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Samsung Electronics is based in Seoul, South Korea and operates in 65 countries
worldwide with 157,000 people working for the company. Samsung Electronics products include
semiconductors, hard drives, digital displays, home electronics, mobile phones, and others. All
Samsung products have the same tone when the device is turned on, so that customers can easily
get used to them and this tone is mentioned when Samsung products are being advertised as well.
The business strategy of Samsung Electronics presents an interesting case due to the fact that the
company has an experience of pursuing both, cost leadership as well as product differentiation
strategies during its lifetime. Specifically, Mitchell (2010) informs that business strategy of the
company was mainly cost efficiency prior to Asian Financial Crisis of 1997, as a result of which
the company came on the verge of bankruptcy, and the situation was changed with Eric Kim
becoming chief marketing officer of the company, who brought dramatic changes to the strategy
of the company pursuing product differentiation strategy.
“Smarter Life” theme was introduced recently in Samsung that is based on the innovative
approach in improving the company’s current products, and introducing new products to the
market. For instance, Android-based Samsung Galaxy Player 50 is to be introduced soon,
containing a range of innovative features the product is expected to change the current media
players’ market condition significantly.
As a part of the massive initiatives aimed at pursuing product differentiation strategy efficiently
Samsung design staff has been tripled to 400 globally (Singhania, 2006), along with numerous
other measures.
Dramatic change in the strategy of the company has allowed Samsung Electronics to emerge as
one of the main players in all of the markets the company operates in. For instance, Galaxy Tab
produced by Samsung is currently considered to be the only substantial competition to iPad
produced by the market leader Apple.

Samsung (Hangul:; hanja: Korean pronunciation: [sʰamsʰʌŋ]) is a South Korean multinational
conglomerate company headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul. It comprises numerous
subsidiaries and affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, and is the
largest South Korean chaebol (business conglomerate).
Samsung was founded by Lee Byung-chul in 1938 as a trading company. Over the next three
decades, the group diversified into areas including food processing, textiles, insurance, securities
and retail. Samsung entered the electronics industry in the late 1960s and the construction and
shipbuilding industries in the mid-1970s; these areas would drive its subsequent growth.
Following Lee's death in 1987, Samsung was separated into four business groups – Samsung
Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and Hansol Group. Since 1990s, Samsung has increasingly

globalized its activities and electronics, particularly mobile phones and semiconductors, have
become its most important source of income.
Notable Samsung industrial subsidiaries include Samsung Electronics (the world's largest
information technology company measured by 2012 revenues, and 4th in market value),[2]
Samsung Heavy Industries (the world's 2nd-largest shipbuilder measured by 2010 revenues),[3]
and Samsung Engineering and Samsung C&T (respectively the world's 13th and 36th-largest
construction companies).[4] Other notable subsidiaries include Samsung Life Insurance (the
world's 14th-largest life insurance company),[5] Samsung Everland (operator of Everland Resort,
the oldest theme park in South Korea)[6] and Cheil Worldwide (the world's 15th-largest
advertising agency measured by 2012 revenues).[7][8]
Samsung has a powerful influence on South Korea's economic development, politics, media and
culture and has been a major driving force behind the "Miracle on the Han River".[9][10] Its
affiliate companies produce around a fifth of South Korea's total exports.[11] Samsung's revenue
was equal to 17% of South Korea's $1,082 billion GDP.[12]


1938 to 1970

The headquarters of Sanghoes in Daegu in the late 1930s
In 1938, Lee Byung-chull (1910–1987) of a large landowning family in the Uiryeong county
moved to nearby Daegu city and founded Samsung Sanghoe (삼성상회, 三星商會). Samsung
started out as a small trading company with forty employees located in Su-dong (now Ingyodong).[14] It dealt in locally-grown groceries and made noodles. The company prospered and Lee
moved its head office to Seoul in 1947. When the Korean War broke out, he was forced to leave
Seoul. He started a sugar refinery in Busan named Cheil Jedang. In 1954, Lee founded Cheil
Mojik and built the plant in Chimsan-dong, Daegu. It was the largest woollen mill ever in the
Samsung diversified into many different areas. Lee sought to establish Samsung as an industry
leader in a wide range of industries. Samsung moved into lines of business such as insurance,
securities and retail. President Park Chung Hee placed great importance on industrialization. He
focused his economic development strategy on a handful of large domestic conglomerates,
protecting them from competition and assisting them financially.[15]
In 1947, Cho Hong-jai, the Hyosung group's founder, jointly invested in a new company called
Samsung Mulsan Gongsa, or the Samsung Trading Corporation, with the Samsung's founder Lee
Byung-chull. The trading firm grew to become the present-day Samsung C&T Corporation. After
a few years, Cho and Lee separated due to differences in management style. Cho wanted a 30
equity share. Samsung Group was separated into Samsung Group and Hyosung Group, Hankook
Tire, and other businesses.[16][17]
In the late 1960s, Samsung Group entered into the electronics industry. It formed several
electronics-related divisions, such as Samsung Electronics Devices, Samsung ElectroMechanics, Samsung Corning and Samsung Semiconductor & Telecommunications, and made
the facility in Suwon. Its first product was a black-and-white television set.


a plant in Tokyo. One Shinsegae department store executive director said. and the Hansol Group. Today these separated groups are independent and they are not part of or connected to the Samsung Group. a facility in England.[20] Shinsegae (discount store. "Shinsegae has no payment guarantees associated with the Samsung Group". Its early products were switchboards. and the Hansol Group (Paper/Telecom). Shinsegae. in 1985.1970 to 1990 The SPC-1000. Shinsegae Group. "Hansol. Samsung acquired the Gumi-based Hanguk Jeonja Tongsin and entered the telecommunications hardware industry. Samsung Electronics began to invest heavily in research and development. it severed all payment guarantees and share-holding ties with Samsung affiliates. in 1996. department store) was originally part of Samsung Group. and another facility in Austin. it built a television assembly plant in Portugal. They have produced over 800 million mobile phones to date. in 1987.[22][23] 4 . was Samsung's first personal computer (Korean market only) and used an audio cassette tape to load and save data – the floppy drive was optional[18] In 1980. In 1982.[21] In 1980s. As of 2012. "When Hansol separated from the Samsung Group in 1991. which operates under the name Samsung Austin Semiconductor. a plant in New York.[21] One Hansol Group representative said.[19] The company grouped them together under Samsung Electronics in the 1980s." One Hansol Group source asserted. CJ Group. After Lee. in 1984. Texas. separated in the 1990s from the Samsung Group along with CJ Group (Food/Chemicals/Entertainment/logistics). adding. The facility was developed into the telephone and fax manufacturing systems and became the center of Samsung's mobile phone manufacturing. "Only people ignorant of the laws governing the business world could believe something so absurd". Samsung has invested more than US$13 billion in the Austin facility. Samsung Group was separated into four business groups —Samsung Group. the founder's death in 1987. introduced in 1982. and CJ have been under independent management since their respective separations from the Samsung Group". This makes the Austin location the largest foreign investment in Texas and one of the largest single foreign investments in the United States. investments that were pivotal in pushing the company to the forefront of the global electronics industry.

As of December 26. Additionally. As of 2010. In 1996. engineering. [27] 2000 to 2015 The Samsung pavilion at Expo 2012. Samsung became the largest producer of memory chips in the world in 1992. and is the world's second-largest chipmaker after Intel (see Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Market Share Ranking Year by Year).1990 to 2000 Samsung started to rise as an international corporation in the 1990s. S-LCD was owned by Samsung (50% plus one share) and Sony (50% minus one share) and operates its factories and facilities in Tangjung. In 2000. Its work began with set-top-box technology before moving into digital TV and smartphones.9 percent owned by Samsung. The company was founded in 1999 as Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI). and Hyundai Space and Aircraft Company. Sony. Renault Samsung is 80. Samsung manufactured a range of aircraft from the 1980s to 1990s. Poland. and merged other operations to concentrate on three industries: electronics. it was announced that Samsung had acquired the stake of Sony in this joint venture. Samsung still manufactures aircraft engines and gas turbines. and chemicals. However. Samsung's construction branch was awarded a contract to build one of the two Petronas Towers in Malaysia. South Korea. and. Ten years later. the Samsung Group reacquired the Sungkyunkwan University foundation.1 percent owned by Renault and 19. Lee Kun-hee sold off ten of Samsung Group's subsidiaries. As of 2011.[26] Compared to other major Korean companies. Samsung grew to be the world's largest manufacturer of liquid-crystal display panels. which had not invested in large-size TFT-LCDs. 5 . Samsung survived the 1997 Asian financial crisis relatively unharmed.[25] In 1995. Daewoo Heavy Industries. Samsung Motor was sold to Renault at a significant loss. the result of merger between then three domestic major aerospace divisions of Samsung Aerospace. S-LCD was established as a joint venture between Samsung and Sony in order to provide a stable supply of LCD panels for both manufacturers. Samsung opened a computer programming laboratory in Warsaw. in 2006.[24] In 1993. 2011. However. it created its first liquid-crystal display screen. contacted Samsung to cooperate. downsized the company. Taipei 101 in Taiwan and the Burj Khalifa in United Arab Emirates.

2012. Galaxy S2 Skyrocket.[34] The conversion should start in early 2013 with production on line by the end of 2013.7%.[28] The prominent Samsung sign in Times Square. Samsung unveiled the Galaxy S4. Samsung shares on the Kospi index fell 7. The award was still less than the $2. Galaxy S2 Epic 4G. overtaking Nokia. On August 24.177. Droid Charge and Galaxy Prevail) in the United States[39] which has been denied by the court. to 1. Samsung Electronics sold its hard disk drive (HDD) business to Seagate. 2012. to which the company has committed ₩2. On 14 March 2013. the largest fall since 24 October 2008. nine American jurors ruled that Samsung had to pay Apple $1.[37] In first trading after the ruling.[38] Apple then sought to ban the sales of eight Samsung phones (Galaxy S 4G. New York City.[36] It also followed a South Korean ruling stating that both companies were guilty of infringing on each other's intellectual property. Samsung confirmed plans to spend 3 to 4 billion dollars converting half of its Austin chip manufacturing plant to a more profitable chip.5 billion requested by Apple.[32][33] On 21 August's edition of the Austin American-Statesman. Samsung announced that it plans to examine all of its Chinese suppliers for possible violations of labor policies. Samsung announced a ten-year growth strategy centered around five businesses. which had been the market leader since 1998.[30] In December 2011.[41] 6 .the Warsaw base is Samsung's most important R&D center in Europe.[35] Samsung decried the decision saying that the move could harm innovation in the sector. The decision also ruled that Apple did not violate five Samsung patents cited in the case. In 2010.[40] On September 4. Galaxy S2 T-Mobile. Galaxy S2 AT&T.[31] In first quarter of 2012. forecast to be recruiting 400 new-hires per year by the end of 2013. Samsung Electronics became the world's largest mobile phone maker by unit sales.[29] One of these businesses was to be focused on biopharmaceuticals.1 trillion.000 Korean won. Galaxy S Showcase.05 billion in damages for violating six of its patents on smartphone technology. The company said it will carry out audits of 250 Chinese companies that are its exclusive suppliers to see if children under the age of 16 are being used in their factories.

[48] On December 2.000 square metre production complex in Vietnam. Samsung announced it will sell Fiber Optics to U. Switzerland. also meaning the end of the Samsung Music Hub app that typically comes installed on its Android phones.[46] In October 2014. on billboards.[45] In October 2014. 2014.[50] Acquisitions and attempted acquisitions Samsung has made the following acquisitions and attempted acquisitions:[51] Rollei – Swiss watch battle Samsung Techwin acquired German camera-maker Rollei in 1995.[42] The corporation is expected to spend $14 billion on advertising and marketing in 2013. Construction will begin next year with production beginning in 2017. The company has not yet decided the type of chips to be produced. The facility will be split between semiconductor research and development and other sales and marketing functions. The goal of this new suite of business offerings. a virtual reality device in collaboration with Oculus VR and developed for the Galaxy Note 4. a New Zealand news outlet reported a number of Samsung washing machines spontaneously catching on fire.1 million square feet of floor space. speciality glass manufacturer Corning Inc. dubbed Samsung 360 Services. in Bassequort.[49] Samsung Electronics Inc. In November 2013.[43] In May 2014. Samsung also announced it would invest 633 billion South Korean won ($560 million USD) in the construction of a new 700.S. Rolex's decision to fight Rollei on every front stemmed from the close 7 . Samsung (Rollei) used its optic expertise on the crystals of a new line of 100% Swiss-made watches.A.In 2013. is to become a help desk of sorts for businesses IT departments. The 10-story complex will include 1. with publicity appearing in TV and cinema ads. [47] Samsung plans to launch a new set of services beginning early 2015.[44] On September 3. 2014. a clean room for semiconductors and a "fitness center in the sky". California. Samsung announced Gear VR. Samsung announced it will be shutting down its streaming service on 1 July 2014. Samsung announced a $14. is expanding in Silicon Valley with a $300 million facility in San Jose.7 billion investment to build a chip plant in South Korea. and at sports and arts events. It will serve as the North America headquarters for semiconductor operations. the corporation was valued at $227 billion. The customizable services range from technical support to security solutions for having a Samsung employee embedded in a client's business as an on-site support manager or technology consultant. designed by a team of watchmakers at Nouvelle Piquerez S.

Samsung was forced to close the California-based computer maker following mass resignations of research staff and a string of losses FUBU clothing and apparel In 1992. the Geneva firm decided to confront. John had to mortgage his house for $100. Carl Brown. Along with the expansion of FUBU.[52][53] In 1999. On 11 March 1995. The three proposed partners—Hyundai. beating out Samsung Securities. Rolex has succeeded in keeping Rollei out of the German market. and Keith Perrin. In the face of such a threat. a Dutch aircraft maker Samsung lost a chance to revive its failed bid to take over Dutch aircraft maker Fokker when other airplane makers rejected its offer to form a consortium. Hanjin.resemblance between the two names and fears that its sales would suffer as a consequence.000. Rollei management bought out the company ] Fokker. With his friends J. and City of London-based N M Rothschild & Sons (more commonly known simply as Rothschild) have agreed to form a strategic alliance in investment banking business. the Cologne District court prohibited the advertising and sale of Rollei watches on German territory.. Ltd.[58] Ironically. This was also a demonstration of the Swiss watch industry's determination to defend itself when an established brand is threatened. Lehman Brothers Holdings' Asian operations Samsung Securities was one of a handful of brokerages looking into Lehman Brothers Holdings. Two parties will jointly work on cross border mergers and acquisition deals. half of his house was turned into the first factory of FUBU. and Barclays. Samsung invested in FUBU in 1995. But Nomura Holdings has reportedly waved the biggest check to win its bid for Lehman Brothers Holdings' Asian operations. and Daewoo—notified the South Korean government that they would not join Samsung Aerospace Industries AST Research Samsung bought AST (1994) in a failed attempt to break into the North American computer market. while the other half remained as the living quarters. American fashion entrepreneur Daymond John had started the company with a hat collection that was made in the basement of his house in the Queens area of New York City. To fund the company. after few months Samsung Securities Co. Standard Chartered. Alexander Martin. Rolex sees this front-line battle as vital for the entire Swiss watch industry. 8 .

Inc..[62] Samsung and Sony joint venture – liquid crystal displays On 26 December 2011 the board of Samsung Electronics approved a plan to buy Sony's entire stake in their 2004 joint liquid crystal display (LCD) venture for 1.MEDISON Co. Samsung Electronics bought MEDISON Co. – cache software developer In December 2012. part of the multinational conglomerate's plans to build a leading medical technology business. Inc – music service On 9 May 2012. and will focus on software for intelligently managing and optimizing next-generation Samsung SSD storage subsystems for consumer and enterprise computing platforms. Samsung announced that it has acquired medical imaging company NeuroLogica. – memory developer In July 2011. NVELO. NeuroLogica – portable CT scanner In January 2013. Terms of the deal were not disclosed.. a South Korean medical-equipment company. Samsung announced that it had acquired the privately held storage software vendor NVELO. Inc. – ultrasound monitors In December 2010. based in Santa Clara.home automation 9 .[65] NVELO will become part of Samsung's R&D operations. Spot.. Grandis Inc. California.97 million). SmartThings . mSpot announced that it had been acquired by Samsung Electronics with the intention of a cloud based music service. Samsung announced that it had acquired spin-transfer torque random access memory (MRAM) vendor Grandis Inc.Ltd. the first step in a long-discussed plan to diversify from consumer electronics.08 trillion won ($938.[61] Grandis will become a part of Samsung's R&D operations and will focus on development of next generation random-access memory.[64] The succeeding service was Samsung Music Hub.

but TechCrunch reported a $200 million pricetag when first caught word of the deal in July 2014 Quietside — U. Inc.S. The researcher should know why a particular technique to the project.[70] YESCO Electronics — U. Research methodology is a technique used to systematically solve a research problem. but declined to elaborate on the price or other details. mobile payments firm On 18 February 2015. air conditioner distributor Quietside LLC as part of its push to strengthen its "smart home" business. air conditioner firm On 19 August 2014. which focuses on making digital billboards and message signs RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction: Research is a systemized effort in gain knowledge.-based manufacturer of light emitting diode displays. California-based pioneer of server-side caching software with I/O intelligence that work within virtualized systems LoopPay — U. a San Diego. It helps the researcher to know which research method and analysis could be utilized to bring out a possible solution for a research problem. a fast-growing home automation startup. Samsung acquired U. based manufacturer of light emitting diode displays On 5 March 2015. Samsung acquired SmartThings. It can also be referred to as ‘the search of knowledge’.S. Samsung said it had acquired U.S.] Proximal Data — data virtualization 3 November 2014. Samsung announced it had acquired Proximal Data.S.. based mobile payments firm "LoopPay" This allows Samsung in smartphone transactions.S. YESCO Electronics.S. A Samsung Electronics spokesman said the South Korean company acquired 100 percent of Quietside. The company isn't releasing the acquisition price. 10 . Samsung acquired small U.On 14 August 2014.

Scientific enquiry into a subject. 4. a careful. Search for knowledge 2. systematic. Acc.The study of conducting research is Research Methodology. Research can also be defined as 1. To Clifford Woody. “Re” is the prefix meaning ‘Again or over again or a new’ and “Search” is the latter meaning ‘to examine closely and carefully’ or ‘to test and try’. 3. reliable and valid knowledge about the social world. Research: The word research is composed of two syllables “Re” and “Search”. patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to establish principles / policies. It is the voyage of discovery According to Bulmer. Research comprises of  Defining and redefining problems.  Formulating hypothesis (basic idea)  Collecting 11 . Research is primarily committed to establishing systematic. Research is a movement from the unknown to the known. Systematic and scientific search for getting relevant answers on any taken up specific topic. Together they form. 5.

case study. questionnaires. abstracts. personal. Group or telephonic interviews. (3) Laboratory Research: Group (team) study. Organizing  Evaluating datas  Making decisions  Suggesting solutions  Reaching conclusions  Finally. carefully testing the conclusions To determine whether they fit the formulated Hypothesis. use of audio visual tools. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem logically. references. Research Methodology: is the way do systematically solve the research problem. guides manipulation (handle with skill) (2) Field Research: Observation. (1) Library Research: - analysis of historical records and documents. Statistical compilation. Research Methods: May be understood as all those methods or techniques that are used by a researcher for conducting a Research depending upon the methods. we not only talk of research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or we are not using a particular method 12 . When we talk of Research Methodology.

- Will increase the ability to evaluate the results. - Face the evaluated results with confidence. Steps: 1) Why a particular research study has been undertaken? 2) How the Research problem has been defined? 3) What way and why the hypothesis (basic idea) has been formulated? 4) Why a particular technique of analyzing data is used? (or) How the data were collected? 5) How the collected data were interpreted? 6) What deletion was made? 7) What was the conclusion? Finally what was the solution for the Research problem? Importance of knowing the subject – research Methodology: 1) A student preparing himself for a career of carrying out research as his profession – - Will be trained better to do research - Will help him develop disciplined thinking - Will help him observe the field objectively.or technique so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher or others. - Will enable thoroughly to understand the logic behind the research problem. 13 .

administration. 3. 5. The Research adapted should process certain characteristics. Rigorous: The procedures followed to find answers to questions should be relevant. It must as far as possible be 1) Controlled 2) Rigorous 3) Systematic 4) Valid 5) Verifiable 6) Empirical 7) Critical 1. To qualify a Research or study: To be a Good or perfect one. The process adapted and the procedures used must be able to withstand any critical scrutiny. community development & social work. 6. Systematic:The investigation should follow a certain logical sequence (Not in a haphazard manner) 4. Valid & Verifiable: The findings should be valid & can be verified by you or others at any time. Controlled:The research problem should not be affected or influenced by external factors (i. Business. Empirical: The conclusions drawn should be based on hard evidence. gathered from real life experiences or observations. Critical: The process of investigation must be foolproof and free from drawbacks.e. appropriate & justified. variables other than the participating facts). 2. 14 . But the degree of rigiour may vary from one problem to another problem.- Useful in various fields such as Govt.

Types of Research Research can be classified from the view point or perspectives as. It describes the actual prevailing state of affairs. Eg: Social. Applied Research: To find an immediate solution for a pressing practical problem. knowledge is termed as ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research. existing at present. Just to gather knowledge in order to formulate or generalize theories or policies. Applied Vs Fundamental Based on the objectives of Research: 1) Descriptive Research:  Survey or fact finding enquires of different kinds. This types of research adds knowledge to the already existing organized body. Eg) Research on mathematics. 15 . economical and political trends prevailing in a country. From the view point Application objective Inquiry mode 1) Pure Research 1) Descriptive 1) Quantitative Research 2) Applied Research 2) Correlative 2) Qualitative Research 3) Exploratory 4) Explanatory 1) Pure Research: (Basic or Fundamental Research) Gathering.

 Investigates association between variables. Eg: document study / historical evidence. 4. Exploratory Research: Study undertake to explore a new area or an unknown destination. Eg: Sum of humour and job satisfaction. 16 . any particular research problem arises and can be solved. (related variable) Research problem is workers turnover Analytical Research: The researcher has to use facts / information already existing and analyze these data to make a critical evaluation. 2) Correlative Research:  Goes on to discover the existing relationship or interdependence between two or more aspects / variables. Eg: Frequency of shopping.  Otherwise known as comparative study. Descriptive Vs Analytical Research: Explanatory Research: Attempts to clarify or explain why and how. customer preference etc. Otherwise known as ex post facts means existing position of facts / issues.  Here the variable influencing the research has no control or the researcher has no control over the variables.

Quantitative Research:  Otherwise known as unstructured research.  In this type of Research.III. sample and all the other factors influencing the research is pre determined.  The result obtained by adapting Empirical Research is considered to be most powerful (evidence enclosed) Based on the time consumed to complete a particular research. Based on the Inquiry Mode: 1) Quantitative Research:  Relates to aspects that can be quantified and expressed in terms of quantity.  The aspects related to quality / kind or texture. The research problem and its solution will be expressed in terms of quantity and hence statistical and economic analysis is adapted in this type of Research.  Otherwise known as structured Research. Empirical research (based on experiments or experience)  Otherwise known as experimental type of Research. Conceptual Research: Research related to some abstract idea or theory  Used by philosophers or thinkers for developing new concepts. the objectives. other types of Research are. Eg: Behaviour science Apart from the above. 17 . design.

18 . 2) A people person : For respondents to get the best out of interviews / focus groups. ‘ 8) Excellent written and verbal communication skills: So that different audience can clearly understand the findings. According to Micheal Foster. 6) Quick thinker: Things don’t always go as you plan. 3) The ability to stay calm: especially when you have pressing deadlines. 9) Sympathetic: Having a sympathetic ear when listening to some respondents (cry etc) is a good skill. Qualities of a Researcher Top 10 qualities of a Researcher 1) Ananalytical mind: Constant analysis on a variety of factors. check and check again. but most of all common sense. the deadlines short.a) one time Research: restricted to a single time period. Keep well focused and think logically there will always be an end point. 10) Systematic: Check. 5) Curiosity: Have curiosity and be passionate about developing deeper to unearth more insight. so you need to be able to think fast. 7) Commitment: Research is a tough job. the hours may be long. 4) Intelligence : Researcher requires critical analysis. to have. b) Longitudinal Research: Conducted over several time period. Spending a proper amount of time for checking always pays.

3) Prediction for future developments. & business sectors have become more complex.Role of Research in : 1) Econ omics: Researches done on applied (production and sales of goods in a profitable manner) economics is increasing in modern days. suffer patiently) - When a research scientist feel defeated or completely lost.  To frame Govt. 1) Investigation of prevailing economic structure with the available facts. they face several operational problems to solve this problems. be keen and watchful to notice such changes. Nature is constantly changing. Steadfast (constant / not changing) endurance (to tolerate the difficulty. no matter how small or insignificant they may. he needs immense courage and the sense of conviction (found guilty) Significance or Importance of Search 1) Doubt is better than over confidence for it leads to inquiry. 2) Analyse or diagnose the data. Eg:. economic policies. almost or nearly. 2) Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking. Govt. inquiry leads to invention. Research is carried on. 4) Scientific inquiry – desire for knowledge – it requires moral courage.1) Truthful data / facts – desire for accuracy of observation. Process or the three stages of research to bring out economic policies. 3) Should poccess alert mind. 2) No expressions like approximately. 19 .

20 . c) Motivational Research: Helps to determine people behavior or consumer response. Social scientist gain their knowledge for their own sake and for the development of the society. available of revenues needs research.  Allocation of a countries scarce resource – also needs research. 1. All the above three are responsible for business decision making. production. Formulating the Research problem:a) The formulation of a general topic into a specific Research problem thus constitutes the first step in a scientific inquiry. a) Problems Research: Investigation of the present structure and development of the market – relating to purchase. Two steps are involved in formulating the Research problem. 3) Social sectors: To gain knowledge on unknown aspects and do something better and more efficiently. b) Operational Research:Relates to application of logical. promotion and sales. a) Understanding the problem thoroughly. mathematical and analytical techniques – to solve market problems – there by minimize cost and profit maximization. 2) Business Decisions:  In business sectors there are both planning and operational problems.  Decision making – requires proper research. budget a formulation depends on the analysis of needs & desires of the people. Govt.

PUT THE PROBLEM INTO SPECIFIC TERMS This step is of greatest importance in the entire research process. Double check  The best way to understand the problem is to discuss with his own colleague or guide. 5.  Review two types of literature Conceptual literature : Concerning concepts & theories Empirical Literature : Concerning studies made earlier which are similar to the one proposed.  Examine all available literatures to get himself acquainted (get used to ) with the selected problem.  Next step – the Researcher rephrases the problem into Analytical or operational terms. Raise Research questions. 3. Assess your objectives 7. 2. 1.b) Rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view.  Outcome of the review will be the knowledge so as to pre determine what data or materials are available for operational purposes. Select what is of most interest to you. Dissect the broad area into small area. Formulate objectives 6. Identify a broad field or subject area of interest to you. 4. 21 .

22 . reports. Prof W.  Make extensive literature survey  Sources of survey can be. books. A Stage III: Developing Hypothesis : (Development of working Hypothesis)  State in clear terms the working hypothesis (Basic Idea of the Research problem)  It is a tentative assumption in order to test to logical or empirical consequences.  Provide the focal point for research.  The statement of the objective of the Research problem is of basic importance because.  Earlier study if any which is similar to the study in hand should be carefully studied. Based on the nature of the problem. Neiswanger States. bio-graphics. Govt. (i) It determines the data which are to be collected (ii) Characteristics of the relevant data (iii) Choice of techniques to be used in these explorations (iv) Frame a Final report Step II Extensive Literature Survey:  A brief summary of the problem should be written down.The problem to be investigated must be defined unambiguously or clearly. journals. conference proceedings etc.A.

23 .  It sharpens his thinking and focuses attention on important facets of the problem. measurement and analysis of data.  Hypothesis guides the researched by limiting the area of Research and keep him on the right track. The function of the Research design is to provide relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort. 2) its operational implications and 3) finally data analysis The Research design highlights certain decision. 2) Examination of data/ records if available. about the problems. time and money. 4) To secure greater insight into the practical aspects of the problem – conduct personnel investigation or field interviews. its objectives and solutions. STEP IV: Preparing the Research Design: Research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conduction. Hypothesis should be very specific and very well limited to the place of research in hand because it has to be tested. It provides an outline of what the researcher is going to do in terms of 1) Framing the hypothesis.  It indicates the type of data required for the study. 3) Review similar studies / similar problems. its origin. How to develop working Hypothesis? 1) Discuss with collogues / experts. It constitutes the blue print for the collection.  Type of methods of data analysis done.

Determining sample Design:  All the items considered in any field of inquiry constitutes a “universe” or population. 3) Statistical Research design: Deals with the information on the data collected & analysed.1) The nature of the study 2) Purpose of the study 3) Location where the study would be conducted 4) The nature of data required 5) From where the data would be collected 6) The techniques of data collection that would be used 7) What time period the study would cover 8) The type of sample design that would be used 9) The method of data analysis that would be adapted 10) The manner in which the report would be prepared Type of Research Design : 4 types 1) Sampling Research Design : Deal with selection of relevant items 2) Observational Research Design: Deals with the observations (field observations) that is to be made. Study of the entire population without leaving out a single item is known as “Census Study”  This type of census study is practically not possible. 4) Operational Research Design: How the above three are carried out. 24 .

 So we select few items from the entire population for our study purpose. Non Probability sampling: All the items do not have an equal chance of being selected for the study. 1) Simple random sampling 2) Systematic random sampling 3) Stratified random sampling 4) Cluster / area random sampling. 25 . 6. The sample design to be used in a Research study must be decided by the researcher considering the nature of the study. it is mixed sampling. some quantitative measurements are observed. These samples can be either probability samples or non probability samples. Mixed sampling: When more than one type of sampling technique is used for a study. when a researcher conducts a research. based on which. Collecting the Data: “Gathering appropriate data” which are made use in Research study. he examines the truth of the underlying hypothesis. Data can be collected in several ways either through (1) Experiment (or) (2) through surveys.  In experimental means.  The way of selecting such a “sample” is known as the “Sample Design”. The selection depends upon the convenience & judgment of the Researcher. Probability: Each item in the population has on equal chance of being selected for the study. The items so selected constitutes what is technically called “sample”.

8. Eg) If the survey done in a project is via Questionnaire the answers can be machine coded / processed  If interview were conducted. make sure that the interviewers is well trained – to keep the survey as much as realistic as possible. 6) Execution of the Project: (Putting a plan)  Important step in Research study. data are collected by 1) By observations 2) Through personnel interview 3) Through telephone interviews 4) By mailing of questionnaires 5) Through schedules / enumerators The Researcher should select one of these methods of collecting the data taking in account the 1) Nature of investigation 2) Objective & scope of Inquiry 3) Financial Resources 4) Time frame 5) Desired degree of Accuracy. Analysis of Data : 26 .  See that the project is executed in a systematic manner and in time. In case of surveys.

Decisions Highlights certain decisions. its operational implications and how to analyse the data? Research Design: . like ‘coding. Editing & Tabulation’.  Research design provides an answer to the question.  Tabulation: Technical procedure where the data are put in the form of tables. measurement and analysis of data. Research Design:  The most important step after defining the ‘Research problem’ is preparing the Research Design  Research design is the conceptual structure within which the research is conducted.  It constitutes the ‘BLUE PRINT” for collection. what the Researcher is going to do with regards to framing hypothesis. 1) Nature of the study 2) Purpose of the study 27 . for easy analysis.  The wide data collected should be condensed into small manageable groups.  Editing: Unwanted & irrelevant data will be removed. After the data are collected the researcher turns to the task of analyzing the data the analysis of data require closely related operations.  Coding: The collected data are transformed into symbols that may be tabulated or counted.

Research Design – Features : 1) Helps to identify the type and source of information needed for the study. 2) Observational design: Relates to the condition under which the observations are to be made. Research Design May be sub divided into. 2) Specifies the methods to be adopted in collecting & analyzing data. HYPOTHESIS 28 . the method of ‘selecting items’ for the study. observational and statistical designs can be carried out. 4) Operation design: The technique by which the sampling. 3) Statistical Design: Deals with the “no of items” selected or the study and how the selected data will be analysed. 1) Sampling design: Deals with.3) Location where the study would be conducted 4) Nature of “DATA” required 5) From where the “DATA” can be collected 6) Time period of the study 7) Type of sample design to be used 8) Techniques of data collection 9) Methods of Data Analysis 10) Preparation of Report.

3) It should state the relationship between the variables. 4) It should be stated in a simple language. 2) It must be capable of being put to test. If both the variables (say male or female) or (Head or Tail) are equally good. 29 . The explanation should be on empirical reference. the inferences will not be reliable. Concepts Relating to Testing of Hypothesis 1) Null Hypothesis & Alternative Hypothesis (Statistical Analysis) Null Hypothesis: Denoted by H0. 5) It should be consistant and derived from all known facts.A Research hypothesis is a predictive statement. which is capable of being ‘tested’ using scientific methods. Alternative Hypothesis: Denoted by Ha or H1. If not clear. It is a proposition that can be put to test in order to examine its validity. 6) Hypothesis must be amenable to testing within a reasonable period of time 7) Hypothesis should explain what it actually to explain. in case relational hypothesis. If one variable is considered superior to other or vice versa or if there is a difference. it is Null Hypothesis. Characteristics of Hypothesis 1) A hypothesis should be precise and clear. which involves independent and dependent valuables. (eg) the female students perform as well as the male students. (the solution for the Research problem). This statement is a hypothesis that can be objectively tested and verified. it is alternative hypothesis.

of variables Null Hypothesis Ho : u = 100 Alternative Hypothesis Ha : u = 100 Ha : u > 100 Ha : u < 100 Aspects to be considered while formulating Null Hypothesis 1) The researcher always tries to reject Null hypothesis since Alternative Hypothesis should be proved. reason and thought’ (eg) let us consider the level of significance to be 5%. the level of significance should be considered. 3. when rejected involves great risk. Decision Rule  The researcher should make a decision. if to accept or Reject Ho. 2) Null hypothesis when it is actually true.  It is a certain percentage chosen with great ‘care. It means the Researcher takes a risk of rejecting Null hypothesis (Ho) by 5% when Ho is actually true. 30 .Mean Population (u) or (p) Total / No. 3) Null hypothesis should be very specific (No approximation) The level of significance:  Important concept of hypothesis testing.

when it is true – Type I Error (which must have been accepted). The decision rule should be decided on the number of items to be tested and the basic of which to accept or reject. Type I and Type II Errors (i) Researcher may reject Ho. (ii) Researcher may accept Ho. 31 . Testing hypothesis refers whether the formulated hypothesis is valid or not 2. Deciding the Distribution to use:  Choice should be made generally relates to Normal distribution or tdistribution. Procedure for Hypothesis Testing: 1. 4.  Either 5% or 1% level can be considered for the purpose. (i) Making a formal statement:  (ii) (iii) Making a formal statement of the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. One tailed and Two tailed Tests: (i) One tailed test rejects the Null hypothesis when the sample mean is either greater or lower than the hypothesized value of the population mean. Selecting a significant level of testing  A pre-determined level of significance should be specified. when it is false – Type II Error (which must have been rejected) 5. Two tailed Test: When the sample mean is both greater and lower than the hypothesized value of the population mean. Whether to Accept or Reject Null Hypothesis.

32 . Comparing the probability:  By making a comparison with the assumed significance level.  If the value is greater than the mean. Ho is rejected. Alternative Hypothesis: is the one predictive statement that implies some effect on the phenomena.(iv) (v) Selection of random sample & computing an Appropriate value  Selection of Random sample  Computing suitable value  Drawing a sample for furnishing Empirical data. Were type-I error is committed.  compile. Ho is accepted. in case of one-tailed test. Null Hypothesis: The null hypothesis is the proposition or proposal that implies no effect on the phenomena. when Ho is true. Calculation of Probability:  (v) The diverged results from the expected results. Here type I error is committed. compare & compute the data and come out with the inference.  If the value is less than or equal to Ho.