Application WiFi at Frequency 5.8 GHz
Arif Fauzar, Muhammad Ibnu Hidayat, Rifki, Rifaldo
Electrical Engineering Student, Faculty of Engineering, University of Riau
Campus Bina Widya Km 12.5 Baru Simpang Panam, Pekanbaru 28293
Email: Fauzararif@gmail.com
Abstrak
Wifi is a technology that is very poluler today. WiFi is an abbreviation of Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards
used for Wireless Local Network (LAN Local Area Networks) whose function is to connect local area networks
in a wireless manner. Along with the evolution of telecommunications technology based on wireless technology,
then we need for a communication system that can perform highspeed data transmission with good quality.
One of the devices supporting wireless communication devices is the antenna. The use and selection of
antennas is one of the important factors that affect the performance of the antenna as well as good design and
proper installation will ensure the performance of the telecommunications system. Microstrip antenna has the
advantages of low profile form, which is easy and inexpensive to produce in mass but has a small gain and
bandwidth. This paper discusses the design of the Microstrip antennas DualRAM patch for WiFi applications
that operate at a frequency of 5.8 GHz .. In this design uses FR4 epoxy material = 4.4 and a thickness of 1.6
mm, is suitable for application of highfrequency antenna. For the simulation in this paper using the software
CST Microwave Studio. From the results of the design using CST studio microvawe is obtained in accordance
with the specification antenna, with VSWR ≤ 1.5, gain ≥ 2 dB and return loss ≥ 20 dB.
Keywords: Microstrip Antenna, WiFi, Gain, VSWR, Return Loss
I. INTRODUCTION
The rapid development of communication systems, especially wireless communication
system. Wireless communication system is a communication system with a transmission
medium in the form of electromagnetic wave propagation. The one of wireless
communication technology which has now been widely used is WiFi technology. WiFi is a
technology that uses electronic equipment to exchange data wirelessly (using radio waves)
are widely used for Internet connection high speed. In communication system that uses radio
waves such as WiFi the most important part is to optimize the antenna performance that
serves to change the signal electricity into electromagnetic waves and then transmit
electromagnetic waves through free space or air. And conversely, the antenna also serves
receives electromagnetic waves from the free space and then convert it into an electrical
signal. The use and selection of antennas is one of the important factors that affect the
performance of the antenna as well as good design and proper installation will ensure the
performance of the telecommunications system , Microstrip antenna has the advantages of
low profile form, which is easy and inexpensive to produce in mass but has a small gain and
bandwidth. In this paper, which the problem examined is how to design and realize the
microstrip antenna with butterfly slot resulting good quality so that it can be applied to
technology WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) with frequency of 5.8 GHz.
II.LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Microstrip Antenna
Microstrip antenna is an antenna made of metal layers separated by a dielectric material.
Some advantages of microstrip antenna is small in structure, light weight, high gain, high
efficiency, wide bandwidth, simple and cheap. Intrinsically microstrip antenna has a
weakness in terms of narrow bandwidth . One way to overcome the problem of narrow
bandwidth by providing slots in microstrip patch. Microstrip antenna consists of a patch
components (strip) radiating metal, dielectric substrate and the ground plane. Permittivity
ε
εr
dielectric substrates have dielectric constants ( r ) in the range 2,2 ≤
≤ 12.
Permittivity will affect the size of the antenna are made. The thickness of the substrate is also
much smaller than the wavelength in a vacuum (h << λo). Substrate thickness (Hs) generally
ε
lies on the range 0,003 ≤ h ≤ 0,005 above the ground plane. A low dielectric constant ( r )
and thickness of substrate will produce a wide bandwidth and high efficiency so that the
antenna size becomes larger. Conversely a low dielectric constant and thin substrates will
produce a smaller bandwidth and low efficiency and size of the antenna becomes small.
2.2 WiFi
Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) is a conductor media wireless data communications that can be used
for communication or transfer of programs and data with the capability of quickly. WiFi
communication using IEEE 802.11b standard, only reached the coverage area of no more
than hundreds of meters. 802.11 is the IEEE standard for indoor WLAN.
2.3 Parameters Antenna
Performance of a microstrip antenna can be observed from parameters. Some of the main
parameters of a microstrip antenna will be explained as follows:
2.3.1. Bandwidth
Bandwidth an antenna is defined as the frequency range in which the antenna performance
related to some characteristic (such as input impedance, radiation pattern, beamwidth,
polarization, gain, VSWR, return loss) meet standard specifications.
Bandwidth can be searched using the following formula:
f 2−f 1
X 100
fc
BW =
Description :
(2.1)
f2
= Highest Frequency
f1
= Lowest Frequency
f c = Center Frequency
2.3.2 VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
VSWR is the ratio between the amplitude of the standing wave with maximum (Vmax) and
minimum (Vmin). In the transmission channel there are two components of the voltage
0+¿
0−¿
V ¿ and the reflected voltage V ¿ . A comparison
waveform, the voltage delivered
¿
¿
between the reflected voltage with the voltage delivered is referred to as the voltage reflection
coefficient (Г).
Г=
V0
V0
¿
¿
+¿
−¿
Where
ZL
=
Z L −Z 0
Z L + Z0
is the load impedance and
(2.2)
Z0
is a lossless line impedance.Voltage reflection
coefficient has a complex value. While the formula to find the value of VSWR is:
S=
¿ V ∨max
¿V ∨min =
1+ Г
1−Г
(2.3)
The best conditions are when the VSWR is 1 (S = 1) which means there is no reflection when
the channel is in a state of perfect matching. However, this condition is in practice difficult to
reach it. In generally VSWR still considered good is VSWR ≤ 2.
2.3.3. Return loss
Return loss is the ratio between the amplitude of the reflected wave to the amplitude of the
transmitted wave. Return loss is described as an increase in the amplitude of the reflected
−¿
+¿
0
0 .
wave
V ¿ compared with the waves delivered V ¿ Return Loss can occur due to a
discontinuity between the transmission line to the input impedance of the load (antenna). In
the microwave circuit has a discontinuity (mismatched), the amount of return loss varies
depending on the frequency.
V0
V0
=
¿
Г=¿
+¿
−¿
Z L −Z 0 VSWR−1
=
Z L + Z0 VSWR+ 1
(2.4)
¿ Г∨¿
Return loss = 20 log 10 ¿
(2.5)
By using the value of VSWR ≤ 2 it can be said that the value of the reflected wave is not too
large compared with the waves transmitted or in other words, the transmission line can
already be considered matching. this parameters value can be one of the references to see if
the antenna is able to work at a frequency expected or not.
2.3.4. Radiation Pattern
The radiation pattern of an antenna is a graphical statement that describes the radiation
properties of an antenna in the far field as a function of the direction. The radiation pattern
can be referred to as field pattern when pictured pointing vector. To express graphically the
radiation pattern, the pattern can be described in absolute form or in the relative form.
Relative form is form a pattern that has been normalized, ie each price of the radiation pattern
has been compared to the maximum price.
2.3.5. Gain
There are two types of Gain parameters is an absolute gain and relative gain. Absolute gain
on an antenna is defined as the ratio between the intensity in a particular direction with the
radiation intensity is obtained if the received power by irradiated isotropic antenna. The
intensity of the radiation associated with isotropic radiated power equal to the power received
by the antenna (Pin) divided by 4π. The absolute gain can be calculated by the formula:
Gain=4 π
U (θ , ∅)
P¿
(2.6)
III. METHODOLOGY
3.1. Determination Specifications
Determination of the antenna specification suppose to be the antenna simulated to have a
value of standards to be met. Antenna will be designed a rectangular microstrip patch antenna
which has a specification:
Table 1. Antenna Specifications
Description
Specifications
Frequency
VSWR
Radiation Pattern
Gain
5,8 Ghz
<2 dB
Omnidirectiona
l
>2 dBi
3.2. Design and Simulation
The early stages of the design antenna is calculation of value dimensional antenna required
for antenna design process. In the design of the antenna, the antenna dimensions will greatly
affect the antenna characteristics to be realized. In general, the operating frequency used will
determine the physical dimensions of the antenna, the higher the frequency, the smaller
dimensions of the antenna. The frequency used in this paper is 5.8 GHz (frequency WiFi).
For the calculation of the dimensions of the antenna first set value:
Table 2. The Specifications Substrate
Spesifications
Description
Subsrate Material
Subsrate Wide
Subsrate Length
Subsrate Thick
µr
FR4 (Efoxy) = 4,4
40.28 mm
1,6 mm
28.05 mm
1 (air)
The equations used to calculate the dimensions of the antenna, among others is:
c
℘=
(ε r + 1)
 Calculating the width of the patch (Wp) :
2f0
2
√

ε r +1 ε r −1
h 12
ε
=
+
[1+12
]
reff
Calculating the effective dielectric constant :
2
2
W
Calculating the length :
Leff =
c
2 f c √ ε reff
W
+0.264 ) ( ε +0.3 )
(
h
Δ L=0.412
W
( ε −0.258 ) ( h + 0.8 )
reff

Calculating the effective length of the patch :
reff

Calculate the length of the patch (Lp) :
Lp=Leff −2 Δ L
3. Simulation of Antenna Design
Process design simulations using the application software CST Microwave Studio to view the
antenna parameters which will be observed. Early process running simulation, parameter
values that are the result of simulation without changing the dimensions of the antenna value
(the value dimensions of the antenna according to the results of calculations), and get a
VSWR values below 2.
Table 2. The results of calculation Dimensions Antenna
Components
Symbols Components
Dimensions (mm)
Ws
Hs
Ls
Wp
Hp
Lp
40.28
1.6
28.05
13.42
0.02
9.34
Subsrate Wide
Subsrate Thick
Subsrate Length
Patch Wide
Patch Thick
Patch Length
After the design process is done and it will be the process of running the simulation for get
the value of the parameter that will be experienced. The initial results of simulation running
without change the dimension values of the antenna (antenna dimension values in accordance
with the results of the calculation).
Figure 1. VSWR Value Simulation Results
As shown in Figure 1, if the simulation results not in accordance with the desired
specifications (VSWR value is still more than the value of 2, it will be optimized the design
of the software application that is used to characterize or adjusting the dimensions of the
antenna.
4. Antenna Simulation Optimization
At the beginning of the simulation with the results of the initial calculation of the dimensions
of the antenna without optimized, it can be seen that the antenna has been simulated not work
at a predetermined frequency range. Parameter values observed are also not yet reached the
prescribed specifications. The dimensions of antenna affects change parameter values were
observed. In this paper, changes in the dimensions of the antenna starts from changes in the
value dimension for Lp until obtained VSWR value which is less than the value of 2.
Table 3. Patch length shift value (Lp)
Dimensi antenna
Wp
13.42
13.42
13.42
13.42
13.42
Lp
9.14
8.94
8.74
8.54
8.34
VSW
R
Return Loss (dB)
Bandwith (Mhz)
Frekuensi (Ghz)
1.02
1.01
1.01
1.02
1.01
39.5
45.88
45,90
38.55
46.00
179
179
179
180
200
5.76
5.77
5.784
5.82
5.80
From Table 3 consists of several graphs return loss, where each graph have different return
loss values. Length variation patch made is from 9.14 to 8.34 mm with the decrease by 0.2
mm and a reduction in the fixed parameter is the width dimension of the patch 13.42 mm.
Based on simulation results, it is known that the best return loss values obtained on length
patches 8.34 mm and has a center frequency at 5.80 GHz with a return loss of 46.00 dB.
5. Simulation Results After Optimization
From the results of the optimization, the value obtained optimal antenna dimensions as in
table 4 below:
Table 4. Dimensional Antenna Optimization Results
Components
Symbols Components
Dimensions(mm)
Ws
Hs
Ls
Wp
Hp
Lp
40.28
1.6
28.05
13.42
0.02
8.34
Subsrate Wide
Subsrate Thick
Subsrate Length
Patch Wide
Patch Thick
Patch Length
After the optimization process is done on the dimensions of the antenna are obtained the form
values of different parameters of the simulation results using the dimension values from the
calculation. The simulation results from optimization of antenna is an ideal antenna
performance results.
Figure 2.VSWR Value Optimization Result
Figure 3. Return Loss Value
Optimization Results
Figure 4. Gain Value Optimization Results
Figure 5. Polarization Antenna
Optimization Results
Figure 2 is a VSWR value optimization results microstrip antenna butterfly slot, it can be
seen that the VSWR values obtained at a frequency of 5.8 GHz is 1.01 dB. From the data that
has been described above, it is known that in the frequency range from 5.75 to 5.90 MHz,
butterfly slot microstrip antenna design capable of working at VSWR ≤ 1.5. This value has
needs to be achieved, on the value ≤ 1.9 VSWR or return loss ≤ 10.18 dB. While figure 3 is
Return Loss values obtained after the optimization process at a frequency of 5.8 GHz is 46.00
dB. Figure 4 is an antenna gain value optimization results, obtained by a gain of 2.03 dB
while Figure 5 is polarization antenna optimization results.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Antena Mikrostrip Patch slot Butterfly
KETERANGAN W,L, H)
(a) Front View
(DIRUBAH YA NAK GAMBARNYA PAKE
(b) Back View
Figure 6. Modeling and Simulation Microstrip Patch Antenna Butterfly slot
With optimal dimensional values, obtained VSWR <2 for the working frequency was
observed (Figure 2). With the decline in the value of VSWR, the return loss will also be
smaller. The value of VSWR, Return Loss and Gain of the initial simulation results can be
seen in Table 5 and the value of VSWR, Return Loss and Gain of the optimization results can
be seen in Table 6
Table 5. Parameters Simulation Results
Parameter (dB)
VSWR
Return Loss
Gain
Bandwidth
Calculating Result
frequency (Ghz)
1.02
39,5
2.01
179 Mhz
5.76
5.76
5.76
5.76
Table 6.Parameters Optimization Results
Parameter (dB)
VSWR
Return Loss
Gain
Bandwidth
Calculating Result
frequency (Ghz)
1.01
46
2.03
200 Mhz
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
4.1. Effect of Antenna Dimensions Against VSWR & Return Loss
From Table 5, it can be seen that by using the antenna dimensions based on value calculation
results obtained produce working frequency range is undesirable. In Table 6 and Figure 7 ,
center frequency of the working frequency is generated is 5.76 Ghz while the center
frequency of the desired operating frequency range of 5.8 Ghz. By using the value of the
antenna dimensions have been optimized, value obtained the most optimal dimensions in
order to obtain the value of VSWR is less than or equal to a value of 2. It is seen that the
value of Wp and Lp will affect the value of VSWR in the frequency range observed. It can
be seen when the value of Wp and Lp converted into smaller, then the VSWR values also will
be smaller and the frequency of the desired work will be shifted toward higher. So the higher
the frequency, the smaller dimensions of antena. Simulation Results obtained by using the
value of the antenna dimension is the most optimal results or results in ideal conditions
(without loss) VSWR. The value will be affected return loss, because the greater the return
loss VSWR values also getting bigger. The desired conditions return loss is small because the
smaller the value of the return loss, VSWR value also increases.
2. Effect Dimensions Antenna Againts Gain & Bandwidth
From Table 5 and Table 6 shows the difference between the value of the gain antenna
simulation using the results of calculations and dimensions of the antenna dimensions
optimization results. Dimensional change was also affecting the value of the gain. Gain value
obtained from the simulation results using the appropriate dimension calculation result is
equal to 2.01 dBi and gain value from simulation results using an optimized antenna
dimensions are at 2.03 dBi. Gain value of 2.03 dBi is the value of the maximum gain of the
antenna has been designed. Besides changes in the dimensions of the antenna also affects the
amount of bandwidth that is obtained, the simulation results fit the initial calculation result is
equal to 179 MHz and the bandwidth of the simulation results using an optimized antenna
dimensions are of 200 Mhz
V. CONCLUSION
Based on the results of antenna design and simulation process can be concluded as follows:
1. The rectangular microstrip patch antenna butterfly slot that is designed to work well
in the 5.755.90 GHz frequency range with a center frequency at 5.80 GHz VSWR ≤
2 at 200 MHz.
2. The return loss of the simulation results for the frequency of 5.76 GHz at 39.5 dB,
for the frequency of 5.77 GHz at 45.88 dB, to 5,784 GHz frequency of 45.90 dB,
and for the frequency of 5.82 GHz at 38.55 dB. Return loss of pengkuran results
desired frequency is at 5.8 Ghz frequency of 46.00 dB.
3. The value of VSWR of the simulation results for a frequency of 5.76 GHz at 1.02, for
a frequency of 5.77 GHz at 1.01, for frequency 5.784 GHz at 1.01, and for the
frequency of 5.82 GHz at 1.02. Return loss of Calculating results desired frequency is
at a frequency of 5.8 GHz at 1.01.
4. The antenna gain of the simulation results is 2.03 dBi. The change of Antenna
dimensions also affect the value of Return Loss, VSWR, gain and bandwidth the
smaller magnitude of dimensions of the antenna, the higher the frequency value is
obtained, otherwise the larger dimensions of the low frequency antenna so smaller.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA