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With the present shift in examination pattern of UPSC Civil Services Examination, ‘General
Studies – II and General Studies III’ can safely be replaced with ‘Current Affairs’. Moreover,
following the recent trend of UPSC, almost all the questions are issue-based rather than
news-based. Therefore, the right approach to preparation is to prepare issues, rather than
just reading news.
Taking this into account, our website will cover current affairs focusing
more on ‘issues’ on a daily basis. This will help you pick up relevant news items of the day
from various national dailies such as The Hindu, Indian Express, Business Standard, LiveMint,
Business Line and other important Online sources. Over time, some of these news items will
become important issues.
UPSC has the knack of picking such issues and asking general opinion based questions.
Answering such questions will require general awareness and an overall understanding of
the issue. Therefore, we intend to create the right understanding among aspirants – ‘How to
cover these issues?
This is the Eighth edition of IASbaba’s Monthly Magazine. This edition covers all important
issues that were in news in the month of January 2016
Value add’s from IASbaba- Must Read and Connecting the dots.
‘Must Read’ section, will give you important links to be read from exam perspective. This
will make sure that, you don’t miss out on any important news/editorials from various
newspapers on daily basis.
Under each news article, ‘Connecting the dots’ facilitates your thinking to connect and
ponder over various aspects of an issue. Basically, it helps you in understanding an issue
from multi-dimensional view-point. You will understand its importance while giving Mains
or Interview.

On this New Year 2016, let’s promise ourselves that to think interms of Day’s resolution
and not the years’…
“If you want to live a happy life, tie it to a goal, not to people or things.” – Albert Einstein

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(Pages 5-71)

Taming bulls, wounding rights
Kerala’s Liquor Policy: All in the spirit of equality
Lodha panel lays out a new pitch for BCCI
The promise of Dalit capitalism
Time for expansion of Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT)
Tribal Ministry relents over Forest Rights Act (FRA)
Making Commercial Courts work
What needs to be done to upgrade to BS-VI?
National Fibre Optic Network
Women at Work
Gender Justice in Religious institutions: Case against Customary Exclusion
Start Up India Stand Up India Scheme
Discords emanating from the “Principles of Natural Justice”
Death of a Dalit scholar: Ancient Prejudice, Modern Inequality
The case for Maternity Entitlements going Universal
From Child Slavery to Freedom

Is Road to Election-‘Literacy’?

Anarchy through kritarchy: Judicial Activism or Judicial Adventurism?

Article 356—Arunachal Pradesh: Is President’s rule being misused?
Ensuring privacy in a digital age
Impersonal government is good: A case of RTI act, 2005
Censor and sensibility : Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC)

INTERNATIONAL (Pages 72-102)

Turkey’s war on the Kurds
West Asia: Saudi Arabia’s deadly gamble
Censor and sensibility : Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC)
Devaluation of Yuan
Storm on the South China Sea
BRICS— Performance Report
Building the International Solar Alliance

with its own problems’ .Page |4   Taking India Israel relationship to the next level Fulfilling the potential of India-France ties ECONOMICS             (Pages 103-138) Kelkar panel to revive PPP in infra projects WTO: GATS & Indian Education Illicit Financial Flows Improve the Investment Climate Gear up for changes in tax laws. treaties Insuring a risky venture called agriculture India’s investment anaemia Navigating the fourth industrial revolution Public investment: for a new normal ‘A solution.Strategic Debt Restructuring Scheme Budget and Infrastructure investment Fashioning a Banking Turn.Public Sector Banks ENVIRONMENT   (Pages 139-143) Shifting India to Clean Energy Putting wind into renewable sails SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   Internet-The Public Good Superbug and quantum dot DEFENCE/SECURITY  (Pages 144-149) (Pages 150-153) Save security from the establishment MUST READ (Pages 154-193) www.

to Article 21 (Right to Life).com . environmental impact assessment. including animals. Taming bulls. www. jallikattu. with ‘Tamil tradition and culture’ being invoked to stir up a high fever ahead of the 2016 Assembly elections in Tamil Nadu What is the issue?  Supreme court in 2014 banned the sport jallikattu as it violates provisions of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (PCA) and militates the constitutional duty of treating animals with compassion. the tamer sought to remove this bundle from the animal’s head to win gold or silver. which prohibits any disturbance to the environment. has grown louder yet again.IASbaba. The southern parts of Tamil Nadu witness bull-taming the most. Article 51A (g). Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times General studies 3: Conservation. The pressure this time includes the added weight of the political context. which means a bundle of coins is tied to the bull’s horns. environmental pollution and degradation. wounding rights   As the harvest festival of Pongal approaches in Tamil Nadu. He would be called ‘brave’ and ‘valourous’ and would also sometimes be rewarded with a bride. the clamour for legitimising the brutal sport. with Alanganallur near Madurai hosting the largest and most famous of these events. sharp-edged weapons used to poke the animal. ears mutilated. What is Jallikattu?     Jallikattu is derived from the words ‘calli’ (coins) and ‘kattu’ (tie). chemicals poured into the eyes. A start of cruelty towards animals:   But what started as a simple act of bravado has become an act of cruelty towards animals. The Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI)’s report submitted before the court in this case lists unimaginable forms of torture inflicted on the beast meant to help in farming — tails twisted and fractured.  It also reiterated the expansive reading it had given in the past.Page |5 NATIONAL TOPIC:   General Studies 1: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms. and intoxicants forced into its mouth. In older times. considered essential for human life.

reiterating that any custom. Trying to allow an event that legitimises cruelty to animals would be a direct insult to the carefully reasoned writ of the Supreme Court.Page |6   All these and more take place right under the watch of officials. a complete negation of the PCA Act and its objectives. In 2002. Wider interpretation by Supreme Court:   Taking into consideration all these aspects.IASbaba. The expression “life and personal liberty” under Article 21 of Indian constitution are of widest amplitude and cover infinite volume of rights. or even space to stand. and would take the country back by a few steps in the crucial area of Right to Life. the Supreme Court ruled that not only did jallikattu inflict “unnecessary pain and suffering” on the animal and thereby violate the PCA Act. International experience:    The tradition of bullfighting in Spain is cited to legitimise the conduct of Jallikattu and present it as a viable tourist attraction. Connecting the dots:    Critically analyse the extent to which environment legislations in India have been successful in safeguarding environment. The court exhaustively cites international rights jurisprudence to stress the need to correct anthropocentric views and the fact that animals too have the right to live dignified lives. Way ahead:   Those who want the sport to be legalised have called for an amendment to the PCA Act and measures to revoke the 2011 notification of the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) which barred the use of bulls as performing animals. The enclosures in the arena deny the bull food. Analyse the role played by culture in socio economic development of a . The court then banned the use of bulls as performing animals. Elucidate www. water. should be in consonance with the values of the Constitution. Germany took animal rights to a new level by giving animals constitutional protection. but the whole sport in the form in which it exists today has nothing to do with the traditional bull-taming of yore. It is significant that the Spanish state of Catalonia banned the sport in 2012 after a prolonged ‘culture versus rights’ debate. even if in existence since the pre-constitutional days.

by the Union government’s Ministry of Tourism. to have their licences renewed even if they did not possess a four-star mark 2014 (March):   SC held that the deletion of three-star hotels from the category of hotels eligible for a liquor licence as constitutionally valid Even hotels without a bar licence were entitled to three-star statuses under the Ministry of Tourism’s Rules and Regulations August 2014: Intensification of ‘Excise Policy’ by Government:   Tried enforcing complete prohibition Hotels classed as five star and above. save bars and restaurants in five-star hotels. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. the most basic doctrines of constitutionalism have been thrown open to the politics of hypocrisy.Page |7 TOPIC: General Studies 2  Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States.Only one’s entitled to maintain a bar licence www.IASbaba. Thus. State of Kerala . Governance Issues Kerala’s Liquor Policy: All in the spirit of equality    Supreme Court of India has recently. which seeks to prohibit the sale and service of alcohol in all public places. Excise Policy 2007: Kerala government has strived to tighten its excise policy to making liquor less freely available in the State (and more so in the interest of public health) 1st step—Amended the policy by permitting new bar licences to be granted only to those hotels which were accorded a rating of three stars or more by the Central government’s Ministry of Tourism 2011:   Hotels having a rating below four stars were disentitled from having a licence issued to serve alcoholic beverages on their premises Amnesty provided. in The Kerala Bar Hotels Association v. The verdict while employing a case of patent discrimination places the five-star hotels at stake and undermines the fundamental promise of equal concern and treatment under the Constitution. delivered its judgment on the validity of Kerala’s newest liquor .For hotels hotels with existing licences.

B. held the Abkari (excise) policy of the Kerala government to being in conformity with the right under Article 19(1)(g) Article 14—   Categorisation has led to an unnecessary classification by treating persons on an equal standing unequally Courts have time and again employed basic two-prong test to determine what constitutes such a classification: There must be—   An intelligible differentia. and the State’s excise commissioners issued notices to all hotels of four stars and below.In the Kerala Bar Hotels Association case. which distinguishes persons or things that are grouped together from others left out of the group The differentia must have a rational relation to the object sought to be achieved by the law in question www. trade or business Liberty to freely carry on any trade or business is subject to reasonable restrictions that may be imposed by the state in the interest of the general public Article 47 of the Constitution: Requires States to make an endeavour towards improving public health (including by bringing about prohibition of the consumption of liquor) These can lead to a proof behind the action to be termed as legitimate 1994: Khoday Distilleries Ltd.Fundamental rights guaranteed under Part III of India’s Constitution Article 19(1)(g)—     Right to practise any profession. intimating them of the annulment of their respective bar licences New Policy Challenged: Grounds of challenge. which served liquor.Page |8  A pre-constitutional enactment was duly amended.IASbaba. . Sawant: The State can     Prohibit completely the trade or business in potable liquor since liquor as beverage is res extra commercium Create a monopoly in itself for trade or business in such liquor Place restrictions and limitations on such trade or business which may be in nature different from those on trade or business in articles res commercium Reflection. or to carry on any occupation. State of Karnataka   The constitution bench of the Supreme Court had questioned the existence of any right to trade in alcoholic beverages Justice P. SC thus.

The proposals include separate governing bodies for the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and the Indian Premier League (IPL). While a law might represent a valid constraint on the freedom to trade.Page |9   But. there is a need to revisit the policy to keep one’s faith in Art 14 . Employing paternalism and classism will only have a polarising effect on the policy issues of the country and thus. even the rationale being practiced in granting license as well as the purpose of a better human health seems to be disguised under truck-load of policies which does not seem in tandem with each other Courts Excuse:   Price being a prohibitive factor: Five Star hotels can act as a deterrent to individuals going in for binge or even casual drinking and thus. Connecting the Dots:   Has the State of Kerala made a reasonable classification in consonance with Article 14 by permitting only five-star hotels and above to serve liquor? Critically examine Discuss how will the special treatment being granted to the five-star hotels possibly help the Kerala government in achieving the highlighted objectives TOPIC: General studies 2  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. with a slew of changes that would dismantle the existing ecosystem of the Indian cricket board. in a bid to partially segregate www. including Article 14. an inadequate justification was forwarded with an economic way out Tourism as used by the State government IASbaba’s Views:    If a commodity is res extra commercium — a thing outside commerce — this particular point does not give the state absolute power to make laws on the subject in violation of the guarantee of equal treatment. which assures us that the state shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. it must confirm to other constitutional commands.IASbaba. Lodha panel lays out a new pitch for BCCI   The Supreme Court appointed Justice R M Lodha-led committee has suggested a paradigm shift in the functioning of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI).

and a one-state. Of the remaining five. one-member (vote) pattern for the BCCI governing body. Proposes a new governing structure for BCCI   The panel suggested limiting the autonomy of IPL. adding that its governing council should be reduced to nine members with the secretary and the treasurer of BCCI as ex-officio members and two other members to be nominated or elected by the full members. two would be the nominees of . one would be a representative of the players’ association (that is to be formed) and one would a nominee of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India. www. legalising betting.P a g e | 10 their functioning. Key recommendations of the panel: 1. limiting age and tenures for officials. Why was the committee appointed?   The committee was appointed by Supreme court at the backdrop of IPL spot fixing issue in 2014 as a result of which few IPL players and two IPL teams have been debarred from contesting in this year’s IPL tournament. the committee took its form. In order to restructure BCCI and to streamline it towards cleansing cricket atmosphere in India.IASbaba. uniformity in structure of state associations.

More states and union territories will get representation. Railways and All India Universities — three national service groups – have been treated as Full Members with voting rights thus far. BCCI can nominate one association from Maharashtra (Mumbai. though. No geographical base. The inclusive approach to spreading cricket across India      Bihar.IASbaba. while others represent any territory. www. Railways can continue to field Ranji teams but cannot be deemed as Full Members and cannot have voting rights. To spread cricket to the far reaching corners of the country in a more inclusive and democratic . should be treated as Associate member and be allowed to field a domestic team. with voting rights. One Zone – One Member – One Vote:      This will clean out the undemocratic irregularities that have been used to manipulate voting patterns and election process within the BCCI. the committee has sought to re-address the constitution of the board. the National Cricket Club at Kolkata also enjoy full membership of the BCCI just like the Cricket Club of India at Mumbai. The panel has recommended that Services. currently) and Gujarat (Baroda. doesn’t have a Ranji team. No more. one of the most populous states. the only other UT with a chief minister. Bihar. Gujarat and Saurashtra). As things stand today the BCCI has 30 full members. Vidarbha and Maharashtra are its three different associations. The committee has proposed that states will be restricted to just one member.P a g e | 11 2.  They have been the disembodied voices that have been easily bought. and the right to vote. Only 20 states and one union territory.  They have no geographical base for representation as they don’t represent any territories and their relatively small statures have allowed them to be used as pawns in the voting game. 3. No Votes   Services. However. Delhi. Currently. Apart from these. 4. Maharashtra and Gujarat have three full members. For example. are included and ten states and six union territories are excluded. only Delhi is a full member from the union territories (UT) but the committee has proposed that Puducherry. For example. which is not affiliated to the board. some of which don’t field teams. will be included and get a Ranji team. though they can continue to field different teams as in the past.

and cannot hold office for more than three terms. 6. a British company through which people across the world place bets on EPL matches. could enter India.” says the report.     On an average.  Regardless of post — president. Telangana. Ashes and Fifa World Cup. Associate . “an illusion that it will be promoted at some vague point in the future”.  Each term will be reduced to three years and every elected apex council member will have to undergo a cooling-off period of three years after each term. Legalising betting  Lodha panel has recommended legislature for legalising betting and an “inbuilt mechanism” to ensure that players and administrators don’t bet on matches. www. they have to disclose their assets to the BCCI. And that only the Full Member will get a vote. secretary. Affiliates. and Future Member. Ladbrokes. Restrictions on the BCCI office-bearers  They should not be aged more than 70. and re-juggling of the Full Member and Associate Member lists be done. Puducherry and Andaman & Nicobar and have been given. 7. Any misconduct by them will result in cancellation of those licences. Chandigarh. It can only be done through betting houses which will have to take licences. If betting is legalised. and will also have to divorce themselves from the state association that they represent. vice-president and treasurer — no official can hold on to any seat for more than nine years in all. daily turnover of Rs 100 crore is seen by cricket satta in Mumbai alone. cricket satta (illegal betting) in India could be as much as Rs 3 lakh crore a year. “To ensure they don’t involve in betting. The titled Future Member consists of Uttarakhand. Rest of the country sees average daily turnover of Rs 900 crore.IASbaba.P a g e | 12 5. Say no to Affiliates and Future Members    The BCCI has four categories: Full Member. with a “cooling-off” period between terms. to quote the report. According to experts. joint secretary. should not be ministers or government servants. Mizoram.  They also cannot be ministers or hold government positions. Cricket matches are played for 300 days in a year across the world. The committee have been recommended that categories of Affiliates and Future Member be removed.

communalism.IASbaba. Salient features of Indian Society. Social empowerment. laws. 2015. Way ahead:  The committee recommendations is a good move towards revamping the corruption struck cricket body in India. Critically examine the recommendations of Lodha panel report on BCCI restructuring with special reference to legalising cricket betting in India. regionalism & secularism. What next? Supreme Court should make the report binding on BCCI and try to implement it or BCCI should appoint an internal committee to look into the feasibility of implementing the recommendations of the committee. Former president N Srinivasan and some other senior administrators also questioned the feasibility of the proposals. www. Diversity of . Connecting the dots:   Off late commercialisation of sports is making news in India. and it would now form its own committee to look into the proposals before deciding on a future course of action.P a g e | 13 What did BBCI say?   The BCCI has said that these are just recommendations. Analyse the pros and cons of it. TOPIC: General studies 1:    The Freedom Struggle . The promise of Dalit capitalism The present Prime Minister made two significant observations in the course of his speech to the new generation of Dalit entrepreneurs during the National Conference of Dalit Entrepreneurs held on 29th December. Clearly indicate your opinion wrt commercialisation of sports in India. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. General studies 2:  Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes. mechanisms.its various stages and important contributors or contributions from different parts of the country.

com .P a g e | 14   First. Second. www.R. There is no shortage of examples of specific businesses being dominated by members of one community. Case study:   In a 2011 paper on how caste matters in entrepreneurship. Ambedkar to argue that a community that has little access to land should see rapid industrialization as its best bet for advancement. which argued that the retreat of the state in the era of globalization means that dependence on reservations will bring diminishing returns (the returns keep on decreasing with time). It is very difficult for a Dalit entrepreneur to break into these networks. Lakshmi Iyer and Tarun Khanna argued that the growth of enterprises depends strongly on network effects to find the right workers as well as to forge links with suppliers and customers. How to break the existing business networks?   One possibility is through voluntary action by large companies that have expansive supply chains. The representatives of Dalit capitalism want to correct this imbalance because they believe that capital is the best way to break caste in the modern economy. Low Dalit entrepreneurship: Successive census reports on enterprises outside agriculture show that Dalits own far fewer businesses than we should expect from their share of the total Indian population.IASbaba.  Few existing Dalit entrepreneurs can be role models for upcoming ones. The Tata group has been at the forefront of such experiments. India is one of the many countries where weak contract enforcement means that entrepreneurs depend on trust-based community networks to transact business. The case of Dalit capitalism: The concept can be traced back to a conference of Dalit intellectuals held in Bhopal in 2002. he cited B. he said it is more difficult to escape the shadow of social discrimination than it is to break the shackles of economic backwardness. And World Bank chief economist Kaushik Basu has tried to show in a new paper that discrimination exists because it acts as a coordination device. a challenge that is perhaps even more difficult than getting bank loans. Hurdles in realising Dalit entrepreneurship:     One of the main problems is the lack of access to existing business networks.

mechanisms. But all sorts of data show that the community has still not got its rightful place in the economic landscape. How such initiatives can be expanded while maintaining commercial goals remains to be seen? Way ahead:     The past few decades have seen the political empowerment of Dalits. Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes. Governance issues Time for expansion of Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT)  India’s welfare state has always been on the side of committing significant resources to provide subsidies and services especially to certain identified segments of the population who could not afford the resources . Start up India.  Let us hope this initiative will provide adequate opportunities for the Dalit community to find their economic landscape in India. laws.IASbaba. Critically analyse the role of start up stand up India. Connecting the dots:    Critically examine the various measures taken by the government to promote economic empowerment of Dalit community in India.P a g e | 15   Large government departments have also tried to bring Dalit enterprises into their networks. TOPC: General Studies 2    Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. www. What a new generation of Dalits intellectuals has been arguing is that the market rather than the state is the best antidote to social inequality. Analyse the contribution of Dalits to India’s freedom struggle. Stand up India" to promote bank financing for start-ups and offer incentives to boost entrepreneurship and job creation. Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States. in promoting India as a manufacturing hub in future. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. stand up India:  The government has announced a new campaign "Start-up India.

transmit & deliver e-Commerce articles. as fiscal resources have grown rapidly the amount of money spent on welfare programs has also gone high but carrying with it the two major issues with subsidies in India:  Targeting: Benefits higher income groups who do not deserve the subsidies and thus. it also lowered the costs of opening new bank accounts. an endemic issue of identity verification has been dealt with.20. Rs. As one of the biggest constraints to enhancing financial inclusion was addressed. simply involves transferring the subsidy amount directly to the beneficiaries’ bank accounts instead of having to fiddle around with differential pricing for the underprivileged Linkage with Aadhaar Efficient targeting: Via Aadhaar-linked data ensures that:    The intended beneficiary receives the money in his account Reduction in the government’s subsidy burden Effective solution to leakages and mis-targeting problems Eg: Case of MGNREGA wages    Beginning: Reports across the country of MGNREGA wages.P a g e | 16   Over the years. www. increases the government’s expenditure  Leakages: Subsidy does not reach the recipient due to corruption. Department should step up its efforts to ramp up its capabilities to book.500 crore has been credited to the accounts of almost 5 crore people Linking Postal Account with Aadhaar    Post Banks should become a game-changer in Indian banking sector by becoming a local agency for the recently announced MUDRA Bank Also.IASbaba. at the time given in cash being misappropriated by middlemen 2013: Government initiated the DBT scheme in MGNREGA –eliminated these middlemen to a large extent Current financial year: Under this scheme. pilferage or other causes Government’s DBT plan therefore. process. the Post Bank accounts should be Aadhaar seeded so that various Government schemes for Direct Benefit Transfer could be rolled out through the Post . DBT-RuPay— Meaningful Financial Inclusion  With the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) now accepting eKYC and making Aadhaar the centrepiece of strategy.

IASbaba.could furnish any other bank account to receive the subsidy Issue:   A large proportion of the subsidies were going to people who could afford LPG cylinders at the un-subsidised rate Solution: People earning more than Rs. involved in illegal activities Corruption in the kerosene sector thus. Tried & Tested— PAHAL (Pratyaksh Hanstantrit Labh)    Launched in June 2013 for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) subsidies To make consumers link their Aadhaar number to a bank account and receive the subsidy amount for 12 cylinders in a year If without an Aadhaar number. fuel distributors and public officials www.P a g e | 17  The success would now depend upon employment of attention to detail. deprives the needy families of a basic commodity while enriching corrupt kerosene dealers. encouraging more transactions and ensuring that the DBT programme takes off.     Around half the kerosene sold in the country is being misused Not being used as lighting . monitoring and mid-course correction to make inclusion more meaningful for beneficiaries.10 lakh a year would not be eligible for the LPG subsidy Success Story:   Addressed the leakages issue Income cap addressed the mis-targeting problem BUT DBT in the Kerosene Scheme States will be given a cash incentive of 75 per cent of subsidy savings during the first two years. it is being used to adulterate diesel among other things Again: Subsidization going to unwanted beneficiaries. 50 per cent in the third year and 25 per cent in the fourth year.

backed up with careful consideration and coordination between policy and implementation. mis-targeting and leakages are addressed But this could lead to unintended outcomes unless the scheme is managed carefully What can happen: Overestimation of the actual household-level usage If the subsidy amount each household is due is calculated on the basis of the total amount of kerosene sold divided by the number of eligible . Do you support the statement? Substantiate. then this will result in each household receiving about double the subsidy amount it should be getting because total usage also takes into account pilferage How: Taking of usage-by-theft into account IASbaba’s View     DBT can help directly improve the efficiency of the delivery systems. efficient network of banking system as well as automation of schemes should be taken up immediately. www. and hold the managers accountable for the same but a thorough case needs to be built up to measure if benefits outweigh the costs or not (economic terms) There has to be a proper Centre-State coordination mechanism in place. as well as empower the beneficiaries to demand their rightful benefits under various schemes. for quick mindful reforms to be executed. A strict monitoring system to identify the black market and a strict law against accumulation of black money should also be put in place to effectively curb the menace Connecting the Dots:   Discuss the types of reforms under ‘Direct Benefit Transfer’. International obligations can also be cited to bring about an atmosphere of urgency. Explain the most suitable amongst them keeping in view the working mechanism of India The scrapping of the supply of subsidized kerosene via Public Distribution system is long overdue.IASbaba.P a g e | 18 Workings of the scheme:    Consumer buys kerosene at full price and then receives the subsidy amount in his bank account if eligible Therefore.

which includes the largescale trade and sale of forest produce. What is Forest Rights Act (FRA) all about?   The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act. mechanisms. who live in or near the forest areas of the country. Even in 2014 state government had passed regulations that ensured its forest department retained control over forest management. denied to them over decades as a result of the continuance of colonial forest laws in India. The Act basically does two things:   Grants legal recognition to the rights of traditional forest dwelling communities. The law concerns the rights of forest-dwelling communities to land and other resources. In contrast tribal ministry had previously concluded that only tribals and other forest dwellers had rights to manage their forests under FRA. 2006. laws. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. www. Makes a beginning towards giving communities and the public a voice in forest and wildlife conservation. including sale of forest produce in areas where they have traditional claims.IASbaba. The tribal affairs ministry found this in violation of FRA. which empowers tribals and other forest-dwellers to hold sole rights to manage the forests. Why is it required?  India's forests are home to crores of people. partially correcting the injustice caused by the forest . is a key piece of forest legislation passed in India on December 2006. including many Scheduled Tribes.P a g e | 19 TOPIC:   General Studies 1 : Social empowerment General studies 2: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes. Tribal Ministry relents over Forest Rights Act (FRA)    Union tribal affairs ministry has revised its views to re-interpret the Forest Rights Act (FRA) and allow the Maharashtra forest department to get control back over forest management and a grip on the lucrative trade worth crores in Minor forest produce such as tendu leaves and bamboo.

The Minor Forest Products include the items such as tamarind. Major Forest Produce and Minor Forest . MFP have significant social and economic value for tribal communities as they not only provide essential food. For the first time Forest Rights Act recognises and secures community Rights or rights over common property resources of the communities in addition to their individual rights. Social Forestry that includes Fuel and Timber. Cane. Use rights . Relief and development rights . Tendu Patta. to pastoralist routes. medicines and other consumption items but also cash income. grazing grounds and habitat for shifting cultivation. the tribal communities of India have had an integral and close knit relationship with the forests and have been dependent on the forests for livelihoods and existence in the form of minor forest land that is being fared by tribals or forest dwellers as on 13 December 2005.IASbaba. Supporters of the Act claim that it will redress the "historical injustice" committed against forest dwellers. while including provisions for making conservation more effective and more transparent. gallnut. curry leaf. meaning that no new lands are granted. ownership . ownership is only for land that is actually being cultivated by the concerned family as on that protect forests and wildlife Right to intellectual property and traditional knowledge related to biodiversity and cultural diversity Rights of displaced communities Rights over developmental activities What is Minor Forest Produce (MFP)?     The forest products can be generally divided into two parts minor forest produce (also including ownership). The Major Forest Products comprise Pulpwood. tree moss and now Bamboo also. to grazing areas.P a g e | 20    Since times immemorial. www. subject to a maximum of 4 hectares. Soapnut.e. subject to restrictions for forest protection Forest management rights . What are the rights granted under the Act?        Title rights . water. rehabilitation in case of illegal eviction or forced displacement and to basic amenities.

Value addition and Marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) T Haque Committee:   The Ministry of Panchayati Raj had constituted a Committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Mahuwa seed.P a g e | 21  Government of India has assigned the ownership of minor forest produce to the people living in and around forests for the purpose of collection. now it’s selling rights have been given to villages Bamboo was given the status of a minor forest produce (MFP) in the Forest Rights Act. identify beneficiaries for schemes. processing. which seeks to redress a historical injustice to tribals. 2006. These are Tamarind. Haque to look into different aspects of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) management in fifth schedule areas which has recommended for fixation of Minimum Support Price (MSP) for 14 MFPs in its final report. control money lending to STs and Mandatory executive functions to approve plans of the Village Panchayats. issue certificates of utilization of funds. value addition. fair prices. Gum karaya. Lac. Honey. www. The Act. Price fixation. institutional mechanism. Chironji. Myrobalan. apart from entitling them to land ownership. Minor Forest Produce and PESA: Panchayat (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA) authorizes the States give the Gram Sabah’s power to regulate and restrict •sale/consumption of liquor •ownership of minor forest produce •power to prevent alienation of land and restore alienated land •power to manage village markets. Bamboo. control money lending to STs •power to manage village markets. Bamboo as a Minor Forest Produce   Bamboo was recognized as a Minor Forest Produce way back in 2006. etc. trade and marketing through national level legislation named as the Scheduled tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest rights) Act. 2006.K. A. use and sell bamboo as an MFP. Tendu leaf. and suggest remedial measures including Ownership.Sharma Committee on ‘Minor Forest Produce’: The committee was set up to look in to the issues related with the ownership of the Gram Sabha.IASbaba. Neem and Puwad. also gives communities rights to . T. Mahuwa flower. Seeds of Karanja. Sal Seed.

Such a move should accompany alternate source of income to tribals to secure their livelihood and to head towards realisation of sustainable development.600 crore annually. one headed by agricultural economist T. of which tendu and bamboo alone account for Rs. mahua seeds. Experts have said MSP plan for Minor Forest Produce as next MGNREGA as it has the potential to transform the lives of 100 million forest . Haque and another by Planning Commission member secretary Sudha Pillai. 3. gums and karanj. a majority of them are tribals and whose livelihoods depend on the collection and marketing of MFPs. sal leaves.IASbaba. tamarind. exploited as they are by local traders and other vested interests. •The MFPs that will be covered by the scheme will be tendu. •The scheme will help provide better prices to the MFP gatherers. bamboo. All primary collectors including tribal and people living in and around the forests involved in the MFP collection will be benefitted. Minor Forest Produce Commission:  MFP Commission will be an autonomous body under the MoTA.P a g e | 22   To operationalizing the MSP for selected MFPs. The proposal comes after recommendations of two committees. Connecting the dots:  What are Minor Forest produce (MFP)? Who owns MFP? What are the committees set up to address the issues centring MFP? www. Way ahead:  Recent move by Union tribal affairs ministry to re-interpret the Forest Rights Act (FRA) and allow the Maharashtra forest department to get control back over forest management and a grip on the lucrative trade worth crores in Minor forest produce such as tendu leaves and bamboo would affect the economy of the tribals and respective Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger may not be achieved. mahua flower. wild honey. 2000 crore. myrobalan. who now receive a pittance. lac. sal seeds. chironji. it will also ensure sustainable harvesting of MFPs. the earlier Planning Commission had suggested for Central Price Fixation Commission for MFP as an autonomous body under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs. Implications: •The T Haque committee estimated that the value of the 13 major MFPs at the first purchase point is worth about Rs.

-) TOPIC: General studies 2:    Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the . and a wide range of issues that are brought under their ambit could also pose challenges. ? Recently Union tribal affairs ministry re-interpreted the Forest Rights Act (FRA) to allow Maharashtra forest department to get control back over forest management.000 before and now rupees 1 crore). Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions. How do tribals get affected by such move? Is it a move which is considered light at the end of the tunnel or is it just incoming train? . These courts would be equivalent to the district courts and serve as the courts of original jurisdiction for all commercial disputes. 2015. Himachal and Madras. which are vested with original jurisdiction for commercial disputes over a certain value (rupees 50. For the high courts of Bombay. regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies. This has the effect of streamlining the dispute resolution process as well as cutting down the time for which a dispute may be pending in the system. Delhi. which some litigants feel is too low for such cases. Statutory. devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein. the new law contemplates the setting up of a special commercial division to exercise such jurisdiction. The success of the new commercial courts system that seeks to expedite settlement of commercial disputes and improve ease of doing business is critically dependent on how well the states respond to the need for setting up new courts and divisions. Making Commercial Courts work     Recently the parliament in 2015 winter session passed Commercial Courts. The law creates commercial courts at the district level to deal with commercial disputes.P a g e | 23   Can MFP secure livelihood of tribals and act as hand in the gloves to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure. What the new law tries to do?     The law creates commercial courts at the district level to deal with commercial disputes. The financial threshold. www.IASbaba. Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts Act. Calcutta.

com . adding that this figure would have been far higher if not for the 35. and have not been able to reduce the pendency in the last decade. and not letting it follow the patterns of other such failed attempts." What the new law can do?   The commercial courts Act has fixed a pecuniary threshold of Rs 1 crore. www.000 earlier. establish necessary facilities providing for training of Judges who may be appointed to the commercial court. including writ petitions. commercial division or the commercial appellate division in a high court. arbitration cases etc. The state government shall provide necessary infrastructure to facilitate the working of a commercial court or a commercial division of a high court. which was as low as Rs 50. This is paramount in making the law effective.884) or 51.IASbaba.200 cases. in consultation with the high court. Implementation challenges:   Implementation will remain a challenge. Multitude of cases in the High Courts:   The commission observed that "the above data makes it evident that most high courts are still grappling with the issue of high pendency of cases on the original side. Where will the money come from?    Though the statute itself does not provide for any specific financial allocation for setting up of these courts. The state government may.7 per cent of them are commercial disputes. According to the Law Commission report." the report said. we find that a little more than half (16. "Of the total of 32. Delhi. the focus should be on reducing the number of cases by increasing the pecuniary jurisdictional threshold of civil suits in such high courts.P a g e | 24 Magnitude of the problem:  The 253rd report of the Law Commission submitted in January last year lays down the magnitude of the task before the courts. Madras and Himachal Pradesh from around 17. alone would reduce the pendency in the five high courts of original jurisdiction namely Bombay. as right amount of infrastructure will be required to back up the intent and to ensure that the timelines as provided for are adhered to. it puts the onus on the state governments.656 civil suits pending in the five High Courts with original jurisdiction in India.000 cases to about 4. Calcutta. this limit.072 suits that were transferred out of the Bombay High Court in 2012 when the pecuniary jurisdiction of the high court was raised to Rs 1 crore and above. Rather than increasing the burden of the courts.

it should be at least Rs 20-25 crore so that the bigger cases get quicker decisions. The huge coverage area could be an issue  The law lists some 20 areas ranging from carriage of goods to intellectual property rights that could produce 'commercial disputes' that come under the ambit of commercial courts besides adding a residual clause. 2. Other practical issues: 1. constitution of commercial courts should be of high priority. given the recent competition to attract business.  Even this might take years to clear.600 if the threshold was raised to Rs 5 crore. The other high courts with original jurisdiction such as. soon after the Centre passed the commercial courts Ordinance in October. One of the biggest problems could be the threshold Rs 1 crore. This is too small  This limit could mean that there would still be too many cases for the commercial courts to handle." Way ahead:   A key challenge is acceptance and adoption of the new regime and global practices introduced by all the stakeholders including the judiciary and lawyers. These states are likely to soon constitute such commercial courts in the region.P a g e | 25 Improvements that has happened over the years:        The Delhi High Court was the first off the blocks designating four of its benches as commercial division in March. Lawyers feel that considering that 11 states have the same political party in power as the Centre. the passage of the law would be an opportunity for states to demonstrate their willingness to add to ease of doing business in the region. it is crucial that all stakeholders quickly understand and implement the law.  If not Rs 50 crore. CalcuttaKolkata are also expected to follow soon. The High Court of Bombay has also designated judges for the divisions. which says "any other disputes so notified by the Central government. in letter and spirit. .IASbaba.  The number of cases could drop to around 1. As there are new processes and cost regime being introduced. It added two more benches to the division in November. based on the Law Commission recommendations in January 2015. For other states. www.

India has been following the European (Euro) emission norms. including motor vehicles. Fuel specifications based on environmental considerations were notified first in April 1996. What is the issue?   Recently the government took a decision after a meeting of the Ministers for Road Transport. Bharat Stage (BS) Emission Norms:    The Bharat Stage emission standards are norms instituted by the government to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment. the rest of India still conforms to BS-III standards. Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts Act. before both oil companies and automakers. 2015. when most vehicle manufacturers had to incorporate technology upgrades like catalytic converters to cut exhaust emissions. skipping BS-V. to be implemented by 2000. and incorporated in BIS 2000 standards. TOPIC:   General studies 2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.IASbaba. What needs to be done to upgrade to BS-VI?   Four years from now. Heavy Industries. www.P a g e | 26 Connecting the dots:  Critically examine the judicial reforms that is expected in India with special reference to the recently passed Commercial Courts. . the government wants to leap directly to BS-VI auto emission norms from the existing BS-IV. and Environment to bring forward the nationwide rollout of BS-VI vehicular emission norms. General studies 3: Conservation. are enormous. An historical outlook into emission norms:   India introduced emission norms first in 1991. The decision is in line with promises made by India at the Climate Change Conference in Paris last month. and tightened them in 1996. environmental impact assessment. But the challenges. environmental pollution and degradation. and indicates a step against the dangerously high levels of air pollution in major Indian cities like Delhi etc. though with a time lag of five years. BS-IV norms are currently applicable in 33 cities in which the required grade of fuel is available.

BS-IV petrol and diesel essentially contains less sulphur. respectively. But in November 2015. and April 1. The challenges: The government could face two key challenges in implementing the decision 1. a major air pollutant. BS-III and BS-II fuel quality norms came into existence for 13 major cities. in line with the Auto Fuel Policy of 2003. Sulphur also lowers the efficiency of catalytic converters.  Broadly.   But the government’s unanimous decision to leap-frog to BS-VI directly from 01/04/2020. Fuel Quality Costs: The government has been unable to move completely to BS-IV because refiners have been unable to produce the superior fuel in the required quantities. which control emissions. has skipped the BS-V stage all together. There are questions about the ability of oil marketing companies to quickly upgrade fuel quality from BS-III and BS-IV standards to BS-VI. considering that two critical components — diesel particulate filter and selective catalytic reduction module — would have to be adapted to India’s peculiar conditions. 2019. More challenging is the task of getting auto firms to make the leap. BSV and BS-VI norms were to be implemented from April 1.IASbaba. BS-IV petrol and diesel have 50 parts per million (ppm) of sulphur. 2022. as compared to 150 ppm for petrol and 350 ppm for diesel under BS-III standards. BS-II was for the NCR and other metros. 2020. The corresponding dates for BS-VI norms were brought forward to April 1. advancing the implementation of BSV norms for new four-wheel vehicle models to April 1. broadly equivalent to Euro I and Euro II respectively. and for the rest of the country respectively. 2021. the Ministry of Road Transport issued a draft notification. which is likely to cost upwards of Rs 40.  Automakers have clearly said that going to BS-VI directly would leave them with not enough time to design changes in their vehicles. BS-IV and BS-III fuel quality norms were introduced from April 2010 in 13 major cities and the rest of India respectively.000 crore. www. where running speeds are much lower than in Europe or the US. and for existing models to April 1. 2024. 2022.P a g e | 27  Following the landmark Supreme Court order of April 1999. BS-I for the rest of India. . From April 2005. Subsequently. respectively. and April 1.    Emission norms for future:  As per the roadmap in the auto fuel policy. the Centre notified Bharat Stage-I (BIS 2000) and Bharat Stage-II norms.

000 crore between 2005 and 2010 to upgrade. the technologies must be introduced in series. would make it extremely difficult to detect which of the technologies is at fault in case of errors in the system. Petrols were to have catalyst and electronic control . and electronic control. Case of SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction):  BS-VI vehicles also have to be equipped with an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) module to reduce oxides of nitrogen. fitting DPF in the limited bonnet space would involve major design and re-engineering work. Ideally. DPF is a cylindrical object mounted vertically inside the engine compartment. Way ahead:      At every stage.000 crore to upgrade fuel quality to BS-VI. and then synergised.000 crore. Practical industry arguments:     The auto industry argues that the huge improvements in vehicular technology since 2000 have had little impact in India due to Indian driving. lots of sensors.IASbaba. Oil firms will have to invest another about Rs 40. and attract more excise duty under existing norms. the auto industry has made investments of a similar size.P a g e | 28   Oil companies are learnt to have put in Rs 30. Industry estimates of required investment to upgrade from BS-IV to BS-V are to the tune of Rs 50. which. all reactions have to be precise. which would be cumbersome and needs extra work by the auto engineers. then both DPF and SCR would need to be fitted together for testing. www. which would make vehicles longer than 4 metres. BS-V diesel vehicles were to have engine upgrades. the technology is getting more complex. and controlled by microprocessors. Case of DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter):     Vehicles must be fitted with DPF (diesel particulate filter). If BS-V were to be skipped entirely. In India. auto firms claim they need 6-7 years to switch to BS-VI. So. additional investments by automakers to upgrade will inevitably raise the prices of vehicles. auto firms say. To attain the specified super low emissions. particulate filters. Bonnet length may have to be increased. where small cars are preferred. road and ambient conditions. even if oil companies manage to leap.

Recently the government’s decision tries to introduce Bharat stage VI emission norms by 2020 skipping stage V norms from present stage IV . Important aspects of governance. NOFN is envisaged as a non. NOFN.IASbaba. Ministry of Communications & IT. limitations. Department of Telecom. National Fibre Optic Network   Information and communication technology (ICT) is a powerful facilitator for meeting the Millennium Development Goals by facilitating a roll-out of Internet access as an enabler of development But some services are dependent upon the availability of other complementary services and provisioning of basic services using ICT is also dependent on the availability of other complementary inputs. Critically examine the impact of above decision on air pollutions levels in India.discriminatory Telecom infrastructure which will bridge the gap in rural access. is envisaged to provide non. of India. Connecting the dots:   Write a note on Bharat stage emission norms in India. TOPIC:  General studies 2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. which is being funded by the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF). models.developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology.discriminatory access to bridge the digital divide across rural India Universal Service Obligation in the Age of Broadband— Establishes two criteria that could be used to support the build-out of networks in advance of the ability of target populations to use them www. transparency and accountability. e-governanceapplications.P a g e | 29 Overall this is a good move by government considering the amount of air pollution in Indian cities.  General studies 3: Science and Technology . National Optical Fibre Network?   This is part of the Digital India initiative of the Government of India. successes. and potential. Govt. indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Hence.IASbaba. step-wise manner with each step representing discontinuous jumps in access speed per dollar of investment. as well as the liabilities in question may also not justify the expenses Therefore.Once deployed. the government’s financial obligation needs to be limited to the level of connectivity required to enable the provision of the requisite amount of developmental goods The degree of production and demand externalities that accrue after threshold penetration levels are .Lower the total capital costs of connectivity) And. thus the expenses     Fundamental driving force for government intervention. the government should intervene and pay for the upfront costs of building the network and collect a revenue share for a specified number of years Basic necessities  Need to be provided and a wireless network closely aligned with complementary inputs and the absorptive capacity of the target population should be rolled out to provide basic necessities immediately and prepare the population for the coming of the fibre optic network The operating competence of the private sector should be leveraged by tendering projects for building and maintenance through a reverse auction process. www. the cost should be shared between the public and private sector with the public sector paying for the basic level of connectivity required to provide development inputs and to internalize the positive impact arising from demand and supply externalities (Liability of the government needs to be limited) But the lack of a purely commercial venture may lack the conviction to deploy and bear the initial high investment and thus. Therefore.P a g e | 30 Time to build  If ICT infrastructure takes a long time to deploy. it would take care of rural connectivity needs for many years to come Technological Discontinuity  The capabilities of the technologies used for providing access develop in a discontinuous. rural areas must switch from lower to higher technologies due to the constraint of download speeds (Earlier.then the project needs to be initiated in anticipation of future absorptive capability Prove to be a “durable” solution.Stems from the role of connectivity as an enabler of development.

IASbaba. used and distributed  Only 67% of the panchayats were connected to the fibre-optic backbone in the pilot phase of the NOFN project  Connected Villages-Average broadband speed was found to be 50Mbps. half of what the government has promised Low ability to pay Uncertainty regarding the availability of complementary inputs Infrastructural Challenges of National Optical Fibre Network      Inadequate Spectrum High Price of Spectrum Non availability of contagious spectrum Non allocation of back haul spectrum Government auctioning spectrum in small chunks IASbaba’s Views:  There is a need to develop—  Digital Bharat programme-We usually relate Bharat with our rural folk and since the majority of the population live in rural areas often called Bharat. we actually need a Digital Bharat programme to ensure that Bharat is as connected and digital as India. . organisations and government offices  Panchayat as a base Has not been able to spread connectivity beyond the Panchayat building in many villages when there is a need for each panchayat point of broadband to be fired up. functional.P a g e | 31 A rural set-up & NOFN Build-Own-Operate-Transfer model for building the national optical fibre network is not recommended on account of— Operating challenges of rural networks   Being designed as a top-down model with no specific designing implemented for it to be successful on the ground  Citing the difference between laying and installing optical fibre cable being just one part of the task. which lives in its metros and cities. breathing life into the cables by having free flow of data is another matter altogether  Serious lack of planning and strategy to make sure that these are fully functional and available to the people.

we need a Digital India decade. further roll-out should take place. executed and monitored and following steps can be taken for the same The national optical fibre network should be divided into a number of state-level projects in order to secure the buy-in of state governments. or even to create and keep the momentum sustainable and action oriented.  Vertical integration of the private infrastructure operator and the service provider should be permitted in order to strengthen the business case and trigger operational efficiencies  A phase-wise roll-out should be planned and the economically well-off subset of the specified set of gram panchayats should be targeted and after demonstrating success in these clusters and incorporating lessons learnt. .P a g e | 32  Digital India Year. education and banking reaching rural masses which would help in elevating poverty and improving standard of livings in the rural India. www. we need at least a Digital India Year  There exists a direct correlation between broadband connectivity and GDP growth where broadband would result in bringing best in class of healthcare. crucial for obtaining right-of-way permissions. persistent attention is given to each of its pillars so that the big programme does not end up in as a failure.IASbaba. Connecting the Dots:   Discuss how the NOFN Model be implemented in a manner that keeps the absorptive capacity of target regions in mind Discuss the potential NOFN captures within it to transform the e-commerce sector of India.  To build infrastructure is a small part of its sustained functionality for which the approach has to be well-planned. it is imperative that focused.As to realize Digital India.

doubling the contribution of women to global growth in business-as-usual scenario in the coming decade. Social empowerment  General studies 2: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes. India’s GPS is just 0. This is not only a huge economic loss but is a sign of ‘low status’ being continuously accorded to women as well as the lack of agency to correct it in the country Observations by MCKINSEY   The world can add $12 trillion to GDP in 2025. India could boost its GDP by $0.P a g e | 33 TOPIC:  General studies 1: Role of women and women’s organization. Human Resources. lower than warranted by its stage of economic development Unsung & Unrewarded:   Most women in India are involved in unpaid work (home and communities) Official data has pointed out an increased movement of women from paid and recognised employment to doing unpaid work in their household Factors contributing to this tendency—       Inadequacy of Job Creation Gender gaps in Education Combination of less skilled but physically arduous job-set with low payment Double burden of pain and unpaid work Difficulty in managing domestic responsibilities (unequal division of household work) Patriarchal attitude within family www.00. Where gender parity is set at .7 trillion in 2025 or 16 percent of the business-as-usual level (largest relative boost). Effects of globalization on Indian society. Education. mechanisms.4 percent per year of incremental GDP growth for India. Women at Work   The Central government’s move to ensure adequate maternity protection has welcomed a happy response especially when India stands out in the world owing to its shocking low rates of recognised work participation (24%) that has gone on to only decline. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. This translates into 1. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health.IASbaba.48. laws.

Public intervention can bring about a real difference and therefore.piped fuel and water  Better quality and affordable healthcare  Proper education.Via systematic and regular time-use surveys that captures people’s activities Reduce it. India has to address the issue of unpaid work— Recognize . it has to be wider and much ambitious. and intergenerational benefits) www. they would push women to adhere to informal contracts where their rights are not recognised IASbaba’s Views:    There definitely is good news if Indian government is trying to understand and address the issues faced by women at large as well as increase the economic participation rate of women but much need to be ensured via timely implementation and constant enforcement.By providing more goods and services that will mitigate the need for such work  Provisioning basic amenities.Reduce the number of female drop-outs  Huge Gender Gap in wages& granting leadership positions Redistribute.will provide value to market-based production)  More equitable sharing of unpaid work among men and women  Productivity-enhancing measures for unpaid work (greater financial independence for women.IASbaba.Between households and society and within households across males and females Need to be Gender-Responsive  Substitute non-market work with market-base work (lead to increase in GDP.P a g e | 34   Social restriction on mobility Concerns regarding commuting time owing to the ever-increasing atmosphere of sexual violence and rapes Recognition & Measures Increase in maternity Leave.From the current 12 weeks to 26 weeks Establishments with 30 women workers or 50 total workers: Provide crèche facilities either in their premises or within half a kilometre But there have been concerns regarding employers backing off from employing women and if they do.

or corporate bodies  Article 26(b) grants to religious denominations the right to manage their own affairs in the matter of religion www. and the extent to which the court can interfere in the management of religious institutions Let us examine them one by one: Religious freedom clauses: Articles 25 and 26  Article 25(1) guarantees to all persons the right to freely profess. Gender Justice in Religious institutions: Case against Customary Exclusion “Unless you [i. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.e. and not against other individuals. laws. women related issues. and propagate their religion  Right to worship does not extend to worshipping in any and every place  Access to places having a “particular significance for [a particular] religion” is constitutionally protected  Enforceable against the state. Social empowerment General studies 2: Mechanisms. you cannot prevent them from worshipping at the shrine” Shrine: Sabarimala shrine in Kerala Case: Whether women can be barred entry to the Sabarimala shrine in Kerala In Question: Relationship between freedom of religion. individual .P a g e | 35 Connecting the Dots:    Can these newly declared measures live up to its utility and not remain a mere tokenism of the issue? Critically examine ‘India’s position on gender equality is somewhat lower than its stage of economic development would warrant’.IASbaba. Do you agree? Substantiate ‘Gender equality in society with gender equality in work’— Is latter possible without the former? Discuss TOPIC:   General studies 1: Role of women and women’s organization. equality. practise. the governing board of the shrine] have a constitutional right to prohibit women entry.

interventionist powers to the state on the ground of the deep and pervasive role that religion played in the lives of Indians Supreme Court:  Has attempted to restrict the scope of the religious protection clause to “essential practices of a religion”  Holds the view that the state cannot use the reform clause to “reform a religion out of existence”. can be equated to the “state” Earlier.P a g e | 36  Entry of State: Article 25(2) allows state intervention in religious practice. if it is for the purpose of “social welfare or reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus” A scene in the Constituent Assembly— B. which permit prohibiting women from accessing places of worship where “custom” or “usage” requires it And the Court replies— Burden upon the board will not merely be to establish the existence of a custom.R. which controls access to the . 1965. the Supreme Court has held that corporate bodies that are “functionally. or corporate bodies the question that the court must answer therefore is whether the Travancore Devaswom Board. and not against other individuals.supported.IASbaba. by Rajkumari Amrit Kaur: Expressed specific concerns about the plight of women under religious law— and endorsed giving wide. but also that the custom is “essential” to the practice of the religion The State and the Shrine   Since the right to freedom of religion under Article 25(1) is enforceable against the state. financially and www. the Kerala High Court already appears to have held that it can and previously. among others. Ambedkar. it has nonetheless held that aspects beyond essential practices have no protection from state intervention Sabarimala governing board’s Argument— Prohibition of women is justified by “custom” and cites Kerala Hindu Places of Public Worship (Authorisation of Entry) Rules.

the women worshippers may ask the court to direct the state to take all necessary steps to guarantee that they are allowed to access and worship at the Sabarimala shrine.P a g e | 37 administratively” under the control of the state can be equated to the state for the purposes of fundamental rights Case against Travancore Devaswom Board    It is an autonomous body and while its members are appointed by the State legislature. then the constitutional right under Article 25(1) is not enforceable against it Probable Consequences Failure of the Board: If it cannot show that prohibiting women from entry is an essential religious practice. it derives its main income from the administration of the temple Therefore. Re-course by the SC—    Kerala Hindu Places of Worship Rules speaks about “customs” and “usages” The Supreme Court has held that while personal law is exempt from the application of the Constitution. non-discrimination and freedom of religion. mere ‘custom’ is not It might therefore simply strike down the offending rule on the ground that it discriminates on grounds of gender. while remaining cognisant of the fact that the Constitution also guarantees the right of religious sects and denominations to self-governance.IASbaba. and therefore violates the Constitution Thus. it might be difficult to argue that the board is functionally or financially under the control of the state And if the board cannot be equated with the state. then it can no longer claim absolute immunity under Article 26(b) And if the Board wins:     The women worshippers can argue that prohibiting them from access violates their constitutional right to freedom of religion and right to worship under Article 25(1) Can attempt to demonstrate that the Sabarimala shrine has special and unique religious significance and thus. there is a need for the courts to craft a solution that advances the constitutional guarantee of equality. then it is the duty of the state to effectuate her right by restraining the former from continuing with its obstruction . their Article 25(1) right to worship would stand established Supreme Court: If one private party obstructs another private party from exercising her constitutional right. www.

all they need is. The Indian government realized that Indian people have the potential to work hardly.IASbaba.  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health. Start Up India Stand Up India Scheme Recently the government came up with the much awaited ‘Start Up India. Why need this scheme?      The economy of any country depends on its countrymen. but due to financial or other similar issues are unable to do so. So. development and employment.  Inclusive growth and issues arising from it. a promising start up. General studies 3:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning. mobilization of resources. Many people dream of starting up their own business. Indian government decided to offer a gift as a nation wise program“ Start Up India”. www.P a g e | 38 Connecting the Dots:   Is there a need to limit the definition of religion? Substantiate your opinion Will the knock of gender justice on the doors of religious institutions and judicial landscape be heard and responded to? Discuss Related Articles: THE POWER OF PARITY: ADVANCING WOMEN’S EQUALITY IN INDIA http://iasbaba. better be the economy. Human Resources. Larger the number of employed or working people. Education. Stand Up India’ scheme to promote entrepreneurship and encourage start up’s among the Indian masses. .com/2015/11/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-5th-november-2015/ TOPIC: General studies 2:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

a better economy and a strong nation. start-ups will have to show that their innovation has "significantly improved" existing processes. Success of this scheme will eventually make India. there is no self-certification as to whether the "improvement" is "significant" allowing the bureaucrat to once again insert himself into the process. domestic venture fund or have an Indian patent Some criticisms the scheme faces: 1. www. to be eligible for schemes. Government's restrictive definition of a start-up . so the government will give them support to make sure they can implement their ideas and grow. Start Up India Stand Up India Scheme – Action Plan in Detail            E-registration will be done A self certification system will be launched A dedicated web portal and mobile app will be developed Arrangement of self certificate based complaints No inspection during the first 3 years 80 percent reduction in the application fee of start up patent Easy exit policy Inclusion of Credit Guarantee Fund Relaxation in Income Tax for first three year Special Arrangement for Female applicants Introduction of Atal Innovation Mission. . Criteria for start up’s to get government incentives under start up India action plan     The firm incorporated should be less than five years old Annual Revenue of less than Rs 25 crore Needs to get approval from inter-ministerial board to be eligible for tax benefits Get recommendation from an Incubator recognised by government.  In addition.IASbaba."driven by technology or intellectual property"  Only those companies which satisfy the above definition will be termed as start up and access to enabling environment is made possible.may have been built into the scheme from the outset.P a g e | 39 Start Up India Scheme – From Job Seekers to Job Creators:    “Start Up India” is a revolutionary scheme that has been started to help the people who wish to start their own business. These people have ideas and capability. Innovation courses will be started for the students. It is thus possible that discretion to a start-up ecosystem .

2. Some probing questions have also been asked about the use of tax incentives for start-ups. Hopefully. Critically examine the above statement wrt the recently launched start up India .Imposed an aggregate penalty of around Rs 6. will only be available to those vetted by an inter-ministerial panel. Innovation and investments go hand in hand. Connecting the dots:   Critically examine the need for innovation in India along with the measures taken by government to promote innovation. TOPIC: General studies 2:  Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions. but not enough has been done by the government for the latter. However not much was done for the latter as there was no encouragement for investors. Way ahead:   Overall.  Statutory. Discords emanating from the “Principles of Natural Justice” Between the Competition Commission of India (CCI) and the Competition Appellate Tribunal (Compat)— Background Story: CCI. This clause has been targeted by certain economists who argue that tax to GDP ratio will further reduce in India.IASbaba. Exemption from income tax. The government should focus on creating conditions for innovation.300 crore on 11 cement companies for cartelisation www. only the market can. while the intent is praiseworthy and there are many laudable ideas in the policy. the government will be quick in making any needed changes and in overseeing Start-up India's implementation.P a g e | 40    It is unexplainable why benefits from any such scheme should not be extended to all start-ups depending on criteria that are transparently laid down and objective. regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies. much in the fine print needs attention if its goal is to be realised. The government cannot target or identify innovation. but not enough was done by the government for the latter. 3. Innovation and investments go hand in hand. of course.

remanded the matter back to CCI CCI  Needs to re-hear the cartelisation complaint (originally filed in 2011) Hints towards Compat’s wide interpretation of "natural justice" may not be under the prerogative of the regulator i. strict application of judicial rules to a regulatory setting may not always be suitable Competition Act. wrong to sign the penalty order without hearing their side of the story Compat. 2002—    Devises a scheme where the decision-makers of CCI. Section 22 of the Act: Provides that the business of CCI shall be conducted at "meetings".com . its "members" meet in "meetings" rather than in "benches" while exercising their quasi-judicial function of enforcing the Act.P a g e | 41 Cement companies  Challenged this decision before Compat Argued that their oral arguments haven’t been heard and is thus. India's routinely ill-drafted regulatory statutes (under which the economic regulators function) are to be blamed and concerns raised by the ex-chairman should be taken as a call for a larger review of the Competition Act from a regulatory governance perspective.Post three years of deliberations and arguments has upheld the challenge on the ground of breach of "natural justice" and has thus. www..e. with a quorum of three members. the senior-most "member" shall preside over it Consensus Model of decision-making at work "technically" blessed by the Supreme Court of India when it declined a constitutional challenge to the Act in Brahm Dutt vs Union of India (2005) The absurdity of presumptions—Presumptions like that of common law concepts like "natural justice" being self-explanatory to bureaucratic enforcement agencies and regulators (Qn— Is bureaucracy master of the trade or any one subject per se?) Therefore. where a decision shall be taken by a majority vote of the members present and voting When the chairperson is unable to attend such a meeting.IASbaba.

2002: Deals with the procedure to be followed by the UK's Competition and Market Authority (CMA) while imposing penalties Zero-usage of vague phrases like "natural justice" and concentrates instead upon laying down the exact procedure of imposing penalties in plain English For example: CMA has to      Give notice as soon as possible. CCI shall be guided by the "principles of natural justice" Forgotten/Ignored defining the term "natural justice".Left for the CCI to interpret Section 36(2). Receiving evidence on affidavit etc. However.remember!) Take-away’s:  UK legislative drafting style is primarily principles-based drafting with their statutes often requiring enforcement agencies to comply with detailed procedures rather than vague common law notions like "natural justice" www. Requiring discovery and production of documents. no clear detailed procedure for imposition of penalty by CCI has been laid down in the Act or in its schedules.P a g e | 42 Why do we need better legislative drafting? Let us explain with the help of an example from the Competition Act Section 36(1) of the Act merely states— In the discharge of its . The procedure of serving the notice is also stated Section 90 and Schedule 10 of the Enterprise Act provides the procedure for passing certain enforcement orders Paragraph 2 of Schedule 10 requires CMA to give notice to a person and hear his representations before a ruling is made (with content of the notice and the process for serving such notice. Let us draw a comparison with the UK laws— Section 112 of the UK Enterprise Act. (ASAP) The contents of the notice are clearly laid down in the legislation itself.IASbaba.Gives CCI powers of a civil court while trying a suit in matters like:    Summoning and enforcing attendance of any person.

Latin maxims and legal phrases should be avoided completely  Best practices need to be studied and carefully implemented in statutory drafting for all future laws  Existing laws be reviewed to improve clarity to avoid unnecessary problems as the CCI-Compat discord has revealed Some advances made which should be followed henceforth—   Indian Financial Code.IASbaba. 2015: Drafted by the Bankruptcy Law Reforms Committee . 2015: Drafted by the Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission Insolvency and Bankruptcy Bill.P a g e | 43  The very concept of "natural justice" is hardwired into the procedures in the schedules with great clarity and simplicity implying that the bureaucratic agencies need to just follow the procedures and automatically adhere to the principles of natural justice. without having to know or interpret what "natural justice" may mean IASbaba’s Views    India needs to adopt comprehensive content-oriented and properly drafted lists of laws and regulations containing within it the principles of “natural justice” as a foundation The need adopts an urgent intervention within a liberal market economy as economic laws are meant to and should facilitate smoother transactions without having to always resort to courts and judges Drafting Laws for the non-lawyers—  Simplicity and clarity should be maintained while drafting laws for the nonlawyers (bureaucrats. regulators and entrepreneurs)  Jargons.

Human Resources. too strongly. a new debate has sprung from all quarters and at the heart of the debate the alleged dominance exercised by the right-wing prevails. a doctoral student at University of Hyderabad.  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health.IASbaba. Extremist and Anti-national Consequences:   Evicted from hostel accommodation Monthly research stipend suspended Failures of— System: Could not provide a safe and a nurturing home Vice-Chancellor: Allowing himself to succumb to the pressures of the Ministry and take actions against him www. SHGs.the role of NGOs. various groups and associations. Governance Issues Death of a Dalit scholar: Ancient Prejudice. institutional and other stakeholders. donors. Modern Inequality Following the death of Rohith Vemula (25). laws.. Let us decode the background story Rohith’s Campus Activism—     Ambedkarite Politics Protests against beef bans Persistence of the death penalty in the Indian Criminal Justice System Communal violence in Muzaffarnagar His weapons:    Fundamental Right as a citizen Reservations policy owing to his socioeconomic background Empowering discourses of the Ambedkarite student group Characterised as: Casteist. .P a g e | 44 TOPIC: General studies 2:  Mechanisms. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections  Development processes and the development industry. Education.

Findings: 84%: Expressed the need for. he is again discriminated against and is robbed off is hard-learned skill Therefore. both:  Cannot become a pupil  Neither was allowed to become a great archer with his own efforts Satyakama and the fundamental question over one’s identity— leads on to believe that a ‘Brahmin isn’t born. remedial coaching in English language and basic courses www. he secretly watches the teacher giving lessons to Arjuna and ends up becoming a better bowman than Arjuna As a tuition fee when Ekalavya complies to give away his right thumb. as an outcaste he is denied.P a g e | 45 Society: Letting universities become a staging ground for unexpected cruelty and breeding a situation of “unequal life” and relentless inequality Constitution: Abandonment and a failure to keep up the promises of dignity & prosperity guaranteed by the Constitution A historical Deep fracture— An old theme. and absence of.IASbaba. but becomes’ SukhadeoThorat Report: The three-member panel had worked on the report on caste discrimination in the classrooms and laboratories as well as hostels of the premier AIIMS in New Delhi. revisited: The ostracising of the Sudra and the Dalit student from the institution of education and employment as well as knowledge and power is a very old theme in Indian thought based on social structure and moral order Older texts that are considered sacred have also reflected much upon the relationship between Self-Society-Sovereignty Mahabharata—     Eklavaya (an archer prince of Nishadas) was rejected to be taught the art of wielding weapons by the great Dronacharya on the account of his tribal status that projects him as an outsider To learn the .

Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes. TOPIC: General studies 2:     Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. laws. wuld just be like leading India backwards. mechanisms.” Discuss. in sharing dining facilities.P a g e | 46 69%: Did not get adequate support and mentoring from teachers One-third: Gave caste background as reason 72%: Discrimination faced in teaching sessions Report also spoke of—   Forms of . it is bound to maintain the permanency of its form’. Discuss “Dalit Movements for empowerment in independent India have essentially been for carving out political space through electoral politics. Connecting the Dots:   ‘Despite all the fusion and fission that the caste system has undergone through the ages. non-cooperation. www. Education. and participation in cultural events and games IASbaba’s Views:    The portrayal of government as the ‘only’ node of action to influence thought. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health. free and equal space Please go through our detailed article “Bleeding Fault-lines: Bahishkrut Bharat” to understand the efforts in the past and the recent initiatives that have been taken to bring forth an inclusive society that opposes discrimination of any kind. Issues relating to poverty and hunger. contempt. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. There is also an urgent need to look at the university— to reflect on the urgent need to remake it into a more open. that too— when the topic in question is ‘education’ that has always been the seat of discontent marks a deeply politically crisis that has stayed with India through centuries and to support it.IASbaba. Human Resources. discouragement and differential treatment by teachers towards SC/ST students Segregation in the allocation of rooms in hostels.

in instalments. the Supreme Court issued a notice to the Centre about nonimplementation of maternity . maternity entitlements have not been implemented. except for laudable efforts in Odisha and Tamil Nadu. which means that mothers only receive benefits if they meet certain requirements. The 2013-2014 Rapid Survey on Children finds that a little less than half of the women aged 15-18 are underweight. www. Indira Gandhi MatritvaSahyog Yojana (IGMSY)  IGMSY is a conditional cash transfer. the MWCD would expand IGSMY in its current form. “Every pregnant and lactating mother is entitled to a free meal at the local Anganwadi (during pregnancy and six months after child birth) as well as maternity benefits of Rs. at present. and far too many children suffer the consequences of being undernourished in the womb. which forms an important aspect of health sector in India. State of women health in India:      Indian women are unhealthily thin when they begin pregnancy. However much less is debated on the state of maternal health condition in India. 6. As a result. The case for Maternity Entitlements going Universal   Since the National Food Security Act (NFSA) was passed in 2013. A representative of the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) responded in late October.” Unfortunately. Government Budgeting. and a small pilot programme called Indira Gandhi MatritvaSahyogYojana (IGMSY) which is active in only 53 of India’s 676 districts. allocated funding only for the 53 IGMSY districts). birth weight is low. India’s neonatal mortality rate is high.IASbaba. Further. Supreme Court direction:    Last September (2015). The response suggests that if the Finance Ministry allocates funds for maternity entitlements (the Finance Ministry has.000.P a g e | 47 General studies 3:   Inclusive growth and issues arising from it. women gain too little weight during pregnancy to nurture healthy babies. Failed policies and poor implementation:   According to the NFSA. policy circles have been buzzing with talk of reforms in the public distribution system (PDS). Maternal nutrition is so poor that Indian women actually weigh less at the end of pregnancy than sub-Saharan African women do at the beginning.

But a well-designed programme would not merely scale up the IGMSY. and medicines. This position appears to be based on the ill-conceived notion that universal transfers increase fertility. which MWCD proposes to expand. not to mention what they spend on food. 4. Certainly. attend infantfeeding counselling sessions. Universalise entitlements   Although the NFSA clearly legislates a universal entitlement. Should such conditional cash transfers be promoted? Substantiate. take iron-folic acid supplements.IASbaba. But a Rs.000 transfer is not large enough to persuade parents to raise a child they don’t want. and it would do away with conditionality in favour of educating families about the importance of investing in healthy pregnancies.207 per year educating each 5-18-year-old child.P a g e | 48  Recipients must register pregnancies with a village health worker. Critically examine the various issues associated with conditional cash transfers in . www. restricts benefits to the first two births. breastfeed for six months. receive immunisation. receive ante-natal check-ups. people respond to incentives. clothing. Children are expensive: The 2011 India Human Development Survey found that parents spend an average of Rs. It would be. as the law already requires. Way ahead:    Maternity entitlements are an important policy tool for encouraging better maternal health. and begin complementary foods at six months. a universal programme. IGSMY. 6. Connecting the dots:   Critically analyse the state of women health in India along with measures taken by government to improve maternal health conditions. . — MALE CARPET WEAVER. I want to go home but the owner will not let us leave. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. I miss my family.P a g e | 49 TOPIC: General studies 2:    Indian Constitution.IASbaba. laws. including human trafficking and forced labour India’s total of 14. mechanisms. lays down that:  No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment (Article 24).1 million) 2001 National Census   More than 12 million children in the age group 5-14 are engaged in exploitative occupations that are detrimental to their rights and to the full development of their potentials 168 million child labourers.3 million modern slaves is nearly—   Five times larger than China’s (3. BIHAR Walk Free Foundation’s 2014 Global Slavery Index: Defines modern slavery as any practice that traps people in modern servitude. From Child Slavery to Freedom (At a glance format…) We work from seven in the morning until 10 at night.2 million) (second-largest number) Seven times larger than Pakistan’s (2. AGE 14.significant provisions (FR’s. Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes. I sleep on that mat over there. 59 million out-of-school children and 15 million girls under 15 are forced to marry every year Shows very little progress with evidence of the gravity thus. DPSP) Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. portraying the endemic nature of the problem in the What has happened— The Constitution of India Through various articles enshrined in the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy.

with the support of the International Working Group on Child Labour (of which The Concerned for Working Children was a member). Government child labour policy is “suitably rehabilitating the children withdrawn from employment thereby. and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour”.  Children shall be given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth shall be protected against moral and material abandonment (Article 39-f). held the first International Meeting of Working Children in Kundapura. by and for working children was formed to draw attention to working children’s concerns. 29)  ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (No. a union of.IASbaba. reducing the incidence of child labour in areas of known concentration” India is a signatory to the:  ILO Forced Labour Convention (No.  The State shall endeavour to provide within a period of 10 years from the commencement of the Constitution for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years (Article 45). “Do they want to eradicate us like pests using pesticide? Are we not human beings with rights that deserve respect?” www.P a g e | 50  The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to 14 years. men and women and the tender age of children are not abused and that they are not forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuited to their age and strength (Article 39-e). end modern slavery and human trafficking. strongly upheld that no policy or decision regarding children’s present or future should be taken without their consent 1996:Bhima . (Article 21 (A)). Children’s ‘right to be heard’    Validated by the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child (India has ratified) Bhima Sangha. 105)  UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Global March against Child Labour: Spearheaded a global movement to bring child labour and child slavery to the attention of global leaders leading to the adoption of the International Labour Organization’s Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention SDG targets: Aims to “eradicate forced labour. Karnataka.  The State shall direct its policy towards securing that the health and strength of workers.

IASbaba.100 per month  Supplementary nutrition  Regular health check ups  Creating awareness of the harmful effects of child labour on the development of a child  Income and employment generation activities for families  Direct rehabilitation of child labour www.Enactment of Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act (prohibits employment of children in certain specified hazardous occupations and processes and regulates the working conditions in others)  1987: Formulation of National Policy on Child Labour  1988:Launch of National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme (districts of high child labour existence) To tackle the problem of child labour in India— Ministry of Labour and Employment took a three prong approach . Set up the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Under the aegis of the 10th plan the following activities were taken up under the purview of NCLP:  Ensuring enforcement of child labour laws  Child labour withdrawn from work and sent to special schools run by NGOs Provision of:  Formal/non-formal education  Vocational training  Stipend of Rs. Use various development programmes to address the needs of working children 3. this committee was formed to study the issue of child labour and recommend measures to tackle the same Pointed out that poverty remains the core issue behind the issue Need to ban children from working in hazardous areas and a regulation needs to be well placed for the working conditions Actions undertaken:  1986.P a g e | 51 Gurupadswamy Committee:     In 1979. Set up a legal framework for prohibition and regulation of child labour 2.

use ‘families’ for production Relaxing the ban in the entertainment industry (one among the most exploitative industries) appears like a concession to the advertising sector. Analysis of Bachpan Bachao Andolan   One-fifth of the children under 14 rescued were working in family enterprises More than 40% of the rescued children were performing hazardous jobs—for example. leather goods. the proposed amendments to the Child Labour Act would erect new barriers to further progress on education. in the development of a child tracking system to monitor the progress of children involved in the National Child Labour Projects— Objectives     Provide regular information on the enrolment and retention in schools of released children Verify the impact of the Government’s child labour interventions throughout the country by measuring the sustainability and quality of impacts Monitor child labour trends through the identification of variables and parameters affecting child vulnerability to economic exploitation and Strengthen the link between child labour prevention and education strategies Time to back that promise— Recent proposed amendments to the Child Labour Act of 1986:     Offers least resistance and relaxed the ban on children working in family-owned occupations (informal sector and very difficult to monitor) Will encourage caste-based occupations. which is using children as a selling gimmick for all kinds of product Extends . cosmetics or electronics—that would be allowed under the amended Act www. more broadly. a new education policy has the potential to address child labour as a barrier to education and. to improve the life prospects of millions of marginalized and deprived children and on the other hand. working in roadside restaurants (dhabas) or manufacturing garments.IASbaba.Extend the ban from children below 14 years to include children below 18 Impending revisions—the National Education Policy and the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act On the one hand.P a g e | 52  Raising of public awareness  Survey and evaluation UNICEF is supporting the Central Ministry of Labour and Employment. Government of India.

and “this amendment would make elected representatives of Panchayat Raj Institutions more accountable” Rajbala vs. which are part-time and can be easily monitored should be exempted and relaxed as well as much exploration needs to be done with respect to the Apprenticeship Act as provision of ‘earn as you learn’ avenues for children in this age group can be made an exception There needs to be a worldwide movement for the protection of the fundamental human rights of every person. especially the most vulnerable and that is why governments must deepen their commitment to pursuing child-friendly policies and investing in the protection and education of their young people.P a g e | 53 IASbaba’s Views:   Safe and strongly protected occupations in the formal sector. TOPIC: General studies 2:    Indian Constitution. DPSP) Issues and challenges pertaining to Local Government Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and . Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad elections in Haryana will now have to produce their Class X certificate while women and SCs will need a Class VIII certificate to be eligible to contest Popular viewpoint behind the decision exists the same— to “improve quality of leadership and governance” at the grassroots level. State of Haryana case (2015) Supreme Court upheld the validity of the Haryana Panchayati Raj (Amendment) Act.requiring that a matriculate alone can hold the post of Panchayat president or ward member Section 175 of the Act: Disqualifications from contesting a Panchayat election—    Faces a criminal case for which 10-year imprisonment is prescribed and a charge has been framed Has to pay arrears to a co-operative society or has not cleared electricity bills Does not have a functional toilet www. Governance Issues Is Road to Election-‘Literacy’?   Candidates keen on contesting the forthcoming Gram Panchayat.IASbaba.significant provisions (FR’s.

The object sought to be achieved cannot be said to be irrational or illegal or unconnected with the scheme and purpose of the Act or provisions of Part IX of the Constitution Revised Statistics therefore:   Out of 96 lakh eligible . insisting upon a functional toilet is a clear case of excluding the poor from the management of Panchayats Fundamental flaw: Courts holding the right to get elected as a statutory right and not a constitutional empowerment exhibits a derailment. Many people who are eligible to be elected never were benefitted with such a provision Arrears to electricity boards and cooperative societies:   Non-payment of electricity charges normally should result in disconnection of supply or an issue regarding disputes over service deficiency but this particular issue becoming a reason to be disqualified has defied the logic of many Case of refusing to factor in rural indebtedness properly as the main argument indicates the leaning towards the notion that all elections are expensive affairs and therefore.IASbaba.after having established electoral rights as constitutional rights and then treating them as statutory rights without giving weight to their constitutional status www. town or village alike and thus.P a g e | 54 Supreme Court: A proclaimed object of such classification is to ensure that those who seek election to panchayats have some basic education which enables them to more effectively discharge various duties which befall the elected representatives of the panchayats. it is a sound presumption that one who is contesting for office should pay back her loans first or should not even think of public office Functional Toilet: There are many people who do not have their own shelter. 42 lakh will be disqualified from contesting the elections Scheduled Castes: 68 per cent women and 41 per cent men will be disqualified from contesting Logic deemed misaligned Education:   It is only recently that the 2002 constitutional amendment made imparting education compulsory for all children up to the age of 14 years.

The experience and events in public life and the legislatures have demonstrated that the www. and wisdom which satisfy certain standards  2002:True democracy cannot exist unless all citizens have a right to participate in the affairs of the polity of the country  2003:To think of illiterate candidates is based on a factually incorrect assumption. the further notion that the representative must also possess the very qualifications of those he represents… it would be for the members of such a constituency themselves to decide whether a person who stands for election from their constituency possesses the right type of knowledge. as a necessary consequence. Rajendra . G. but it is immaterial if the person elected is a graduate. was strongly in favour of providing some minimum qualification for legislators Prime Minister Nehru. Narayanaswami vs.IASbaba.P a g e | 55 Historical & Constitutional Perspective:     First President of India. had described the move as totally undemocratic Thus. Panneerselvam case in 1972: The concept of such representation does not carry with it. Examples of Qualifications prescribed in the Constitution:    Governor: Person must have completed 35 years of age Added disqualification for the post of the President of India: He/She should not be of unsound mind and an insolvent All constitutional posts except those pertaining to the higher judiciary do not have any educational qualification to hold the post Supreme Court’s Wisdom(Quoted)—  S. anti-Dalit and pro-rich. and in the light of this argument the recent Act is being considered as anti-poor. the framers of the Constitution did not think it fit to include educational qualification as a basic requirement for the Members of Legislative Assemblies and Parliament. experience. Article 171:  Provides for the composition of Legislative Councils in a State  Makes separate constituencies of graduates to elect members to the Legislative Council making it obligatory to be a graduate to elect a certain proportion of members of the Legislative Council. To say that well-educated persons such as those having graduated and postgraduate qualifications will be able to serve the people better and conduct themselves in a better way inside and outside the House is nothing but overlooking the stark realities. Dr.

rather it should be with the masses. we should contemplate also upon the very nature of democracy and of it not being a pre-defined state of perfection but an endless fight for it Governance cannot and should not be in the hands of elitist castes. the sense of devotion to duty and the sense of concern for the welfare of the people. Bombay High Court had cancelled the bail of GN Saibaba. dispute redressal mechanisms and institution  Structure. organization and functioning of Executive and Judiciary. These characteristics are not the monopoly of well-educated persons IASbaba’s Views:  To have the best educated represent us is maybe the most ideal thought but at the same time. Anarchy through kritarchy: Judicial Activism or Judicial Adventurism? Background:    Arundhati Roy had got contempt notice from Bombay High Court for her views on arrest of Delhi University professor . Much depends on the character of the individual. the former Delhi University professor accused of having links with the banned CPI (Maoist) outfit. the real masters in a democracy. The court also charged author Arundhati Roy for criminal contempt for writing about Saibaba's imprisonment and the court's denial of bail.IASbaba. www.P a g e | 56 dividing line between the well-educated and less educated from the point of view of his/her calibre and culture is rather thin. There is thus a heightened need to achieve social justice as well as ensuring effective implementation of welfare schemes and interventions by the government (PURA + SSA + MDS + RTE)  Connecting the Dots:  Does the recent move by the Haryana government keeps with itself the power to change the landscape of the functioning of the Panchayati Raj institution in the country? Discuss Is informal socialization more important than formal education? Critically comment  TOPIC: General Studies 2:  Separation of powers between various organs . He had been arrested in May 2014 under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act.

Earlier too Supreme Court had sentenced Arundhati Roy to one day in prison for criminal contempt for ‘scandalising the judiciary’ through some remarks in 2002. commentators and detractors. Does too much judicial activism and overreach amount to Kritarchy? www.which ruled out that parliament had unlimited power to amend the constitution. Judicial review v/s Judicial Overreach: Judicial review:      Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary. The Privy Purses Abolition Case. critics.IASbaba. Constructive criticism is fair and must not affect judicial functioning. Prima facie with a mala fide motive to interfere in the administration of justice Instead of challenging the order. A court with judicial review power may invalidate laws and decisions that are incompatible with a higher authority. Judicial Overreach:   Courts have been exceeding their authority in interpreting the law. Roy chose to bash the Centre. Examples: Ruling of Supreme Court over cancellation of 2G licences. the police machinery and the judiciary Is such criminal contempt proceedings against activist(s) due to occasional criticism on judicial orders justified?   In times when both mainstream and social media are full of observers.P a g e | 57 Court's Point of view:   The court said Roy appeared to believe that she was “above the law”. courts ought not to be unduly sensitive to outspoken critics. For instance. Minerva Mills case(1980) . Although they can be curtailed during emergencies. and they have become an extra constitutional lawmaking body. This has been called Judicial Overreach. Banning of Iron ore mining in Karnataka and Goa. Golaknath case(1967) . Few of the other famous cases are Kesavanandha Bharthi case.There was a conflict between article 368 and article 13(2) of the constitution which said that the parliament can amend any law( even the fundamental laws) but Supreme court made it clear that fundamental laws cannot be changed . the state . such as the terms of a written constitution.

Special Leave Petition (SLP) meant it had to be exercised in cases involving a substantial question of law or a gross miscarriage of justice.500 SLPs were filed in 2014. Connecting the dots:  Does judicial overreach like issuing criminal contempt against activist(s) suppress Freedom of speech and expression? Comment. As many as 34. in a Supreme Court with a case load of more than 60. sentence or order in any cause or matter passed or made by any court or tribunal in the territory of India”. The power of contempt should be used sparingly and that too. . www. of which 43% were admitted. As per recent data this extraordinary jurisdiction appeared to have been reduced to a regular appellate one. leaving the system vulnerable to arbitrary decisions on the admission and rejection of SLP. Way ahead :.P a g e | 58 What does Kritarchy mean? Kritarchy refers to rule of the state by judges. Recent Instances showing currents of Kritarchy by Courts :      Judges have doubled the tax on diesel vehicles entering Delhi Banned the traditional bullfight in Tamil Nadu Struck down an amendment (NJAC) that would change the way judges were appointed to the courts. and not against critics of the state.Special Leave Petition(SLP)        Article 136 of the Constitution empowers the Supreme Court to “grant special leave to appeal from any judgment.000. decree. kritarchy will over time pave the way for anarchy Court’s dignity is better served if the judiciary takes routine criticism in its stride and moves only against vicious and tendentious remarks or actions that bring the judiciary into disrepute or ridicule. Otherwise. The people of India and their representatives should explore ways of addressing judicial hyper-activism in the country. The Supreme Court has refused to issue norms and guidelines for the acceptance of SLP. only against those wilfully subverting justice. Supreme Court has admitted a petition that would decide on whether menstruating women should be allowed to enter the Sabarimala Ayyappa shrine The highest court of the land had also advised the Delhi Metro to reserve premium seats at five times the normal price for car users who would be affected by the oddeven plans of the Delhi government for road users.IASbaba.

SR Bommai Govt dismissal: In 1989. significant provisions and basic structure. among the Emergency provisions of the Indian Constitution Sections 93 of the Government of India Act.  Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions. 1935:    Provided that if a Governor of a province was satisfied that a situation had arisen in which the government of the province cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the said Act. The Governor. prevalent here and it is this element that has led the authorities to question its suitability to the Indian climate of ‘cooperative federalism Sarkaria Commission Report (1988):   While in the first few years after the Constitution. British dominated viewpoint is thus. it was invoked only thrice.imposition of President’s Rule in Punjab.IASbaba.  Structure. SC had upheld the validity of a proclamation for President’s rule can be subjected to judicial review Stories of dismissal of State Government—   By Jawaharlal Nehru-EMS Namboodiripad government in Kerala in 1959 By Indira Gandhi. he could assume to himself all or any of the powers of the government and discharge those functions in his discretion. Substantiate your stand with recent examples. could not encroach upon the powers of the high court.P a g e | 59   Differentiate between Judicial review and judicial overreach? Are judicial overreach and Judicial overreaction acting in accordance to make judiciary an extra constitutional lawmaking body? . and between 1980 and ‘87. 18 times. Punjab Chief Minister Darbara Singh was battling militancy in 1983 www. however. Too much of judicial activism amounts to Kritarchy? Comment. TOPIC: General studies 2  Indian Constitution. it was invoked 21 times. between 1975 and ‘79. organization and functioning of the Judiciary Article 356—Arunachal Pradesh: Is President’s rule being misused? Article in part XVIII (Articles 352-360).

the Assembly is not is session (slated to convene on January 14) but Governor Rajkhowa agreed it was an urgent matter and called for an emergency session of the Assembly on December 16. to February 11. 2013. 2013. the Centre called for President’s rule in the state under Article 356 of the Constitution. due to a political crisis caused by the resignation of CM N Kiran Kumar Reddy and other Congress legislators on February 19. seeking to impeach Assembly Speaker NabamRebia So.First instance of Article 356 being imposed while the case was being heard in court During the special Assembly session— Special session also moved a no-confidence motion against CM Tuki and at the end of the session. The foul cry.     Speaker issued an order disqualifying 14 rebel Congress MLAs Speaker Rebia moved the High Court Justice B K Sarma of the Gauhati High Court stayed the disqualification of the 14 Congress MLAs The Speaker’s plea for his case to be heard in another court was turned down. . after Prithviraj Chavan resigned following the break-up of the 15-year-old CongressNCP alliance in the state. 2015 Maharashtra: Imposed from September 28. www. 2014. to take up the impeachment motion. protesting against the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill that bifurcated the state and created a separate state of Telangana Jharkhand: From January 18. prompting him to approach the Supreme Court. as the Arjun Munda-led BJP government was reduced to a minority after the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha withdrew support (Munda resigned and sought dissolution of the state Assembly) Arunachal Pradesh: Rebellion spinning out of control What happened—    December 9: A group of rebel Congress MLAs approached Governor J P Rajkhowa. 2014. to June 8. to July 12. to October 31. Andhra Pradesh: From February 28.P a g e | 60     Delhi.IASbaba. As the Congress approached the High Court and later the Constitution bench of the Supreme Court against the Governor’s convening of the special session. 2014-15: President’s Rule was in force in Delhi with the Assembly in suspended animation from February 14. 2014. 2015. 2014.Tuki was ‘defeated’ in a floor test and the ‘House’ ‘elected’ KalikhoPul as the new Leader of the House Also.

or in the whole or any part of the State Election Commission must certify that the general elections to the legislative assembly of the State cannot be held on account of some difficulties www. Facts. the validity of President’s Rule may be considered by the Supreme Court An established pattern: A political pattern behind the crisis that led to the current situation The pattern involves dissidence within the ruling party.IASbaba. BUT. and the Governor intervening in a partisan manner Supreme Court declared in 1994.Six months have elapsed since the last time the Arunachal Pradesh Assembly met and this itself is a valid ground for Central rule . the past crisis has led us to seek a constitutional question of whether the Governor can summon the legislature on his own and whether he can send a message to the Assembly on what motion it should take up is now before the Supreme Court. avoiding a floor test as it has not sought interim orders to that effect from the court. the President’s rule can be extended by six months at a time only when  A proclamation of National Emergency should be in operation in the whole of India. the opposition joining hands with the rebels. 1978: Beyond one year. that the only place for determining whether a Chief Minister has lost or retained majority is the floor of the House Sad spectacle of partisan politics overshadowing constitutional propriety— BJP: Instead of finding ways to facilitate a floor test it has imposed President’s Rule in the midst of an ongoing hearing before a five-member Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court Congress in the State Failed to address the dissidence in its camp against Chief Minister NabamTuki and now.President’s Rule President administers the state through the governor and the Parliament makes laws for the state Maximum period: Three years 44th Amendment Act. confusion over the likelihood of a floor test.P a g e | 61  The discretionary power of the Governor was being examined when the Centre moving to impose Article 356 Approval of the imposition of Central rule   The proclamation will have to be approved by both Houses of Parliament Plus.

Ensuring privacy in a digital age Convention . Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States. e-governanceapplications. Therefore. 1981: The European Council signed the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data What about it— The first legally binding international treaty dealing with privacy and data protection 28 January-The day has since been celebrated as Data Protection Day in Europe and as International Data Privacy Day around the world www. Connecting the Dots:   Has the ‘dead-letter’ become a ‘deadly-weapon’? Critically examine Explain the valid situations under which President’s Rule in a state would be proper TOPIC: General studies 3:  Indian Constitution. and potential.  Important aspects of governance.P a g e | 62 Resolution: Should be passed by simple majority IASbaba’s Views:    The centre’s move is a hasty one when a Constitution bench of the SC is set to hear a petition related to the political crisis in the state and thus look like a throwback to the ‘Indira-Gandhian’ era.IASbaba. models. successes. Here. transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures. we witness the focus upon short-term gains dictating priorities when the procedures are clearly laid out for settling disputes over House Majority.significant provisions and basic structure. this growing instability and intolerance should be acknowledged and worked upon to uphold constitutional morality and democratic traditions. transparency and accountability. Arunachal Pradesh has a history of politicians switching sides or splitting parties for office and this lack of political fidelity among legislators can undermine the democratic practice in the state and lead to a crisis of faith among the electorate.  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. limitations. citizens charters.

and direct account transfers) but with a toothless Information Technology Act which has limited scope to penalize government agencies for breach of data privacy (only legal instrument available to citizens against contravention of their privacy in the data ecosystem) 2013.  The commission had proposed a set of national privacy principles that would place an obligation on data controllers to put in place safeguards and procedures that would enable and ensure protection of privacy rights  Notice (to be given to users while collecting data). consumption and storage of data Real Issue.Absence of measures that   Safeguard the privacy of this data Regulates data retention by platforms collecting it Resulting in—   Zero awareness regarding how their personally identifiable information is collected. used and shared Large scale sensitive data collection and storage due to governance-driven digitization (Aadhaar.P a g e | 63 Data Privacy— Internet and Mobile Association of India Report-India has around 400 million Internet users treating Internet essentially as a data ecosystem where every node is engaged in generation.P.  Choice and consent (of users while collecting data from them). .  Access and correction (for end users to correct or delete their personal data as may be necessary). Shah-headed group of experts constituted by the Planning Commission.  Collection limitation (to keep user data collected at the minimum necessary). digital lockers.000 Aadhaar card applicants Need of the hour—  A comprehensive legislation that provides for a right to privacy as a fundamental entitlement to citizens for which the groundwork has already been laid in 2012 by a Justice A.  Purpose limitation (to keep the purpose as adequately defined and narrow as possible).IASbaba. stored.Maharashtra government simply lost the personal data of 300. transmission.

P a g e | 64  Disclosure of information (private data should not be disclosed without explicit consent of end user).IASbaba. www.  Security (defining responsibility to ensure technical.  Accountability (institutionalize accountability for adherence to these principles) The proposed framework—       Technology neutral Compliant with international standards already in place to protect user privacy Should recognize the multiple dimensions of privacy Establish a national ethos for privacy protection Flexible to address emerging concerns Should contain horizontal applicability with both the public and private sectors bought under the purview of privacy legislation In the time being— It is necessary to adopt mechanisms ensure compliance towards use of Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET)—    Processes and tools that allow end users to safeguard the privacy of their personally identifiable information that they willingly provide to government agencies and other service providers PETs put the end user in control over what information to share.  Openness (informing end users of possible collection and utilization of personal data).com . administrative and physical safeguards for data collected). with whom to share and a clear knowledge of the recipients of this information Usage of data encryption and mandating multi-factor authentication for access to end user data can be examples of other PETs that can be implemented by service providers and government agencies alike -Aligning our technology laws with the evolving Internet landscape -User privacy concerns and secure designing should be integrated in the charters of respective standard-setting organizations -Government should seek ‘active user education’ that makes them aware of their choices -Lengthy and complex privacy policies that practically hand over control of user data to the platforms collecting it need to be replaced with ones that are user friendly in draft and execution.

P a g e | 65 -Policy documents that address these concerns need to be widely discussed and debated in the public domain Steps taken by the GovernmentDraft Internet of Things Policy. which completed its first decade of implementation this year.awaited Connecting the Dots:  ‘Breach of privacy’ is a breach of Right to Life. limitations.Indifferent to the issues related to privacy Introduction of legislation in Parliament. citizens charters. RTI activists are vulnerable human rights defenders (HRDs) in India. a majority of the RTI activists are not part of an organisation. models.IASbaba. - . moved by anger at corruption and other illegal activities. and potential. www. Attacks on RTI activists:    Choosing to file an RTI is not always a safe act. transparency and accountability. 2005   India’s RTI Act.Devotes only one line to the need to have security and privacy standards Policy document on Smart Cities. In one year alone (2011-12). Unlike other HRDs. Impersonal government is good: A case of RTI act. Critically examine TOPIC: General studies 2:  Important aspects of governance. e-governanceapplications. successes. over two million requests were submitted to the Central government and in 10 of India’s 29 states. 2011. they often act alone. transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures. is arguably one of the world’s most widely used freedom of information acts. Role of civil services in a democracy.Supreme Court referred to a constitutional bench the petition seeking inclusion of the Right to Privacy under Article 21 (Right to Life).Failed as there could not be a consensus on which government agencies could seek exclusion from such provisions and collect citizen data without any oversight 2015.

A lot of such cases has been witnessed in India in the past and is still continuing.IASbaba. and www. harassed. The citizens are the active agents. we need India’s government to ensure that information provision has a more impersonal . To make government more transparent and accountable. This requires the government to invest in a data infrastructure that will allow it to go from passive to active transparency. Open administrative datasets of government or active transparency: In recent years. and accounts of RTI users and activists being threatened. How can it be checked? The Asian Centre for Human Rights recommends that a separate chapter. in the process. but passively. to be concluded within 90 days. concerned Public Information Officers. Exposing corruption can make you enemies. even assaulted or killed as a result of their requests. First Appellate Authorities and those directly related with the information sought under the RTI Act should be presumed to have abetted the offenses against the RTI activists unless evidence proves otherwise. many countries have opened their administrative datasets to the public. immediate registration of complaints of threats or attacks against RTI activists on the First Information Report and placing such FIRs before the magistrate or judge of the area within 24 hours for issuance of directions for protection of those under threats and their family members. Protection measures should include (a)mandatory. filling out request forms and. often dealing with resistance and delays. 2. Track progress toward performance targets. be inserted into the RTI Act. and periodic review of such protection measures. RTI starts its second decade: What is the need?     The RTI and other freedom of information laws around the world are examples of how governments offer transparency.P a g e | 66    RTI activists are vulnerable because they live in the same areas as public authorities and political leaders who do not want information about their activities to be disclosed. (d)Further. with several goals in mind. “Protection of those seeking information under the (RTI) Act”. and (c)trial of the accused within six months. As the RTI starts its second decade. like 1. (b)conducting inquiry into threats or attacks by a police officer not below the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police/Assistant Commissioner of Police.

the developers should try to create prototypes and proceeds through short rounds of cooperative iteration. Help policymakers and administrators do their jobs effectively. and the project on track. especially website speed.  Software developers should use “agile” methodology to keep fast-moving projects from going astray(deviated) and creating waste. Encourage collaboration between policymakers. This includes efforts “to increase significantly the availability of high-quality.IASbaba.  Using a clearly defined set of user needs. Employ “agile”(able to remove quickly) methodologies. researchers and technicians from the word go.  This method can benefit a wide range of government initiatives by keeping all sides informed and . Difference between active and passive transparency: In passive transparency government by itself does not provide any data to citizens unless until asked by them. and by taking advantage of efficient cloud web-hosting services.  Researchers should not just provide answers. timely and reliable data”.P a g e | 67 3. 2. Citizens also benefit indirectly as researchers begin to use this data for a range of purposes. Way ahead:   The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include Goal 17 on revitalising the global partnership for development.  The government can improve its digital services. How does active transparency help?   Active transparency brings huge benefits to citizens who can directly access data without filing requests. 3. which avoid costly licensing fees that can create procurement bottlenecks. In case of active transparency government through suo moto initiative tries to provide administrative information to citizens without it being asked.  Technicians should help designing the model that developed by researchers and policy makers. including to evaluate policy. by increasing the use of open-source technologies. Invest in technical inputs. they should sit down with policymakers to help formulate the question. www. Measures to foster active transparency across ministries: 1.

The more real-time data we have. the earlier we can correct ourselves and set a path toward goals that will improve the lives of individuals. have severe lacuna. Connecting the dots:   Critically examine the functioning of RTI act in the past decade. transparent and user-friendly services Central Board of Film Certification Also known as Censor Board. TOPIC: General studies 2  Statutory. Examine the various lacunas present in the RTI act 2005.IASbaba. it’s a statutory censorship and classification body under the I&B Ministry www. Important aspects of governance. transparency and accountability Censor and sensibility : Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) Let us understand the issue firstRevamping Censor Board (Information) Union Information and Broadcasting Ministry has constituted a committee To be headed by: Shyam Benegal Objective:    Suggest measures to help Board members understand the nuances of film certification Recommend broad guidelines and procedures under the Cinematograph Act Look into the CBFCs Staffing pattern to recommend a framework for efficient. regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies. it would enable us to track progress on all the others.P a g e | 68   Although it is the last goal on the list. Suggest measures to reform the . RTI act even though termed as successful. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

decide the initial fate of the film www. Ministry Monopoly Certification or Censorship— The moral policing rests on the shoulders of every member of the examining committee. etc So— There has come up again. sales. publications for exhibition. a need for the Information and Broadcasting Ministry (I&B) to set up a panel to examine the rules of certification— Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC). or anything likely to offend any community. doctors.IASbaba.What can possibly be the reason behind setting up a committee under the chair of eminent filmmaker Shyam Benegal when the ground rules of certification can be better decided by the fraternity themselves. six people. very seriously and this drives the members to order cuts in films certified even for adult viewing Politics takes precedence: Most of them are political appointees (sitting on the positions as a favour) by political masters and thus. taking his or her job of protecting viewers from anything .P a g e | 69 Functions:   Regulates the public exhibition of films under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act. Committees examining problems and issues confronting certification of films: 1969: The Khosla Committee report had written about the necessity of doing away with the hegemony of the Centre over the Censor Board Background Story— The Advisory Panel    A film's first screening is seen by a group of six people out of a 250-member team called the Advisory Panel One of the officers of the CBFC—either the CEO or the regional officer—presides over the meeting Advisory Panel is comprised of 250 people from various professions — lawyers. television shows. among others — who watch the film and suggest changes and out of those 250. 1952 Assigns certifications to films. ads. teachers. the room devoted for artistic expression stifles and dies in the chaos of a political set-up. selected in turns. and the question thus remains.

which now lies before the Supreme Court Kashyap’s Take: “The Revising Committee is still reasonable. and chaired by the CBFC board member Case Study. killing the whole purpose of the film Step taken by Kashyap: Filed a petition in the Bombay High Court. The purpose of the censor committee should be to stand up and say. Because they just follow the book. discuss. you can argue. then you have had it.IASbaba. often affecting the psyche of the film-maker www. which is most of the time not followed considering the whims of the government If the filmmaker isn't satisfied with their decision he can apply to the Revising Committee. Their only argument is 'But this is what they say'. Kashyap challenged it in High Court.' If by chance you get the most scared lot in the principal committee. stating these objections violate his fundamental rights under:  Article 19 (right to speech and expression) and  Article 21 (right to life) Challenged the decision of the Advisory Committee and it went to the Revising Committee but dissatisfied by the Revision Committee's decision.P a g e | 70   66% of the people from the Advisory Panel should be based on the recommendation of the CBFC's chairperson and board members.The significance of an artistic expression meeting a web of unsettling questions oscillates between rejection and acceptance. where a character is not even smoking but is just holding a . which was not accepted by Kashyap as there was a very crucial scene in the film. there's not a single person who's ready to take a stand. present your point of view." Creativity gets hampered. 'This is fine. who are only there so that they can get their money per screening. They are just so scared of losing their jobs. turning one’s voice mute. which comprises of nine members. and people must watch this. ran into trouble with the censor board when he refused to run an anti-smoking disclaimer But what about the following: Clearance. but lost the case. But among the advisory committee. They don't argue.UGLY Anurag Kashyap's last film. and they will listen. they don't even understand. eight from the Advisory Panel.Cleared the film without asking for cuts but… But: They just wanted to put the anti-smoking disclaimer. Ugly.

filmmaker. and the censor board needs to be nurtured and the CBFC should stand up and make itself heard or at least have a say in creating the Advisory Panel Connecting the Dots:  Discuss the political dampening of the artistic democracy in India.IASbaba. The composition of the committee should comprise of people who understand the true power and implications of cinema and of those who do not have biases.P a g e | 71 IASbaba’s Views:    There is a need for a shared understanding between the government and the committee. The triangular relationship between the . Can it be curbed? www. prejudices or bring their own moralities. paving way for the autonomous working of the CBFC so that they can take decisions on their own.

Iraq and Iran (14. Also. Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Demirtas and leads a party that unites the Kurdish nationalist forces and Turkey’s left-wing groups Under his leadership more rights for the Kurdish population within Turkey has been achieved without any demand for the creation of a Kurdish state out of Turkey Istanbul has the largest concentration (one million Kurds). Turkey’s war on the Kurds There has been a spate of differences between the Turkish President. as well as within the neighbouring states of Syria. the majority of the Kurdish population lives in the country’s south-east.P a g e | 72 INTERNATIONAL TOPIC: General studies 2  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests. which has been the epicentre of demands for self-determination www. the Kurds are a sizeable minority within Turkey. and Selahattin Demirtas Kurds in Turkey      Bonded by ethnicity. with Iran and Iraq accounting for six million each and Syria for two million Leader of the left-wing People’s Democratic Party (HDP) is .5 million Kurds in Turkey) Turkey accounts for 50 per cent of Kurds in the region.IASbaba.

near the Syrian border.Erdogan Turkey is worried that an independent or autonomous Kurdistan in Syria will embolden the Kurds in Turkey and that eventually an autonomous or independent Kurdistan would be formed within its territory as well Violent War against Kurds Various instances of the region resembling a war zone or a fight against separatist terror organisations:    Policies of military curfews and severe crackdowns on the Kurdish towns and cities of south-eastern Turkey Turkish tanks shelling Cizre. this action was termed as ‘treason’ by Mr.IASbaba.P a g e | 73 ‘Treason’—   A resolution was passed by the Kurdish Democratic Society Congress (DTK). Hit PKK and YPG combatants inside Syria Military operations in Diyarbakir and Silopi escalate each day www. which reiterated an old demand for the creation of Kurdish “autonomous regions” and “self-governance bodies and .

Turkey had been serving as a highway for foreign fighters eager to join the jihad in Syria as well as weapons and funds. but statelessness. paving way for wars both against PKK and the HDP War on Mr. Peace Talks— Imrali Process   Since 2013. Also.P a g e | 74    Tanks and heavy weaponry used in conventional warfare are being used by the Turkish armed forces where civilians live Assassinations and arrests of pro-HDP politicians and journalists Human rights attorney Tahir Elci was killed. Political Frustration: HDP’s political successes have prevented his political ambitions  Failure of the idea of shifting the Turkish political process from parliamentary to presidential rule  Cited Hitler’s Germany as an example of a successful presidential system  Victory of HDP in both the Parliamentary elections prevented his party to achieve an absolute majority to turn his idea into a reality 2. “What killed Tahir was not the state. Demirtas to reconsider autonomy and self-government of the Kurdish . Erdogan   Rejected the terms as implausible negotiations between the PKK (terrorist organisation) and the government Tied the HDP to the PKK (an “inorganic tie”) wherein the HDP responded that it has no “organic” ties to the PKK. PKK’s assistance to the Syrian Kurds had raised the spectre once more of Kurdish statehood or autonomy www.IASbaba.” This has led to loss of faith in Turkey’s commitment to its minority and to multi-party democracy leading people like Mr. Demirtas said in a statement. the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK. Ocalan’s prison is based Dolmabahce Agreement The negotiations are based on a 10-point Dolmabahce Agreement But Mr. Erdogan’s mind— 1. main military wing of the Kurdish resistance) has been in talks with the Turkish state for a full peace agreement and this dialogue between the state and the PKK was called the Imrali process Imrali: Name of the island where Mr. and Mr.

7 million Syrian refugees in its territory to this zone.P a g e | 75 Creation of People’s Protection Units Turkey’s failed policy in Syria:  Battle-hardened PKK fighters turned to help the Syrian Kurdish fighters in 2011.  Their fighting and their progressive social policy that helped HDP win in the recent elections  Declaration of Syrian Kurdish autonomy alongside Iraqi Kurdish autonomy (since 1991) put pressure on Turkey’s Kurds to follow suit and this was resented by Mr. uses the Turkish base at Incirlik to bomb . backed by US air strikes. Erdogan’s son Bilal (director in the BMZ group) has played a major role in the trans-shipment of IS oil to Malta and to Israel  Turkey’s ambivalence towards IS also irks the U. and won them adherents amongst Turkey’s non-Kurdish population.IASbaba.S:  U. Turkey has proposed an establishment of a ‘safe zone’ about 60 km long and 40 km wide in Syria near the border with Turkey where it could transfer the 1. www. gained them international attention. Also. The bone of contention lies in the fact that this proposed zone is now controlled mainly by the IS and the YPG. and watches Turkish craft attack the Kurdish forces who are the main ground troops against the IS  Reluctance to take a leading role in the US-led campaign against IS However.S. Erdogan YPG has also taken the lead in the fight against IS in Syria. the YPG defended the border town of Kobane against IS last year and has driven the militants from more Syrian border towns Turkey’s leaning towards IS:  The border with Syria is porous for entry of IS jihadis and for IS oil and Mr. after the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad withdrew from Syria’s Kurdish regions in the north and this led to the creation of the People’s Protection Units (YPG)  YPG and the PKK  They have been fighters against the Islamic State (IS) since 2012 and the battlefield advances of the Syrian Kurds with the PKK have lifted their morale. Turkey’s new policy will make it difficult for IS to get new recruits.

opting for a very hard stance. there is a need to take care of domestic peace to avoid further complications. it needs to clear its stance towards or against the IS. Thus. A calculative step should be first considered.IASbaba. the tactic of destroying the PKK should be kept at bay. Connecting the Dots:    “We Will Degrade and Ultimately Destroy IS”— Do you think that there exists a stalemate in the war between US and IS? Discuss Can life-expectancy of the IS be calculated? What is the reason for Turkey’s change of policy towards the Islamic State (IS)? How important is it for the Kurds and the population of Turkey in the light of the recent policy shift of the Turkey towards the IS? Explain www. Also. the Turkish and Kurdish forces are on one side fighting the IS and on the other hand they themselves are fighting with each other. Currently. the YPG may withdraw from some areas. Turkey may also try to drive a wedge between the YPG and PKK by adopting a softer approach to the Syrian Kurdish group IASbaba’s Views    It is still unclear as to how IS or the Syrian government will respond to an uptick in US air strikes or if the rebel groups that are meant to stabilise the buffer zone will play to the rules of the game. Turkey’s strategy needs to undergo a major change as these problems are shortsighted and can backfire anytime and therefore. YPG may be reassured by the "de facto US security guarantee" that it has enjoyed since the bombing of .P a g e | 76 US F-16 fighter jets have arrived at Turkey's southern Incirlik airbase to join the fight against IS and US drones have already launched raids on IS from there Future of YPG (Yekineyen Parastina Gel)    If the buffer zone is created.

perhaps the most influential leader among the Kingdom’s Shia minority. Riyadh has plunged the region. Indian diaspora.IASbaba. along with 46 others on Saturday. a Shia-majority country and a regional rival of Saudi Arabia. had repeatedly requested the Sunni monarchy to pardon Nimr. inspired by Arab Spring protests elsewhere. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests. Iran.P a g e | 77 TOPIC: General studies 2   Bilateral. Moreover. www. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests. By executing him. A provocative move by Saudi Arabia:     Saudi Arabia’s execution of Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr. Sheikh Nimr was a respected cleric among the Shia community in general. West Asia: Saudi Arabia’s deadly gamble  The execution of Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr. Sheikh Nimr was the most prominent religious leader of the Kingdom’s Shia minority. Riyadh knew that its action would deteriorate relations with Iran and inflame sectarian tensions in West Asia at a time when the Islamic State is systematically persecuting Shias and other minorities within Islam. into more chaos. who was the driving force behind the Arab Spring model protests in the kingdom’s east in . including the prominent Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr. Iran had repeatedly asked Saudi Arabia to pardon him. Why did Suadi Arabia do this? Why did Riyadh do this if they knew the consequences would be deadly? A logical explanation is that it’s part of a well-thought-out strategy to whip up tensions so that the Al-Saud ruling family could tighten its grip on power at home and its position in the region by amassing the support of the Sunni regimes. by Saudi Arabia has expectedly led to a flare-up of sectarian passions in West Asia. an influential Shia cleric. was clearly a provocative move. insurgency and sectarianism. What is the issue?     Saudi Arabia recently executed 47 people for terrorism offences in one day. already reeling under terrorism. He was the driving force behind the 2011 protests in the country’s east. which has long been subjected to institutionalised segregation by the Sunni monarchy of the al-Saud family which is ruling Saudi Arabia.

Additionally. This is likely to impact the government’s public spending. www.000 houses to address housing shortage) to check discontent at home. including Sheikh Nimr. besides its religious appeal. They go back to extremism or sectarianism to bolster their hard-line constituency to tide over the economic and social difficulties. Another option the royals have to buttress their position is to resort to extreme . and has announced plans to shrink its budget for the current year by $86 billion. the royal family has sent a clear message to political dissidents at home. By putting them to death. Saudi Arabia is facing a major crisis. When people elsewhere rose up against dictatorships. and could trigger resentment. he announced a special economic package of $70 billion (much of this money was allocated to build 5. The late King Abdullah’s response to Arab Spring protests is an example of this. the state injected $4 billion into healthcare. to drum up public support. among the 47 executed on January 2 were political prisoners. do it by other means. The entire kingdom relies heavily on the government’s welfare policies. if that can’t be done through economic development and welfarism. At least four. King Salman does not enjoy the luxury of using oil revenues to save his crown due to the economic crisis.P a g e | 78          Whether the royals agree or not. The real aim of the monarchy is to close down every window of dissidence. In 2015. Oil prices are decreasing and endangering the kingdom’s economy.    This is a tactic dictators have often used in history.IASbaba. it ran a deficit of $97.9 billion.00.

com . www. Haider al-Abadi. is taking baby steps under the new Prime Minister.IASbaba. By executing Sheikh Nimr.S. the Shia Houthi rebels are fighting forces loyal to a Saudi-protected government led by Sunnis. for which the region will have to pay a huge price. which is carrying out a systematic campaign against non-Sunni religious groups. including the second largest city. Riyadh has poured oil into this sectarian fire. Bahrain:  In Bahrain. Iraq:  Iraq. invasion. are still under the control of Islamic State. Mosul. which is torn apart on sectarian lines.  Parts of the country. Yemen:  In Yemen. 3. to rebuild national unity. 2.P a g e | 79 Sectarian conflicts in West Asia: West Asia is already witnessing sectarian conflicts 1. the wounds of a Shia rebellion which was crushed by a Sunni monarch with the help of the Saudis are still not healed.  The country witnessed a bloody phase of sectarian strife in the aftermath of the U.

What next?    One natural victim of these rising tensions will be the Syria peace plan. The Saudis back anti-regime rebels and extremists in Syria. While Riyadh has the support of Sunni monarchs and dictators in the Arab world. besides its proxies such as Hezbollah in Lebanon and the Houthis in Yemen. the Saudi-Iran rivalry could plunge the region. Both the U. Connecting the dots:   Explain the ongoing conflict between Saudi Arabia and Iran in West Asia. If the Iranians continue to respond in the same token. already torn apart by invasions. West Asia would remain turbulent for many more years. according to a road map agreed in the UN Security Council a few weeks ago. and Russia. into further chaos. where the ongoing civil war has killed more than 2. Worse. President Bashar al-Assad’s regime and a coalition of rebels are supposed to begin peace talks this month. which is a Sunni-Wahhabi extremist group. the war in Yemen will go on.     Unchecked. www. one of the main sources of instability in West Asia has been the cold war between Saudi Arabia and Iran. Iranian and Saudi cooperation is a must for peace in Syria. endangering many more lives. it’s not just Syria. while the Iranians support the Assad government. The Saudis look determined to play a long-term game of sectarian geopolitics to maximise its interests.  Though the ultimate goal of both nations has been regional supremacy. and Iraq’s efforts to stabilise itself could be challenged. Unless tensions are dialled down between these two heavyweights. have called for calm but have failed to promote peace in the region. Critically examine the above statement wrt the ongoing conflicts in West Asia. This sets the stage for a dangerous Shia-Sunni conflict across the region.000 people. Iran is aligned with Iraq and .IASbaba.P a g e | 80 Cold war between Saudi Arabia and Iran: For decades.50. they use sectarianism as a vehicle to maximise their interests. there won’t be an effective strategy to fight the Islamic State. there will not be peace in West Asia. civil wars and terrorism. allies of Saudi Arabia and Iran respectively.S. What will be the impact of this conflict on India? Substantiate A peaceful West Asia is a necessity for India to maintain its energy security.   Unless Saudi-Iran tensions are contained.

China’s currency has appreciated 33% against the US dollar and the first devaluation on August 11 marked the largest single drop in 20 years  The depreciation of the yuan is par for the course as it becomes increasingly marketlinked (to move towards a more market-oriented economy-allowing the market to have a more instrumental role in determining the yuan’s value) following its induction as a reserve currency by the IMF Implies—   Attempt to stimulate China's sluggish economy—How?  Keep exports from falling further  Shifting it away from a model of debt-fuelled infrastructure  Low-cost exports towards lower but more sustainable growth.P a g e | 81 TOPIC: General studies 2:   Bilateral. leading to the leading Asian indices losing ground Hong Kong’s Hang Seng Index declined more than 3 per cent Japan’s Nikkei and Singapore’s Straits Times lost in the range of 1-2 per cent www. bringing alive the fears of competitive devaluation among emerging economies  Since 2005.  Being driven by domestic consumption and services Beginning of a currency war that could lead to increasing trade tensions Global Impact— Indices:    Trading in the Chinese equity market was suspended as soon as the benchmark index breached the 7 per cent circuit limits.S. dollar since 2011 and this move . as a result triggered a selloff in global markets.IASbaba. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests Devaluation of Yuan  China’s has surprisingly moved to peg the yuan at its lowest value against the U.

www.S: Mortgage rates can stay lower for longer Commodity:  China will start trading with cheaper yuan and this might lead to lower demand for commodities  Eg: Oil dropped 4 percent and copper dropped 8. for example. China being the biggest consumer of many commodities (including base metals) U. as well as European and Latin American markets fell Prices:     Brent crude oil also fell to its lowest level since April 2004 at $33 a barrel in intra-day trading Adverse impact on Commodity prices.P a g e | 82  U. S&P 500 and Nasdaq. including the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). stock markets.IASbaba. but less-valuable Chinese currency is not good for exporters who want to sell manufactured goods that include copper. relative to another currency.S. Malaysia and South Korea fell in tandem after China's move  What is it: An abrupt national currency devaluation by one nation is matched by a currency devaluation of another  Why: To not let its exports lose the competitive value in international markets (as High prices may pave way for fewer sales)  More likely: Countries that have managed exchange-rate regime  Major threat to the stability of the global economy Theory of Devaluation— Devaluation is a deliberate downward adjustment to the value of a country's currency. group of currencies or standard Causes—  Country's exports to become less expensive  As price of the country's product in international market falls  And products become more competitive in the global market. as impact on their costs will cut into any benefit they get from selling their goods more cheaply to dollar-using buyers Note: Drop in Oil— Proved to be a silver lining for India as it is a net importer Lead other countries to devalue their currencies— Competitive Devaluation  Currencies of .

following its induction in the SDR Portfolio  Flexibility in settling all its international obligations with its own currency  Other countries can diversify their forex reserve portfolios to include yuan  IMF wants China to be willing to progress towards a “freely floating exchange rate”  .IASbaba.IMF in 1969  Why: To supplement its member countries official reserves (restricted to members)  IMF re-evaluates the currency composition of its SDR basket every five years (last time being-2010)  Basis of Value: Basket of 4 key international currencies (Euro.83. www. before closing 554. it protects domestic industries who may then become less efficient without the pressure of competition Higher exports relative to imports can also increase aggregate demand. which can lead to inflation Devaluation & Yuan  Reserve Currency by IMF. Japanese Yen. U.  The 30-share Sensex flirted with a 19-month nadir during the day.S.Rejected ‘yuan’ to be a part of the official reserves by IMF on the basis that it was not “freely usable” Special Drawing Rights (SDR) International Reserve Asset  Created by.93 a dollar as foreign funds continued their exodus from emerging markets.P a g e | 83  Imports become more expensive.851. Dollar)  SDRs can be exchanged for freely usable currencies India& Yuan Devaluation— Indian stock indices:  Fell sharply and the rupee hit a three-week intraday low of 66. making domestic consumers less likely to purchase them Negative consequences of Devaluation—   By making imports more expensive. Pound Sterling.50 points lower at 24.

P a g e | 84 India’s inherent resilience put to test— India is firmly on the path of economic revival and has emerged as one of the fastest growing economies in the world but it could face the following issues—  Currency Volatility can be aggravated due to the fact that the volume of exports has remained the same in many sectors  Sharp increase in cheap imports (reasons below) hurting Indian Industries  Cheaper goods of China  Excess capacity of China might lead it to dump its goods in other countries  Could affect India’s exports making it expensive  Expansion in the country's deficit with China  Hurt ‘Make in India’ plan .IASbaba.Indian manufacturers already suffer significant cost disadvantages and their competitiveness will now diminish further against imports from China IASbaba’s Views:  India should take the following broad steps to contain the differences that suddenly arises out of this arrangement—  Consider proposals to protect steel manufacturers from cheap steel imports from China(India had increased the import duty on certain steel products by 2.5 per cent in . Connecting the Dots:  With ‘Yuan Devaluation’ effectively spooking the world financial markets. make a case for the importance of strong domestic institutions in the country www. 2015)  Decision should be taken on a case-to-case basis based on ground facts for a case of anti-dumping duty or any other policy to be put into effect   Focus on global trade and policy related efforts in boosting competitiveness There is also an urgent need to develop global safety nets to protect nations from negative spill-overs of the devaluation and ‘competitive devaluation’.

Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests.IASbaba. Brunei. mandate.relations. Indian diaspora. Storm on the South China Sea The Asia-Pacific region witnessed intense diplomatic upheavals over the South China Sea issue last year and it continues this year as well. Bilateral. Sunda and Lombak Straits. Important International institutions. agencies and fora. as well as activity in other Asian economies including Japan and South Korea. from which it continues on through the Malacca. South China Sea Geography:    Geographically. Malaysia.P a g e | 85 TOPIC: General studies 2:     India and its . The South China Sea is bordered by China. www.their structure. Their significant economic growth over the last 20 years. the Philippines and Taiwan. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests. Vietnam. the South China Sea plays a significant role in the geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific. has contributed to a large portion of the world’s commercial merchant shipping passing through these waters. Singapore.

in 2009 China submitted a diplomatic note to the United Nations Secretary-General. and the management of marine natural resources. and bases it on the ‘nine-dash line’ map that was published by the Chinese Ministry of the Interior in 1947. The legality of the nine-dash line map. which is claimed by China. asserting its sovereignty over islands in the South China Sea which was presented with a map of the ‘nine-dash line’. Vietnam and Taiwan. Legal and territorial disputes persist. the Philippines and Taiwan. establishing guidelines for businesses. have been reportedly occupied by claimants. Pratas Islands. Additionally. China and . the Philippines. China’s claim in the region:     China makes the largest claim in the South China Sea. which was made by the Chinese Government in 1958 and laid territorial claim to a majority of the islands in the South China Sea. Paracel Islands. Natuna Islands and the Scarborough Reef. is an international agreement which defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans. The map served as the basis for the Declaration on China’s Territorial Sea. The Paracel Islands are the subject of overlapping claims from China. Vietnam. Territorial disputes:      The defining characteristic of the South China Sea and a significant source of tensions in the region are the competing legal claims of territorial sovereignty over its islands. Another major dispute is over the Scarborough Shoal. which China charges is based on historical evidence. which consist of Taiwan. Spratlys. is disputed by other South China Sea territorial claimants and under the UNCLOS Treaty. primarily over the Spratly and Paracel Islands as well as the Scarborough Shoal. the environment. A case of UNCLOS treaty:  The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).IASbaba.P a g e | 86  The major island and reef formations in the South China Sea are the Spratly Islands. www.

China has reportedly constructed more new island surface than all other nations have constructed throughout history. Taiwan and the Philippines have all stationed military forces on at least some of their islands. What is the issue now?    Island building in the South China Sea. trade shipments to all countries in East and Southeast Asia — as well as deny access to foreign military forces. which have claimed 21 and eight islands. and construction on existing islands. Vietnam. has not put troops on what it calls “floating islands” — those constructed on submerged sandbars. particularly the United States.P a g e | 87 If china claims rights over islands in South China Sea based on historic reasons. or threaten to disrupt. reefs and other land masses.  The disputed islands fall in the exclusive economic zone of the claimants. It would also allow China to disrupt. Why does China want to control the South China Sea?    Control of the South China Sea would allow China to dominate a major trade route through which most of its imported oil flows. The floor of the South China Sea may contain massive oil and natural gas reserves. has been going on for decades. but Vietnam. primarily by Vietnam and the . in accordance with UNCLOS regulation. respectively. other countries claim rights as per UNCLOS. Sovereignty over the region could give China a level of energy security and independence far beyond what it currently possesses. www.

Japan. International organisations should pressurise china for a dialogue on the issue and try to find peace in South China Sea. To do so.S. TOPIC: General studies 2:     India and its neighborhood. Important International institutions. namely www. mandate.their structure. the United States is focused on strengthening regional . Explain the South China Sea dispute and its impact on maintaining world peace and order. Way ahead:   Increasing presence of USA in South China Sea is escalating the dispute. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. and provide them with updated military hardware to counter China’s technical advantages in both quantity and quality.P a g e | 88  It might use some of these artificial islands for military purposes by building airstrips and long-range radar systems. Connecting the dots:   Critically examine the impact of South China Sea dispute on India’s aspirations of being a regional super power in South Asia.IASbaba. Bilateral. in close coordination with the United States.relations. agencies and fora. response to the dispute?       The United States had virtually no response to previous building by Southeast Asian countries in the South China Sea. Indian diaspora. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests. The United States has used its aircraft and naval vessels to assert freedom of navigation in the region. Navy has operated continuously in the region since World War Two. BRICS— Performance Report In 2003—Goldman Sachs Report: Forecasted that the four Brics economies. it has helped boost its allies’ intelligence gathering and surveillance capabilities. What is the U.S. but has vigorously opposed China’s efforts. is to supply military hardware to the Philippines and Vietnam. Beyond freedom of navigation missions. The U.

all of them were relatively large (among top 12 in GDP) and populous (top nine) countries with large geographies (top seven) A key forecast had been that Brics taken together would equal half the GDP of the G6 by 2025 and it reached the desired number in double-quick time By 2014: The combined Brics GDP. was 49. at $16. while Brazil’s GDP will have shrunk to $1.P a g e | 89     Brazil.8 trillion from $2. until now. Russia.39 trillion in 2013 www. led by the US) in less than 40 years    Though these four BRICS economies were very different in key respects (like resource endowment and per capita income). ahead of Italy’s $1.82 trillion Let’s talk about China— Brics Report: Had forecasted that Chinese GDP would match that of the US by 2040.8 trillion— The comparison holding much importance as in 2003 the ratio had been just 15 per cent And India— Forecast: India’s GDP would become bigger than Italy’s (the smallest of the G6) in 2015 Reality: The International Monetary Fund's forecast for 2015 put India’s GDP at $2. ahead of India have seemed to lose a bit of ground with the commodity cycle swinging sharply down Russia’s GDP (according to IMF) will shrink to $ . helped along by currency appreciation Yuan Devaluation:   Economy is slowing down and there are serious structural issues confronting its economy To match up to USA—China needs to sustains 5 per cent annual growth sustainably Relative Performance—   With China being strong—both Brazil and Russia who were.IASbaba.would drive global growth for the next half century and that their combined GDP would exceed that of the G6 (the six largest economies of the time.08 trillion in 2013.24 trillion in 2015. down sharply from $2.1 per cent of the G6 total of $33.6 trillion.18 trillion. India and China .

Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests. and with China and India being the largest and third largest contributors to global economic growth. Facts Headquarter: Shanghai. culture and traditions. South Africa Voting Power: Equal Voting Power Broad Purpose:    To extend loans for infrastructure and sustainable development projects To help other countries during Balance of Payment (BoP) Crisis Keep ready “patient money” to BRICS nations (RaghuramRajan-RBI Governor) TOPIC: General studies 2:    Bilateral. despite all the odds India is still walking on the GDP rope and is very much likely to do so in future if a robust economic roadmap be drawn and priorities in hindsight set right. The two countries shared a border till 1947 and share several common features in their language.their structure. With two of the four Brics members. there is a need to evaluate if both. India Iran relations:    India-Iran relations span centuries marked by meaningful interactions. Indian diaspora.IASbaba.P a g e | 90   . India and China. India. Both South Asia and the Persian Gulf have strong commercial. can sail through the troubled BRICS-Water— with each other. China. mandate. Important International institutions.not likely to be among the largest contributors to world growth in the foreseeable future. cultural and people-to-people link. energy. www. agencies and fora. China Members: Brazil. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests. Russia.

EU and the UN on Iran due to its nuclear programme against the international norms has been lifted now following an IAEA’s compliance report with the terms of last years historic nuclear deal. As a . it hasn’t terminated them. Economic:  India-Iran enjoys economic and commercial ties covering many sectors.P a g e | 91 Why in news now? The economic sanctions imposed by US. It will be more an extended tightrope walk for Iran:     Iran’s long march forward now will be more an extended tightrope walk — proved by US imposition of fresh sanctions over Iran’s missile programme. pertaining to the test-fire of a precision-guided ballistic missile capable of delivering a nuclear warhead in October 2015. Non-nuclear economic sanctions imposed by the US remain in place. ready to raise its production and export of oil.IASbaba. What Iran expects to be doing now? Despite so many qualifiers. foreign companies may still not feel confident about dealing with Tehran. forbidding American citizens and firms from trading with Iran. Iran is now back in the global market. and utilise its own $100 billion of assets that are being unlocked. gain access to capital and investment. www. India Iran relations: An outlook 1. Moreover. the US has only suspended its nuclear-related sanctions.

Chahbahar container terminal project and Chahbahar-Zaranj railway project. machine tools. India’s export to Iran during the period April November 2013 stood at USD 3. India imported US$ 11. etc. rice. drugs/pharmaceuticals & fine chemicals. rubber manufactured products.6 billion worth of goods manly crude oil and exported commodities worth US$ 3.  India. a long term annual supply of 5 million tons of LNG.95 billion. The India-Iran bilateral trade during the fiscal 2012-13 was USD 14. Sanctions free Iran: How will it help India? 1. organic/inorganic/agro chemicals. every one dollar decline in international crude oil price reduces the import bill by about Rs 6. manufactures of metals. South Pars gas field and LNG project. the trade relations have traditionally been buoyed by Indian import of Iranian crude oil resulting in overall trade balance in favour of Iran. 2.  Both countries have set up joint ventures such as the Madras Fertilizer Company and the Chennai Refinery. machinery & instruments. The unilateral economic sanctions imposed on Iran have had an adverse effect on the bilateral trade as the international banking channels have gradually become non-existent.IASbaba. primary and semi finished iron & steel. www.  According to rating agency ICRA.  Indian companies such as ESSAR.  India is also a member of the International North-South Corridor project.P a g e | 92       However.from auto-components. India will have easy access to Iran’s crude oil again. There lie the prospects of an overseas market that could well help Indian businesses counter sluggish domestic demand . can look forward to the prospect of cheaper crude oil with the world's fifth largest producer returning to the world market. manmade yarn & fabrics. development of the Farsi oil and gas blocks.  The State Bank of India (SBI) has a representative office in Tehran. India’s exports to Iran include petroleum products. Other developmental initiatives:  India and Iran are in discussions for the setting up of a number of projects such as the IPI (Iran Pakistan India) gas pipeline project.  The two countries are in the process of finalizing a Bilateral Investment Promotion & Protection Agreement (BIPPA) and a Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA). pharmaceuticals and capital goods equipment to commodities such as rice and tea. etc have a presence in Iran. etc. processed minerals. for both of which India was once a monopoly supplier. fertilisers. the world's fourth largest oil importer.500 crore and the gross under-recoveries by Rs 800-900 crore. OVL.35 billion.21 billion. .  A decline in crude oil price is positive for the current account deficit as India imports about 80 per cent of its crude oil requirement. tea.

com .P a g e | 93 Way ahead:    India should take the signal from the lifting of sanctions. stable Iran is vital for its interests. Critically evaluate the role played by Iran in the geo politics of Middle East. With the resolutions undertaken and a consistent leap towards mainstreaming the technology. environmental pollution and degradation. India has been on the forefront of working for the development of sustainable solutions as well as understanding the need for transition to a less carbon-intensive growth trajectory.developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology. General studies 2:  Science and Technology .IASbaba. jointly with France with its domestic principles serving as a strong foundation. launched on the first day of the COP21 climate negotiations in Paris. again. indigenization of technology and developing new technology. Connecting the dots:   Critically examine the importance of Iran in order to promote energy security in India. TOPIC: General studies 2:  Bilateral.  Conservation. A peaceful. India should get Iran on board. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests. Building the International Solar Alliance    The International Solar Alliance (ISA) is an exciting initiative marked by India’s proactiveness and forward-looking leadership on climate change. with its domestic policy (to build 100 gigawatts) sending out clear signals to developers and financiers Big to Bigger— ISA—An inter-governmental institution www. environmental impact assessment. particularly for energy security and connectivity. India is slated to be one of the largest markets for developing and deploying solar energy.

List of members and observers. Details of the studies being undertaken Briefs and Reports of the studies being carried out www. Proposed activities. Encouraging cooperation on technology. Issuing a White Paper on ISA Governance: ISA is an inclusive multilateral institution and therefore. Governance structure. A meeting calendar.IASbaba. Building capacity. it demands clarity on—      Governance structure Decision making ways Role of contributions in Voting Rights Outlining alternative governance models Advancements of the needs of advanced and emerging economies and those of smaller member states as well as ways to balance them out Launching an ISA website: The website should feature        The ISA .P a g e | 94 Aims of ISA     Reducing financial risk across a larger global market. Minutes of meetings. Increasing energy access Let’s chart a roadmap for ISA Selection of a Director General (DG) with a secretariat: A dynamic DG can     Draw attention to the alliance Build relationships with member states and other international institutions Interact with the media regularly Develop a strategic plan to grasp the potential that ISA holds Creation of a core ISA Coordination Group: A dedicated inter-ministerial group needs to be deployed to    Distribute the workload Allocate funds Maintain contact with member states Prepare related documents.

Building long-term relationships for targeted investments Announcing an ISA Summit and Expo: An annual or biennial summit and expo would draw further interest.P a g e | 95  Outcomes of ISA activities Issuing monthly ISA briefings:   A regular open channel for press briefings and monthly updates to all ISA member countries would build support and invite genuine deliberations over important matters. bankers and other investors   "Energy Storage Prize". public and inter-governmental) could do to shape ISA's agenda. such as  mobilising investments deploying projects in member countries ISA thus. The ‘social marketing’ to spread awareness needs to be undertaken periodically as the more ISA is in the news. a measured approach needs to be undertaken with a "value-add" perspective Time is ripe to kick-start bold initiatives: ISA will do well to launch one or two bold initiatives capturing the imagination of ISA members and triggers interest in pitching high by the innovators. project developers. Assessing all proposals through a "value-add" lens: There will come forth a plethora of ideas. wherein it can serve as a connector of dots between all the stakeholders and countries leading the initiative www.To promote cross-country research and development collaborations "Solar Rooftop Financing Initiative".IASbaba. needs to adopt an approach that would not just leverage its position in the world but also save its own time by avoiding any overlaps of activities and thus. the more its activities and potential will get attention.A financing challenge common to many countries Establishing Formal links with Private Sector platforms: ISA can distinguish itself by establishing strong links with the private stakeholders—    By giving private sector consortia observer or associate member status. for example— On what other institutions ( . Encouraging them to design and implement ISA programmes.

mandate. Strong branding and True identity 25 January: Prime Minister Modi and President Hollande of France will jointly lay the foundation stone of the ISA building Headquarters' design should convey ISA’s—     Vision. .P a g e | 96 Building an ISA headquarters in New Delhi: For the need of a    Recognisable location. Emphasis on practical solutions and scale. relations have seen rapid growth across a broad spectrum of areas and the future vision of the cooperation is of a strong hi-tech partnership as befits two knowledge economies. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests. agencies and fora. Open and inclusive governance. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests. Indian diaspora. and Purpose of delivering clean energy access to millions TOPIC: General studies 2:    Bilateral. Taking India Israel relationship to the next level   India and Israel established full diplomatic relations in 1992 and since then the bilateral relationship between the two countries has blossomed. www.IASbaba. Important International institutions. in recent years.their structure. with defence and agriculture forming two main pillars of the bilateral agreement.

The wish to avoid angering India’s large Muslim minority against India supporting Israel in the Israel Palestine conflict. food production www.  The potential for mutually beneficial collaboration between India and Israel spans virtually the entire spectrum of human endeavour — from national security on land. 2. due to . Concern for the considerable expatriate Indian community working in the Arab Gulf states. INS Kolkata is making news at the international arena. through cutting-edge civilian technology in medicine. from the Indian navy’s stealth destroyer. Important thing to note is the Barak-8 (“Lightening” in Hebrew). sea and air. brimming with cutting-edge technology. However now India is trying to enhance its relation with Israel and take it to the next strategic level. is the product of a joint Indo-Israeli development endeavour.IASbaba. it did not enhance.P a g e | 97 Why in news now?   The reports referred to the successful testing of the “Barak-8” long-range surfaceto-air missile somewhere in the Indian Ocean. Why did India try to limit its relationship with Israel? Even though India had enough chances to enhance its ties with Israel.

has pioneered desert agriculture with sparse supplies of water. India has benefited from Israeli technologies in horticulture mechanisation. located as it is in a semi-arid region with limited sources of fresh drinking water. protected cultivation. evident from the number of bilateral agreements signed between the two nations. has built several desalination plants in India. a global leader in drip irrigation. enhancement of water management and rural development. seeking agro-technology to address the farming crisis in the Vidarbha and Marathwada regions. nursery management. Indian companies and official delegations regularly visit the biannual Water Technology & Environment Control Exhibition & Conference. to cultural exchanges. which showcases Israel’s water and energy technologies. Israel’s expertise includes recycling waste water and desalination. WATER MANAGEMENT:    Technologically adept Israel has developed water-management technologies. there appears to be a special affinity between the two peoples that transcends cordial government-to-government relations.IASbaba. Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis recently visited Israel. AGRICULTURE:     This has been an important facet in the Indo-Israel relationship. the second such plant in Chennai. commissioned in 2013. www. the military business between the two nations was worth around $9 billion. Israel. orchard and canopy management. among other matters. Why Israel matters a lot to India ? DEFENCE:     India is the largest buyer of Israeli military equipment and Israel is the second-largest defence supplier to India after Russia. But beyond . From 1999 to 2009. an Israeli company. India has benefited from Israel’s expertise in the sector. on homeland and public security and protection of classified materials and information. particularly in Haryana and Maharashtra.irrigation and post-harvest management. Israel has also pledged support to the ‘Make in India’ mission in the defence sector. micro.P a g e | 98  and communications. IDE. including a 100-million-litre per day desalination plant at Nemelli in Tamil Nadu. While Indian agriculture is largely dependent on rain and an erratic monsoon. India and Israel also closely cooperate on anti-terror activities and have signed agreements.

Israel ranks 44th in terms of foreign direct investment in India. India needs to develop a strategic relationship with Israel? Analyse the statement with reference to cross border terrorism in India. Stones and pearls are the second-largest . exported to Israel from India after mineral fuels. www. both countries see themselves as isolated democracies threatened by neighbours that train. The trade balance stood in India’s favour at $ 1. Since 2010. which should boost investments and trade ties.44 billion in 2013-14. up 57% over 200910.20 billion. finance and encourage terrorism. the two countries have been negotiating a free-trade agreement for goods and services. therefore both countries also view their cooperative relationship as a strategic imperative. Mineral fuels and oils are India’s leading export to Israel worth $1. India’s major imports from Israel in 2013-14 included natural or cultured pearls and precious stones.IASbaba. defence etc.P a g e | 99 TRADE:      India’s total trade with Israel is $6. in terms of value. worth $1.45 billion in 2013-14. Comment. Connecting the dots:    Do you agree with the view that Israel is a “natural ally” of India? Agriculture and Defence are the two pillars which determined the relationship of India with Israel. Way ahead:  Notwithstanding cooperation in agriculture. investing $82 million between April 2000 and February 2015.06 billion in 2013-14.

com . Europe dithers. in contrast.  France. relations have developed in a manner fully justifying the term ‘Strategic Partnership’. India’s relations with America. 2. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests. Russia asserts. has drawn closer to the former and is wooing the latter. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests. France has been a steadfast proponent and supporter of India’s candidature for permanent membership of a reformed UN Security Council. Important International institutions. Fulfilling the potential of India-France ties    Relations between India and France are multi-faceted. close and special. www. has made a clear choice in favour of India. Indian diaspora. Britain and China will always retain different degrees of difficulty given their dalliance with the Pakistan army. which unambiguously backed India against China and Pakistan in the Cold War. In 1998. Britain retrenches.IASbaba.their structure.  Russia. The relationship is based on shared values and real convergence on a whole range of regional and global issues. Why is France important to India? France is important to India for three important reasons 1. France becomes critical for India in promoting a measure of balance on the Eurasian landmass.P a g e | 100 TOPIC: General studies 2:    Bilateral. agencies and fora. and America is torn by self-doubt. As China rises. a ‘Strategic Partnership’ was announced and since then. mandate. France : A natural ally of India   France was the first country with which India entered into an agreement on Civil Nuclear Cooperation.

registering an increase of 11.65 billion from April 2000 to June 2015 which represent 1. Delhi is painfully aware of the dangers of jumping from the frying pan into the fire.IASbaba. 4. 3. 2008 during the visit of the then Prime Minister to France.18 billion whereas French exports to India totalled € 2.16% from . 5. the Centre National de Etudes Spatiales (CNES) have a rich history of cooperation and collaboration spanning five decades.69 billion. Trade:  In 2014.87 billion.  India’s exports to France were valued € 5. the total trade in goods between France and India was € 7. Defence Cooperation:  The defence relations between the two countries are strong and have been growing within the framework of structured talks under the Indo-French Defence Cooperation Agreement. France can be a privileged partner for India in strengthening peace and security in the maritime domain. 2.  Indian companies have also invested in France.P a g e | 101  As the only credible military power with undiminished political will and a historic presence in the Indo-Pacific.  The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and its French counterpart.  France is the 9th largest foreign investor in India with a cumulative investment of USD 4.  As a leading Western power with shared political values. While India’s quest for multi-polarity has often drawn it closer to China and Russia.  French companies continue to look at India as an attractive investment destination in order to expand their profits and diversify risks. France is a more credible partner for India in constructing a more equitable world order through a new concert of major powers. Space Cooperation:  France and India view each other as important partners in space technology and applications. Investments:  France has emerged as a major source of FDI for India with about 750 big French companies already present in India. Bilateral Trade & Investment cooperation 1. www. Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperation:  A landmark Agreement on Civil Nuclear Cooperation was signed between India and France on 30 September.  Exchanging American global primacy for Chinese domination makes little sense for Delhi.80% of the total FDI inflows into India for the period. 3.

 During the present Prime Minister’s visit to France in April 2015. 9. as is evident in the numerous and frequent cultural events organized all over France. the Indian and French cooperation is enhanced by various initiatives developing the ties of friendship and solidarity between both nations.  The Cultural Exchange Programme (CEP) for 2013-15 was signed during the visit of President Hollande to India on 14 February 2013. the French National Railways were signed. music. cinema and literature. a joint statement to strengthen the cooperation in the Railways sector between the two countries. Critically analyse the role of France in promoting nuclear energy in India. Connecting the dots:   Critically examine Indo France relationship since Indian independence. Cooperation in the field of sports:  In the field of sports.  The Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR) regularly sponsors visits of Indian artists to France and also assists in exchange of students in the field of culture and arts. Delhi and National Architecture Institute in Paris signed a MoU and Ministry of AYUSH. and a Memorandum of Understanding for Technical Cooperation in the field of Railways between Indian Railways and Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Français (SNCF). Cultural Cooperation:  Indian culture enjoys a wide and discerning audience among the French population.P a g e | 102  The government recently signed Rafeal deal to purchase around 36 aircrafts from France. Government of India and University of Strasbourg signed a Letter of Intent on Ayurveda. dance. 8. 6.IASbaba. spanning the entire spectrum of Indian art. 7. Educational and Technical Cooperation:  The bilateral educational and S&T cooperation between India and France has grown over the last few years. 2013. Cooperation in the field of Railways:  There has been longstanding cooperation in the field of railway between India and France. www. School of Planning and Architecture.  During the visit of President Hollande to India in .

Airports. if the distress is due to reasons that were foreseeable at the time of signing the agreement. Similarly. according to a Assocham study. lack of . Creation of multi-disciplinary expert institutions to address the problem of stalled PPP projects  The report talks about setting up an Infrastructure PPP Project Review Committee (IPRC) comprising at least one expert in finance and economics. Kelkar panel to revive PPP in infra projects Kelkar committee has proposed a series of recommendations with respect to revamping PPP in infrastructure projects. Clear-cut norms on resolving issues and clarifying norms on re-negotiation of contracts. Ports. Roads. General studies 2:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. The recommendations: 1. etc. stipulating the reasons that form the basis for renegotiation and those that should not be entertained as valid reasons. The Kelkar report has drawn up extensive guidelines regarding the re-negotiation of the terms of concession agreement.    For example.  Infrastructure investments worth around Rs 12 lakh crore remained stuck at different stages as of end-December 2014 due to a variety of issues such as land acquisition. Railways. if the distress in the project is not caused by the private party and is likely to adversely affect the government or users. if the project distress is due to material reasons and may result in default under the existing concession agreement. and costly finances.  This puts stress on banks and the developers’ balance sheet. However.IASbaba. Investment models. then that forms the basis for renegotiation. unfavourable market conditions. then the pact itself can be re-negotiated. www. 1. then no re-negotiation will take place.P a g e | 103 ECONOMICS TOPIC: General studies 3:   Infrastructure: Energy.

 The committee recommends that MCAs for each sector be reviewed independently to capture the interests of all participating stakeholders — users. 3. 2. preferably engineers with a minimum of 15 years of experience in the industry in question. project proponents. Amend prevention of corruption act 1988  The government should take early action to amend the Prevention of Corruption . lenders and markets. part annuity. It also recommends the creation of an Infrastructure PPP Adjudication Tribunal (IPAT) which is to be chaired by a former Supreme Court Judge or former High Court Chief Justice.  Measures may be taken immediately to make only malafide action by public servants punishable. has strongly emphasised the urgent need for a dedicated institute for PPPs. as was announced in the previous budget.IASbaba. Dispose pending cases between developers and NHAI. enable research. and review and roll out activities to build capacity. and to guard against witch hunt against government officers and bureaucrats for decisions taken with bonafide intention. 4. with at least one technical and financial member. which can function as a centre of excellence. 5. operation and maintenance grants. 1988 which does not distinguish between genuine errors in decision-making and acts of corruption.P a g e | 104  law. and one or more sectoral experts. Sector specific recommendations: 1. The committee strongly endorses the 3P India (3PI). etc for non-BOT projects. Moving away from the one-size-fits-all approach to PPP model concession agreements (MCAs). without exception. viable gap funding. concessionaires. Creation of dedicated institutions for PPP projects   “Every stakeholder. Promote zero coupon bonds  The finance ministry should allow banks and financial institutions to issue zero-coupon bonds.  Relax exit norms.  Shift to electronic tolling in time-bound manner. Roads: Increase concession period for BOT projects  Introduce hybrid models. and not errors. which will also help to achieve soft landing for user charges in the infrastructure sector and its financing in longer term. www.

rail. concession agreement and tender process. Some points of criticism by CAG in its various PPP reports and the possible solutions by Kelkar committee PORTS CAG  Delays in majority of projects due to time taken in finalization of tenders. Airports: Prepare a policy that addresses the expected growth parameters of the sector and promotes PPPs  Concession agreement should stipulate important commercial parameters like return on equity. treatment of land for non-commercial purposes. Ports: Move from pre-TAMP (tariff authority for major ports) to current-TAMP  Strengthen and accelerate environmental clearance. KELKAR COMMITTEE  Urgent need to focus on strengthening the systems to speed up the overall environmental clearance process. security clearances.P a g e | 105 2. roads) to developer. Set up regulatory authority to settle technical issues such as track-access charges. greenfield —development of new stations. utilities.  Develop brownfield and greenfield airports with defined structure.  Delays in handing over of project sites and back up area. Provide support infrastructure (including land. Railways: Take up simpler projects first to build credibility  Such projects can be brownfield — monetisation of existing stations — or. 3. rail and road evacuation infrastructure through enforceable obligations. revenue sharing mechanisms. www.  More institutions are required to be given authorization for conducting Coastal Regulation Zone demarcation. But the sector has a farreaching impact on infrastructure PPPs  Immediately address power sector finances as they are hurting bank loans. dredging. Power: Not many power projects are under . 5.  Need to provide support infrastructure facilities including land.  Delays in obtaining environmental clearance. dredging.IASbaba. 4. reliable access to utilities.

concessionaire can opt for revenue share on a case to case basis.IASbaba. Economic survey 2014-15 pointed out to structural problems which have resulted in low economic growth over the past. Projects were approved despite the known late realization of minimum threshold traffic. KELKAR COMMITTEE    In the case of BOT toll projects. maybe explored. which could be used to compare actual bids received. This speeding up is urgently required for India to grow rapidly and generate a demographic dividend for itself and also to tap into the large pool of pension and institutional funds from aging populations in the developed countries. options to fund through hybrid models. soliciting stakeholder views on project structure and financial viability analysis to estimate a shadow bid. focus on projects with longer concession period. and debt instruments. Way ahead:   PPPs in infrastructure represent a valuable instrument to speed up infrastructure development in India. TPC worked out by concessionaire was higher by 50%. O&M grants. NHAI. part annuity.P a g e | 106 ROAD CAG    Inconsistency in adopting carrying capacity/tollable traffic as yardstick for determining the Concession Period by NHAI resulted in fixing higher concession period and higher toll burden on road users. Connecting the dots:   Critically examine the measures taken by government to revamp PPP in infrastructure development with special reference to Kelkar committee recommendations. The concessioning authority may undertake detailed project development activities including demand assessment. In case of projects that are not viable on BOT toll . www. The Total Project Cost (TPC) worked out by the concessionaires was higher as compared to TPC worked out by the NHAI. What do you understand by structural problems? Explain the measures taken by government to overcome it. grant of VGF. In 25 projects.

their .P a g e | 107 General Studies 2:    Bilateral. ensuring a level field might just remain a pipe-dream www. and so on. a non-LDC India has negotiated hard to ensure that the interests of the LDCs and the developing countries are kept at the centre of the WTO agenda India has the youngest population in the world and with half its people below the age of 25. Issues relating to poverty and hunger. the non-least developed country (LDC) members can give preference to services and service providers from LDCs for duration of another 15 years Presently there are 35 countries which have been classified as LDCs by the United Nations and have become members of the WTO.There exists a crisis in elementary education coverage in India and therefore. humanities. agencies and fora. with Afghanistan being the latest to join as a member during the Nairobi conference India    Developing country. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests Important International institutions. Education.General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) GATS deals with global trade. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. WTO: GATS & Indian Education   Lack of dialogue and social concern witnessed during the negotiations in the GATS Agenda. The Waiver   According to the waiver by WTO. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health. health.IASbaba. mandate. as commodities. life insurance. Human Resources. social sciences. services such as higher education. research and development in the physical sciences. it faces the challenge of educating its youth and preparing them for taking up employment both within the country and outside Facilitated entry of foreign education providers ensuring proper regulation as well as proper framework to be followed Can it be possible for India? 1st generation learners.

can establish their off-campus institute anywhere in India) Issues with GATS in India      No means of ensuring that only high-quality universities enter No means of controlling the cost of education they provide In India. Where people are ageing in developed countries. Moreover. brain drain might become an even more common phenomenon to be witnessed in developing countries like India. it can lead to loss of the right to demand from the government scholarships and subsidies or reservation in educational institutions. If a country wants to withdraw its commitment. and Research funding Principle of progressive liberalisation—   If an offer is made it is difficult to withdraw the offer in the next round of negotiations as any withdrawal (sector or sub-sector) needs to be compensated by making a comparable offer involving another sector In simple Positive move— Students can have greater access to a wide range of education opportunities at home or abroad (World’s top universities. Cutting down on the non-National Eligibility Test fellowships. Refer the link for Education & Technology: ‘The perils of e-fixation’: Students. Indian Government’s MoveWorking on introducing education reforms indicating its own willingness to adopt the GATS agenda in education. including ones such as Harvard and Stanford. Computers and Learning (http://iasbaba. namely:     Four-year undergraduate programme.Equitable development can be ensured only when social justice is ensured first. it will have to pay heavily as compensation www. which more often than not builds up a psychological pressure leading to some drastic steps like suicide.IASbaba. It has also been argued that it’ll lead to education becoming a commercial activity instead of a service. students increasingly face the issue of education loan. during the offer stage a country can withdraw its approval. but when the country signs an agreement it cannot withdraw from its commitment.P a g e | 108 Trade or Justice. Choice-based credit . India is still reeling under issues of subsidies and lack of support needed by students wherein unfair trade practices creep in.

Stimulating economic activity through guaranteed policy bindings.P a g e | 109 Background GATS Created during the Uruguay Round Objectives:     Creating a credible and reliable system of international trade rules.A commercial presence. Mode 2 refers to consumption abroad. Mode 4. Mode 3. a branch office or agency to deliver. This is merely to facilitate temporary migration and not to seek a job or stay permanently.IASbaba. Ensuring fair and equitable treatment of all participants (principle of nondiscrimination). and Promoting trade and development through progressive liberalization Modes of entry— Mode 1 refers to cross-border . for instance. thus crossing national frontiers.Movement of natural persons. banking or engineering or even medical services may be transmitted electronically or by regular mail. Connecting the Dots:  Discuss the evolution of education as a commodity rather than a necessity Related Articles: Post-Nairobi : WTO. where the consumer physically goes abroad and purchases a service as in the case of a tourist or one who goes for a medical treatment or for education. the service demanding country allows a foreign national to enter and provide the service. legal or communications services. banking. For instance.Doha Development Agenda http://iasbaba. Here services flow from the territory of one WTO member into that of another.WTO Negotiations Message from www. WTO and its relevance http://iasbaba. a service supplier of one member establishes.

Effects of liberalization on the economy General studies 2: Important aspects of governance.IASbaba. Illicit Financial Flows Report by Global Financial Integrity (GFI) on Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs):   $510 billion of black money flowed out of India from 2004 to 2013.their structure.These businesses are assumed to be separate economic activities www. agencies and fora. that means an average annual outflow of $51 billion. mandate.4 per cent of the $510 billion of IFFs from India  Cash transactions  Hawala transactions Huge Mis-interpretations— Of the mainstream discourse on    Tax evasion (which is illegal) Tax avoidance (which is legal but could be equally abusive) Ignorance towards entities accounting for the lion’s share of illicit capital flight: Multinational Enterprises (MNEs)  Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) estimates that more than 60 per cent of global trade occurs within MNEs — that is. But the estimate did not include or cover mis-invoicing of:  Trade in services  Trade of Goods. Important International institutions. transparency and accountability. Bilateral.3 lakh crore. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. the numbers indicate a massive shifting of profits from jurisdictions with higher tax rates to those with zero or very low tax rates Case of MNE:   An integrated entity that coordinates the businesses of hundreds of subsidiaries spread across jurisdictions For tax purposes.P a g e | 110 TOPIC:   General studies 3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning. 3. between the subsidiaries of an MNE Therefore. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.Accounted for . growth. mobilization of resources. development and employment. or Rs.

diverge from the market forces) www.IASbaba. with no relation to cost and added value. transfer pricing takes the form of:    a licensing fee or a royalty payment or interest paid . leaving plenty of scope for profit shifting and tax games Added to this.P a g e | 111   Leads to a single group of companies with 500 subsidiaries assumed to consist of 500 independent taxable entities in diverse locations.. thus. an evasion-friendly tax regime leads MNEs to enjoy an effective tax rate in the low single-digits Finance Ministry’s Data: Received: $392.2 billion in FDI in the 15 years from 2000 to 2015 Loss in illicit outflows: $512 billion in just the 10 years from 2004 to 2013 TJN Report: “The problem is that the assets of these countries are held by a small number of wealthy individuals while the debts are shouldered by the ordinary people of these countries through their governments” So what should be the best way to make ordinary people shoulder the state’s debt burden? Ans: Tax ‘consumption’ more heavily than wealth (Goods & Services Tax comes into the picture as one would argue that it is the only way to make up the direct tax revenue that the state is either unable or unwilling to collect from treaty-shopping MNEs) Transfer Pricing Most popular mechanism for shifting profits Mechanism of Transfer PricingFor IT giants such as Google or Microsoft (engaged in services).com .by a subsidiary to a parent company located offshore Payments are then treated as a cost in the jurisdiction where revenues are being generated. thereby slashing profits (arbitrary and dictated.

1 trillion of income to tax-dodging every year Bigger losers: Developing countries in Africa. Asia and Latin America Consequences (India)—    Country would be seen as possessing a combative tax administration Discourages overseas investors portraying the country as a troublesome investment destination Increase in tax litigation – causing valuable expenditure in (tareekh e tareekh) Development of a Tax Regime:  With global trade being dominated by MNEs.P a g e | 112 Transfer Pricing Regulations (TPR)   Applicable to the all enterprises that enter into an 'International Transaction' with an 'Associated Enterprise' (all cross border transactions entered into between associated enterprises) Aim: To arrive at the comparable price as available to any unrelated party in open market conditions and this price is thus. it was found necessary to put in place a tax regime that ensured revenue for every country while avoiding double taxation  Two model tax treaties were developed: www. transfer pricing channels a subsidiary’s profits through a cascade of companies incorporated in different jurisdictions. known as the Arm's Length Price (ALP) Arm’s Length Price: Price that would be charged in the transaction if it had been entered into by unrelated parties in similar conditions Basically.IASbaba. Loss of foreign exchange Unethical corporate governance Examples (illegal):    Google has used Bermuda Amazon uses Luxembourg Microsoft uses Bermuda This equals to a lethal combination of transfer pricing and tax havens thus. to eventual safety in a tax haven Drawbacks:    Loss of taxation revenue to Govt. making it impossible to curb illicit capital flows European Union: Estimated to be losing € .

since the bulk of their revenue is generated overseas  Non-residents: Would be taxed only on their domestic income  MNEs make money here. Shome Panel’s ‘retrospective cases www.P a g e | 113  One by the United Nations—  Favoured taxing income at the ‘source country’ that is.Which can be easily diverted towards creation of more social capital) India also needs to consider reducing the transfer pricing related litigations and enhance MNC’s confidence to invest in .IASbaba. only to see the profits flow to offshore entities without doing much to enrich the local population  Another by the OECD—  Residents: Would be taxed on their worldwide income  Predominant in tax treaties. Linking taxation to sales and assets in India rather than the (putative) residence of ‘effective’ management IASbaba’s Views   We need to understand that curbing illicit capital flight is to be given a higher priority than courting foreign capital as what is rightfully ours should be brought back first (not a minimal amount. regardless of the residence of the enterprise’s owners  In favour: Of developing countries which. had allowed their natural resources to be extracted by foreign capital. wherever the incomegenerating economic activity took place.Suits the MNEs  Asked to pay little tax in their own residence jurisdiction. not eligible to pay taxes  Occurrence of discrepancy of double tax avoidance India’sDouble Taxation Avoidance Agreements have opted for a predominantly OECD model:  FDI we seek will pay very little or no tax in India on the income it generates from India  Place of Effective Management: Essentially a residence taxation concept Is there any Alternative Arrangement that could have been opted for? Yes.and they end up avoiding paying the taxes owing to them being Non-residents and therefore. for years.

GAAR 2. Improve the Investment Climate When we talk about the growth rate that has been projected by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) being .P a g e | 114 formulation’ (recovery of dues only without additional penalty demand) seems to be a good way ahead for the same.  Inclusive growth and issues arising from it. UNCITRAL TOPIC: General Studies 2:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning. growth.their structure. agencies and fora. What does the figure say—   Advanced economies are growing at around 2 per cent Developing economies are growing at 4 per cent Stumbling Blocks—     Economic crisis of Greece (Europe) Sharp decline in oil prices (Oil-exporting countries) Countries which had gained as a consequence of a fall in crude oil prices have not been able to exhibit faster growth as well Concerns regarding China and Yuan Devaluation (Competitive Devaluation) www. we understand that the end of 2015 has not only ended at an all-time-low but has also exhibited the crying need to be corrected as early as possible. General Studies3:  Important International institutions.IASbaba. development and employment. mobilization of resources.1 per cent. Parthsarthi Shome Panel Recommendations 3. mandate. Investment models. Connecting the Dots: Write a short note on the following: 1.  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Services sector:     There will not be much difference in the growth rate but ‘concentration and efforts’ in the industrial sector carries the possibility of carrying the growth rate forward Index of Industrial Production (IIP) for April-October 2015 shows a distinct improvement but external demand.S.7 per cent during this period and this does not auger well for many industries www.5 per cent World Bank Report: Shows lower numbers for both 2015 and 2016 United States:     Recent decision to hike the policy rate by the Fed is some indication that monetary policymakers believe that the U.6 per cent The decline is mostly due to the decline in the export of petroleum products.India is the only country that has shown a good performance Mid-year economic analysis estimates India’s growth rate in 2015-16 to be between 7 and 7. concerns regarding China will continue (though ‘Shale’ might come to the rescue) Hiking the Policy Rate might spell out its own effects on capital flows to developing economies and lead to financial markets witnessing greater volatility Can India show a better performance— BRICS Block.5 per cent Concerns— Supply Side Indicators like agriculture maynot contribute much in enhancing the growth rate and with the erratic weather playing spoil-sport in 2015. exports during the period of April-October declined by 17. economy is on a recovery path But the Fed has not yet relaxed its accommodative posture.P a g e | 115 Let’s talk about 2016 IMF: Projected the global growth rate for 2016 to be 3. non-oil exports have declined by .IASbaba. has been weak and overall. by more than 50 per cent Also. this scenario is quite likely to repeat itself in 2016. which indicates that the recovery is fragile Since oil prices are not expected to rise (oil-producing countries will continue to deal with losses). as reflected in the performance of exports.6 per cent with   Advanced economies growing at 2.2 per cent Developing economies growing at 4.

4 per cent of GDP. thus the behaviour of private corporate investment or private investment in general will be witnessing an increase from their end. after taking into account the additional tax revenue on the increased emoluments. Ability of the government to raise money for capital expenditures is limited and relaxing the fiscal consolidation path is not a solution-Why: Larger fiscal deficit will not only take up a greater share of the available pool of savings but also cause an increase in the interest rates.IASbaba.P a g e | 116  Good Signs:  Private Consumption could pick up partly because of the benefit accruing to consumers due to the fall in petroleum prices  Consumption goods sector of IIP has done well and Public sector investment has shown a rise  Capital expenditure of the Central government during the period April-October 2015 rose by 31 per cent Public Sector Enterprises Bulk of the public investment came from the public sector enterprises but public investment alone will not be able to reverse the current trend falling in the negative end of the scale In 2015-16: Revenue Growth: Close to budgetary expectations (despite a lower-than-expected growth in nominal GDP) Expenditure Side: Subsidy burden came down because of a fall in crude prices Government expenditures:    Stayed at budgeted levels Could stick to the fiscal consolidation path Witnessed the rise in Capital expenditures substantially Burden of the Pay Commission’s Promises: The additional burden imposed by the Seventh Pay Commission is substantial and can pose to be a real hurdle— Expenditure on pay and pension: Will increase by 20 per cent and will amount to a burden of 0. (Not conductive to a growth in private sector investment) Rise in Private consumption: Because of the additional income in the hands of government . www.

Governments. General studies 3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning. As a member of the G20. www.P a g e | 117 Private Corporate Investment: While there has been some improvement in relation to stalled projects. growth. Indian diaspora.IASbaba. mobilization of resources. there is no strong pick up in the new projects Issues:   Slow growth in nominal sales revenue High levels of debt IASbaba’s Views:   A strong recovery is possible in 2016 with growth rate exceeding 7. treaties    The international community led by the G20 had initiated the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project a few years ago with the aim of ensuring that profits are taxed where economic activities are performed and where value is created. Gear up for changes in tax . tax authorities and social groups have been voicing their concern over the past decade that multinational enterprises are shifting profits to low tax jurisdictions where there is no or little value-creation. and consequently not paying their fair share of taxes. development and employment. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests. Government needs to adopt a pro-active approach in creating a proper investment climate:  Enhance investors’ confidence in the system  Removal of cumbersome rules and procedures  Toning up the delivery system TOPIC:   General studies 2: Bilateral.5 per cent but that is contingent on private investment. India is an active participant in the BEPS project. particularly private corporate investment. showing substantial improvement. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests.

USD 100 to 240 billion annually. i. Estimates conservatively indicate annual losses of anywhere from 4 . India is likely to amend its domestic tax law as well as tax treaties (either through the multilateral instrument being developed as part of the BEPS project. www. resulting in little or no overall corporate tax being paid. BEPS is of major significance for developing countries due to their heavy reliance on corporate income tax.IASbaba. Incentives in the tax laws for attracting investment. The most common practices and structures identified by India from a BEPS perspective are:       Excessive payments to foreign-affiliated companies in respect of interest. and Assets situated in India but owned by companies located in low tax jurisdictions with no substance. Research undertaken since 2013 confirms the potential magnitude of the BEPS problem. Aggressive transfer pricing.P a g e | 118 What is BEPS?   Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) refers to tax planning strategies that exploit these gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift profits to low or no-tax locations where there is little or no economic activity. Treaty shopping. particularly from multinational enterprises (MNEs). service charges and . What should India do?   To implement BEPS actions around these issues. or bilaterally). Taxpayers need to be aware of and constantly monitor the ongoing BEPS Action Plans as well as the changes that India is bringing about in its domestic law and tax treaties. It is important that taxpayers take note of these developments and prepare accordingly. including supply chain restructuring that contractually allocates risks and profits to affiliated companies in low tax jurisdictions. Digital enterprises facing zero or no taxation in view of the principle of residencebased taxation. Way ahead:   The new BEPS guidance will have a significant impact on Indian taxpayers.10% of global corporate income tax (CIT) revenues.

services and financial transactions and the entities can be company divisions and departments. The Arm’s Length principle:  If two unrelated companies trade with each other. Treaty shopping:    The practice of structuring a multinational business to take advantage of more favourable tax treaties available in certain . in itself. www. illegal or necessarily abusive. intangibles. buys something from a Frenchbased subsidiary of Coca-Cola. they may wish to artificially distort the price at which the trade is recorded. or parent companies and its subsidiaries.P a g e | 119 Background: 1.  The valuables can be tangibles. When the parties establish a price for the transaction.  Transfer pricing is not. to minimise the overall tax bill. A business that resides in a home country that doesn't have a tax treaty with the source country from which it receives income can establish an operation in a second source country that does have a favorable tax treaty in order to minimize its tax liability with the home country. because it is the product of genuine negotiation in a market.IASbaba. India has now initiated the process of renegotiating some of its existing bilateral tax treaties to combat treaty shopping by inserting anti-abuse rules. Transfer pricing:  Transfer pricing is the practice of setting up prices for trading valuables between two entities across different tax jurisdictions. For Example: When a US-based subsidiary of Coca-Cola. This arm’s length price is usually considered to be acceptable for tax purposes. Most countries have established anti-treaty shopping laws to circumvent the practice. for example. But when two related companies trade with each other. This is when transfer pricing becomes illegal or abusive. a market price for the transaction will generally result. this is transfer pricing. This is known as “arms-length” trading. Some of the BEPS suggestions on this aspect are similar and need to be evaluated by taxpayers closely in light of their current structure.      2. This might. help it record as much of its profit as possible in a tax haven with low or zero taxes.

5 per cent for rabi crops. the annual premium will be five per cent of the sum insured.  Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes. General studies 3:  Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country. For horticulture crops. laws. transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints. mechanisms. It will charge a uniform premium of two per cent of the sum insured from farmers for all kharif crops and 1. The balance premium would be paid by the government to the insurance companies. Insuring a risky venture called agriculture  In a bid to provide a social security net to millions of farmers across the country. . the Union Cabinet has approved a new crop insurance scheme called Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (Prime Minister’s Crop Insurance Scheme). e-technology in the aid of farmers.P a g e | 120 Connecting the dots:   What do you understand by Base Erosion and Profit Sharing? Explain its impact on global economy with special focus on India.IASbaba. Explain the terms transfer pricing and treaty shopping along with measures taken by Indian government to prevent their abuse. What is the scheme all about?      The scheme provides agricultural insurance for crops against crop loss and failure. TOPIC: General studies 2:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. reeling under the impact of consecutive droughts. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. This would be shared equally by the Centre and state governments. different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage.

there would be no upper limit on the subsidy and even if the balance premium is 90 per cent. Low premium rates: uniqueness of the scheme   Till now. Which is why the total crop insurance cover till now in agriculture is 23 per . Practical problem associated with earlier agriculture insurance schemes: There have been many crop insurance schemes in the past. often. farmers’ insurance claims have to be settled within 45 days of the risk assessment. 1. the average premium for all food grain crops was as high as 15 per cent. while for horticulture crops. it entails easy usage of technology like mobile phone. it would provide for the same. claims are not attended to even after six months. For the Centre. This also means if a state government does not fulfil its commitment of 50 per cent subsidy sharing. The scheme has the lowest premium. according to rules. www. quick assessment of damage and disbursement within a time-frame. However. However the premium rates in the new scheme would as low as 2% for kharif crops. Under the earlier schemes. but all of them have some problem or the other. 2. the Centre would step in but not allow the scheme to fail.P a g e | 121 Comparing with earlier agriculture insurance schemes: Advantages of the new scheme: 1.IASbaba. which is a major reason why farmers don’t for crop insurance.5% for rabi crops and 5% for horticultural crops. it was even higher.

with 23 per cent insurance cover. Compromise in quantity and quality during storage and distribution etc.P a g e | 122 Fundamental problem of Indian agriculture:   The fundamental problem with Indian agriculture is that farmers face yield risks as much as they face price risks. and almost all of them have failed. The risk of lower prices after harvest. explain with special reference to impact of agriculture insurance. 2. Even though more than 60% of total arable area in India is dependent on monsoons for crop production.IASbaba. Critical implementation gaps that led to failure of previous schemes should be studied and reworked upon in order to make the new scheme successful. The insurance amount covered will also not be capped and so also the premium rates. However attempts were made in the past to insure the Indian crop market.800 crore over the next three years. Explain the reasons for low crop insurance penetration among farming community in India along with measures taken by government to promote agricultural insurance. assuming that 50 per cent of farmers are . Connecting the dots:   Critically examine the factors that impact agricultural productivity in India. www. How much will the scheme cost the government?    The new insurance scheme would cost the government Rs 8. At present. No other sector can claim this level of uncertainty at almost every level of operation— 1. These risks assume higher proportions given productivity and technology lacunae and affects the economy as a whole through the agriculture sector’s extensive linkages.100 crore a year on crop insurance. the Centre spends Rs 3. The risk of monsoon failure and infestations during crop growth. Way ahead:    The new crop insurance scheme is a well-timed policy. the agriculture crop insurance coverage is less than 25%. 3.

investment has not grown.IASbaba. growth. the declines in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu were sharper. looks moderate in comparison.7% in 2014-15. several obstacles blocking the investment revival remain in place. Underperformance of manufacturing sector:   As for ‘Make in India’. the central government has preferred simply to delegate some of the task to states. development and employment. peaked at 33.6% in 2011-12 and has since trended down to the current low of 28. mobilization of resources. Inclusive growth and issues arising from it. www.  As a result. Performance at state level:   The above weakness in capital formation is a nationwide . at more than 20%. India’s investment anaemia     12th five year plan (2012-17) envisaged a target of around one trillion dollars to enable a growth rate of around 8%. Maharashtra and Karnataka. as a share of gross domestic product. both experienced a cumulative decline of about 15% in projects. The cumulative decline in services. the reality is that capacity creation in manufacturing has suffered a cumulative decline of 35% from its peak in 2011. the prospect of pushing through tough reforms appears bleak. with all major states registering a decline in ongoing projects over the period between 201112 to 2014-15. focussed much more on investment led growth. for example.  As a part of 14th finance commission recommendations. Factors that are holding back investments: 1.P a g e | 123 TOPIC: General studies 3:   Indian Economy and issues relating to planning. The new government which was formed in 2014. centre devolved around 42% of net tax proceeds to state governments. More disturbing. Domestic resource mobilization:  Private-sector fixed-capital investment. Sadly. Failure of major reforms like land acquisition etc:  Given parliamentary gridlock. at 13%.

 In fact. whatever the state of the global economy.  Just as the process of land acquisition needs major reform.  This increase is larger when measured using wholesale manufacturing inflation. Continuing financial problems of Indian banks and of many large corporations.  According to a recent report by Credit Suisse. an important downside is that it signals a dilution of the central government’s ambition at the state level. 3. but the Chinese motor has slowed markedly. India will need to build much more production capacity and infrastructure. the bottom line is that India cannot attain its potential without a strong revival in investment.24% in the third quarter of 2015.  In terms of the Consumer Price Index (CPI).com .75% in the first quarter of 2012 to 5. If the economy is to achieve the double-digit growth rates that China once boasted. in auctioning coal licences—corporations and banks exposed to the mining and infrastructure sectors still have stressed balance sheets. External factors  External conditions will also hold down investment in 2016. and growth in Japan and much of Europe remains sluggish. 2.  The US economy has recovered. the real cost of borrowing (cash credit) from public sector banks rose from 0.P a g e | 124  But while there are several benefits to be derived from strengthening India’s fiscal federalism.  Despite significant action by the present government—for example.  That inevitably means fewer incentives in India to invest in export-oriented sectors.IASbaba. banks are reluctant to pass through to their customers the RBI’s recent rate cuts. Critically analyse the importance foreign investment in promoting GDP and economic growth in India. 17% of Indian bank loans are stressed. Real cost of borrowing is high in India  Despite the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)’s success in taming inflation—with help from falling commodity prices—nominal interest rates have not fallen in line. Connecting the dots:   Critically examine the various mechanisms available in India for domestic resource mobilization. 4. www. and anxious to rebuild their strength. the problem is broader. a significant share of which may not be repaid.  As a consequence of stressed balanced sheets. Way ahead:   However. bankruptcy reform will be essential to place the corporate and financial sectors on a sound footing.

Klaus Schwab. Computers. harnessing of steam power. Awareness in the fields of IT. 2. 4. embodied in Henry Ford’s creation of the moving assembly line that ushered in mass . biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.  Mass customisation and additive manufacturing the so-called ‘3D printing’ are its key concepts. The Industrial Revolutions: 1. beginning c. indigenization of technology and developing new technology. General studies 3:    Effects of liberalization on the economy. Science and Technology .P a g e | 125 TOPIC: General studies 2:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. The fourth industrial revolution is conceptualised as an upgrade on the third revolution and is marked by a fusion of technologies straddling the physical. The first Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the last quarter of the 18th century with the mechanisation of the textile industry. are quite mind-boggling. The second revolution began roughly a century after the first and peaked at the beginning of the 20th century. 3. work and relate to one another”. robotics.IASbaba. 1970. changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. described by the founder and executive chairman of WEF. digital and biological worlds. so long as it was black. and its applications.developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology.  Factories could produce countless numbers of identical products quickly and cheaply — Ford’s famous line was about being able to sell customers cars of any colour they liked. and birth of the modern factory. www. nano-technology. The third industrial revolution. was digital and applied electronics and information technology to processes of production. yet to be imagined fully. Navigating the fourth industrial revolution The big buzz at the World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos this year is about the ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’. as a “technological revolution that will fundamentally alter the way we live. Space.

This will require it to make provisions for elaborate safety nets without letting it degenerate into an entitlement culture.8%. India contributed more than 22% of the world’s gross domestic product.P a g e | 126 How effective and efficient can fourth industrial revolution be? A case study:    The crane used for loading ships can be fitted with sensors that measure the weight of the containers and plug it into a software model. India remained behind the curve on the next two as well. the probability of some dislocations cannot be discounted. according to Markus Lorenz of the Boston Consulting Group. augmented reality and the Internet of Things. This was a major reason for India failing to climb the bandwagon of the first industrial revolution. Using the design of the ship. How important is the fourth industrial revolution for India? Extremely important   In 1600. This process can enhance the fuel efficiency of the ship by 5-8%. and electronics and computing) and the rapid pace of technological progress since then to achieve almost surreal results by fusing the boundaries between all of them. The tools that it has at its disposal include big data.IASbaba. Challenges India may face in reaping benefits:       India’s path is strewn with challenges. it will not have imperial Britain to blame this time. robotics. assembly lines and electrification. A key note on fourth industrial revolution:    The fourth industrial revolution combines digital and physical systems to completely transform the interaction between humans and machines. which reduced to about 4% in 1990 before economic reforms revved it up to 6. most of which is very poorly skilled. Its comparative advantage of cheap labour. particularly regulatory institutions. the software sends instructions on where exactly to place the container in order to optimize the weight-balance of the . Building the right institutions of governance. While India needs to invest heavily in up skilling initiatives. The fourth industrial revolution builds upon the first three industrial revolutions (steam power and mechanical production. will be blunted by the fourth industrial revolution. If India fails to reap the benefits of the fourth. is another challenge. Regulators have to do a lot better for India to realize the fourth industrial revolution’s benefits. www.

we understand that the end of 2015 has not only ended at an all-time-low but has also exhibited the crying need to be corrected as early as possible. development and employment. When we talk about the growth rate that has been projected by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) being 3. What does the figure say—   Advanced economies are growing at around 2 per cent Developing economies are growing at 4 per cent Stumbling Blocks—     Economic crisis of Greece (Europe) Sharp decline in oil prices (Oil-exporting countries) Countries which had gained as a consequence of a fall in crude oil prices have not been able to exhibit faster growth as well Concerns regarding China and Yuan Devaluation (Competitive Devaluation) www. Governance issues General studies 3:   Indian Economy and issues relating to planning.IASbaba. India. . TOPIC: General studies 2:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. growth. South Africa (BRICS) grouping. mobilization of resources. Russia.P a g e | 127 Connecting the dots:  Explain the concept of fourth industrial revolution and its importance to Indian economy and people. Public investment: for a new normal   The Indian economy is today the world’s fastest-growing large economy but here the twist occurs—India also has a far lower per capita income compared to other countries in the Brazil. Investment models. Effects of liberalization on the economy Infrastructure.1 per cent.

anchor profit expectations in the atmosphere of chasing contagious pessimism of the private investors by letting ‘State Government’ play the role of private investors and providing guidance to the economy Fall in the crude prices and the upcoming spectrum can provide impetus to the expansion programs planned by the government Has the potential to boost jobs in the short run and pay enormous dividends (welfare approach-enhancing the economy’s productivity) Walk the tight rope—Need to have a flexible fiscal consolidation in place    Fiscal Deficit: Need not expand substantially to enable a programme of increased public spending on infrastructure but the reluctance to raise public revenues need to be dealt with Funds-If public bodies are starved of funds.Under the collective weight of the overdue of private borrowers Slowdown in demand and Income dependant private consumption Stagnated exports Public Investment matters—Publicly-created infrastructure needs to be a component of any high-growth plan not only as a source of aggregate demand but also as catalyst      As Adeus ex machina when the private investor is skittish on spending and thus public investment serves to accumulate assets and strengthens the government’s balance sheet Need to rely on our own resources and create an effective demand cycle for indigenous products— Offers a higher rate of return (Make in India. Subsidy Regime: The reluctance to review the subsidy regime and divest must be shown the door and a measured approach towards rationalisation of subsides as well as sale of public assets should be considered as only then would they be able to acquire . Public Investment can thus. there exists a lot of subjectivity attached with the anticipation of the future state of the economy. It is possible that some of the subsidies need to be deleted they constrain expanding public investment.Start-up’s) Where private investment is based on expectations of profit.P a g e | 128 Internal factors—      Poor agricultural performance since the boom of the 2003-08 Slowed pace of infrastructure growth driven by public investment eclipsing the private investment in infrastructure (due to over-leveraged balance sheets and excess capacities that will take time to get absorbed) Groaning banking System.IASbaba. It can be beneficial for growth and employment. they cannot expand and this acts as an in-built depressor.(Maintenance of Fiscal Health) www. and therefore for welfare. called the ‘internal rate of return’ for a project.

tax risks.IASbaba.Strategic Debt Restructuring Scheme (The ‘opinion’ is lucid and in a narrative style. development . ‘A solution. but not due/paid as income enabling banks to report lower NPAs and higher profits for 18 months www.Covered under proper headlines) Strategic Debt Restructuring (SDR) Scheme    Enables a consortium of lenders to convert a part of their loan in an ailing company into equity.make it difficult for local enterprises to grow and must be simplified as early as possible Success Story— Ethiopia in Africa-its economy is growing at an average annual rate exceeding 10% since 2004 due to a massive increase in public investment.P a g e | 129   Pension and insurance funds should be used increasingly for financing projects Ineffective policy interventions. with the consortium owning at least 51 per cent stake Provides banks significant relaxation from the RBI rules for 18 months Loans restructured under the scheme are not treated as non-performing assets (NPAs) and banks have to make low provisions of 5 per cent in most cases Allows banks to recognise interest accrued. mobilization of resources.One of the rare mineral exporters with annual GDP growth to remain above 4% has employed public investment as their engine of growth Connecting the Dots:  Critically examine the much-emphasized role of public investment in India’s economy TOPIC:   General studies 3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning. regulatory risks and judicial risks. growth. Banking & related issues General studies 2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. translating into:   Poverty reduction Improved health outcomes Bolivia. with its own problems’.com . Latin America.

P a g e | 130

For Lenders—

Power to turnaround the ailing company, make it financially viable and recover their
dues by selling the firm to a new promoter
If banks are unable to sell to a new promoter within 18 months, then all regulatory
relaxations cease to exist and lenders have to treat these assets as NPAs and make
100 per cent provisioning for these assets in majority of the cases

Effectiveness of the Scheme—
Case of postponing banks’ NPAs to later years: Increased risks, therefore!

As the lenders may find it tough, in most cases, to sell their stake in these
companies, or be able to sell at steep losses within the 18-month window
Marks more deterioration for Indian banks’ deteriorating asset health, exacerbating
the risk by deferring an estimated (Rs 1.5 lakh crore) of NPA formation from (201516/2016-17) to later years(Religare Analysis)
No clarity on the seriousness of the buyers and the valuation that they seek as
attempts to restructure the SDR cases under the Corporate Debt Restructuring (CDR)
mechanism, from the past two years, have been unable to yield positive results.

Gammon India, Mumbai based infrastructure company:
March, 2013: Approached CDR Cell as the company was stressed due to rising costs and
mounting debt
June, 2013: Its debt restructuring package was approved, which provided a 10-year
repayment plan and lowering of interest rate by 1 per cent for 15 months. Unable to
revive the company via a CDR package, the lenders’ consortium evoked SDR in
November 2015.
IVRCL, a Hyderabad-based infrastructure company:
January,2014: Approached the CDR Cell as there were losses emerging from debtfunded expansion projects
June, 2014: The package was approved, comprising of restructuring of term loans,
working capital loans and fresh financial assistance by the banks. Failing to revive IVRCL
through CDR, the banks invoked SDR in November 2015 with lenders owning 78 per cent
equity in the company.
Increasing Failure Rate—

Of CDR restructured cases has increased to 36 per cent in September 2015 from 24
per cent in September 2013 (Religare)

P a g e | 131

CDR Cell data: Received 530 cases till March 2015 from banks seeking to restructure
debt totalling Rs 4.03 lakh crore without classifying these accounts as NPAs
Debt burden of these companies have been mounting since 2013 when they went
for restructuring to the CDR Cell
Upon conclusion of the SDR, debt level of these companies are expected to rise by
70 per cent since the date of first restructuring

Need to solve the debt issue

To encourage banks to look for good enterprise value for these assets
Slowdown in the economy coupled with the crash in commodity prices and weak
private investment paves way for rocky path in selling their SDR stakes
If we have a look at the sectors, ‘metals’ is the most difficult to find buyers and
‘power’ poses questions of viability

Key issues with the SDR mechanism:
Lenders’ Consortium

Having to find a new promoter within 18 months of having acquired the company
and in these 18 months, banks have to wrap up the entire process of initiating the
SDR process, running the business and finding a new buyer.
Formulating a plan right from invoking the SDR, valuing the company to the
conversion of debt to equity, etc., as well as taking approval by all members of the
lenders’ consortium is not an easy task to be performed within the given stipulated
Plus working on identifying a new promoter, who has to complete his due diligence,
valuation and acquisition documentation of the company would be a very tiring
never-ending circle
A toll on Bank’s profitability can occur if, at the end of 18 months, banks are not able
to find a new buyer- Will have to provide for the loan outstanding from the date of
the first restructuring (over the past 3-4 years in one quarter)
SDR rules do not explicitly provide for a partial stake sale and banks have to sell their
entire stake in the company to the new buyer

RBI- Banks’ stressed advances ratio increased to 11.3 per cent in September 2015 from 11.1
per cent in March 2015
Management post becoming majority owners- Banks are currently using the existing
managements to run the company, but with greater external monitoring and oversight
thereby, over-stretching their own limitations.
The new promoter may have to delist the company upon acquiring 51 per cent shares from
the banks;

P a g e | 132

SDR rules: Upon finding a new promoter, lenders must exit the firm

The new buyer will take a 51 per cent stake and, in line with the Securities and
Exchange Board of India rules, make an open offer for a further 25 per cent stake
If the open offer is fully subscribed, the buyer will own 76 per cent. Sebi rules
mandate that any holding above 75 per cent must trigger a delisting.

Not a long-term solution for resolving asset quality issues: Norms addresses only a small
section of the borrowers as well as many of the borrowers are genuine, and have not been
able to service their debt obligations for external reasons. Many of them are willing to
cooperate with banks to change the management but have been unable to find suitable
buyers/investors (as mentioned above)
Implementation issues as most of the existing debt may not be sustainable, that is, not
serviceable over the long run even if the economy revives. (Sector like metal)
IASbaba’s Views:

It is not advisable for banks to go for the SDR route unless they are certain of a sale
as well as RBI should bring about a concept of sustainable debt. Quick decisionmaking within defined time-lines will be central to the effectiveness of such a
Under the SDR scheme, banks are exempted from making an open offer while
acquiring majority stake in a stressed company. But such exemption is not available
to the new promoter, who may have to delist the company. To make the SDR
mechanism successful, banks should discuss this with SEBI and seek an exemption
from open offer for the new promoter

General studies 3:
 Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth,
development and employment.
 Government Budgeting.
General studies 2:
 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and
issues arising out of their design and implementation.

growth and job creation. ports. was the result of "a massive increase in public investment. but surely there is a huge difference between. from five per cent of GDP in the early 1990s to 19 per cent in 2011 . investments in infrastructure are essential to maintain growth momentum and the resultant increase in GDP improves the government's debt servicing capacity. What is the need in India? India needs to create jobs for a fast-growing workforce and lift large numbers out of poverty Hurdles which come in the way: One major hurdle in achieving job creation is ‘the scale of the challenge to build infrastructure’. which adds to government assets? This apart. the expenditure incurred in implementing the recent award of the Seventh Pay Commission. The deficit adds to government debt. say. The government went on a spending spree. Consider the question of fiscal deficit:    As conventionally calculated. Issue of composition of the Monetary Policy Committee. and the money spent on building roads.P a g e | 133 Budget and Infrastructure investment A month from now. www.IASbaba. Some fiscal issues the budget needs to tackle:     Ongoing demand to introduce Indian Financial Code. building roads. railways.the third-highest rate in the world. Demand to make principle of inflation targeting as the sole objective of monetary . fiscal deficit is the difference between the government's income and expenditure on both revenue and capital accounts. The other side is whether fiscal consolidation and inflation targeting could become constraints on infrastructure investment. Case study of Ethiopia:   Rapid growth in the most successful economy in Africa. or other infrastructure. namely Ethiopia. the Finance Minister will present his Budget for the 2016-17 fiscal to Parliament. To cap fiscal deficit at an achievable target. power plants and an agricultural extension system that significantly enhanced productivity in rural areas where most of the poor reside.

While prima facie this sounds reasonable. there has been strong political opposition and agitations against the collection of tolls on roads financed by the private sector. relying on the private sector to undertake infrastructure investment may not be a realistic proposition. www. 3. growth and job creation. The virtue of fiscal deficit may need to be dented in the interest of investment. Way ahead:   In short.  Loans to the infrastructure sector have a disproportionate share in the aggregate non-performing assets. Connecting the dots:  Economic survey 2014-15 pointed out to structural problems for low economic growth in India.  Even otherwise.  One also wonders to what extent the prevailing high real interest rates would adversely affect infrastructure investment by the private sector and this is not entirely the result of inefficient monetary transmission on the part of the banking system. the banking system would be reluctant to increase its loan book because of the much higher capital requirements prescribed by the Basel III norms. in Maharashtra at least. Another problem is that.IASbaba. at present there seem to be several constraints on this happening on any significant scale. Some of the more important ones are as follows: 1. which are to be complied with in the next few years. and banks would be reluctant to increase their exposure. For the private sector. What do you understand by structural problems? Explain the measures taken by government to solve them. its experience with stalled projects in the infrastructure sector has not been happy. and that will surely dim its enthusiasm. .P a g e | 134 Lacunas in private sector financing:   It may be argued that the building of infrastructure could be left to the private sector and bank financing rather than through fiscal resources. The banking supervisor has been expressing serious concerns about the level of nonperforming assets of the banking system.

capital allocation from the government www.000 crore to be raised as debt from the markets. Secretary (Financial Services) and Secretary (Department of Personnel and Training) in the Government of India. C) Capitalization: Rs 70. one might perceive that the economy is well ahead on its road towards growth and development but the sad reality is starkly visible. B) Bank Board Bureau: A Banking Boards Bureau (BBB) comprising of a chairman and six more members of which three will be officials and three experts (of which two would necessarily be from the banking sector). Fashioning a Banking Turn. Banking & related Issues General studies 2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.000 crore of equity support to be provided in phases during the next four years and another Rs 110. tight NPA management and risk controls. significant operating improvements.P a g e | 135 TOPIC:   General studies 3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning. The search committee for members of the BBB would be made up of the RBI Governor. capital constraints and sluggish profitability The Union budget thus. PSB’s market valuations will improve significantly due to (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) far-reaching governance reforms. mobilization of resources.IASbaba.the banking sector continuously facing challenges due to the lack of any meaningful recovery in asset quality. Indradhanush Scheme Revitalising public sector banks (PSBs) has been a key focus area for policymakers and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the Central government have put in place key enabling measures as under: A) Appointments: Separation of the post of Chairman and Managing Director by prescribing that in the subsequent vacancies to be filled up. the CEO will get the designation of MD & CEO and there would be another person who would be appointed as non-Executive Chairman of the bank.Public Sector Banks   Looking at the India’s domestic macroeconomic . needs to incentivise savings to rescue public sector banks and come up with a proper backing of the policy and regulatory environment.

Efforts made to conserve capital. power and steel and seek RBI support for more generous categorization of existing loans plus more leeway. Some of the actions proposed / undertaken:       Facilitate issue of pending approval/permits expeditiously Evolve policies to address long-term availability of fuel for these projects Respective Discoms will be provided hand-holding towards enabling early reforms Bring in additional equity in an attempt to address the worsening leverage ratio of these projects Changing the extant duty regime without adversely impacting the downstream user industry (increased import duty on steel) Further flexibility in restructuring of existing loans wherever the Banks find viability. Lack of availability of fuel. both coal and gas. global over-capacity coupled with reduction in demand led to substantial reduction in global prices. Inability of banks to restructure projects even when found viable due to regulatory constraints Steel sector: prevailing market conditions. Funding gap faced by limited capacity of promoters to raise additional equity and reluctance on part of banks to increase their exposure given the high leverage ratio. www.IASbaba. Land acquisition. Limited off-take of power by Discoms given their reducing purchasing capacity. Closure of Iron Ore mines affecting project viability.P a g e | 136 D) De-stressing PSBs Government to push clearances for stalled projects in roads. and softening in domestic prices added to the woes. steel and road sectors were—            Delay in obtaining permits/approvals from various governmental and regulatory agencies. Cancellation of coal blocks. viz. Delaying Commercial Operation Date (COD). Major reasons causing stress in the power. E) Empowerment: There will be no interference from government to these banks so they can take their decision independently keeping the commercial interest of the organisation in mind F) Framework of Accountability: A new framework of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to be measured for performance of PSBs— Indicators:     Efficiency of capital use and diversification of business/processes NPA management and financial inclusion Strategic initiatives taken to improve asset quality. Lack of transmission .

IASbaba.4 per cent to the savings rate Will also help curb the flow of black money Make financial savings attractive by providing tax incentives—    For instance. depositors as well as staff— GyanSangam    Strengthening of risk management practices No interference policy Improving HR management practices and removing barriers so that the Banks can share and work together on common resources The upcoming budget session of Parliament— GEAR Approach There is a need to boost savings in the economy in order to enhance the inherent economic strength of the financial sector via the Gear Approach to augment the savings rate:     Growth Efficiency Attractiveness Reach Enhance growth to increase per capita incomes—   Need to increase disposable incomes by raising the personal income tax exemption slab to Rs 5 lakh.000 a year from the current level of Rs 10. the tax exemption limits under Section 80C could be doubled to Rs 3 lakh which will deepen the mutual fund and equity markets Increase inflation-adjusted post-tax returns for bank deposits by reducing the lock-in period eligible for tax rebate to one year from five years Enhance the threshold for mandatory tax deduction at source (TDS) on interest income to Rs .P a g e | 137   HR initiatives and Improvement in external credit rating G) Governance Reforms: Banks to have robust grievance redressal mechanism for borrowers. Focus on improving the efficiency in financial transactions—    Usage of plastic currency and e-transactions (via the internet and mobile phone) will not only improve the ease of transactions but also enhance the saving propensity among citizens Every 1 per cent reduction in the currency in circulation is likely to add 0. will prove to be www.000. This could be a one-time correction and the slab could thereafter be linked to inflation and reviewed every three years.

a full-fledged payments and savings bank. The bankruptcy bill will also turn out to be a game changer for spurring economic activity and confidence Advent of the JAM (Jan Dhan. Aadhar.IASbaba. such as Immediate Payment Service or IMPS. Mobile numbers) Jan DhanYojana: Furthering the objective of financial inclusion Aadhaar Platform: Furnish the much-needed basic digital intelligence and mobile phones will leverage this through innovative payment systems. tax sops for start-ups Introduction of key structural reforms in terms of real estate. exempt. labour. as this is a product that promotes the habit of regular saving The National Pension Scheme should enjoy “EEE” (exempt. to leverage its rural penetration for greater financial inclusion.P a g e | 138  useful to roll back TDS on recurring deposits to encourage wider . exempt) tax status Expand the financial reach— Government could consider converting India Post into the postal bank of India. small and medium enterprises Help to the farm sector that needs significant focus on irrigation and technological support. Other Measures—       Passage of the GST bill Further rationalising direct taxes. www. and micro.

IASbaba. Conflicts in petroleum-rich regions. to 350 GW of RE by 2030 Positive Public Associations with Renewables: Assumed that the environmental footprint will be small and woes will be eased off     Anthropogenic global . Conservation. environmental pollution and degradation. Shifting India to Clean Energy India is running one of the largest renewable capacity expansion programs and by 2022. India aims to have:   An installed solar energy capacity of 100 gigawatts (Gw) Wind turbine capacity amounting to another 60 Gw The 175 GW target by 2022 will result in abatement of 326 million tons of CO2 equivalent/year. environmental impact assessment. Atmospheric pollution.P a g e | 139 ENVIRONMENT TOPIC: General studies 3:  Infrastructure: Energy (Renewable) .  The next target is to double this. General studies 2:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Environmental damage Conflicts caused by coal mining Solar Energy Ongoing scheme for development of the following owing to the high solar irradiation    25 Solar Parks Ultra-Mega Solar Power Projects Canal top solar projects www.

com . toll plazas across country  Utilization and maintenance of solar requires water or manual labour for keeping the panels clean Solar energy concentration technologies (some) kill birds by flash frying them in large numbers.000 square km  40 Gw of that by 2022 is to be built on roofs  Gujarat: Built arrays on top of canals But   Wind Energy    Estimations speak of millions (by some estimates more than 10 million) of birds getting killed all over the world every year by wind turbines Each turbine installation consumes large amounts of concrete and steel. adjusting power bills to reflect RE generated and be put on the grid by the consumer Labour-intensive-Manual supervision is required to install.. Thus. Large amount of land is required—  Setting up a capacity of 50 Mw in India needs about one square km of land  A Gw (1 Gw=1.000 Mw) therefore. maintain and repair installations. with conventional grids Grid-balancing needs to get smarter Requirement of smart solutions for net metering i. needs about 20 square km and 100 Gw will require upwards of 2.e.P a g e | 140   One hundred thousand solar pumps for farmers Solarisation of all petrol pumps. PVC and fibre-reinforced plastics (materials with cruel footprints) Offshore Location:  Problems connecting to the grid due to the necessity of laying undersea cables  Will incur much higher maintenance costs due to the corrosive effects of sea water Overall Costs & Concerns Huge capital investment is required— around $95-100 billion equivalent of investments (at Rs 65/USD) to meet the 100 GW target of 2022 (current outstanding bank credit to the entire Indian power sector (conventional and RE) is $85 billion equivalent) Technical challenges—    In integrating intermittent power generation via solar and wind. loss of employment and loss of revenues in— www.IASbaba.

com .creating difficulties in the rural employment landscape. To an extent. Precise and significant decision by the Prime Minister:  The counter argument to the above arguments is that even the demand is inconsistent and governments and utilities do very little on demand-side management. General studies 3:  Infrastructure: Energy.IASbaba. Conservation.P a g e | 141 Construction Sector   Less construction activity required Construction sector that has also led to ‘back-to-village’ phenomena. environmental pollution and degradation Putting wind into renewable sails    The present Prime Minister wants to mainstream renewable energy (RE) and has set a target of 175 GW by 2022. www. they are correct that the targets are huge and pose challenge to grid operator due to inconsistent generation.Think! Coal Mining and the associated value chain— requires much better management of the transition phase (laying off phase) Dependency on other fuels— Rare Earth Imports as well as crude and gas may increase (China and its market dynamics needs to be put into perspective as the country is the largest producer) Connecting the Dots:   Energy and environment are two side of the same coin Write short notes on the following a) National Clean Energy Fund b) National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency TOPIC: General studies 2:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Some experts say the target is too ambitious.

the government is bullish in promoting solar. Therefore. refusal to enter into power purchase agreements by some States. with improved technologies.000 MW in 2011to only 1. Issues to tackle:    The above targets imply renewable additions at about seven times the current rate. Both the sectors have a successful global track record. Wind power growth has declined from an addition of 3. In particular. poor fiscal health of utilities. For smaller projects. when the investor acquires land directly. Inadequate grid infrastructure. the resultant successes will be better than meeting small targets. Solar projects are also let off from inter-State transmission and cross subsidy charges. political interference at local levels and cumbersome land acquisition processes It should also be noted that the regulatory regime by centre and states is strongly weighted against wind energy. Even if the targeted capacity is not fully achieved. www. Promote wind energy:   The Prime Minister’s vision will benefit.IASbaba. This slowdown is mainly due to inadequate evacuation. wind and solar are unnecessarily discussed as competition. they are exempted from forecasting and scheduling. open access issues. the processes of land alienation is exempted. Against the wind energy:     In contrast with the various land and evacuation bottlenecks for wind. The other important aspects to consider are pollution from fossil fuels. inconsistent policy processes at the State levels and lack of quality consciousness resulting in the creation of bad assets are the major issues blocking investments into renewable energy sector. their finite availability. Renewable energy is abundant and domestic. . if wind is given the same treatment. and the cost of imports. State governments are de-risking large solar projects by acquiring land and creating evacuation facilities.P a g e | 142      Further. This in turn will require a serious overhaul of the systems and processes. the Prime Minister’s decision is precise and significant. against a target of 2.600 MW in 2015-16 so far. The case of wind and solar energy:      Of late.400 MW. renewable generation can be predictable with reasonable accuracy. The benefits and drawbacks for each depend on the application and location. national renewable purchase obligation (RPO) must be announced immediately.

Way ahead:    In sum. It is also necessary to reconsider the policy without the restricted approach from purely commercial application of mind. local political interference. Role of the industry:        While the government has much to do. we should also revisit the tariff process. For wind. . the industry can also contribute by rationalising excessive manufacturing capacity. Substantiate. India needs all sources of renewable energy and the government must promote every source on equal terms. However. Areas near green corridor can be designated as manufacturing hubs to absorb power near source. www. Critically examine the INDC targets of India with special focus on the renewable energy component in the target. Connecting the dots:   Energy mix is the key for energy security in India. and cutting T&D losses. Quality must be a key focus.P a g e | 143    The wind-rich States should be allowed to sell surplus wind energy generated to deficit States. and passing on the benefits of higher hub height and larger rotor diameter trend towards lower capital cost per kWh. for solar. Land acquisition. reducing capital costs in transmission. It is perceived that bidding has contributed to reduction in tariffs.IASbaba. The recent low bids in Andhra Pradesh are also used to showcase this argument. tariff process. India also needs to invest in gas-based spinning reserves along the green corridor for grid stability. State regulators fix feed-in-tariff after due consultations with stakeholders and public hearings. tariffs are decided through bidding. and quality are the key areas that need attention. power evacuation.

Social empowerment Internet-The Public Good If the growth of the Internet in the 1990s led to the fear of a new kind of social inequity in the form of the digital divide. the present potential of this same internet has brought in a majority of changes— right from the way it overcomes existing divides to its role in providing government support to capture the challenges of ICT (information and communications technology) in under-served areas Ability to Use  The modern consumer today. indigenization of technology and developing new technology. becomes important to also measure the relevance of it. it is a consumption norm. transparency and accountability. models.IASbaba. number of www. Important aspects of governance.  General Studies 2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. and potential  General Studies 1: The Effects of globalization on Indian society. understands the level of dependency and usage that internet has commanded and with this viewpoint. . e-governanceapplications. it thus.  Minimum number of users of a service that would need to be crossed before provision of subsidies for its universalization: In the context of India.developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology. I. successes. in the context of. the need to balance the allocation of scarce public money among different urgent priorities  Social Inclusion: European Union Universal Service Directive in 2002 had suggested that a necessary condition for a service to be included within the ambit of universal service is that of it being critical for social inclusion—that is.P a g e | 144 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY TOPIC: General studies 3:  General Studies 3: Science and Technology .

IASbaba. to rural areas within a province.  In fact.  Compared to the .P a g e | 145 internet users have multiplied multi-fold but these numbers are still low for it to be considered as a “consumption norm” that a government is obligated to provide  Government & New Technologies: Since the 1980s. sophisticated statistical techniques have been used to establish cause-effect relationships between the adoptions of new technologies—the mobile phone. would result in the proof of the access without a host of complementary inputs is unlikely to lead to positive spillovers www. the Internet and broadband— and gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Therefore. made a case for the use of public money for Internet access and broadband expansion Major Policy Concerns:  Positive spillovers are not guaranteed by the studies conducted  The cause-effect relationship also needs to be considered while identifying the various factors that are getting affected by the internet.6% in the presence of a minimum penetration level of 25% and this study has thus. these econometric studies are carried out with either a country or a province within a country as the unit of analysis and given the immense size and heterogeneity of the unit. the roads and education as well as proper provision of health would serve as a major and the utmost requirement faced by Indian villages which are still majorly under-developed and lacks access to even basic amenities of life. the claims do not automatically extend to the sub-unit level—for example. the level of penetration is visibly low considering the under-served areas that lie far below the threshold  Secondly. Rural areas & Internet:  The externalities may not accrue in many rural areas at their present level of development mainly because of the issue of it being relevant and the ‘theory of utmost needs’ playing foul here. if put to question regarding the usage of the new technology.  India. bias as well as inconsistency remains. will the investment reap.  Also. the ability and willingness of the much benefit as much as the investments that can be diverted towards providing basic facilities like health and education?  Third.Studies show that a 10% increase in Internet penetration can increase the GDP by 1.

for example.the ICT network should develop in rough alignment with the complementary institutions. one should view internet as an entity which has value not in and of itself but rather as a medium that gives access to other basic goods and services ICT for development projects cover many domains including healthcare. as an example. there exists two implications Provision of the basic goods and services facilitated via ICT should adhere to some consumption norm which can simply be in the form of.P a g e | 146 Enabler of development: Ideally. education.IASbaba. online government services and the provision of commodity price information to small producers and therefore. aiming for a level that at the minimum achieves the targets of the Millennium Development Goals  Complementary inputs need to be provided to utilize internet facility efficiently by making it largely a demand-based service as well as align itself with its complementary entities. processes and skills needed to provide remote medical services  Complementary inputs and the development of ability to use (“build it and they will come”) can also be triggered with the penetration of internet but the experience of several government schemes in India shows that there are limits to this rationale for advance build-out of connectivity Questions to be Answered by TRAI (1) Who are the actors? (2) What factors influence each actor’s position? (3) What is in the best interest of the sector and for realizing the ambitions of Digital India? (4) If operator-service provider arrangements would limit competition and weaken innovation? IASbaba’s Views:  Universal access to the Internet need not be interpreted as “uniform access” and the build-out of networks should be aligned to the absorptive capacity of a region by making it a demand-driven service .

coli.  With advancements in nanotechnology. stretching into biology.  With Facebook nudging its 130 million Indian users to send emails to TRAI to lend their voice to differential pricing. have led to the evolution of some of the bacteria’s like . theories and explanations and design a plan accordingly. India could do well to analyse the situation and strategize better to deal with the same.showcasing their ability to shuffle their genes and defeat these drugs  Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have infected about two million people and killed at least 23. chemistry and electronics. at that) Connecting the Dots:  What do you mean by ‘Free Basics’? Do you agree with the stand taken up by Facebook in the course of spearheading the issue. and about 1.IASbaba.000 times smaller than the width of a human hair) and which has required enormous interdisciplinary research. TRAI should make sure that paid prioritisation. bio-technology Superbug and quantum dot  Rampant and indiscriminate usage of antibiotics.P a g e | 147  Deliberations on the national optic fibre network (NOFN) and “free basics” should understand the various nuances. blocking and throttling of lawful content and services on the net be excluded (strictly. in India? TOPIC:  General studies 2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health  General studies 3: Nano-technology. a new revelation has been forwardeddevelopment of a light-activated superbug-killing nanoparticle (20. Staphylococcus and E. www.000 people in the US alone (each year) and being the world’s largest consumer of antibiotics and a leading hotbed of untreatable bacterial infections (threat doubling over five years).4 million obliging.

where a sticky adhesive patch coated with nano-particles will need to be illuminated with light to begin treatment 2.  Copper indium sulphide particles help good bacteria grow  Light excites electrical charges in the quantum dots and sparks a chemical reaction. without harming host human cells. composition and surface of the dots.Could kill nine of 10 drug-resistant bacterial cells grown in a laboratory culture and the ones who are resistant to all known antibiotics— Claimed to have destroyed 92% of drug-resistant bacteria in a laboratory trial  Working of ‘Quantum Dot’Following the traits of the superbugs (evolve-adapt-fight back). or . For topical infections caused by wounds or cuts. allows selective killing of drug-resistant bacteria.IASbaba. while using data from related clinical trials or drugs Fashioned in the researcher’s laboratory in water from several semiconductor materials—used in solar panels or mobile phones—show different effects on bacteria:  Cadmium telluride nano-particles have a therapeutic effect against drug-resistant bacteria.  Varying the wavelength of light. If Clinical Trials approve— A simple administration of these dots to patients with infections can cure the infection without potential effects (or side-effects) for healthy host cells Three models of quantum-dot therapy and drug administration envisaged: 1. these quantum dots can be tuned or customised.P a g e | 148 Quantum Dot  These nano-particles are known as quantum dots and each ‘quantum dot’ is one million times smaller than a millimetre  Usage: These ‘quantum dots’ were used in tiny concentrations (about a thousand times smaller than current drugs in a pill)  Capacity to kill. For systemic infections. which will need the drug to be injected or administered intravenously www. with an atom added or subtracted to create a new material. property or therapy.

Uses a separate discovery from their laboratories. on hospital surfaces or instruments—in a well-lit or specially lighted room Good .e. a single DNA molecule to sequence genetic profiles to diagnose and treat the infections that drugresistant bacteria cause Gold and Silver nano-particles—They have been used to attack superbug infections but with varying degrees of success  Lack of consistency with no guarantee  Damages the surrounding cells www. As a disinfectant.IASbaba.P a g e | 149 3.. will be effective for patients exposed to a well-lit room or photo-therapy room Other Ways— PRAAN Biosciences.If the nano-particles are dispersed evenly. i.

 Yet. www. money-laundering and its prevention. devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.  The NSG is a target-specific counter-terrorist force. Practical mistakes India committed while tackling Pathankot incident: 1. issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure. was nearby but not deployed to secure the sprawling base or the perimeter. Security challenges and their management in border areas.IASbaba. not a battlefield unit. Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate. role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges. 2. the defence forces and the internal security establishment. There was no sign of a “single command and control” :  The Defence Security Corps re-employs retired jawans who are not much better than armed gatekeepers. Save security from the establishment The recent Pathankot incident has again highlighted the security lapses that is prevalent in the country. There is no regular interaction and exchange of messages between the above said three main pillars of any defence establishment. these were the units that were called in as the first responders.P a g e | 150 DEFENCE/SECURITY TOPIC: General studies 2:  Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States.  The one trained battle-ready counter-terrorist force. No coordination between the foreign office. linkages of organized crime with terrorism.  The Guard Force is a defensive arm of the air force to protect air force assets. Challenges to internal security through communication networks. basics of cyber security. the army’s Special . General studies 3:     Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

modelled on the National Counter Terrorism Centre of the USA. the establishment of an NCTC would only add to the bureaucratic tangle in intelligence sharing and counter terrorist action. Support for National Counter Terrorism Centre(NCTC)     The National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) is a proposed federal anti-terror agency to be created in India. terrorism hasn’t had a commensurate impact on reshaping India’s security posture and tactics. It has also been argued that given the establishment of the National Investigating Agency in the aftermath of the 26/11 attacks. terrorism has. been the biggest threat faced by the country on almost all major counts — the number of soldiers killed. The proposal has however met with much criticism from the Chief Ministers of various states who see this as a means of weakening India's federalism. It is this concentration of powers that has had the states objecting to the NCTC. Why states are opposing NCTC?    Unlike the American NCTC which deals only with strategic planning and integration of intelligence without any operational involvement or the Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre. duration of engagement with armed movements or the spread of the menace. However. Reshaping India’s security posture:   Though India’s wars with neighbouring countries have played the most important role in impacting its security posture. given that law and order is a state subject according to the Constitution. which too plays a purely coordinating role. arguing that such sweeping powers vested in a Central agency will violate the autonomy of state governments. as well as political strategies.IASbaba. and heavy casualties. in fact. www. The proposal arose after the 2008 Mumbai attacks aka 26/11 attacks where several intelligence and operational failures revealed the need for a federal agency with real time intelligence inputs of actionable value specifically to counter terrorist acts against India. However with the recent pathankot incident the arguments favouring the establishment of NCTC has been strengthened.P a g e | 151 In short it can be said most terror attacks in India are characterised by three critical missteps: ignored intelligence inputs. inconsistent security . the Indian agency will have not only intelligence functions but also powers to conduct operations.

a well-defined national security doctrine and a national security strategy to implement the doctrine. NATGRID has the potential to become India’s goto grid for a 360-degree perspective to prevent and contain crises. who had made several trips to India before the Mumbai attacks. some due to bureaucratic red tape and others due to fundamental flaws in the system like consolidating data from a huge population. an independent federal commission of accountability on security matters. NATGRID suffers from many inadequacies. which include data on immigration. banks and the telecom sector. It will become a centralized database with sensitive information on individuals collected from 21 .P a g e | 152 A case of strengthening NATGRID:   The National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID is the integrated intelligence grid connecting databases of core security agencies of the Government of India to collect comprehensive patterns of intelligence that can be readily accessed by intelligence agencies. and. 1. accessible.  Many experts are apprehensive of an adverse effect of parliamentarians being given oversight of intelligence agencies. What NATGRID can do?    NATGRID will serve as a valuable platform to trace suspicious cross-border movements of individuals like David Headley. NATGRID will help to collate scattered information into a transparent. This could be done at three levels — parliamentary oversight. It was first proposed in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on Mumbai in 2008. Parliamentary oversight:  There have been several discussions about improving the accountability of intelligence agencies and other federal organisations responsible for the security of the country. Need revamping of NATGRID:   In its present form.IASbaba. Need for a documented security doctrine   It is time to finally accept the reality and move forward on a broad sweep of reforms in the security establishment. If government takes enough measures to ensure that information does not fall through the firewalls that guard it. integrated grid and do away with the inefficiencies associated with information asymmetries that hitherto delayed counter-terror operations. lack of compatibility with data sets in regional languages. finally. www. risk of spies ratting out vital information to outside sources etc. in addition to data from intelligence agencies.

 If it is a terrorist strike. and feeding terrorism. Even though India has an extensive intelligence infrastructure. and . Suggest measures to revamp the same. so that successive governments do not forget the fact that they are mere custodians of an idea called India. 2. The first step is to write down what the rulers of the day should do when a terror threat occurs. At this backdrop explain the various drawbacks in our intelligence system. where repeated allegations of human rights violations are haunting political efforts to find peace. secure our assets and safeguard national interests. can’t any more trust the wisdom of a few wise men to tackle terror threats. Such a commission can also be a watchdog in places like Kashmir and the Northeast. and not try to improvise based on their limited awareness. Pathankot etc make us doubt our intelligence systems. it is time for India to have a documented national security doctrine. like the Constitution. and its security forces. National security strategy:  The doctrine should be accompanied by a security strategy that should spell out the state response to various kinds of security challenges. Finally. India must constitute a very credible. and that the mechanism is not held hostage by a few vested interests in Parliament. Connecting the dots:    Critically examine the growing need for national counter terrorism centre with special reference to security lapses in the recent Pathankot attack.IASbaba.P a g e | 153   However. federal commission of accountability on security matters. Explain the various intelligence agencies in India along with their mandate. The diversity of Indian politics will ensure there is robust oversight. then the decision-makers must know the responses expected of them. www. Way ahead:   India. the fact is that there is no better accountability system possible. but also to ensure that the many insurgencies and terrorist challenges do not result in the intelligence and security apparatus getting a free hand to misuse their powers. and not revolutionaries mandated with recreating the nationstate. A well-defined national security doctrine:  As many experts recommend. attacks like 26/11.   This is important not just to bring in accountability to the security establishment.  Command and control for such operations should also be spelt out in the document. 3. and most importantly.

P a g e | 154


The diplomacy of business

Labour’s love lost

PM in Lahore: Advantage Modi- His Lahore stopover puts the onus on PM Sharif to take
forward the dialogue
Indian Express

NITI Aayog still work-in-progress- Economists say things are happening in the Aayog, but
not at the desired pace
Business Standard

The AIIB is ready for business- Asia’s infrastructure investment needs have grown
exponentially, and the AIIB’s resources, quite simply, will increase the pool of multilateral
resources available to help meet them
Live Mint

P a g e | 155

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P a g e | 156

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P a g e | 157

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WTO: The many must resist the some - As the developed countries chip away at the
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For detailed analysis on ‘WTO, Nairobi meet’, refer the below links
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P a g e | 158

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Nobel and Fields wisdom: For Make in India, first need Discover and Invent in India- Make
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The amazing maize- Hybrid varieties have spurred growth in the production and
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P a g e | 159

Green safeguards yield higher economic returns

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For Detailed analysis on ‘Net neutrality’ refer ‘IASbaba’s Monthly Magazine (APRIL- 2015)’

Pathankot questions
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bid process for Bedabahal UMPP and Cheyyur UMPP would be initiated after revision of Standard Bidding only 3 likely to see bids this North Korea claims to have tested hydrogen bomb Hindu http://www.html Towards a better-connected India.thehindu.ece Business Standard http://www. which is set to grow by Feeding a flawed and growing Indian Express http://indianexpress.P a g e | 160 Of 5 UMPPs.Ensuring sufficient food supplies for a surging human .html www. will require serious work Live Mint to government documents.The Department of Telecommunications must take up expansion of coverage in grossly under-served areas and revival of the telecom industry as national priorities Business Standard http://www. which is currently underway.4 billion by mid-century.

ece Related Articles: Join the dots Uttar Pradesh has seized a good Underestimating disability-To address www.P a g e | 161 The way forward in Nepal Hindu http://iasbaba. Pravasi Divas should be widely adopted by Mental health Policy’ in India Related Articles: Disability Law & the Invisible People http://iasbaba. Indian Express http://indianexpress. we first need to measure it correctly Indian Express .IASbaba.

com/2015/11/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-14th-november-2015/ www.P a g e | 162 Setting the pitch .business-standard.html Internet not helping improve literacy: Amartya Sen Business Standard http://www.html Related Articles: Internet-The Public Good http://iasbaba.IASbaba.The government needs to focus on some fundamental issues to develop the media and entertainment industry Business Standard http://www.html Related Articles: Dealing with Failure: Bankruptcy Code Raising “HER” voice through internet connectivity Bankruptcy Code will consolidate all insolvency laws and will significantly shorten the timelines for resolution and recovery Business Standard Light at the end of the tunnel.

Indian Express State’s start-ups can make India stand www.South India constitutes nearly 60% of India's plantation sector Business Standard http://www.thehindu.html For Detailed Analysis on ‘Bureaucracy/Civil Services’.com/2015/12/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-1st-december-2015/ North Korea’s provocative move Hindu Take for instance industry-supported research at our universities — which is critical to success. refer the below link http://iasbaba.Growing governance and development complexities require innovative ideas Live Mint http://www. the state needs to support startups by providing the right policy environment.html The need for a more professional .com/2015/09/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-12th-september-2015/ enable this.P a g e | 163 Extend farm benefits to plantations also: Planters' body to govt.

while leapfrogging to a viable zero-carbon ecosystem Business Standard http://www.html The problem with smart NDA must lose no time in doing so.Yuan depreciation will make imports in China more expensive. especially for commodities Business Standard must burn whatever coal it can.P a g e | 164 Ties That Need Remaking.UPA couldn’t constitute the National Counter Terrorism COP21.html www. Indian Express Across the Aisle: Price of Why China slide is bad news for India Inc. stranded carbon and India. depressing demand.So what are the steps that India and Indonesia can take to improve their bilateral engagement? Indian Express http://indianexpress.Urban administrations and the private sector must join hands for the Special Purpose Vehicle model to work Live Mint .com/article/companies/why-china-slide-is-bad-news-forindia-inc-116010800042_1.

subjected to strong external pressures ourselves.IASbaba. we reverted to the status quo ante Indian Express .Unable to apply transformative Isn't liberalisation meant to be liberal?. skipping BS-V. But the challenges.html Widening the net beyond the income norm Hindu http://www. are enormous Indian Express http://indianexpress.P a g e | 165 Tashkent syndrome. the government wants to leap directly to BS-VI auto emission norms from the existing has been a virtual freeze in communication when it comes to price-sensitive information under the changed rules Business Standard http://www.The new AIF rules lay down the red carpet for foreign investors to make a grand front-door entry into the booming Indian start-up space Business Standard Simply put: What needs to be done to upgrade from BS-IV : Four years from Insider Trading: New rules confound India Inc.ece www. before both oil companies and automakers.thehindu.

com/Opinion/EUV41rtFEnWPMVqGYaA5ZN/Is-a-2008like-financialcrisis-in-the-making.html www. lessons unlearnt from 26/11.Controversies about Indian Science Congress point to a deeper problem in science administration Indian Express http://indianexpress. and mistakes repeated.ece Speaking of a g e | 166 Sri Lanka’s historic opportunity Hindu 1 http://www. albeit on a smaller scale Indian Express .IASbaba.livemint. some hard truths.ece Hindu 2 Is a 2008-like financial crisis in the making? Volatility in the financial markets shows fears over China are widespread Live Mint Pathankot attack: A terror Related Articles: Save security from the establishment http://iasbaba.At Pathankot.

html India’s strategy for the near west Hindu http://www.ece Disability is not divinity Hindu http://www.thehindu. especially in a country that has 13 of the world's most polluted cities Business Standard http://www.ece Related Articles: Delhi’s traffic experiment – Will this reduce the Emission Levels? http://iasbaba.P a g e | 167 Not good economics or Delhi Air Pollution: Trying and testing the car formula Hindu .Stalling the introduction of better emission standards is based on specious Clearing the Air: An alarming rise in pollution levels Related Articles: Disability Law & the Invisible People http://iasbaba.thehindu.

com/2016/01/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-9th-january-2016/ Transfer pricing rules with wider ambit Centre plans trash cleaning legislation will be for riparian states to rejuvenate the national river & also lay down a common water diversion plan Business Standard .business-standard.html Related Articles: Kelkar panel to revive PPP in infra projects Pathankot link Hindu http://www. Paris.thehindu.ece Related Articles: Save security from the establishment http://iasbaba.IASbaba.P a g e | 168 The Peshawar.html The Kelkar Committee finally grabs the public-private partnership bull by the horns Business Standard http://www. law on Ganga rejuvenation .com/2016/01/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-1st-january-2016/ in I-T Act likely to curb tax evasion by multinational companies Business Standard

Let it gradually pull itself out of international routes and focus on linking remote towns and cities Business Standard State finance ministers must watch out for 2017.If you can't fix Russia In The . shrink it.livemint.html Related Articles: Draft National Civil Aviation Policy (NCAP) 2015 Working together to solve global problems Related Articles: Does India need Russia anymore? that the Modi government has moved Westwards are misplaced Indian Express http://indianexpress.State government finances could come under significant strain due to the twin burdens of UDAY scheme and 7th Pay Commission Live Mint India Russia ties: New energy in old friendship http://iasbaba.P a g e | 169 Air India .

The Uttar Pradesh Lokayukta controversy highlights the need for greater attention to anti-corruption systems and .Going by this viewpoint. Indian Express http://indianexpress. Indian Express http://indianexpress.Mudra is a redesign of policy in order to re-target the www.thehindu.At least 40% of a product must be manufactured in India for it to qualify for the Indian Designed. a misdirected debate.html A boon for small Business Standard rejuvenate the mission of lending to the small.IASbaba. Developed and Manufactured category Hindu http://www. poor budding entrepreneur Indian Express http://indianexpress. the army is the sole repository of competence and commitment in anti-terror operations in the country. restructure processes Nuts and A terror strike.P a g e | 170 Parrikar's proposed defence procurement policy breaks new ground. most importantly.

com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/weve-beaten-polio-butlets-move-on/article8099426.ece Is there a coherent science policy?.com/article/opinion/subir-roy-is-there-a-coherent-sciencepolicy-116011201177_1.ece Related Articles: Is India actually free of polio? http://iasbaba. not westwards Hindu Solar systems mandatory on roof-tops but let’s move on .com . solar power needs superior grid infrastructure Business Line http://www.Lessons from the campaign should have a bearing on other aspects of India’s healthcare system and practices Business Line The sunrise sector .business-standard.P a g e | 171 Sri Lanka: Time to look within.More than capital subsidy.html We’ve beaten polio.Prime Minister Narendra Modi has come out strongly in favour of harnessing science to take forward sustainable development. which will rid India entirely of poverty Business Standard http://www.ece Related Articles: A Solar-y Alternative http://iasbaba.

P a g e | 172

What Free Basics did not intend to do
For Detailed Analysis on ‘Net Neutrality’ refer IASbaba’s Monthly Magazine (APRIL, 2015)
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Defence Procurement: Incremental steps not enough

Farm vision statement- We need a national framework to address agricultural problems
Indian Express

Breaking The Terror Cycle- A full engagement with Pakistan cannot withstand major terror
Indian Express
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P a g e | 173

Why India looks set to finally come out of the closet on Israel- 2016 is expected to be the
breakout year for India’s relationship with Israel, when it is likely to finally come out of the
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Rise and fall- Latest IIP and CPI data outlines the policy challenges that lie ahead
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Live Mint

Digital expansion helps rich more than poor: World Bank report- Says gains of higher
growth, more jobs and better public services also short of expectation, recommends more
focus on access
Business Standard

Tech tonic for the heart of India

P a g e | 174

Stagflation risk ahead

Return of terror in Indonesia

Indian engineers, scientists in U.S. nearing one million

Pakistan’s polio plan needs global support
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Startup shakeup- None of the e-commerce startups in India has yet made money. And with
no entry barriers, e-commerce has seen several stampedes.
Business Standard

html Related Articles: Dealing with Failure: Bankruptcy Code http://iasbaba.livemint.html India.Israel: Driven by technology Indian Express 1 a g e | 175 Bankruptcy law: key to tackling the burgeoning NPA Indian Express 2 .com/2015/11/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-14th-november-2015/ Focus offline to make it big online: World Bank report.IASbaba.It’s time to reconsider economic wisdom that prioritizes private markets at the expense of the public sector Live Mint http://www.The takeaway from World Bank’s World Development Report is that there is no short cut for developing countries if they want to reap digital dividends Live Mint The return of public investment.Reforms in bankruptcy laws can play a crucial role in economic growth and financial stability Live Mint www.

com .html Making the brain transparent . while Indian start-ups look outward Live Mint http://www. Indian Express For the farmer.Global start-ups look at elements of a secular morality be enforced in ways that don’t reinforce a sense of state arbitrariness? Indian Express http://indianexpress.livemint.optogenetics Hindu http://www.P a g e | 176 Religious The irony in the start-up world.ece www.Life Sciences Breakthrough Prize for 2016.The new crop insurance scheme may entail a cost that’s worth paying.thehindu. Karl Deisseroth.thehindu.ece Freedoms only for the outraged Hindu http://www.

com/2016/01/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-14th-january-2016/ Redefining education.The challenge is sustainable improvement.ece After playing odds and evens.thehindu. Its litmus test: Whether cropdamage assessment can be done within two weeks of the extreme weather event and compensation paid a week after that Indian Express http://indianexpress. encourage risk-taking and expand the idea of success Indian Express Insuring a risky venture called agriculture http://iasbaba.Make it What needs to be done to upgrade to BS-VI? A harvest-time gift. so that no special effort is needed in future Indian Express http://indianexpress.New crop insurance scheme is a g e | 177 Turkey’s failed double game Hindu .

The ‘tight Death of a Dalit scholar Hindu www.livemint.html In god and guns they trust Hindu crore to upgrade to meet BS-VI norms. but of technocratic efficiency Live Mint marketing companies will have to spend Rs 28.IASbaba. Business Standard explains the refining process and what will change Business Standard . easy monetary’ policy mix can better address problems that plague private Decoding emission norms.html What needs to be done to upgrade to BS-VI? http://iasbaba.P a g e | 178 Reduction in interest burden could possibly prevent more companies heading towards bankruptcy. Indian Express Testing direct notion of direct democracy is being challenged—not in the name of liberalism.

livemint. experimentation and teamwork must also infect government machinery Indian Express Business Standard it worked.html Related Articles: Clearing the Air: An alarming rise in pollution levels .com/2016/01/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-18th-january-2016/ Related Articles: Delhi’s traffic experiment – Will this reduce the Emission Levels? http://iasbaba. But for the longer run.html Live Mint http://www. better roads are making a difference in a troubled region.P a g e | 179 A Road To Essential start-up Yes. Indian Express http://indianexpress.The odd-even pilot reduced hourly particulate air pollution concentrations by 10-13 per cent.New mobile taking. a congestion-pricing programme may be better Indian Express www.

html Lessons from a floating armoury Hindu a g e | 180 Right suggest that the law should be strengthened to ensure mandatory time bound disposal of cases Business Standard Reduction in interest burden could possibly prevent more companies heading towards the northeastern capitals by rail will produce enormous dividends.IASbaba.The ‘tight fiscal.ece .com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/growing-crackdown-onactivists/article8126645. Indian Express Related Articles: Dealing with Failure: Bankruptcy Code Debt recovery tribunals: More pain than gains for banks. Indian Express http://indianexpress.thehindu. easy monetary’ policy mix can better address problems that plague private investment.ece Growing crackdown on activists Hindu http://www.

2016 Business Standard .ece?ref=sliderNews Poor Ganga.thehindu. literacy rate of women up: Family health survey Business Standard India eyes more crude oil imports from African nations-New Delhi to host oil and gas producing African countries at a two day conference from 21st Jan.ece First flower in space is giant leap for zero-gravity gardening Hindu http://www.html www.html Northeast can be developed as an organic region Business Standard a g e | 181 Sex ratio wrangling between ministries sends out dispiriting signals for the river cleaning project Indian Express Hindu http://www.

com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/dealing-with-theslowdown/ lack of bandwidth and content means it will be a long time before online streaming services take off in India Business Standard http://www.html Dealing with the slowdown Hindu http://www.P a g e | 182 Beyond Netflix and 4G.livemint.html The environmental costs of subsidies.thehindu.ece Forging PPP of a different kind Hindu Can rural India reap digital dividends? The virtual world has increased the possibilities of trade in the real world Live Mint http://www.It’s time to look at the deleterious environmental impact of subsidies so as to attain correct pricing of resources Live Mint http://www.ece Related Articles: Kelkar panel to revive PPP in infra projects

com/article/opinion/oil-price-trough-116012001194_1.html How to revive the PPP model in India? http://iasbaba.The issue is deathly serious because widespread open defecation in India often leads to contamination of the water supply Business Standard India must capitalise on cheap crude oil-Even if Opec finally cuts production. Indian Express http://indianexpress.html Ending open defecation .com . but focus has to be on increasing opportunities and New power tariff policy tightens regulator’s role.Bihar’s job reservation for women is a welcome How to fix Public Private Partnership (PPP) financing? http://iasbaba.The tariff policy has more than 30 amendments in the existing tariff policy — the National Electricity a g e | 183 it will be more than compensated by the return of Iran Business Standard http://www. Indian Express The new quota. http://iasbaba.html Related Articles: average capacity of the existing teacher pool goes Related Articles: Capital punishment : should it be banned or allowed in India? .com/2015/09/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-23rd-september-2015/ www.IASbaba.thehindu.ece Related Articles: Save security from the establishment http://iasbaba. we will not see clear improvement in education for 20-25 years Live Mint The road from Pathankot Hindu Compassion on death row cases Hindu http://www.P a g e | 184 Revamping teacher education.

com/Opinion/HxCGIWvOyVpMafvEkKZ1nI/Fine-print-of-Indias-startuppolicy.P a g e | 185 Rural India too battles hypertension. visible from this Gender equality still not a reality-Survey involving 13 states reveals there is no end to preference for boys Business Standard Fine print of India’s start-up policy.India is just months away from deploying a regional alternative to GPS Indian Express http://indianexpress.html .html Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).business-standard. Indian Express And diplomacy won.The government’s ambitions of turning limited partner to venture capital funds has drawn sharp criticism from several quarters Live Mint http://www. experts blame it on stress and faulty diet Hindu http://www. demonstrate the necessity and benefits of and diabetes cases increase in urban areas.thehindu.html Power Tariff Policy Business Standard fruits of the Iran nuclear deal.

com/2016/01/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-18th-january-2016/ All India Radio.ece The big military Global Slowdown: Sobering reflection from Davos Hindu fair.IASbaba.thehindu.PM has a bold vision for defence reform.ece funding sources Hindu http://www. transparent Hindu http://www. Can his defence minister deliver? Indian Express NIA: Alert.STARTUP INDIA STANDUP INDIA http://iasbaba. Arab League vow to check terror.P a g e | 186 Related Articles: Start Up India Stand Up India Scheme .

com/article/opinion/ RBI Governor steps up to the challenge Hindu http://www. local terror funding Hindu http://www.ece Operation begins to curb money .Countering rising pollution.thehindu.html After the Delhi experiment Hindu How India should respond to the China slump.thehindu.IASbaba. endemic across the country.livemint.html Great fall of India’s exports Live Mint's slump will hopefully reduce the Indian fascination for the Chinese model of controlled economy Business Standard http://www.thehindu. is best done via solutions ground-up Indian Express http://indianexpress.P a g e | 187 National problems. .com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/a-debate-beyondclicktivism/article8152977.thehindu.ece Play it Act Sril Lanka : ‘Need safeguards against majoritarianism’ Hindu http://www.thehindu.ece Sell to the economic potential of the eastern region is key to solving India’s poverty problem Indian Express http://indianexpress. All India Radio is set to open its treasure trove of archival recordings Indian Express http://indianexpress.With the launch of Raagam.P a g e | 188 A debate beyond ‘clicktivism’ Hindu http://www. a first of its kind digital classical music channel by Prasar Bharati.Asset sales are the way for government to protect credibility while avoiding procyclical fiscal stance Indian Express http://indianexpress.ece A ringside view of the proposed GST Hindu http://www.

ece Related Articles: Fulfilling the potential of India-France ties .P a g e | 189 Related Articles: http://iasbaba.If we accept the reasoning of the apex court in the AMU Consolidating ties with France Hindu Hidden hunger and the Indian health story-India needs to find better value for money in the health sector Live Mint Minority status?.html View From The Right: Red terror Indian Express it means that a religious minority is debarred from establishing a university inasmuch as a university can only be established by a legislature Indian Express http://indianexpress.livemint.

P a g e | 190 For Detailed Analysis ‘Healthcare issues & challenges’ refer the below linkshttp://iasbaba.The high consumption of tobacco products by children under 18 is a warning that not enough is being done to spread awareness about health or enforce specific laws Hindu .com/2015/10/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-5th-6th-october-2015/ http://iasbaba.ece Related Articles: Tobacco and Pollution : Can we afford to breathe easy? After Paris. we need suitable technologies to make low-carbon transitions in development right away Hindu http://www.5 degrees http://iasbaba.In order to have a chance of limiting temperature rise to Sounding the smoke alarm .ece Related Articles: A Solar-y Alternative A Green New Deal www. keep the heat on .

P a g e | 191 Denmark’s absurd law on refugees Hindu The case for full disclosure .ece Related Articles: Crisis of Credibility: CBI caught on the wrong foot European Migrant Crisis: The Humanitarian Crisis that has made the world awkward Why yuan matters.ece CBI:The stained steel frame Hindu http://www.Indian equity markets are turbulent due to high foreign ownership and the renminbi uncertainty Indian Express http://indianexpress.ece Related Articles: Europe’s Humanitarian crisis is a good time to debate the criteria which enables the government to keep secrets instead of making everything public Hindu http://www. Ghosts Of Ship-To-Mouth.The issue of cash-versus-kind is not one that can be resolved by just fixing the delivery mechanism Live Mint not insufficient food production Indian Express . end users within the country are increasingly relying on imports Business Standard http://www.Coastal states have learnt to handle cyclonic storms Urbanization Issues and Governance – The Chennai Disaster http://iasbaba.html Delivering benefits to the poor. Indian Express http://indianexpress.P a g e | 192 Related Articles: Devaluation of Yuan How India lost the plot in global iron ore trade.livemint. but more needs to be done.While miners are losing their export advantage because of a host of levies. production fluctuations challenge us.html Disaster management: Preparing for the Related Articles: Disaster Management.Price spikes.

P a g e | 193 Related Articles: Time for expansion of Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) Who benefits when the RBI cuts rates? Hindu http://www. as 2016 shapes up to be another turbulent year in international politics Live Mint Solar Scam: Oommen Chandy must resign Hindu www. little regulation Hindu China’s long game in West Asia Hindu http://www.ece Mounting .com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/who-benefits-when-the-rbi-cutsrates/article8164760.ece Home grown energy security for Europe-Europe’s energy security is likely to gain salience in the coming months.