence specified in SAR Requirements of Chapter 2.2 and Chapter
2.3 of this Section shall be furnished to the Authority to qualify an aircraft for the issue of an
Export Certificate of Airworthiness.
The certifications shall be accompanied by details with respect to requirements or design
standards with which the aircraft does not comply and for which exemption has been granted by
the Authority.
The certifications referred to the above paragraphs shall have a valid Certificate of Airworthiness.
The Authority does not require that an aircraft being exported from Singapore be issued with an
Export Certificate of Airworthiness. An Export Certificate of Airworthiness is not a Certificate of
Airworthiness for the purposes of the Singapore Air Navigation Order.
The Singapore Export Certificate of Airworthiness will certify only to the eligibility of the
aircraft to receive the Singapore Certificate of Airworthiness in a particular category and unless
specifically endorsed will not certify compliance with the airworthiness requirements of the
importing country. An aircraft is required to be de-registered prior to issue of an Export
Certificate of Airworthiness.

Civil Aviation Authority of the country of Manufacture requires the publication of an MMEL for
each airplane model, which often written in very brief format. Additional operator amplification
is intended before use, since the MMEL does not always include the special procedures necessary
to properly prepare and operate the aircraft. It is the operator's responsibility to develop a
company MEL with adequate procedures using the MMEL as a guide and obtain approval from
CAAS, for Singapore registered aircraft. Operator MEL, for administrative control, may include
items not contained in the MMEL and differ in format from the MMEL but not less restrictive
than the MMEL. MEL when approved and authorized permits operation of the aircraft with
inoperative equipment. MMEL cannot in any case be used as a MEL, due to the fact that it is not
related to operational requirements, specific operations or airlines particular definitions.
The approved MMEL includes those items of equipment related to airworthiness and operating
regulations and other items of equipment which the Administrator finds may be inoperative and
yet maintain an acceptable level of safety by appropriate conditions and limitations. The MMEL
must not deviate from Aircraft Flight Manual Limitations, Emergency Procedures or with
Airworthiness Directive. All equipment related to airworthiness and the operating regulations of
the aircraft not listed on the MMEL must be operative.
For the sake of brevity, MMEL does not include obviously required items such as wings, engines,
landing gear, control surfaces, etc. or items which do not affect the airworthiness of the aircraft
such as galley equipment, entertainment systems, etc.

Paragraph 7(9) of the Air Navigation Order provides that a Certificate of Airworthiness in respect
of aircraft registered in Singapore will cease to be in force until a modification or inspection,
being a modification or inspection required by the Director-General of Civil Aviation, is
completed. This Notice contains information concerning classification and notification of
mandatory modifications and inspections
For the purpose of Paragraph 7(9) a modification or inspection required by the Director- General
of Civil Aviation is one which has been classified as mandatory; or notified through an
Airworthiness Directive issued by the Director-General of Civil Aviation or which has been
notified through the Airworthiness Directives issued by the country of design or manufacturer of
the aircraft, engines or equipment, unless the Director-General of Civil Aviation notifies
otherwise; or which has been classified as mandatory in the service instructions (e.g. service
bulletins) of the manufacturer of the aircraft, engines or equipment, unless the Director-General
of Civil Aviation notifies otherwise.
It is important that owners and operators of aircraft on the Singapore register arrange to receive
copies of Airworthiness Directives from the country of design or manufacturer of the aircraft,
engines and equipment which they have in their ownership or care.
Manufacturers of aircraft, engines and equipment usually have advance information on
impending airworthiness directive actions, which in turn usually refer to their service instructions,
therefore owners, operators and organisations undertaking maintenance or overhaul of aircraft,
engines and equipment should ensure their names and addresses are known to the manufacturers
of the aircraft, engines and equipment which they have in their ownership or care.
When the owners, operators and organisations undertaking maintenance or overhaul of aircraft,
engines and equipment come across airworthiness directives issued by a country other than the
country of design or manufacture, they should consult CAAS on the applicability of these
Airworthiness Directives.

In the interest of safety, an aircraft must be designed, constructed and operated in compliance
with the appropriate airworthiness. As such, ICAO laid down specific guidelines for main
stakeholders namely, Contracting States, State Of Registry, State Of Design, State Of Operator
and State of Manufacturer to ensure continued airworthiness of the aircraft.
These guidelines are fulfilled by Air Navigation Order (ANO), Singapore Airworthiness
Requirements (SAR), Air Operator Certificate Requirements (AOCR), Airworthiness Notices
(AN) etc. through implementation of various certificates such as Certificate of Airworthiness,
Certificate of Release to Service, Scheduled Maintenance Inspection, Certificate of Maintenance
Review etc. and use of approved document such as Maintenance Schedule, Maintenance Manual.
The aircraft manufacturer and the Type Certification Authority may periodically review the inservice reliability of the airframe-engine combination. Further to these reviews and every time
that an urgent problem makes it necessary, the Certification Authority may require that the type
design CMP standard be revised to achieve and maintain the desired level of reliability and,
therefore safety of the extended range twin-engine operation. The operator shall ensure that its
ETOPS fleet is in compliance with the latest revised CMP standards.
The CMP standards prior to the revision will no longer be considered suitable for continued
extended range twin-engine operation. The CMP standards and its revisions may require priority
actions to be implemented before the next ETOPS flight and other actions to be implemented
according to a schedule accepted by the Authority.
The validity of the ETOPS Operational Approval depends on the operator keeping its ETOPS
fleets in compliance with the Current CMP standards, Airworthiness Directives, Alert Service
Bulletins and Maintenance requirements.

ETOPS stand for Extended-Range Twin Engine Operations. A Singapore registered aeroplane
having 2 turbine power units and a MTWA exceeding 5700kg., shall not be flown for the purpose
of public transport on a route where the flight time at a single engine cruise speed to an adequate
en-route alternate aerodrome exceeds 60 minutes required by written permission granted by the
chief executive officer.
ETOPS approval is a 2 stage process, involving Type design approval and Operational approval.
The type design approval is granted by the Authority from the country of aircraft manufacture.
The essential airframe systems and the propulsion system for the particular airframe-engine
combination shall be shown to be designed to fail-safe criteria and through service experience
determined that it can achieve a level of reliability suitable for the intended operation. The
Configurations, Maintenance and Procedures (CMP) standard that establishes the suitability of an
aircraft for extended range operation defines the minimum standard for the operation of ETOPS.
The operator shall obtain in writing from the aircraft manufacturer that the aircraft delivered to
them complies with the type design, latest Airworthiness Directives and CMP standards. The type
design approval for the aircraft does not reflect an operational approval to conduct extended range
operations. An Operational Approval for ETOPS has to be separately obtained from the Authority
For Operational Approval, Operator shall demonstrate the ability to maintain and operate the
aircraft so as to achieve the necessary reliability and to train its personnel to achieve the
competence in extended range twin-engine operations. The operator shall operate the aircraft type
for twelve months, or a period as decided by the Authority, before applying for the ETOPS
Operational Approval. The ETOPS Operational Approval to conduct extended twin-engine
operations is in the form of a written permission from the Authority. The validity of the ETOPS
Operational Approval depends on the operator keeping its ETOPS fleet in compliance with the
current CMP, Airworthiness Directives, Alert Service Bulletins, and Maintenance requirements
The MEL of the operator’s ETOPS fleet shall indicate clearly items that have different dispatch
requirements for ETOPS flights. The operator shall ensure the aircraft is precluded from being
dispatched for ETOPS after an engine in-flight shut-down (IFSD) on a previous flight, Primary
airframe system failure on a previous flight, Replacement of an engine, Failure of an engine
power control system or significant adverse trends in engine performance and any major
maintenance work on the aircraft. The aircraft shall operate at least one non-ETOPS revenue
flight before being released on extended range twin-engine operations
If any work is performed on the APU that may affect its starting and operation, an in-flight start
shall be performed on the next flight. To ensure that the APU maintains its in-flight start
capabilities, the operator shall have a programme to schedule an APU in-flight start once every
three months for each aircraft in its ETOPS fleet, and the result of the in-flight start shall be
annotated in the Technical Log of the aircraft
The operator shall have a training programme that focuses on the special nature of ETOPS. The
goal of this training is to emphasise the special nature of ETOPS maintenance requirements. The
programme should also include Human Factors principles and develop a parts control
programme, oil consumption programme and engine condition monitoring programme that
ensures the proper parts and configuration are maintained for ETOPS. Operator should develop
ETOPS manual and identify it in MEL and have different requirement for ETOPS.

Configuration Deviation List is given in the Flight Manual Appendix CDL. It covers deficiencies
externally such as missing aerodynamic fairings, service and access panels, thrust reverser
blocker doors, static dischargers, etc. which affect aircraft performance and impose certain speed,
weight and operational limitations. The provision of this appendix must be strictly adhered to.
Any associated limitations must be listed on a placard affixed in the cockpit in clear view of the
pilot-in-command and other appropriate crew member(s). Placard wording is only suggested and
each operator can modify placard wording in accordance with their individual practices.
Operation with those missing parts requiring a reduction of VMO/MMO is permitted only when
the airplane has the appropriate alternate VMO set prior to flight.
The pilot in command will be notified of each operation with a missing part(s) by listing the
missing part(s) in the flight or dispatch release. The operator will list in the aircraft logbook an
appropriate notation covering the missing part(s) on each flight. If an additional part is lost in
flight, the airplane may not depart the airport at which it landed following this event until it again
complies with CDL limitations. This, of course, does not preclude the issuance of a ferry permit
to allow the airplane to be flown to a point where the necessary repairs or replacements can be
made. No more than one part for any one subsystem may be missing unless specifically
designated combinations are indicated herein. Unless otherwise specified herein, parts from
different sub-systems may be missing.
The performance limited weight penalties listed in the CDL are cumulative unless specifically
designated penalties for combination of missing parts are indicated.

Service Bulletins are issued by aircraft or component manufacturers to inform owners, operators
of specific issues such as Design defects, Changes in design, Modifications, Changes in servicing
procedures, Changes in approved maintenance practices, or Any other information such as special
inspections and checks that are needed to maintain the aircraft, engine or accessory in safe
operating condition. Service Bulletins are drafted in accordance with ATA 100
Compliance with Service Bulletins (SBs) is generally considered voluntary. For items requiring
greater urgency, i.e. safety related, Alert Service Bulletins will be issued. Service Bulletins (but
more often Alert Service Bulletins) can be made mandatory by regulatory Authority issuing
corresponding Airworthiness Directives or the manufacturer can explicitly classified them as
mandatory or incorporate them into authorized manual and mandatory inspection program.
Service bulletin detailing fatigue lives of products and appliances published by individual
manufacturers also required mandatory compliance. During overhaul or when long period of
maintenance is available (i.e. base maintenance), aircraft, engine and component overhaul
normally called for compliance with Service Bulletins.
According to Singapore Airworthiness Requirement Part 21, corrective action to be taken by the
Approval holder to correct any unsafe features in their product may include the publication of a
Service Bulletin or the recall of the deficient or defective article. If the Authority finds it
necessary to mandate the corrective action, it may do so by issuing an Airworthiness Directive
under SAR 39.
For issue of Certificate of Airworthiness for new and first-of-type aircraft, a list of Service
Bulletins, including Alert Service Bulletins, related to aircraft engines, propellers (as applicable)
and equipment is one of the pre-requisites. Evidence of observance with regard to aircraft or
component manufacturers’ service bulletins, service letters etc., which may affect the
airworthiness of the aircraft, is also needed for renewal of the Certificate of Airworthiness.
In addition, operators are provided with Service Letters to highlight technical details and
Maintenance Tips to offer clarification on airplane system functionality, beneficial techniques for
maintenance and operation and other information dealing with processes and materials.

SAR 21 is a reference on paragraphs 8 and 17A of the Air Navigation Order (ANO) for
Certification of Products and Articles and of Design and Production Organisations.
Type Certificates are issued for products i.e. aircraft, engine or propeller, when applications are
made to the regulating Authority after they had been adequately designed, tested and proven to
meet all airworthiness requirements.
A Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) is required when a product deviate from its original
configuration detailed on the Type Certificate Data Sheet, having introduced a major change into
the type design, but the modification is not substantial enough to warrant a new type certificate.
CAAS will grant a supplemental type certificate (STC) after all requirements for the application
is met when there is a need for a design approval for a major change to the type design of a
product, done in accordance to applicable airworthiness design standard, unless it had not prior
accepted the foreign type certificate.
A STSO Certificate of Approval is granted to an applicant by the Authority when the applicant
has demonstrated that the applicable airworthiness design requirements have been met to the
satisfaction of the Authority. The grant of the Certificate permits an article produced to the
approved design to be used on a Singapore registered aircraft when released in accordance with
Subsection III of Section 1, provided its installation is approved. A STSO Certificate of Approval
is also the basis for obtaining overseas recognition of the Singapore approval (e.g. FAA letter of
TSO design approval) to enable the export of articles to countries which have bilateral
agreements with Singapore.
A Design Organisation Approval for design Organizations, a Production Organisation Approval
for production organizations, a letter of agreement for production without a POA; and any form
of approval given to an appliance or activity in support of any of the above Approvals.
Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and Interpretative/Explanatory Material (IEM) to assist
applicants in meeting the requirements. It is intended to help applicants to understand and comply
with the requirements and to facilitate the approval process. The AMC are advisory only and
represent one means but not the only means of meeting the requirements. In addition, Advisory
Circulars (AC) issued by the Authority may contain further AMC and/or IEM. Where an AMC,
IEM or AC has not been provided or issued for a particular SAR paragraph, it is considered that
that paragraph does not require assisting supplementary material.

SAR-39 prescribes the requirements governing the issue of Airworthiness Directives that are
applicable to Singapore aircraft and any aircraft component to be fitted on Singapore aircraft.
AD is issued by the Authority (CAAS) or foreign aviation (eg. FAA or EASA) which mandate
action to be performed to restore acceptable level of safety for an aircraft when evidence shows
that safety level may otherwise be compromised. When AD is issued, no person shall operate or
permit the operation unless that person ensures that the aircraft compiles with each applicable AD
or foreign AD issued. An alternative mean of compliance approved for each applicable AD can
also apply.
The authority may issue or AD referencing a particular foreign AD and will take precedence over
the foreign AD. All result of compliance of foreign AD must be notified to the Authority. The
Authority may issue an amendment to the AD in accordance and identify the amendment by a
suffix to the original AD. The Authority may cancel the AD when it is satisfied that the ground
required for the issued no longer existed.
Finally, AD must compile within the specific time frame using approved methods of compliance,
otherwise the C of A will become invalid, endangering the safety of the aircraft.

In SAR 66, there are four categories of aircraft maintenance licences. They are divided into
Category A, Category B1, Category B2 and Category C.
An applicant for the grant of a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence must be at least 21 years of
age be able to read, write and communicate to an understandable level in English in which
technical documentation and procedures necessary to support the issue of certificate of release to
service are written and be able to demonstrate a need to hold the licence.
For Category A licence, the maintenance licence holder can issue the certificate of release on
aircrafts with minor and simple rectification as specified in SAR 145 with the limit of task in his
SAR 145 with the limit of task in his scope of authorisation.
For Category B1, an aircraft maintenance licence which permits the holder to issue certificates of
release to service following maintenance of the aircraft structure, powerplant, mechanical and
electrical systems, and following replacement of avionic line replaceable units requiring simple
tests to prove their serviceability. Category B1 shall automatically include the appropriate A
For Category B2, an aircraft maintenance licence which permits the holder to issue certificates of
release to service following maintenance of avionic and electrical systems.
For Category C, an aircraft maintenance licence which permits the holder to issue certificates of
release to service following base maintenance on aircraft. The privileges apply to the aircraft in
its entirety in a SAR-145 organisation.
SAR 66 Certified Category A is not to replace the need of SAR B1 and B2 licence but to support
the work and functions in the line maintenance and hangar environment smoothly.

In accordance to Air Navigation Order (ANO), any approval of maintenance organization must be
subjected to SAR 145. The issue of maintenance organisation approval is dependent upon the
organisation demonstrating compliance with its requirement of SAR 145 and all other
requirements by the Authority.
The scope of approval is classified under Category A for aircraft, Category B for engine and
Category C for components etc. With this approval, the maintenance organisation will be allowed
to maintain and issue certificate release of service (CRS) to a Singapore Registered aircraft or an
aircraft component intended for fitment to it. The organisation must fulfill facility, personnel,
tool, equipments and maintenance data before obtaining approval from Authority.
For facility requirement, the working environment must be appropriate for the task to be carried
out. For example, specialized workshops and bays must be segregated to avoid fire hazards.
Storage facilities must be secured and controlled to avoid damage to components or reuse of
unserviceable parts.
An Accountable Manager will oversee all the maintenance works and needs required in
accordance to the standard requirement by the Authority. Also, adequate certifying staffs are
required for task to be undertaken. The maintenance organization Exposition will indicate all
requirements needed to fulfil by the organization. The Accountable Manager will then nominate
within his capacity senior person/s to monitor the SAR 145 system. Such posts give the
nominated person/s the right of direct access to the Accountable Manager so that he can be kept
properly informed on all relevant matters. As the areas involved are vast, these nominated persons
will each assume an area best suited individually and each take up posts namely as base
maintenance manager, line maintenance manager, workshop manager and quality manager.
Quality Manager is to monitor associated feedback system, maintain independent audits in order
and ensure that procedures produce good maintenance practices. However, in the smallest
organisation, the independent audit may be contracted out to another SAR 145 approved
maintenance organisation with proven satisfactory audit experience acceptable to the Authority.
All managers nominated by the Accountable Manager are responsible to carry out relevant
maintenance required at the hangar, line and workshop areas respectively. Should there be a
significant deviation from the maintenance man-hour plan, such matters will have to be reported
through the department manager to the Quality Manager and Accountable Manager for review.
These managers are also responsible for corrective action in response of audit and corresponding
feedback given. The maintenance organization has to ensure the requirements to maintain an
aircraft or aircraft components are met before the Authority approves the issue, annual renewal
and continued validity of SAR 145.

SAR 147 is a reference on Air Navigation Order which prescribes the requirement of the approval
of the maintenance training organisation. It must show all the compliance with the requirement of
SAR 147 required by the authority.
In the organisation, you have an accountable manager who has the authority to ensure all the
maintenance trainings are properly carried out to the standard required by the authority.
The organisation needs to seek approval from the authority before they can conduct training and
examinations like SAR 66 certifying holder Category A, Category B1 and B2. If there are any
changes in the existing training organisation, approval needs to be obtained from the relevant
It is the requirement of the organisation to have records of instructors, examiners and assessors
that reflect his experience, qualification, training history and other training he undertakes to be
submitted to the authority.
The classroom should have enough ventilation, presentation equipments and training courses
materials. The record of the student attending the course, examination and assessment records
have to be kept at least 5 years after the student complete the particular course. The organisation
must set a proper training and examination standard under the SAR 147 requirement by the
The training organisation need to update its instructors, assessors and examiners on the latest
technology, practical skill, Human Factor and training technique to the scope of his authorisation.

Pursuant to the Air Navigation Order paragraph 87, the “issue of the air operator’s certificate”,
AOC applicant and AOC holder is required to meet specific requirements before the issue of the
air operator’s certificate.
Paragraph 87 of the ANO states that a Singapore aircraft shall not fly on any flight for the
purpose of public transport otherwise than under and in accordance with the terms of an air
operator certificate granted to the operator of the aircraft under sub-paragraph (2) certifying that
the holder of the certificate is competent to ensure that the aircraft operated by him on such
flights are operated safely. The chief executive officer shall grant to a person an air operator
certificate if he is satisfied that that person is competent having regard, in particular, to his
previous conduct and experience, his equipment, organisation, staffing, maintenance and other
arrangements, to secure the safe operation of aircraft of the type specified in the certificate on
flights of the description and for the purposes so specified. Any person who wishes to apply for
an air operator certificate shall submit an application to the chief executive officer in such form
and manner, and provide such information, as may be specified in the Air Operator Certificate
Requirements (AOCR) and any amendment thereto. The air operator certificate may be granted
subject to such conditions as the chief executive officer thinks fit and shall remain in force for the
period specified in the certificate. The holder of an air operator certificate shall, at all times,
comply with the conditions contained in his air operator certificate and the requirements
stipulated in the Air Operator Certificate Requirements (AOCR) and any amendments thereto.”
By being specifically referred to in paragraph 87 of the Air Navigation Order, AOCR publication
gains the force and effect of the ANO, and hence the requirement for compliance with all its
contents and subject matters by any applicant or current holder of a Singapore AOC. Failure to
comply with any of these requirements may result in suspension or revocation or penalties
provided under the Thirteenth Schedule of the ANO.
AOCR states the necessary conditions, qualities, qualifications, standards and procedures
necessary to qualify for and maintain an AOC, as well as to incorporate new practices or
procedures to ensure the safety of the travelling public. Supplementary advice and information to
this publication will be notified in the form of Notices to Airmen (NOTAM), Air Operator
Certificate Requirement (AOCR), Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC), Advisory Circulars
(AC), Singapore Airworthiness Guide (SAG), Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP),
Airworthiness Notices (AN), Singapore Air Safety Publications (SASP) and Singapore
Airworthiness Requirements (SAR) or any other official publication so issued for the purpose of
enabling any of the provisions of this Order to be complied with.
The AOCR consists of eight chapters, namely are application for air operator certificate,
operations manual, loading, training and testing, organization and facilities, emergency and
survival training, practice and testing requirements for flight crew and cabin crew, cabin safety,
arrangements for engineering and maintenance support,

To enhance future development of international civil aviation, which will be instrumental in
promoting understanding, friendship, cooperation and peace, it is the roles and responsibilities of
all contracting states to adhere to certain agreed upon principles and arrangements in order to
ensure such development occurs in an orderly and safe manner based on equality of opportunity,
economical and sound operation. These principles and applications can be found in the
Convention on International Civil Aviation (applicable to civil aircraft), addressed in a series of
Articles, that broadly include the followings, which highlight that contracting States shall
recognise that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its
Undertake that when issuing regulations for their state aircraft, that they will have due regard for
the safety of navigation of civil aircraft. Recognize that every State must refrain from resorting to
the use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight and that, in case of interception, the lives of
persons on board and the safety of aircraft must not be endangered. Every State has the right to
exercise its sovereignty to require the landing at some designated airport of a civil aircraft flying
above its territory without authority or for purpose inconsistent with the aims of this Convention.
Other instructions may be given to put an end to such violations according to relevant rules of
international law and provisions of this Convention. Each contracting State agrees to publish its
regulations in force regarding the interception of civil aircraft. Contracting States shall establish
all necessary provisions in its national laws or regulations to make such compliance mandatory
for any civil aircraft registered in that State or operated by an operator having his principal place
of business or permanent residence in that State. Any violation must be penalized. Agree not to
use civil aviation for any purpose inconsistent with the aims of this Convention.
In conclusion, compliance with ICAO standards and recommended practices are expected of all
contracting States. This may sometimes involve a review of policy and possible amendments to
domestic regulations and therefore ICAO will provide adequate time before new standards and
recommended practices become effective. Technical manuals and guidance material on various
relevant subjects are made available by ICAO to facilitate such implementation.

Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore Act established the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore
(CAAS) to be consisted of a Chairman; and not less than 6 nor more than 10 other members as
the Minister may from time to time determine.
The functions of the Authority shall be to maintain and manage the Authority’s aerodrome and to
provide such services and facilities as are necessary or expedient for its operations. To provide air
traffic control service, flight information service, alerting service and aeronautical information
service within the Singapore Flight Information Region. Provide or co-ordinate search and rescue
services to aircraft in distress within the Singapore Search and Rescue Region. Provide adequate
fire fighting and rescue services and facilities at the Authority’s aerodrome.
To regulate, and to promote the development of, air transport. Encourage, promote, facilitate and
assist in the development and improvement of aerospace industries. Advise the Government on
all matters relating to civil aviation. Act internationally as the national authority or body
representing Singapore in respect of matters relating to civil aviation; and to perform such other
functions as may be delegated to the Authority by the Minister under the Air Navigation Act.
The Authority shall have power to do anything for the purpose of discharging its functions under
this Act, or which is calculated to facilitate the discharge of those functions and in particular may
provide or acquire or assume the maintenance or management of any aerodrome in Singapore in
addition to the aerodrome vested in or acquired by the Authority under this Act. Provide technical
advice or assistance, including training facilities, for any person as respects any matter in which
the Authority has skill or experience
In summary the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) is a statutory board under the
Ministry of Transport. It represents the government in the negotiation of air services agreements
as well as advises on matters related to civil aviation. Besides it ensures smooth and efficient
airport operations and regulates and promotes the development of air transport to transform
Changi Airport into a major global air hub. There are many divisions within CAAS, each playing
an important part to ensure the functionalities of the organization.

Air legislation relates to all aspects of aviation, namely equipment, maintenance, personnel,
airworthiness and operation.
In October 1919, an International Convention for the regulation of air navigation was signed in
Paris. The purpose of the convention was to provide a minimum standard of safety that would be
acceptable to the various countries that ratified it, but the details of how the standard should be
achieved were left to the individual Governments.
The Convention was ratified by the British Government by the Air Navigation Act of 1920, and it
is this Act which provides inter alias for regulations which, in general terms, control the
airworthiness of British aircraft. The Air Navigation Act of 1920 provided that, by an Order in
Council, the British Government may make provision as to the manner and conditions of the issue
and renewal of any certificate required by the Act. The Act itself did not attempt to detail any of
the requirements, and the first step towards this Act. Similar action was taken under the Air
Navigation Act of 1936, which was almost wholly repealed by the Civil Aviation Act, 1949.
The Air Navigation Order, 1954 and the Air Navigation (General) Regulations, 1954 came into
operation on the 1st August of that year. The former replaced and revoked the Air Navigation
Order, 1949, and all the amending orders made thereto. The provisions contained therein were in
line with the Chicago Convention dated 7th December 1944 and such of the Annexes thereto
relating to standards, practices and procedures as have been adopted or recommended for
adoption by the International Civil Aviation Organization set up in accordance with the terms of
the Convention. The order prescribed airworthiness regulations. Licensing of personnel and the
regulations governing the operation of aircraft. The order was further explained by the Air
Navigation (General) Regulations, 1954.
The Air Navigation Order, 1960 (and amended by subsequent Amendment Orders) replaced and
revoked the Air Navigation Order, 1954, and all amending Orders made thereto. At the same time
the Air Navigation (General) Regulations, 1954 were revoked and replaced by the Air Navigation
(General) Regulations, 1960 in a much abbreviated form. Fees became the subject of a separate
regulation known as the Air Navigation (Fees) Regulations, 1960, since revoked by the Air
Navigation (Fees) Regulations, 1962. The Air Navigation (Radio) Regulations, 1954 were
revoked since all relevant matters therein were incorporated in the Air Navigation Order, 1960.
The consolidation of subsequent amendments has resulted in these being replaced and revoked by
the Air Navigation Order, 1966, the Air Navigation (General) Regulations, 1966 and the Air
Navigation (Fees) Regulations, 1966.
Essential minimum standards of design and construction together with information on procedure
are given in British Civil Airworthiness Requirements published by the Air Registration Board.
Singapore Air Law is based on the CHICAGO CONVENTION Standards practices and
procedures as recommended for adoption by the International Civil Aviation Organization set up
in accordance with the terms of the Convention.

Singapore Airworthiness Requirements (SAR) are issued pursuant to the Singapore Air
Navigation Order to notify the minimum requirements in respect of airworthiness of aircraft,
aircraft engineering and maintenance requirements, licensing of aircraft maintenance engineers
and the approval of persons and organizations, which must be observed in order to comply with
the provisions of the ANO. The SAR consists of eight sections, namely:

The Airworthiness Notices issued by CAAS on 1st October 1986 superceded the Notices to
Licensed Aircraft Engineers and to Owners of Civil Aircraft first issued on 1st August 1973 by
the former Department of Civil Aviation.
They are issued by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) to circulate regulatory
information of an administrative or technical nature to all concerned with the airworthiness of
civil aircraft.
Notice A0 is the Contents page that contains a list of all the current Notices. When a Notice
becomes redundant it will be withdrawn and shown as “Cancelled” in Notice A0. Notice A0 is
issued with every issue of Notices and the changes would be marked by marginal lines. The issue
number of Notice A0 would increase by 1.
Each Notice is identified by an alphabet and a number, followed by an issue number and an issue
date. When a procedure which has already been the subject of a Notice is changed, the particular
Notice is reissued under the same number but bearing a new issue number and issue date. Like
other publications, material differences between issues are marked by marginal lines.
All Notices are concerned with matters affecting the airworthiness of civil aircraft. The type of
information contained therein is categorized as follows:
The Notice number will be prefixed with the relevant alphabet to denote the appropriate category.

Advisory Circulars (ACs) are issued by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) and
contain information about standards, practices and procedures acceptable to the Authority, which
are applicable to specific groups of users as highlighted in the circulars. (Revision number of the
AC will be indicated in parenthesis in the suffix of the AC number.)
ACs are issued under four main categories - General, Airworthiness Certification, Air Operator
and Maintenance. They provide guidance, information or update on regulations, technical and
administrative publications related to these categories to highlight an acceptable method of
compliance or clarify certain requirements and standards.
These are non-regulatory information that cannot be used as approved data unless incorporated
into a regulations or an airworthiness directive.

Air Operator Certificate Requirements (Maintenance Responsibility)
The operator is responsible that maintenance on his aircraft are performed in accordance with the
Singapore Airworthiness Requirements and that the aircraft are maintained in an airworthy
condition. The operator shall also ensure that the Certificate of Airworthiness of each aircraft
remains valid.
The operator shall satisfy the Authority that the engineering and maintenance support
arrangements (i.e. the personnel, accommodation, equipment and facilities, organisations,
procedures and documentation provided for the engineering and maintenance support of the
aircraft covered by the AOC) are to a satisfactory standard. The operator may have his own
maintenance organisation or may contract out his maintenance to another maintenance
organisation approved by the Authority in accordance with SAR-145. If the operator carries out
maintenance of his own aircraft, he shall with comply with the provisions of the SAR-145.
The operator remains responsible for the safe operation of his aircraft when the accomplishment
of maintenance is contracted out and must therefore be satisfied with the standards of
airworthiness achieved by the maintenance contractor. The operator shall monitor the
maintenance contractor’s response to the provisions of the maintenance agreement, employing
such technical resources as are necessary to achieve this task.
Maintenance support arrangements shall be based on an organisation approved by the Authority
under the SAR-145 for the maintenance or overhaul of the type of aircraft concerned.
For the purposes of the AOC, maintenance is taken to include the overall control of airworthiness
and the accomplishment of scheduled and unscheduled servicing and inspection tasks.
The operator shall have management systems to ensure effective engineering support of his fleet
of aircraft over the whole of the routes operated. Quality control and assurance shall be exercised
as necessary to achieve satisfactory standards of continuing airworthiness.

Air Operator Certificate Requirements (Maintenance Management)
The operator shall describe the maintenance arrangements to support his operation in accordance
with the requirements of this Chapter in the Engineering Exposition Document. The operator
shall ensure that the Engineering Exposition Document is amended as necessary to keep the
information contained therein up-to-date.
The contents of the exposition shall address all of the subjects included in this Chapter, and in
particular such a description of the administrative arrangements between the operator and the
maintenance organisation, if engineering and maintenance support is contracted out. Description
of the maintenance procedures and the procedures for completing and signing of certificates of
maintenance review and release to service when maintenance is not subcontracted out. Names
and duties of the person or persons required by paragraph 4.1 of this Chapter. A reference to the
maintenance schedules required by paragraph 8.2 of this Chapter.
Description of the methods used for the completion and retention of maintenance records required
by SAR. Explain of any reliability or condition monitoring programme and any associated
reporting procedures required. Procedures for assessing continuing airworthiness information and
implementing and resulting actions as required. Procedures for implementing action resulting
from mandatory continuing airworthiness information. Description of establishing and
maintaining a system of analysis and continued monitoring of the performance and efficiency of
the maintenance schedules, in order to correct any deficiency in the schedules. Aircraft types and
models to which the Engineering Exposition Document applies. Description of procedures for
ensuring that unserviceabilities affecting airworthiness are recorded and rectified. A description
of the procedures for advising the Authority of significant inservice occurrences.
The exposition and subsequent amendments shall be submitted to the Authority for approval.
Copies of all approved amendments to the Engineering Exposition Document shall be furnished
promptly to the Authority and all organisations or persons to whom the manual is issued.

Air Operator Certificate Requirements - Certificate of Maintenance Review (CMR)
The CMR signatory is required, before issuing the Certificate to ensure that all maintenance is
complete, all mandatory inspections and modifications that are due have been complied with, all
defects have been rectified or deferred in accordance with company procedures and that all
necessary Certificates of Release to Service have been issued.
The Authority shall have access in respect of the aircraft being certified, to the approved
maintenance schedule and check control system, the mandatory inspection/modification control
system, the defect control system, all technical records including worksheets, and to aircraft
defects. In the case of computer controlled record access must likewise be provided.
Quality Control audit records must be available to the CMR signatory on request relative to the
aircraft being cleared such that he may discharge his responsibilities under the ANO.

Air Operator Certificate Requirements - Defects and Occurrences
An assessment of both the cause and any potentially hazardous effect of defects or combination
of defects, and occurrences must be made in order to initiate any necessary further investigation
and analysis.
A system of assessment e.g. through reliability programme, should be in operation to support the
continuing airworthiness of aircraft and to provide a continuous analysis of the effectiveness of
the operator’s control systems in use. The system should provide below for the following:
Significant Incidents and Defects. The monitoring on a continuous basis of incidents and
defects that have occurred in flight and of defects found during maintenance and overhaul,
highlighting any that appear significant in their own right.
Repetitive Incidents and Defects. The monitoring on a continuous basis of defects occurring in
flight and found during maintenance and overhaul, highlighting any that are repetitive.
Deferred and Carried Forward Defects. The monitoring on a continuous basis of deferred and
carried forward defects.
Unscheduled Removals and System Performance. The analysis of unscheduled component
removals and of the performance of aircraft systems; and its use as part of a maintenance

Air Operator Certificate Requirements - Aircraft Technical Log
The systems for controlling deferred and carried forward defects must be described in the
Engineering Exposition Document. When transferring a defect in the Technical Log to the
deferred sheets or carrying forward a defect during a maintenance check, the conditions approved
by the Authority for the control of deferred defects must be complied with.
Deferred defects are defined as those defects reported in operational service which is deferred for
later rectification. Carried forward defects are defined as those defects arising during maintenance
which are carried forward for rectification at a later maintenance input. There shall be a system to
consider the cumulative effect of a number of deferred or carried forward defects occurring on the
same aircraft. Any restrictions contained in the Minimum Equipment List must be considered.
Deferred defects shall be made known to the flight crew.
There shall be a procedure to ensure that the period for which defects are deferred or carried
forward reflects the importance of the defect as it affects airworthiness and/or safe operation.
Limitation periods to be applied shall be identified in the Engineering Exposition Document (e.g.
flight hours, calendar time, number of sectors, return to base). The control system shall ensure
that the number of deferred defects and the length of time during which each defect is deferred
are kept to a minimum.
There shall be a procedure to ensure that deferred defects are transferred to worksheets at
maintenance periods, and to ensure that deferred defects which have not been actioned during
maintenance periods, are re-entered on to a new deferred defect record sheet. The original date of
the defect must be retained. There shall be a procedure to ensure that the necessary components
or parts are made available or ordered on a priority basis, and that they are fitted at the earliest
opportunity. There shall be a cross reference in the Technical Log to enable each defect which
has been deferred to be traced back to its original entry.

Air Operator Certificate Requirements - Maintenance Records and Log Books
There shall be a department responsible for the compilation and co-ordination of technical
records. It shall maintain a data recording system such that it is possible to ensure that the hours
of service or elapsed times quoted in the approved maintenance schedule are not exceeded as
regards components and structural assemblies, and that scheduled maintenance periods are
adhered to.
Record the number of landings, flights or cycles, and the use of maximum contingency or
intermediate contingency power, when this information is specified in the approved Maintenance
Schedule or manufacturer’s manuals as a basis for inspection or other necessary action. To
process the foregoing information into aircraft, engine and propeller log books or equivalent
records, to maintain the records and documents concerning overhaul and repair work, component
changes, mandatory modifications and inspections and to maintain the Modification Record
Book. Maintain records required by the Singapore Airworthiness
A computer may be used as part of a technical records system with the agreement of the
Authority. In this case procedures should be instituted which will ensure that the computerised
record will provide security, storage, preservation and retrieval to the same level as would have
been achieved by hard copy records. The Authority’s acceptance of computerised recording does
not exempt the operator or his contracted maintenance organisation from complying with the
appropriate provisions of the Air Navigation Order for the keeping and retention of records.
Records shall be structured or stored in such a way as to facilitate auditing.

Air Operator Certificate Requirements - Occurrence Reporting
Occurrence Reporting to the Design Organisation
The operator shall have procedures for ensuring that the design organisation of each aircraft type
(usually the constructor) receives adequate reports of occurrences to that type, to enable it to issue
appropriate service instructions and recommendations to all operators.
Liaison with the design organisation is necessary to establish whether published or proposed
service information will resolve the problem or to obtain a solution to a particular problem.
Mandatory Occurrence Reporting to the Authority
The operator is responsible for Mandatory Occurrence Reporting to the Authority. Details of the
requirements for mandatory reporting is in Chapter 4.9 of the Singapore Airworthiness
Requirements. The operator shall establish procedures to discharge these responsibilities and
personnel shall be instructed as to their use. Mandatory Occurrence Reports shall be made to the
Authority through the person authorised under paragraph 8.8.1 of this Chapter. The operator shall
remain responsible for Mandatory Occurrence Reporting even when maintenance is contracted
out, both to a local or foreign maintenance organisation.
Other Occurrence Reporting to the Authority
The operator shall ensure that such other reporting requirements as are prescribed from time to
time are met.
Coordinating of Occurrence Reporting
Responsibility for co-ordinating action on airworthiness occurrences and for initiating any
necessary further investigation and follow-up activity shall be assigned to a suitably qualified
senior person with clearly defined authority and status. Operational and maintenance reporting
may be coordinated by one individual as long as the necessary integration is provided by the
organisation. A suitably qualified engineer within the organisation shall be assigned responsibility
for co-ordinating with the operator’s flight operational staff in connection with occurrences which
have both airworthiness and operational implications. This is particularly necessary where the
operator contracts out his maintenance, when it must be clearly shown who performs this task in
both the Operations Manual and the Engineering Exposition Document.