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Abstract
This paper presents an overview of the maglev wind turbine design features. A vertical axis
windturbine (VAWT) is introduced by magnetic levitation technology to optimize the
performance. Thesystem utilize nature of permanent magnet to levitate the turbine component
and thus minimizeenergy losses while rotating, which is the major problem that faced by
conventional wind turbine.The selection of magnet materials in the design of wind turbine
system will be discussed.The Maglev
Wind Turbine is expected to bring wind power technology to the next level.Furthermore, the
system can be suited in use for rural and urban areas of low wind speed regionssuch as Malaysia,
the country which has low wind speed, approximately 1.5m/s to 2.0m/s. A modelof wind turbine
is built to perform several tests such as starting wind speed, rotational speed atconstant wind
speed, and time taken to stop rotation completely. The results obtained will becompared with the
model of conventional wind turbine.

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION1.1 General
Human have invented thousand of machines and appliances that utilize energy to make the
dailyworks easier, for instance to heat our house, to get ourselves from place to place. Some of
thismachines use electricity, while others, like automobiles use the energy stored in gasoline.
Much of the energy supply comes from coal, oil, natural gas, or radioactive element. In fact, all
these naturalresource deposits took millions of years to form. They are considered non renewable
which meansonce they are removed from the ground, they are not immediately replaced within
the human timescale. This current issue is frequently discussed at the level of whole world in
order to look for asolution. Nowadays, we will ultimately need to search for renewable or
virtually inexhaustible energy for thehuman development to continue. Renewable energy is
defined as the energy generated by thenatural resources such as wind, sun light, water which
are quickly replace itself and is usually innever ending supply. The exploration of renewable
energy is the only approach to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. Among those renewable
energy resources, wind energy is the onlyresource that will be concerned in this paper. Wind
energy was first harvested centuries ago, whenearly windmills were used to power millstones,
pumps, and forges. More recently, the wind isharnessed by using a special collector, called wind
turbine to produce a clean, safe source of electricity.Various designs have been proposed in order
to create a high efficient wind turbine which able togenerate maximum electric power. They may
either the design of shapes of the turbine blades, the
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Arepulsive force will be produced to lift the blades above the base. require high starting wind speed to operate.In general. this green energy is often criticized for its low output and lack of reliability. expensive. since the resource available is far larger than any practical means to developit. The turbine uses permanent magnets (neodymium). not electromagnets and therefore. This task can be a success by using pairs of permanent magnet which attached to both the turbine blades and the fixed base of machine. This phenomenon occurs in the whole world and it is caused by unevenheating on the earth’s surfaces which causes the air is flow from hotter regions with higher pressureto colder regions with lower pressure. it does not require electricity torun.However. It will allow themto rotate with minimum friction and minimize the energy loss. Able to rotate with high speed3. they are two types of wind turbine according to the axis they are rotating about.2 Wind Turbine The basic working principle of a wind turbine is: When air move quickly. hazardousto wildlife. which was first unveiled at theWind Power Asiaexhibition in Beijing. The exploitation of wind power is only limited by the economic andenvironmental factors. Wind power available in the atmosphere is much greater than currentworld energy consumption. Improve the starting wind speed2. and take up too much land. 1. The blades start to rotate and spin a shaft thatleads from the hub of the rotor to a generator and produce electricity. andtheir kinetic energy is captured by the turbine blades.axis of rotation. isexpected take wind power technology to the next level with magnetic levitation . and other useful modification. Renewable energy produced from the wind has attracted a lot of attention and support in recentyear’s . in the form of wind. an advance technique. This system can operate under low(as low as 1. This make the efficiency of the system become higher than the conventional windturbine. The turbine blades will belevitated instead of mounted them (using ball bearing) to the base of the machine.TheMaglevwind turbine. From the study. Magnetic Levitation(Maglev) is incorporated into turbine system in order to fulfill the needs of those energy industries. the generationcapacity of maglev wind turbine is 20% over conventional wind turbines and decrease operationalcosts by 50% .5m/s) and high wind speed (exceeding 40m/s) condition. 2. Recently. The tradition generator experience lots of problem such as highly inefficient. There are some reasons to support in using the wind energy to produce electricity power. Longer time to stop rotation completely Page 4 CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Wind Energy Wind is the flowing of air.Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) is the type of wind turbine which has a main rotor .2 Objective The objective of this report is to design a Maglev wind turbine to meet the following requirements1. high maintenance cost. This design claims that the friction between the turbine blades and the base can be reducedsignificantly and thus produces maximum power output.

they appear novel to those notfamiliar with the wind industry or wind farm. Due to the windspeeds are very low close to ground level. they have larger surface areas and can operate in low windspeed region compare with HAWT. This causes the overall efficiency of thevertical axis machines is not impressive.In VAWT system. The key of verticalarrangement of the rotor shaft enable the turbine blades need not to be pointed to the direction of wind. Due to the windspeeds are very low close to ground level. most of the new designs of VAWT experience some common problems. The main rotor shaft is arranged vertically to allow the turbine blades rotate withoutfacing to the direction of the wind. so although their arrangement may save a . Most of them possess agearbox which turns the slow rotation of turbine blades into faster rotation that is more suitable to Page 5 drive an electrical generator. In addition. the generator and gearbox is placed on the ground rather than on the top. There isno need of the support from a tower make it more accessible for maintenance. However. the machine needguy-wiresto hold it in place putsstress on the bottom bearing as all the weight of the rotor is on the bearing. There isno need of the support from a tower make it more accessible for maintenance. the generator and gearbox is placed on the ground rather than on the top. In addition. VAWTs are not commonlydeployed due mainly to the serious disadvantages mentioned above. Also.shaft andelectrical generator at the top of tower and pointed to the direction of wind. They can utilizewind from varying direction. but thewind speeds will be very low on the lower part of rotor. most of the new designs of VAWT experience some common problems. They can utilizewind from varying direction. The key of verticalarrangement of the rotor shaft enable the turbine blades need not to be pointed to the direction of wind. As for the Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) consists of generator and gearbox which are placed at the ground and thus there is no need for a tower to support them asin HAWT. so although their arrangement may save a tower. This is suitable for them to be installed on high variable wind speed region.In VAWT system. they have larger surface areas and can operate in low windspeed region compare with HAWT. Solving this problem requires asuperstructure to hold a top bearing in place to eliminate the downward thrusts of gust events in guywired models. This has often made them the subject of wild claims Page 5 drive an electrical generator.The idea for VAWTs has been blowing around for decades. This is suitable for them to be installed on high variable wind speed region. As for the Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) consists of generator and gearbox which are placed at the ground and thus there is no need for a tower to support them asin HAWT.However. Guy wires attached tothe top bearing increase downward thrust in wind gusts. The main rotor shaft is arranged vertically to allow the turbine blades rotate withoutfacing to the direction of the wind.However.

This allows the friction between the blades and ball bearing can be reduced significantly and thus. 2. but thewind speeds will be very low on the lower part of rotor. they appear novel to those notfamiliar with the wind industry or wind farm. 2.3 Magnetic Levitation Magnetic levitation (maglev) is a method in which an object is suspendedwith no support other thanmagnetic fields. The . the machine needguy-wiresto hold it in place putsstress on the bottom bearing as all the weight of the rotor is on the bearing. there is no need of ball bearing to retain the blades. This system does not require the electricity to operate because no electromagnets areinvolved. Recently. The arrangement of component of the model is flexible and it can be treated as maglev andconventional wind turbine. the vertically oriented blades of the wind turbine are suspended in the air above the base of the machine by using permanent magnet which produces magnetic force to lift upthe blades. design. VAWTs are not commonlydeployed due mainly to the serious disadvantages mentioned above. guided.The experiment contains three tests to analyze the performance of model. This has often made them the subject of wild claims Page 6 and investment scams over the last 50 years [3] [4] . This alsohelps reduce maintenance costs and increases the lifespan of the generator.The idea for VAWTs has been blowing around for decades. Guy wires attached tothe top bearing increase downward thrust in wind gusts. Themagnetic force produced is used to counteract the effects of thegravitationalforceand lift up the object. This causes the overall efficiency of thevertical axis machines is not impressive. Since the turbine blades are suspended by magnetic force produce by the permanentmagnet. There are many advantages for utilizing magnetic levitation that is tominimize friction. make force measurement. However. thisadvance technology is applied into transportation system in which non contacting vehicle travelsafely at very high speed while suspended. The first test is the windspeed that needed to start to rotate the turbine blades. which was first unveiled at theWind Power Asia exhibition in Beijing.tower. minimizes the energy loss. is expected takewind power technology to the next level with magnetic levitation. Page 7 CHAPTER 3METHODOLOGY3. Solving this problem requires asuperstructure to hold a top bearing in place to eliminate the downward thrusts of gust events in guywired models. TheMaglevwindturbine. and propelled above a guide way by magneticfields. The concept of magnetically levitated vehicle stimulates the development of usefulapplication in various fields such as the power generation. Also. and entertaining devices.1 Introduction A model of wind turbine is built for the use of an experiment to determine the starting wind speed tooperate. Despite many advance technology available so far has attracted interest about improving the VAWT system. The second test is rotational speed of windturbine model under constant wind speed.4 Maglev Wind Turbine Unlike the maglev vehicle.

0) Where : Coercive force. The type of VAWT is beingused is the Savonius type wind turbine. A. Then from the equations (2. A. the equation can berearranged(4.0) According to the equilibrium of forces. The rotational speed of turbine blades and wind speed is measured by tachometer andanemometer respectively. A/m: Magnetic poles.0). the equation is rewritten as below to calculate the magnetic force between two poles Page 8 Where F : Magnetic force. r is constant. Nm : total mass of the wind turbine that need to be levitate.0) (6. N: Magnetic poles.2 Theory A model is built using affordable material for the purpose of analysis.From the law of attraction(1.Assuming the distance. (5. mA : Pole face area.third test the time taken by the model to completelystop rotation. m: P e r m e a b i l i t y o f f r e e s p a c e 4 π x . 3. kgg : gravit ational acceleration Page 9 Figure 1: Free body diagram of magnetically levitated object .0) and (3.0) Where : Magnetic force.0) Then. N / R : Distance between tw o poles. mThe magnetic poles of the magnet can be calculated by using following equation(3. The amount of magnetic force that needs to counteract theweight of the wind turbine must be determined before the type of magnet material is selected.

Therefore. and replacing with a ball bearing. the type of magnet materials with known characteristics can be determined using theabove equation provided the weight of model that needs to be levitated. the type of magnet materials with known characteristics can be determined using theabove equation provided the weight of model that needs to be levitated. and replacing with a ball bearing. . the magnetic force must have equal forces to the weight of the wind turbine so that it willlevitate.The conventional wind turbine is made by removing the magnet attached to both fixed base andturbine blades. Also. the magnetic force must have equal forces to the weight of the wind turbine so that it willlevitate. Also.The conventional wind turbine is made by removing the magnet attached to both fixed base andturbine blades. age 9 Figure 1: Free body diagram of magnetically levitated object Therefore.

Shaft Stainless Steel2. Wind Turbine Cardboard3.Material1. Permanent Magnet Ceramic s Magnet4. Fixed Base Wood .

Inaddition. The model is replaced by anemometer and the fan is switched on again. The concept of maglev wind turbine is introduced to fulfill thisrequirement. which is 1.2 Discussion From the test 1.3. They are not suitableused to generate electricity power in certain country such as Malaysia. magnetic levitation wind turbine requires less maintenance compare with the conventionalwind turbine. The reading of rotational speed of model is recoded after 1 minute for five times. The steps 1 until 3 in test 1 are repeated.Page 11 3. The distance between the maglevand conventional wind turbine model with the fan is made sure to be the same. there are two friction force existin an operating wind turbine. Also. Page 14 .Maglev wind turbine is able to start to rotate at lower wind speed compare with conventional windturbine. starting wind speed becomes an important element that must be included inthe design of wind turbine. Therefore.5.4.3. and thus needs higher wind speed which results in more energy to start to rotate. The test is repeated by using conventional wind turbine model. In wind turbine with magnetic levitation. The wind speed isrecorded5. The fan is then switch off after 5 minutes and a card bock is placed in front of it. the conventional wind turbine needs to overcome moment inertia and both thefriction forces.4. The steps 1 until 4 in test 1 are repeated. the wind turbine model with magnetic levitation starts to rotate at lower wind speed than that of conventional wind turbine.Most of the existing wind turbine requires high starting wind speed to operate. Steps 2 and 3 are repeated for two times. the latter one can beeliminate because the turbine blades are lift up by magnetic force.2.59m/s respectively. This is because the disadvantage of using bearing is it will wear off as the time goeson. which has low and unsteadywind speed. The fan is switched on and the wind produced is directed to the model.6m/s and 4. The wind speed is measured by using anemometer. This wind turbine need onlyovercome the moment inertia and friction forces between the shaft and bearing before it start torotate. there is another friction forces exist between theturbine blades and the fixed base.Test 2: The rotational speed of wind turbine model at constant wind speed1.Test 3: The time taken by wind turbine model to stop rotation1. Therefore.2. A fan is placed in the direction parallel to the maglev wind turbine model. In general. The test is repeated by using conventional wind turbine model. This can be explained in terms of friction force.5 Procedures Test 1: The starting wind speed of wind turbine model1. The test is repeated by using conventional wind turbine model Page 13 4. The model is assembled to be the maglev wind turbine2.3. The time at which the model to stop its rotation completely is recorded. Instead. the bearing needs to be replaced after some time so that the wind turbine is operatingefficiently. Since the turbine blades are attached to the shaft by using ball bearing.a friction force is produced between them.

the arrangement of the components of wind turbine limits this conversionand results in energy loss in terms of heat and sound.From test 3. and then produceselectric energy. the wind turbine immediately rotate faster without achieve thestarting wind speed (if wind turbine stop in few seconds) Figure 4: The distribution of magnetic field between two permanent magnet .kinetic energy (rotating turbine blades) – Energy Loss = 0 And therefore. The following equation can be used toillustrate this phenomenon. Higher stopping time is desired because thewind turbine can still rotate at lower speed in longer time when the speed of flowing wind decrease. ∆Kinetic Energy (flowing wind) = kinetic energy (rotating turbine blades) + Energy Loss Page 15 Figure 3: Conversion of energy in Maglev Wind turbine Therefore. part of kinetic energyin flowing wind is converted into kinetic energy due to rotating turbine blades. Since the flowing of wind is unpredictable and varies all the time.43rpm.From test 2.The total kinetic energy of flowing wind supply to wind turbine ∆Kinetic Energy (flowing wind) = kinetic energy (wind before entering wind turbine) .68rpm and 4.And when the wind speed increases. This result can be explainedin terms of energy conversion. The rotational speeds of maglevwind turbine and conventional wind turbine are 10. the maglev wind turbine model has a higher rotating speed than theconventional wind turbine under constant wind speed of 5.5s and 1. the maglev wind turbine model take a longer time to stop its rotation completelycompare to conventional one. the conventional wind turbine experiences much energy loss in term of heat and sound.Kinetic Energy (wind after exiting wind turbine) According to law of energy conservation ∆Kinetic Energy (flowing wind) .More kinetic energy is needed to overcome the friction forces exist between the bearings attached tothe turbine blades and bottom.63m/s. The wind may cometo a lower speed and even stop at every instant of time. The time taken by both the maglev wind turbine and conventional wind turbine to stop their rotation is 14. However. According to the law of energy conservation.5srespectively. This make the rotational speed of conventional wind turbine becomelower than the maglev one. This test is carried out under the same wind speed. Higher rotational speed means higher kinetic energy of rotating turbine blades and hence more electric energy can be generated by maglev wind turbine.

In other words. The imbalance magneticforces cause difficulty to the upper part start to move. there are many suggestions regarding the usage of permanent magnet to create a perpetual motion.This make the magnetic force is larger at the right hand side than left one. a perpetual motion generator can be invented which is abl . due to the cost limitation.each blade function should be made as a controllable wing to provide maximum efficiency of thesystem. the function of guide wind should be introduced into maglev wind turbinesystem to increase the speed of the wind and optimize the angle of attack for the turbine blades torotate. Improper arrangement of magnet may affect the distribution of magnetic field and thus cause magnetic force produced is not vertically upward. Another phenomenon will happen due to improper arrangementof magnet. Otherwise. In addition. Blade directionwith respect to the wind should be individually controlled by sensor in order to move the blades and present less of an angle to the wind on the circular return path against wind flow. It is benefited if the characteristics of permanent magnet materials before build an actual maglev wind turbine system. there are still several ways to improve the performance of the system. For example. the ceramics magnet materialis used to construct the model. When theupper part start to move right hand side.Page 16 Selection of suitable hard or permanent magnet becomes an important consideration in thedesign of a maglev wind turbine. If this concept works. the temperature in which the permanent magnet is applied can never be reached the Curie temperature. the magnetic field will be concentrate on this direction.Although the magnetic levitation is incorporated into wind turbine system to increase the power output.Recently. However. Since the maglev wind turbine is locatedoutdoor. The arrangement of permanent magnet is also a crucial decision. Considering the following diagram Figure 5: The distribution of magnetic field when upper part of start to move The magnetic field is distributed as show in figure 3 before the turbine start to move. the magnetwill be demagnetized that is lost its magnetic properties. the surrounding temperature must ensured not to exceed the Curie temperature of permanent magnet.