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Int. J. Biosci.

2012
International Journal of Biosciences (IJB)
ISSN: 2220-6655 (Print) 2222-5234 (Online)
Vol. 2, No. 10(2), p. 28-38, 2012
http://www.innspub.net

RESEARCH PAPER

OPEN ACCESS

Induced breeding, embryonic and larval development of comet
gold fish (Carassius auratus) in Khulna, Bangladesh
Zakaria Mahmud2, Faysal Ahmed2, Alokesh Kumar Ghosh1*, Md. Abul Kalam Azad3,
Joyanta Bir4, S.M. Bazlur Rahaman5
Fisheries and Marine Resource Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208,

1

Bangladesh
Fisheries and Marine Resource Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208,

2

Bangladesh
Balaganj, Sylhet, Bangladesh

3

Fisheries and Marine Resource Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208,

4

Bangladesh
Fisheries and Marine Resource Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208,

5

Bangladesh
Received: 16 August 2012
Revised: 26 August 2012
Accepted: 27 August 2012

Key words: Ovaprim, fertilization rate, embryonic development, larval development.
Abstract
The present study was aimed to perform induced breeding and to observe embryonic and larval development
stages of Comet gold fish (Carassius auratus) in mature males and females by administering hormone of double
dose in female and a single dose in male by intramuscular injection of ovaprim at a dosage of 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.2
ml/kg body weight. Spawning was observed six hours after the injection at ambient temperature (18-22oC).
Fertilization rate of eggs were found 50.34, 51.47, 47.30 and 48.24 % respectively with the response of 0.5, 0.7,
1.0 and 1.2 ml/kg of ovaprim. Hatching rates were found 44.35, 43.79, 39.83 and 36.00 % respectively with the
same doses. The fertilized eggs were adhesive, translucent and spherical in shape with diameter ranging between
0.9- 1.0 mm and were whitish in color. The incubation period was 76±3 hours at an average water temperature
range of 15- 20 0C and all the eggs were hatched in approximately 90 hours after hatching. Samples were taken
every 30 minutes interval till completion of morula and then every 1 hour interval up to hatching. The hatchlings
were transparent and measured 1.3- 1.7 mm of total length with a large oval head, a well defined yolk sac and a
short tail. Due to good response to synthetic hormone (ovaprim), considerable fertilization and hatching rate,
short embryonic period and fast larval development it is possible to conduct breeding program of this species
commercially and is suitable for commercial culture.
*Corresponding

Author: Alokesh Kumar Ghosh  alokesh_ku@yahoo.com

28 Mahmud et al.

1987). They produce adhesive eggs that to its own territory till now. 2000). beauty and rarity is called ornamental fish. 2012 Introduction distinguished by its long deeply forked tail. This Ornamental fish keeping is one of the most popular goldfish variety is an excellent choice for beginners. They are more active than most other goldfish long. orange. Since the goldfish is understood and the same is not being exploited in a becoming increasingly important not only from the technology the standpoint of the ornamental fish trade.. this species is depends on assured and adequate supply of not listed on the IUCN (International Union for the demand. Comets are prolific production of fry or fingerlings which contributes breeders and are bred commercially for sale to pet significantly to the overall aquaculture production shops throughout the world and in Bangladesh as of Bangladesh. Within a week or so. less than 20 cm well. red. In coloration are common. Organized trade in ornamental fish warmer after the winter. carried out to highlight some aspects of the early life The comet or comet-tailed goldfish is one of the history of comet gold fish (embryonic and larval most common varieties of fancy goldfish in the stages) as well as induced breeding in context of world. The major part of with yellow. If 158. In addition this study slightly smaller and slimmer. They are naturally inclined to spawn in spring shift the focus from capture to culture based when the water gradually becomes warmer and development. are kept in aquariums and prized for their breeds. They are Japan. 1967) in hatcheries for temperature. It is similar to the common goldfish. fish are imported into the USA each year (Food and There is various color variation of comets but comet Agriculture Organization. This study was (Food and Agriculture Organization. Considering substantial . and apparently can be regarded as a very potential the fry begin to look more like a goldfish in shape. releasing fry large enough to be meet the requirement of the country. Breeding established as a dependable source of fish seeds usually happens after a significant change in since the mid 1960’s (Ali. hobbies in the world today. this variety (Food and Agriculture Organization. 2000).23 lakh which is only 0. and as an relatively simple technique involved. Over US $ 500 million worth of ornamental occupants and hence well suited to aquarium setup. and red-and-white this export trade is based on wild collection. The of gold fish may become extinct due to inbreeding earning potential of this sector has hardly been depression or other problems. like all cyprinids.Int. white. The eggs hatch within of money each year importing ornamental fish to 48 to 72 hours. until then they are breeding of endemic major carps has been a metallic brown like their wild ancestors. The emerging markets are China and South basically delicate but very peaceful towards other Africa. which is possible only by mass breeding Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Red (Food and Agriculture Organization. 2000). But domestic described as appearing like "an eyelash with two production of ornamental fish can save these money eyeballs"(Lauria et al. Goldfish. this activity experimental test animal. and is mainly was a step to observe the influence of lowered water the 29 driven potential manner. but also because of its has job ability to adapt itself successfully to environmental opportunities. Artificial propagation of although it can take as much as a year before they fish is done by induced breeding technique. mean of export earnings. Usually small fishes. to create Mahmud et al. J. They are not only bred in outdoor ponds. India's List. The largest importer of They are an easy fish to keep as they are not picky Ornamental fish is the USA followed by Europe and and will readily eat what is offered. besides helping export earnings conditions (Helen and Battle. 2002). and presumably there are no wild populations share in ornamental fish trade is estimated to be Rs of this captive bred variety (Andrews. it costs a lot attach to aquatic vegetation. Moreover. except Bangladeshi environment. In order they frequently reproduce in large aquariums as to sustain the growth it is absolutely necessary to well. However. often in spring. 1939). Induced develop a mature goldfish color. 2000).008% of the global trade proper management steps are not taken. Biosci. Bangladesh the trade of ornamental fish is confined are egg-layers.

After aquarium fertilizing the fertilized eggs were also kept in the Continuous air flow was provided in the tanks by small tank.5×1. 2012 temperature (15. kept in the aquarium (4×1. The brood fish were selected the vial to dissolve it and mixed it very well. principally environmental factor governing the development of fish eggs. water supply was also a major objective of selection of brood fish facilities. Female is supernatant solution of hormone was then taken for usually easier to spot. The powdered Mature healthy comet gold fish brooders (31. collection and conditioning was injected to the spawners.5 ft). stone. working space etc were assured before the from diversified sources. as the belly of a mature the injection.90 g). Hormone dose optimization For induced breeding synthetic hormone (Ovaprim) Brood fish selection. The brood (FMRT) Discipline of carrying pack was submerged into the aquarium Preparation of rearing and spawning tank water for 10 minutes. The sex ratio of the spawners was kept at were kept on separate aquarium.0×1. when the male nudges the female Materials and methods with its head and fins to induce her to spawn. it was collected from the induced breeding of ornamental fish were done in diversified sources. The on the basis of size and color pattern. Aquarium set up. Khulna University administration. The first part of the activity concerned the electric balance and then the hormone was with the collection of brood fish. Biosci. they develop breeding main tubercles on the head and pectoral fins. continuous air-pump etc. To Technology Khulna increase the diversity among the parents and to University.20 0C) on eggs hatching as well as streamlined and more torpedo shaped. along the bones of the fin rays. The broods were Induced breeding conditioned in the large tank and after injecting the The selected broods collected from the conditioning brood set were separated in the small tank. Then distilled water was added (10 ml) to breeding experiments. The brood was kept 3-5 size glass aquaria (1. whereas male remains was given a single dose of injection. Two large size aquarium glass aquaria (4×1.0ft) of the laboratory days here before the breeding program. The second part of administered. The selected brood was weighted in experiment.5×1. aerator. 2:1 for male and female.5-5.O: 4. The brood fishes were breeding program.2-7. The breeding program was Experimental design conducted by a synthetic hormone (Ovaprim) There were two broad parts of the activities in this administration. J. The breeding set was released into the experiment was performed in the physiology separate laboratory of FMRT Discipline.5×1. Bangladesh. aquarium after the hormonal to carry out the induced breeding program.5ft) were made and 8 small temperature: 15-18 0C). Female was given two doses and male female is generally plump. The aquarium was supported with filter. These are used during breeding.37- Ovaprim preserved in vial was bought from the 72. were selected by sexual dimorphism for market.4. embryonic and larval stage development. pH: 7. were used.5 mg/L. Then the brood were For induced breeding glass aquarium was used for unpacked and released into the well aerated both rearing and spawning of fish. Profile of the study area Eighteen pairs (24 male and 12 female) brood fishes The experiment was conducted in Fish Physiology were collected from the local aquarium fish market Laboratory of Fisheries and Marine Resource and from the aquarium fish market of Dhaka.Int. The study period was from carried to the laboratory within 30 minutes and November 2009 to January 2010. . All preparation needed for select healthy brood fish. Male was 30 Mahmud et al. When males on larval growth of comet as temperature is the are ready for spawning. Avoiding inbreeding problem the laboratory. (D.

thick and sticky. The examined to observe the fertilization rate. After completing spawning. the yolk sac absorption. individuals were temporarily shell with gray/ black spot within the egg shell. min interval were taken for further studies. Biosci. In the present study. The diameter of the fertilized egg capsule ranged between 0. The specimens were while the unfertilized eggs were opaque. 2012 injected at the time of second dose given to the Embryonic and Larval stages observation female. incubation jar providing with continuous water After. . Looking of egg of hatchling were counted by visual observations. spawning behavior observed after 1-8 hours of hormone injection and breeding Determination of hatching rate was performed 5-6 hours after the 2nd dose of To determine hatching rate the samples were injection. J. aquarium was taken in a Petri dish from the hatching tank and counted. The embryonic stage occurs inside the in a bowl. The begins immediately upon absorption of the yolk sac inseminated eggs were then transferred in to and was characterized by autonomous feeding. The post larval stage mixed well with a clean and sterile feather. The eggs of comet gold fish became translucent as development progressed. In the mean time respective male was chorion and ends in hatching. larval and post larval At first female was stripped and eggs were collected development. Those eggs Then hatching rate was determined following the were formula: throughout the incubation period. The doses used in the two different sexes are Samples of eggs before fertilization and at every 30- shown in Table 1. demersal and number of fertilized eggs in the sample and number spherical characteristics in nature. The yellowish deposited singly and highly adhesive white egg capsule was transparent. Then the eggs were Descriptions of the developing stages were made by observed under a magnifying glass and fertilized examining eggs were counted with the help of a soft thin brush. The larval stage was stripped and collected milt was mixed well with characterized by nutritive contribution of the yolk previously collected eggs. For better result of sac and the stage ends when the larva becomes fertilization physiological saline was used and capable of exogenous feeding. the larvae were fed flow. Fertilized eggs hatched in this condition. was being transparent. the fertilized collected from the hatching tank and the total eggs of comet gold fish were adhesive. For this age of the larvae was denoted as hour after purpose 1cc of water sample from bottom of activation. measured by placing them over a slide having 1. boiled egg yolk twice daily with zooplankton (Artemia).Int. unfertilized eggs by the presence of transparent For clear observation. while the yolk was pale yellow or green and granular. Five to ten The fertilization rate was determined following the specimens were used to describe each stage. microscope The fertilized eggs were easily separated from the developmental stages of eggs and larvae were taken. the developmental stages were Stripping and fertilization divided into embryonic.0 live and specimens under microphotographs Electron of the mm graph paper at the bottom. formula: Results In the present study. stained with methylene blue.9 mm and 1.1 mm while 31 Mahmud et al. Developmental time from post Determination of fertilization rate fertilization was rounded to the nearest minute until After a certain period (1-2hrs) the eggs were the morula stage and then to the nearest hour.

Thirty minutes later the second 39.47. . Due to 32 Mahmud et al. and approximately Following this.7.00% corresponding to 0. 1. and the margin colored globular eggs of 0. considerable debris Fertilization rate and hatching rate adhered to the capsule of the egg. T-2. In corresponding to 0.30 and 48. In the parameters that were maintained during the present study the eggs hatched 48 hrs at a water experiment are given in Table 2. weight of fish using Ovaprim (Table 3). Hatching forming rate for fertilized eggs was obtained at 44. Picture of embryonic and larval development. When first laid the whole surface was Differentiation of the embryo adhesive.5-0. 0.5. 2012 the yolk sphere ranged from 0.34. There were four treatments as T-1. eggs were slightly flattened along the margin of attachment. blastoderm was composed of a mass of relatively 50. blastomeres.2 ml hormone administration per kg body becomes irregular and in four hours' time the weight of the brood (Table 3).Int.5. These farther over the yolk. After six hours of Embryonic development of comet gold fish development the cells have became relatively Characteristics of the egg: The spherical pale cream- smaller owing to rapid cell division.7. J.9 to 1.24 % two large appeared. Biosci. 51.79.34. The Cleavage Stages: A few minutes after fertilization fertilization rate of egg found by the recent study the blastodisc were contracted and a white dome was in was formed on the upper surface of the yolk. the adhesive nature of the egg.83 and 36.0 mm of the comet of the blastoderm has begun to extend slightly fish were found during the current study. The water quality Fig. equal cleavage small but distinct cells.9 mm. 1.0 and 1. 0.2 ml/ kg body approximately an hour the first cleavage occurred. temperature of 15-18 0C. 1. but this quality was lost as soon as they Fifteen hours: The surface view gave no indication had become "water hardened" and attached to the of the embryonic axis aside from a slightly opaque aquarium walls and the preset substratum. 47.0 cleavage and 1. T-3 and T-4 to determining the fertilization rate of egg. 43.

2 T-1(0.Int.79 47.4 0. Water quality parameters and room temperature during conditioning of brood fish.7 2.5-1. J. Table1.0-4.34 44. Hormone Dosage (Ovaprim) T-1 (0.0 2. 33 Mahmud et al. and bounded clearly visible and the optic evaginations were on either side by the lateral margins of the somewhat oval extending posteriorly from the embryonic shield.00 Eighteen to nineteen hours: The axis of the fish Twenty five hours: Although the blastopore had not embryo was visible as a narrow but rather high yet closed.2 ml/kg body weight) Table 2.4 6 Male Not used 1. T-4 (1.5 ml/kg body weight).2 0.0 ml / kg body weight) T-4 (1.2-7.0 ppt 15-18 0C 18-22 0C 100 mg/L 3. T-2 (0.83 48.30 39.5 1.7 ml / kg body weight).0 ml / kg body weight). Fertilization rate and hatching rate of eggs with respect of different treatments.5 1.0 Not used 1.2 ml/kg body weight) 51.47 43. Parameters Amount Water pH Salinity Water temperature Room temperature Hardness of water Dissolve Oxygen (DO) Free CO2 Acidity Alkalinity 7.7 ml / kg body weight) T-3 (1. nearly encircling the yolk. Name of the Species Treatment Sex (Male/ Female) Dose : Ovaprim (ml/kg body weight) 1st Dose Comet gold fish (Carassius auratus) 1 2 3 4 Time interval between the doses (hrs) 2nd Dose Female 0. primary cerebral lobe. Different doses of Ovaprim used in induced breeding. marked changes had taken place in the transparent ridge extending forward from the anterior axial region of the embryo. .4 0.5 mg/L 0 mg/L 0 mg/L 290-300 mg/L Table 3. 2012 area of undifferentiated tissue passing interiorly along one radius from the margin of the blastopore.0 Male Female Male Female Male Female Not used 0.5 ml/kg body weight) Average fertilization rate (%) Average Hatching rate (%) 50. T-3 (1.35 T-2 (0. The brain was blastopore.7 Not used 1. Biosci.0 1.24 36.

06±0.8 2. The Table 4.06±0.20±0.03.11 16.3 Hatching Loss of yolk sac Loss of pre-anal fin fold 34 Mahmud et al.5 Present data 6.9 First caudal fin ray 8.5 Helen and Battle.05 18. Embryonic development of Comet tailed gold fish.2 6.16±0.0-13.057 18.7 . Stage Lauria and Holopair. 1939 At constant 250C 4.10 17.9 4.1±0.5-7. but the embryo were still auditory vesicle to the undifferentiated caudal mass. Biosci. Length increment (mm) of larvae at various developmental stages. Time elapsed from spawning Hour minutes 0 1 1 2 2 4 8 16 19 25 25 35 42 55 72 90 55 20 50 10 50 50 00 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Water temperature (0C) Developmental stages observed 15.8 Clear unpaired fins 11. 2012 Thirty hours: The tail reached almost around to the notochord extends as a solid rod of cells from the anterior limit of the head.8 12.5-10.0 11.17 1616±0.057 15.0 7.6 7.8-6.1±0.Int.4-4.1±0.1±0. J.05 15.10 16. adherent to the yolk sac at both ends.1±0.3-1.057 Two celled stage 4-Cell Blastomere 8-Cell Blastomere 16-Cell Blastomere 32-Cell Blastomere Morula Germinal ring formed Gastrulation Observation Embryo Profile The Formation of Somite and KupfferÕs vesicle The Appearance of Pigmentation The Appearance of Heart The Formation of Optic Cup Increasing of Pigmentation Hatching (10%) Hatching (100%) Table 5.4 5.5-2. At 15-200C 1.06±0.10 15.10 15.1990 At 20-250C 4.0 9.05 15.5-5.13±0.

The larvae took a sessile form and did not show free movement. .4.13 hours of hatching the and the anus. 15-18 day’s old larva: Total length became 5. Haniffa and Sridhar. 2002.. The yolk sac beard large scattered melanophores more 35 day’s old larva: The caudal fin showed little especially anteriorly.8.7 mm was found.5 mm but the larva still did not resemble the parents.Thirty five to forty hours: The embryonic body had head and body. Swimming movements were advancement over the 6. Rhythmic movements occured notochord had become bent upward slightly and freely within the egg capsule. Rokade et al. The embryo showed a distinct to the mid body region. The violent lashing movements of the tail which otoliths had become almost as large as the lens of eventually rupture the egg capsule. which fish that was the aims of our study (Bhuiyan et al. Its tail was lying either to density especially in the eye. The posterior end of the perivitelline space. 2006. Both the head and tail were freed from the yolk surface. Air In many papers dealing with induced breeding of bladder was shallow. 1. Total length was the eye. The anal and pectoral fins had almost vertical in position at the anterior end of the developed distinct rays. The median fin fold was material. masses of yellow pigment spots the level of the auditory vesicle. 7-8 day’s old larva: Total length of the larvae was Sixty five to seventy hours: The embryo had 4.9mm. The larvae attained a very little free increased in length.3-1.7mm No visible pigmentation was found.5. 1. beginning to disappear dorsally between the dorsal adhering to the aquarium walls.2. The pectoral fins (xanthophores) along the dorsal musculature and appeared as fleshy folds lying over the yolk sac at over the head. The heart was and caudal fins and between the caudal and anal differentiating into chambers although it is still fins ventrally. behind pectoral region. The vent and gill rudiments were formed. The larva shows a positive thigmotropism. Development of the larva and post larva The caudal fin had forked into dorsal and ventral Newly-hatched larva: The larva freed itself by lobes supported by unbranched fin rays. but the dorsal somewhat restricted owing to the mass of yolk now beard nine true rays. reduction in the size of the yolk sac which had now become almost tubular due to its greater absorption Fifty to fifty five hours: The embryo had now anteriorly. A narrow fin 2-4 day’s old larva: The total length of the larvae fold surrounds the tail and extends forward dorsally was 2. 1966.6. develop into two chambers in the post larval stage.. Pigmentation was more pronounced throughout the 1985. Fernando and Phang. Gut was Discussion straight to slightly curve in anterior portion. the tail process reaching almost movement with the help of fins.5 mm. to the anterior limit of the head. Yamamoto et al. stage.. and the appearance of the right or left of the head and was often bent at an heavy angle across the front of the latter.8 mm. The mouth has enlarged and the lower increased considerably in size occupying most of the jaw moves rhythmically.4. rudiments of caudal fin rays were evident in the fin fold among the melanophores below the curved Seventy five to eighty hours: Newly born larva of notochord.3-1. fin folds were seen continuously around the tail. The pelvic fins had yolk sac. Pigmentation resembled that of the formed more than a complete circle around the recently hatched larva except for an increase in circumference of the yolk. appeared as minute lateral fleshy protuberances from the body wall midway between the pectorals 11-13h old larva: After 11.

Haniffa et al. rate of water the yolk sac had been reduced to a narrow tubular flow.25 to 1. The pelvic fin buds have just between 0.5 mm stage) the organism the fertilized egg capsule found in this study ranged became more opaque.0 mm in (Balon. Findings of form are unlike that of fry).00 mm while the yolk sphere appeared and fin rays are present in all the other ranged from 0. The incubation period of eggs material had practically disappeared. The operculum salinity and temperature (Kuo et al.6.2.0. (2006). the yolk treatment 2 (T-2). defined this stage as post-larva 0C (Haque. 1995).7 mm while Haniffa et al.1. The optimum temperature band (Hubbs.5. and the body essentially caused by smaller size brood fish than the brood resembled the adult. The air bladder had divided into two differ with the condition of brood.3. In sixteen hours heart was found beating Little showers of rain and weather being conducive rhythmically. The eggs which were very evaluating the developmental patterns of species much adhesive in nature and were 0. The 5. Innes (1936) reports a hatching period of days) showed increased pigmentation and reduction from to of melanophores to blackish spheres in the head temperature. 1939.9. 1966. At hatching Ovaprim were used for induced breeding within 6 the larva was 1. 2004).Int. But only a limited hours at 25 0C. and an aerator. Fertilization and hatching rates also region. rate and the fertilization rate were increased in At seven to eight days (4. 2012 2004..1. Experiments were place an hour after fertilization.. water quality etc. Pigmentation is concentrated above the lateral (2006) found that the fertilized eggs were adhesive line. Yellow pigmentation the present study indicates that both the hatching had appeared. The diameter of chambers. In that factor involved experiments were conducted flow of water by enlargement of all the embryonic structures.8 mm stage). 1985). found eggs of Generally. lower temperature retards the rate of 1.9 mm was attained. size selected for the study by Haniffa et al.4.4. as the stage began immediately after absorption of The hatching rate and the fertilization rate slightly the yolk sac that last as long as the structure and affected by different doses of hormone. The first cleavage during our study took Fernando and Phang. Khan and Hamid (1929) found the hatching present as a triangular mass at the anterior end of period to vary from forty-six to fifty-four hours at the body cavity. 2006). variation. in diameter and hatch in sixty five embryonic 36 Mahmud et al. 1973..8. At approximately nine weeks a 15. and restricted in hr while the control females were given two doses movement by the weight of the yolk sac.9 length was attained and the fish has acquires scales. Further development to hatchling for breeding (Kucharczyk et al. and higher . In this study only a single dose of elongation of the yolk sac posteriorly. and various factors. By 35 days (10. Specially induced breeding occurred with temperature around 28 0C (Rokade et al.5 mm stage (age 15 to 18 29 0C..20 0C (Helen and Battle. Changes in the pattern of the entire structure of an The comet goldfish is typical of the teleosts in its organ in relation to the environment are decisive for general development. Liao.7mm in length. The air bladder was partially inflated. Biosci. range for gold fish is 15 four to fourteen to 28 0C days according pigmentation by melanophores. fins. 1999). 1943.5.8 mm and 1. The hatching rate may be affected by four days. practically covered the gills and the liver was 1975).46 mm. with the exception of a small spherical blastopore. a length of 2. affected by incubation development of fish temperature. mm and 1.10 mm.. The early development of fish is diameter and hatch in approximately 90 hours at strongly 15. Rudiments of depends largely on water quality parameters such as caudal fin rays were evident then. By two to of extract.2 mm of total and transparent with diameter ranging between 0. and in fifteen hours conducted in December with temperature around the blastoderm had completely encircled the yolk 18-200C. such as temperature. J.) the difference in diameter of eggs number of papers are related about induced may be due to the brood size and environmental breeding of comet gold fish (Yamamoto et al. This slight variation can be pigmentation is general. 1997).

comparatively lower dosage of hormone. J. An Interpet Guide to Fancy pair of parent. Alternative ways how to become a Further more during my study. From the available references along with my 2000. Although all eggs for the developmental study were collected from a single Andrews DC. 2012 temperature accelerates it (Saka et al. This might retard the University Research Cell and Fisheries and Marine embryonic and larval development of comet fish Resource Technology Discipline for their help during my study period. Journal of biological science 14. p. University of Western Ontario. Jessore. Biosci. 260. embryonic and larval development will help us to optimize the problem and led us to a sustainable Hubbs CL. Haniffa MA.38. Steel plate Aquaculture 51. given bellow on the study of embryonic and larval development of gold fish and comet fish at different References temperature (Table 5). Culture of the of fertilization and hatching were achieved from a guppy. present investigation on the induced breeding of the comet fish. auratus) from Lake Erie. Agriculture During this study. Further studies on embryological development of ornamental fishes will give an opportunity to learn their development Helen I. this fish. . A detailed analysis on the Biology of Fish 56. Management of an ideal carp huge number of eggs. The hatching of larvae 64. Battle HI. World status of ornamental fish 3. Copeia 4. in Singapore. Balon EK. 1985. 49-63. Phang VPE. but the incubation period for all the Goldfish. structure of the chorion is needed to discern how the eggs adhere and if they have any functional Bhuiyan K. A comparative study is during the research trials and for financial support. 2002. Environment and adhesive layer on it. 17. 1939. I found that the definitive phenotype or a juvenile (and on some comet’s eggs were very adhesive with a special persisting linguistic offences). Conclusion Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).. we found a varied incubation Information Survey. In this induced breeding hatchery in Quality Assurance in Induced breeding. 1943. Induced breeding of major carps in ponds by pituitary hormone injection. Poecilia reticulata. eggs was not the same. Department of Zoology. 1997. Dhaka. The embryology and stages in detail and this would be helpful for the larval development of the goldfish (Carassius commercial production of this elegant fish. 2006. Terminology of early stages of management fishes. Bangladesh. 37 Mahmud et al. 121-125. it was observed that higher percentages Fernando A A. 5-225. Kumar D. Proper knowledge on the 31-37. of comet. period for eggs of comet. pp: better production. Acknowledgements During my study period the ambient temperature The authors would like to thank to Khulna was low and fluctuating. started after 76± 3 hours of hatching and the process continued up to 90 hours after hatching.Int. for fertilization must be avoided because steel plate reduces the fertilization rate and creates spoilage of Haque MR. Ali MH. p. 2001). 1999. 1967. process quality hormone should be used to ensure Department of Fisheries. Interpet Publishing IUCN 1-902389. effect on the embryonic and larval development of Induced spawning of puntius gonionotus (bleeker).

51-56. gonadotropin and synthetic hormone (ovaprim). Experiments on the induced breeding of the grey mullet in Taiwan from 1963- Haniffa MA. Piironen J. Aquaculture 6. 459-470. Journal of Bio-Science 14. Innes Publishing Company. 1995. 1929. XXXIII: 614. 1936. The complete aquarium book. carpio). Yamazaki F. Vertebrate archive 72. 1975. A goldfish all through the year. Babiak I. A comparative account on the induced Khan M. The Kucharczyk D.Int. Kamaco HO. Holopainen IJ. 31-58. Arockiaraj AJ. 1758) eggs in relation to temperature. Nagahama Y.. development of European sea bas (Dicentrarchus Targońska K. 89–95. 1973. 2006. 2001. Somwane SR. 2002. 2012 Haniffa MA. Forat K. Szabó. Bulletin of Japanese preliminary report on the development. .T. Induced spawning survival of laboratory reared larvae of the grey of spotted murrel (Channa punctatus) and catfish mullet.)). (Carassius auratus). Liao IC. Notes on egg development and larval and juvenile growth of crucian carp (Carassius carassius (L. Benziger PSA. 139-147. J. Yamamoto KY. Czech Journal of Animal Science 50(3). Journal of Fish Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society Vol. 38 Mahmud et al. pituitary extract and ovaprim. growth and Social Science of Fish 32. 1973. Induced spawning in Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science bream (Abramis brama L. Sridhar S. Breeding Behaviour and Embryonic Development of Koi Carp (Cyprinus Lauria S. Wyszomirska E. Hamid M. edition. 1987. Innes WT. p. Biology 27(2). Mamcarz1 A. Saka S. Shehadeh ZH. Kujawa1 R. Milison KK. Journal of Fish Biology (Heteropneustes fossilis) using human chorionic 5. Early stages in the breeding of major carp Cirrhina mrigala by development of the goldfish. Rokade P.). labrax L. 315. 2004. A method to induce artificial spawning of Kuo CM. 121-125. 309-310.617. 212. GnRH. Ganeshwade RM. Nagarajan M.) using pellets containing 25. 1966. Glogowski J. 977-983.321. 15th Annales Zoologici Fennici 24. Mugil cephalus (L. Phila. Siby P. Biosci.