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Investigation into behaviour of coupled shear

walls by means of continuous method
By
Mandana Sholeh
Master Thesis

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
for degree of master of science in Civil Engineering
Technical university of Delft
February 2014

Approved:
Dr.ir.C.R.Braam
Prof.dr.ir.D.A.Hordijk
Ir.D.C.van Keulen

Coupled shear walls

TU Delft

Preface
This report is the final piece of the Master of Science thesis titled “Investigation into behaviour of coupled
shear walls subjected to lateral forces by means of continuous method”.
This thesis is part of the Civil engineering- Concrete structural engineering MSc program at the faculty of
Civil Engineering and Geosciences of Delft University of Technology. This thesis work has been assessed
and supported by the graduation committee, which consists of the following members:
• Dr.ir.C.R.Braam – Structural and building engineering, Delft University of Technology
• Prof.dr.ir.D.A.Hordijk –Structural and building engineering, Delft University of Technology
• Ir.D.C.van Keulen –Structural and building engineering, Delft University of Technology
Delft, February 2014
Mandana Sholeh

I

Coupled shear walls

TU Delft

Abstract
In this thesis the static behaviour of coupled shear walls subjected to different types of lateral loading is
investigated. The response of the coupled walls supported on three different types of foundations is
studied by applying continuous and discrete methods.
In the first part of this thesis, the behaviour of coupled shear walls has been studied according to the
continuous method by using a mathematical programme, Maple. Further, depending on the foundation
types, some equations and curves have been presented which can be used to determine the internal
forces, stresses and deflection of the shear walls and coupling beams.
In the second part, a research has been done on the behaviour of coupled shear walls according to a
discrete method by using a frame analysis programme, MatrixFrame. Furthermore some comparisons
have been made between the results obtained from the continuous method and the discrete method to
determine the accuracy of the derived equations from the continuous method on the basis of some
examples.
Moreover, the effect of the dimension change, stiffness and dimension ratios on accuracy of the results
obtained by the continuous method is studied by representing some examples.
Finally the derived equations from the continuous method have been used to write a simplified
programme which can be used in practical works. This work is provided as an excel sheet from which the
internal forces and lateral deflection of the shear walls and connecting beams can be simply achieved with
a very good accuracy to be used in the first phase of design.

II

Coupled shear walls

TU Delft

Acknowledgement
It is a pleasure to thank the many people who made this thesis possible.
I would like to express my deep gratitude to my supervisor, Doctor Rene Braam, for his invaluable
guidance, useful comments and remarks and engagement during this thesis. I also would like to thank
doctor Braam for introducing me to the topic.
I am greatly indebted to Professor Hordijk and engineer Van Keulen, member of my master thesis
committee, for their many constructive suggestions and their interest in this work.
The most special thanks go to my husband. Shahab, you gave me your unconditional support and love
through all this long process.

III

.......... 49 Design example 3 ........................................................................................................................... 79 6 IV Investigating the effect of stiffness of walls and connecting beams ....................................... 14 2...................................7 Stress in the walls ......... 46 Walls on elastic foundation with base stiffened beam ........ 56 Design example 4 .........................................................................................................................................................1 Walls subjected to a point load at top...................................................2 Numerical investigation .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 1 literature review ......................................................................................................................................... 64 4........ I Abstract ......... 20 2.................................. XIII Introduction.............................. 69 5.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 76 Design example 7 ................................................................................................................................. 71 Design example 6: ............................1 Introduction ........................................................4 Walls subjected to triangularly distributed load ...... 3 2 Walls on rigid foundation: ...................................................................................................... 19 2................................................................................................ 37 4 3..................................6 Axial force in the connecting beams ...........4 Deflection.................................................................................................. 41 3............................................................................................................................................................................ 16 2......................... 16 2....... 66 Analysis of coupled shear walls using discrete method ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Walls subjected to uniform distributed load .............. 69 5................................................................................................................. 82 .......................... 6 2.................................... 71 Design example 5 ...........................................................................................................................1 Axial force in walls .................................... 44 3.................................................... III List of symbols ..................... II Acknowledgement .............................................................................................................................................................5 Walls’ shear ....................... 60 5 4....... 31 3. 25 3 Walls supported on elastic foundation: . 10 2.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 Design example 2: .............................................2 Shear force in connecting beams .............................................................................................................3 Walls subjected to point load ....................................................................................... 22 Design example 1: .............................................................................................................................3 Bending moment in the walls ..................................................2 Prove validity of the derived equations ........Coupled shear walls TU Delft Table of content Preface ....2 Walls subjected to triangularly distributed load ............................................

............................................................................................. 130 Axial force in the connecting beams ..........................................................1 Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Walls on rigid foundation analyzed by the continuous method ......................................... 103 7.. 127 A...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 82 6............................... 122 10 Appendix 1: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 135 ............... 109 Design example 2 ...........Coupled shear walls TU Delft 6............................................................................................................. 124 10...... 127 Maximum deflection at the top ....................................................................... 130 Shear force...............................................................................................................................................................3 Effect of the height of story .................................................................2: Triangularly distributed load: ....................................................... 131 12 V Appendix 3: ........................................................ 125 11 Appendix 2: ........1: Point load: ............................ 86 6.............2 Connecting beams with lower Young’s modulus ............................................. 130 Lateral deflection ............ 95 7................................................................................................................................... 89 6..... 131 Maximum deflection at the top ................................................................1 Verification of the equivalent flexural rigidity of the connecting beams ...... 122 9................................... 99 7............2 Effect of the height of the connecting beams............ 93 7 Effect of dimensions on behaviour of the coupled walls ..................................... 115 Shear reinforcement: ................. 109 8............................................................................................................................................. 118 9 Conclusion and discussion: ..........................................................1 Effect of the beams’ length: .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 127 Deflection ................................................................ 109 Design example 1 ............. 87 Shear reinforcement: .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Effect of the width ratio of the walls ...............................................................................................1 Considering the reinforcement ratio in the connecting beams ...................................................... 124 10........ 122 9.................................................... 95 7.....1 Practical example .............................................. 126 A........................... 130 Axial force in the walls...... 106 8 Practical design ........................................................ 93 Desing example 8 .............................................2 Maple output for the walls subjected to uniform distributed load on rigid foundation...................................1 Walls on an elastic foundation analysed by the continuous method ..................2 Limitation and future research ......................................................................................................... 86 Bending reinforcement . 126 Axial force in the connecting beams ..................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 140 17 Appendix 8 ................1 Walls supported on individual elastic foundation.......................................................................................................................................... 137 14 Appendix 5: .............................................Coupled shear walls TU Delft 12..... 135 12.........................2 Walls supported on elastic foundation with stiffened base beam ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 144 VI .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 143 20 References: .................................... 142 19 Appendix 10 ............. 136 13 Appendix 4: ..................................................................................... 139 16 Appendix 7: .......................................... 138 15 Appendix 6: ........................................ 141 18 Appendix 9 .............

....................................................... 13 Figure 2.................................Coupled shear walls TU Delft List of figures Figure 1............................................... 20 Figure 2........ 8 Figure 2.... 43 VII ............................................2 : Internal forces in coupled shear walls ........................ 38 Figure 3.......... 22 Figure 2...............................2 : Example structure.................... 28 Figure 3................. 31 Figure 3............................................................ 40 Figure 3.. 7 Figure 2......................6 : variation of shear flow in the beams for uniform distributed load....................1: coupled shear walls on elastic foundation .........................12: Example structure ................ 42 Figure 3........................................13: distribution of the axial force and bending moment in the walls ..............4 : Axial force in the walls ..... 42 Figure 3...........5: Variation of the axial force factor in the walls for uniform distributed load .............................3 : variation of the axial force and bending moment for walls supported on rigid and elastic foundation ..................................9 : Variation of axial force factor in the beams for uniform distributed load................ 19 Figure 2.............................................. ..........2 : Actual and linearized T function (function of the shear force in the connecting beams) ...............5 : lateral deflection for walls supported on elastic and rigid foundation ......... 24 Figure 2............... 25 Figure 2...............................................................7 : Variation of top deflection factor for uniform distributed load......................11 : Variation of wall moment composite and individual action factor K1 and K2 ............................................ 39 Figure 3..................................................6: Shear flow throughout the height for different foundation stiffness .......................8 : internal forces on small element of the coupled walls...........................................1 : Coupled shear walls according to continuous method model .................... 26 Figure 2................................. ½ / ¾ and top of the walls3 Figure 1.....7: Axial force throughout the height for different foundation stiffness ..................................................... 4 Figure 2................ 37 Figure 3................................................3 : Relative displacements of the laminas ....... 15 Figure 2......................1 : A sample of curve given by Beck to determine the shear force in ¼ .............10 : Stress distribution due to composite and individual cantilever action ................................................................. 10 Figure 2...............................................4: Shear flow along the height for rigid and elastic foundation.. 6 Figure 2.....................8: Deflection at top of the walls for different foundation stiffness .................................

................. 77 Figure 5................... 75 Figure 5.................................................. 56 Figure 4...................2 : Matrix Frame model of coupled shear walls example 1 ...................................7 : Equivalent frame on elastic support ........................................................................... 76 Figure 5.......... 43 Figure 4..... 73 Figure 5.......................5 : Example structure........... 72 Figure 5........ 74 Figure 5...........10 : Equivalent frame of the walls on Elastic foundation with base beam .........................3 : Axial force throughout the height of walls on rigid foundation.......3 : Vertical and rotational deflection at base ............ 49 Figure 4...................... 51 Figure 4.............6 : Axial force and bending moment for walls on individual elastic foundation and walls with stiffened beam .....................9 : Variation of axial force for the walls supported on different base beams ...5 : Comparison of bending moment in wall 2 between continuous and discrete method ...9 : Bending moment in wall 1 according to discrete and continuous method .12: Lateral deflection for the walls supported on different base beams ......................................................................................................................... 74 Figure 5.........4 : Comparison of bending moment in wall 1 between continuous and discrete method ... 62 Figure 4......................................11 : Variation of axial force along the height for continuous and discrete method ..................................................... 80 VIII ................................... 50 Figure 4..................................8 : Lateral deflection for the walls supported on individual foundation and walls with stiffened beam ........ 62 Figure 4.................................................................... 63 Figure 5.................................2 : Axial force in the walls ....8 : Axial force throughout the height according to discrete and continuous method ................1 : Coupled shear walls and equivalent frame .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 3....................................11 : Variation of shear flow for the walls supported on different base beams ............................9: Bending comment in wall 1 throughout the height for different foundation stiffness..................................... 59 Figure 4..........4 : Moment of the walls at the base with stiffened beam ..6 : Exact value of axial force according to Matrix Frame programme ........................7 : Shear force in the connecting beams along the height of the walls ............... 70 Figure 5............ 58 Figure 4..... 79 Figure 5......................... 63 Figure 4........................................................................................................ 78 Figure 5........................................ 52 Figure 4.........1: Coupled shear walls stiffened by base beam ...............................................................................................................................10 : Variation of bending moment for the walls supported on different base beams....................... 59 Figure 4.....................

..............1 : Design example ...............2 : Deformation of lintels .................. 104 Figure 7...................... 112 IX ....... 100 Figure 7.... 104 Figure 7...................................... example 1 .................................... 97 Figure 7................................. 103 Figure 7............................ 98 Figure 7........................................................... 105 Figure 7........ 102 Figure 7....................... 110 Figure 8.............................10: Variation of bending moment at the base of wall 2 versus height of the beams ............................... 87 Figure 6............................................................................................................................... 93 Figure 7.........................6 :Design example ..3: Deformation of walls due to shear ...................................3 : Internal force in the connecting beam with low stiffness ...... 112 Figure 8................................................................................2 : Internal forces of the connecting beam with high stiffness ...........11: Variation of lateral deflection at top versus height of the beams ............13: Variation of maximum shear force in the beams versus story height....14 : Variation of axial force in the walls versus story height ..............................2 : Variation of axial force in the walls versus the length of the beam ................................................................15 : Variation of bending moment at the base under wall 1 versus story height...............16 : Variation of bending moment at the base under wall 2 versus story height.............1: Coupled shear walls according to continuous method .4: Variation of bending moment in walls 1 at the base versus length of the beams.............. 105 Figure 7...........12: Variation of bending moment along the height for continuous and discrete method .......... 81 Figure 6......................... 98 Figure 7.................................................................. 82 Figure 6........................ 100 Figure 7.........3: Variation of maximum shear force in the beams versus length of the beams .....................................17 : Variation of lateral deflection at top versus story height .....................Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 5................... 107 Figure 8....................7: Variation of axial force in the walls versus height of the beam .................. 101 Figure 7.......................................... 106 Figure 7....12 : Design example .....................................................5: Variation of bending moment in wall 2 at base versus length of the beam ............................................. 101 Figure 7.......................... 95 Figure 7..................18 : Design example ..1 :Side view and plan of the coupled walls system... 99 Figure 7..........9 : Variation of bending moment at the base of wall 1 versus height of the beams ............................... 97 Figure 7....................................8 : Variation of maximum shear force in the beams versus height of the beam.......

................... 132 Figure 11...........................8 : variation of the normal force in the connecting beams for the walls subjected to triangularly distributed load ........... 128 Figure 11..... 129 Figure 11....9 : variation of the maximum deflection for the walls subjected to triangularly distributed load ..........................................................................................Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 8.......................................................................................2 : Variation of the shear flow for the walls subjected to point load...4 : Side view and plan of the shear walls........................... 126 Figure 11............10 : variation of wall moment composite and individual action factor K1 and K2 for walls subjected to triangularly distributed load ................................... 133 Figure 11................ 124 Figure 11............................................................ example 2 ...7 : variation of the shear flow in factor for the walls subjected to the triangularly distributed load ....................................................................................................................................................................6 : variation of the axial force factor in the walls subjected to the triangularly distributed load .....................1 : load configuration on the walls .............5 : variation of wall moment composite and individual action factor K1 and K2 for walls subjected to point load .........3 : variation of the axial force factor in the connecting beams for walls subjected to point load ...................................................................................... 132 Figure 11........................................................................................................................................... 115 Figure 10..............................................................................................4 : variation of the maximum deflection factor for walls subjected to a point load at the top 129 Figure 11..........................................1: cantilever beam with appoint load................................ 128 Figure 11.............................................................. 133 Figure 11........................................................................................ 134 X ....................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................... 60 Table 9 : Properties of base beam 2 ............................... 26 Table 2: Cross sectional properties of connected beams and shear walls ....................................................... 70 Table 14 : Properties of columns and beams .................................Coupled shear walls TU Delft List of tables Table 1: properties of the coupled walls............................................................................................. 40 Table 6 : properties of the stiffened beam at base ............ 76 Table 19 : Result of internal forces for walls supported on elastic foundation according to continuous and discrete method ............................... 57 Table 7: Properties of base beam 1 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 60 Table 12 : Vertical and rotational stiffness of base beam 3 ............................................................................................................................................ 60 Table 10 : Vertical and rotational stiffness of base beam 2 ............ 60 Table 13 : Coefficient of axial and flexural rigidity for end beams in discrete method . 76 Table 20 : Stresses at the base of walls supported on elastic foundation according to continuous and discrete method ...... 38 Table 4 : Properties of elastic foundation .................... 77 Table 21 : Cross sectional properties of end beam at base............................................................................................................. 60 Table 11: Properties of base beam 3 ................................................................................... 71 Table 15 : Properties of end beams .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 73 Table 18 : Properties of elastic foundation .......................................................................................................................... 73 Table 17 : Stresses at base of walls supported on rigid foundation according to continuous and discrete method ............... 79 XI ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Table 3 : Properties of foundation beams..... 71 Table 16 : Result of internal forces for walls supported on rigid foundation according to continuous and discrete method ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 60 Table 8: Vertical and rotational stiffness of base beam 1 ................................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................ 38 Table 5 : Stress at the extreme fibres at base for both rigid foundation and individually elastic foundation ...................

..................................................Coupled shear walls TU Delft Table 22 : Results of internal forces for walls stiffened with base beam according to continuous and discrete method ............................ 109 Table 32: internal forces and deflection according to hand calculation and excel sheet............................................................................................................................................... 108 Table 30 : Bending moment in wall 1 according to continuous and discrete method for various width ratio ...................................................................... 103 Table 28 : various width ration and the stiffness properties ............................................................. 116 XII ................................................................................................................. 107 Table 29 : Axial force according to continuous and discrete method for various width ratios ....................................................................... 96 Table 25 : Stiffness properties of the coupled walls systems ........................................ 80 Table 23: Results of internal forces for walls on rigid foundation for different beams’ stiffness ............. 99 Table 27 : Stiffness properties of the coupled walls systems........................................ 113 Table 33: Dimensions and properties of coupled walls system ............................................................... 96 Table 26 : Stiffness properties of the coupled walls systems ...................... 94 Table 24: Properties of the coupled walls system ................................... 115 Table 34 : Internal forces and deflection of the shear walls for short and long span ................................................. 108 Table 31: dimensions and properties of coupled walls system.....................................................

Coupled shear walls TU Delft List of symbols 2 2           .

.       XIII Is the width of wall 1 [m] Is the width of wall 2 [m] Is the stiffness factor which depends on width of opening. moment of area of lintel. height of floor and centre to centre distance of the walls Is the stiffness factor of foundation which depends on width of opening. moment of area of foundation beams [1/m] and centre to centre distance of the walls Is the cross sectional area of wall 1 [m2] Is the cross sectional area of wall 2 [m2] Is the Total cross sectional area of wall 1 and 2 [m2] Is the cross sectional area of the connecting beams [m2] Is the cross sectional area of foundation beam under wall 1 [m2] Is the cross sectional area of foundation beam under wall 2 [m2] Is steel reinforcement area [m2] Is the area of shear reinforcement [mm2] Is the span of opening [m] Centre of gravity Is the modulus of elasticity of the walls [kN/m2] Is the modulus of elasticity of the lintels [kN/m2] Is the modulus of elasticity of the foundation beam [kN/m2] Is the axial force factor in the walls Is the shear flow factor in the connecting beams Is the deflection factor of the walls Is the axial force factor in the connecting beams Is the yield strength of steel reinforcement [N/mm2] Is the characteristic compression strength of concrete [N/mm2] . height of floor. moment of inertia [1/m] of walls.     .

 Is the height of story [m] Is the height of foundation beam [m] Is the Total height if the coupled walls structure [m] Is the moment of inertial of wall 1 [m4] Is the moment of inertia of wall 2 [m4] Is the Total moment of area of wall 1 and 2 [m4] Is the moment of area of connecting beams [m4] Is the equivalent moment of area of connecting beams which contains the shear effect [m4] Is the moment of area of foundation beam under wall 1 [m4] Is the moment of area of foundation beam under wall 2 [m4] Is the moment of area of the stiffened beam at base [m4] ℎ          .m] # XIV Is the stiffness factor which depends on cross sectional area of walls.m] Is the rotational stiffness of the foundation under wall 1 [kN. second moment of area of foundation beams and centre to centre distance of the shear walls Is the percentage of moment carrying by individual action of walls Is the percentage of moment carrying by composite action of walls " Is the vertical stiffness of the foundation under wall 1 [kN/m] " Is the vertical stiffness of the foundation under wall 2 [kN/m] " Is the equivalent vertical stiffness of the foundation [kN/m] # Is the rotational stiffness of the foundation under wall 1 [kN.m] # Is the equivalent rotational stiffness of the foundation [kN.Coupled shear walls  TU Delft [N/mm2]  Is the design value of the conrete compression force in the direction of the longitudinal memebr axis Is the shear modulus of the connecting beams [kN/m2] ℎ .  ! ! Is the stiffness factor of foundation which depends on cross sectional area of foundation beams. second moment of area of walls and centre to centre distance of the shear walls .

m] '+ Is the bending moment in wall 1 at base [kN. p and P [kN.Coupled shear walls $ % %& %" TU Delft Is the centre to centre distance of wall 1 and 2 [m] Is the modulus of elasticity of sub grade [kN/m3] Is a factor depends on rotational stiffness of the foundation.m] Is the external bending moment applied on walls as a function of the height due to external loads w. second moment of [1/m] area of lintels. -()) .m] Is the bending moment in the walls due to axial force in the lintels [kN. span op opening and height of story ' ()) Is the bending moment in wall 1 as a function of height ' ()) Is the bending moment in wall 2 as a function of height [kN.m] [kN. span op opening and height of story Is a factor depends on vertical stiffness of the foundation.m] Is the design moment [kN.m] '+ Is the bending moment in wall 2 at base [kN. Is summation of %& and %" /()) Is the axial load in the walls as a function of height 0()) 1 2 3 4 Is the axial load in the connecting medium per unit height [kN] [kN/m] Is poisson ration of concrete Is the point load at the top of the walls [kN] Is the triangularly distributed load on the walls due to earthquake [kN/m] Is a factor depending on modulus of elasticity of lintels and foundation beam. second moment [1/m] of area of lintels.m/m] '+ '. second moment of area of lintels and foundation beam and height of story ζ Is the young’s ‘modulus ratio of lintel to shear wall 7+ Is the shear force in the connecting mediums per unit height [kN/m] Is the shear force in foundation beam [kN] 6()) 8 9 XV Is the reinforcement ratio Is shear force in wall 1 [kN] .

 ) C" C# XVI Is the rotational displacement at base due to elastic foundation . Is the centre to centre distance of shear reinforcement [mm] Is the stress [kN/m2] Is the design shear force [kN] Is the uniform distributed load due to wind [kN/m] : <. = >?@ Is the thickness of the connecting beams [m] > ?AA Is the thickness of the shear walls [m] B()) Is the thickness of foundation beam [m] Is the lateral deflection of the coupled walls system due to horizontal forces [m] Height coordinate [m] Is the relative displacement at base due to elastic foundation [m] > .Coupled shear walls TU Delft 9 Is shear force in wall 2 [kN] .

Applying reinforced concrete shear walls is one of the most economical methods. 1. Further the related equations and curves will be given for the walls subjected to a uniform distributed load. Therefore the effect of lateral forces will become progressively more important as the building height increases. Mostly in the high-rise buildings a few rows of openings are required for windows and/or doorways. In the second chapter the behaviour of the coupled shear walls with one row of opening supported on rigid foundation will be reconsidered based on continuous method. Coull and Choudhury. Therefore. bending moment and maximum deflection of coupled shear walls subjected to a lateral load. The bending moment in the building caused by the lateral forces increases with the square of height. The other important objective of this thesis is to extend the analysing of coupled shear walls according to the continuous method for different types of foundations. More details about previous works will be given in chapter 1. Tall buildings are subjected to lateral forces due to wind and earthquake. But in the case of larger openings. a 1 . The continuous method has been developed by Hubert Beck in 1962.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Introduction The main objective of this work is to review the previous works done on behaviour of coupled shear walls and gathering all information about analysing coupled walls based on the continuous method. The discrete method is a computer based analysis in which the shear walls are treated as a framed structure. There are different methods which can be used for analysis of the coupled shear walls. The aim of this thesis is to consider the behaviour of coupled shear walls in high-rise building according to the continuous method by covering the limitation of previous works. The lateral stability of the buildings has to be provided by the vertical structural elements such as shear walls or rigid frames. depending on the number of rows of openings. it is important to restudy the continuous method and prove the validity of the works done before by means of some comparing examples with the discrete method. The choice depends on the degree of accuracy and the structural layout. Further. the effect of crack formation on behaviour of the coupled walls and comparison with numerical programs. shear walls on elastic foundation. Coupled shear walls will increase the total lateral stability of the building. Finally the results will be used to develop a quick and simple programme to determine the behaviour of the coupled shear walls subjected to horizontal forces with an acceptable accuracy which can be used in the practical work. the wall could not work as one vertical element but as two or more coupled shear walls. The effects of these openings on the stress distribution in the walls can be neglected if the openings are small. The continuous method is a simplified method which gives a series of charts for a rapid evaluation of the stress. axial force. There are seven main objectives in this thesis. But there are still some limitations for the continuous method which previous works do not cover such as. In the first chapter of this graduation work the literature will be reviewed to figure out the limitation of previous works on the continuous method 2. the continuous method has been studied and developed by many researchers such as Rosman. The most general methods are the continuous method and the discrete method. After Beck. both considering the linear elastic analysis. it is very important to obtain a simple method which can describe the behaviour of coupled shear walls under the action of lateral loadings.

4. In the sixth section. The effect of dimension variations on the coupled walls action will be studied in the seventh chapter. Therefore the results of the models which have been obtained in the first two sections will be compared with a discrete method by using a linear elastic frame analysis computer program. In the fifth chapter a comparison will be made between the results of the continuous method and the discrete method to determine the accuracy of the results obtained from the continuous method. . In the third chapter the behaviour of the coupled walls system with one row of opening supported by two individual elastic foundations will be reconsidered based on the previous studies. Finally a conclusion will be drawn regarding to the accuracy and applicability of the continuous method for analysing the coupled shear walls. 5. 8. 6. 2 TU Delft triangularly distributed load or a point load at the top of walls. 7. Note that this is a restudy of previous works. the effect of connecting beams’ stiffness variations on behaviour of the walls system will be figured out.Coupled shear walls 3. The forth chapter will deal with investigating the behaviour of the coupled walls system with one row of openings on elastic foundation stiffened by a foundation beam at the base.

shear and bending could be determined on some certain points in the wall namely. A sample of chart for determination of the shear force in the connecting beams which is given by Beck is illustrated in Figure 1. Coull and Choudhury considered not only the walls subjected to uniformly distributed . ½. The charts given by the Coull and Choudhury are more useful than the previous ones since. shear and the deflections at each point can be found based on the height ratio and the stiffness parameter.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 1 literature review Many studies have been done on the plane coupled shear walls subjected to lateral loading. D is the height ratio and λ and E are stiffness parameters. [4] attempted to complete the work of Rosman and Beck by introducing a simple and effective approach of analysis of coupled shear walls by the continuous method.1 : A sample of curve given by Beck to determine the shear force in ¼ . • • Hubert Beck [2] in 1962 developed the simplified continuous method. [18] completed the work of Beck and created some charts to determine the maximum shear force and the location of the maximum shear force.1 where. • 3 Later in 1967 Coull and Choudhury [3]. (Beck. August 1962) Figure 1. Following describes some of the most important studies. Moreover. According to these graphs the axial forces. at ¼. Determining the forces at the other points in the walls could only be done by using interpolation between the specified points. As well as the previous work the bending moment. axial force and the maximum deflection on top of the walls depends on the stiffness of the walls. using these graphs is easier and they are applicable to determine the forces at each level of the walls. ½ / ¾ and top of the walls Note that in the above graph. and ¾ of the height and on the top of the walls. V is the shear force in the connecting beams. Rosman [14].

Further. Since the application of the theory of Rosman is very lengthy for the shear walls with more rows of openings. • In 1972 TSO and Chan [6] improved the work done by Coull for coupled shear walls on elastic foundation when both vertical settlement and rotation occur. he introduced a simplified method for these kinds of shear walls. it appears that this linearization results in a very good engineering approximation and it can be accepted.2) This assumption results in considerable saving of time in the analysis. (See Figure 1. (Schawaighofer. However. • Blaauwendraad attempted to analyse the coupled shear walls according to the discrete method and by using frame analysis computer program. November 1967) Figure 1. According to Schwaighofer’s research. In his theory he assumed a linear shear distribution for the connecting beams along the height of the shear walls. • Joseph Schwaighofer in 1967 studied the verification of the simplified approach of Rosman for the case of walls with more than one row of openings.2 : Actual and linearized T function (function of the shear force in the connecting beams) • 4 There are many other researches who have been studied the behaviour of the coupled shear walls according to the continuous method and the discrete method. he provided a good approximated method for the frame analysis programmes which do not have the possibility to define an element with infinite stiffness. In another study in 1972.Coupled shear walls TU Delft load but also walls subjected to the triangularly distributed load and point load. it is beyond the scope of this thesis to mention the names of all researchers. . Coull has considered the effect of the elastic foundation on the coupled shear walls for the case where either a settlement or a rotation of the foundation occurs.

previous studies will be revised in the first part. Furthermore. 5 . In the second part. In this paper. the continuous method will be extended for analysis of coupled shear walls supported on elastic foundation with a stiffened beam at base for walls with one row of openings.Coupled shear walls TU Delft As shown above. coupled walls supported on two individual elastic foundations have also been studied before. previous researches considered the coupled shear walls with one and two rows of opening supported by rigid foundation.

the walls supported on a rigid foundation under an uniform distributed load will be considered to derive the governing differential equations. shear forces and bending moment The axial deformation of the coupling beam can be neglected The effect of gravity load on the coupling beam is not taken into account. $ Figure 2. The design curve and the equation for walls subjected to point load and a triangularly distributed load have been illustrated in the appendix 2. The Continuous method is an approximated method which has been used since 1962. Furthermore.1 : Coupled shear walls according to continuous method model 6 . Coupling beams carry axial forces.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 2 Walls on rigid foundation: One of the important methods to analyse coupled shear walls is the continuous method. The horizontal displacement at each point in wall 1 is equal to the horizontal displacement at the corresponding point of wall 2 because of the presence of the coupling beams. Furthermore. these equations will be used to consider the behaviour of the coupled walls under other types of loadings and also for the coupled walls supported on an elastic foundation.1. The curvature of the two walls are same at any level The point of contra flexure is positioned at the mid-pint of the clear span of the beam The dimensions of the walls and connecting beams will not change through the height of the structure In this section. In this method the horizontal connecting beams will be replaced by equivalent continuous mediums over the height of the building which connects the coupled walls as has been illustrated in Figure 2. it is assumed that: • • • • • • • • Coupled shear walls exhibit flexural behaviour.

Further. The other figures have been drawn by using AutoCAD programme. tension in wall 1 and compression in wall 2 is the uniform distributed load due to wind is the external bending moment applied on walls system due to external load w Figure 2. To derive the equations related to internal forces in the beams and walls. Maple.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Note that the approach and the notations which have been used in this section are based on the study of A. The graphics and the curves have been made by using mathematical programme.Coull [3].2 : Internal forces in coupled shear walls 7 . Consider the coupled shear walls system shown in Figure 2.2). the Maple programme has been used to solve the obtained differential equations and simplify them. the point of contraflexure in the medium is identical to the midpoint of the clear span of each connecting beam. (SeeFigure 2. the connecting medium will be cut along the vertical line of contraflexure. The applied forces on the shear walls and the connecting mediums will be as following: o o o o o o o 0()) 6()) ' ()) ' ()) /()) = -()) is axial force in the connecting mediums (per unit height) is the shear flow per unit height applied in the connecting mediums is the bending moment in wall 1 is the bending moment in wall 2 is the axial force in walls namely.1. As has been mentioned in the assumptions. The connecting beams will be replaced by equivalent continuous mediums.

3 : Relative displacements of the laminas 8 C# .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Since the cantilevered laminas have been cut along the line of contraflexure some relative displacements as have been shown in Figure 2. C# C# Figure 2. C B ) C C C" $.3 will occur at the cut ends.

2 ) In which  is the modulus elasticity of the beams and  is the equivalent flexural rigidity of the connecting beams. due to the deflection of the connecting beams.1 9 . in reality there is no relative displacement at the point of contraflexure in the connecting mediums. in the first part of this thesis. Due to the applied bending moment on the walls. H + J O /()*)    + ( 2. the applied load will introduce a tensile force in wall 1 and a compressive force in wall 2.  ℎ 12 ( 2. By considering a small part of the connecting medium with depth of dz and the flexural rigidity of  the deformation of the laminas due to shear flow can be derived1. (Figure 2. + H +  J . B B B C = H +  J . C = −q.%   ( 2.6 ) The verification of the equivalent flexural rigidity of the beam and the deflection of laminas are given in appendix 1 section 1. first the bending moment due to external load and second the bending moment due to the shear force in the connecting laminas.3 c). As can be seen. the walls on rigid foundation will be considered which means that. the cross sections will rotate. It is worth to mention that there are two bending moments which act on the walls. at the base which will occur in the case of elastic foundation and it depend on the modulus of sub-grade reaction (Figure 2. then it can be concluded that C is equal to zero.3 d & e). relative displacement (C" * and rotation (C# * at base will be zero. As has been mentioned before. 2 ) 2 ) ) ( 2. For more details see appendix 1. Note that in this the modulus of elasticity for both beams and walls is assumed to be equal which defines by .3 b).1 ) Deformation of the connecting mediums due to shear flow.3 ) ( 2. (Figure 2. P 1 1 1 C = − .4 ) Deformation of the walls due to axial force (Figure 2.Coupled shear walls 1) 2) TU Delft Rotation of the wall cross section due to bending. C = C + C + C = 0 1 ( 2. = $. If it is assumed that the summation of the relative displacements is equal to C. Note that  includes the effect of shearing and bending deformation of the beams and can be expressed as:  = N= 3) 4)  1+N 12 .5 ) Vertical and rotational relative displacements.3 a). As is known.

4. 6=− / ) ( 2. shear flow in the mediums can be obtained.4 : Axial force in the walls 10 d2 Z N(z) .8 ) P By differentiating from the above equation. it can be concluded that the axial force in the walls at each level is equal to the integral of the shear flow in the connecting medium from that particular level to the top.Coupled shear walls TU Delft P 1 1    1 R) /())S ℎ R +  S TU+ /()))V C = $ H B())J + − =0 ) 12   ( 2. the moment curvature relationship of the walls can be written as: Z=H q(z) n(z) w q(z) N(z) ' d1 2 2 ' Figure 2.1 Axial force in walls Considering the vertical force equilibrium in the walls (Figure 2. X WO 6()))Y = /()) ( 2. Considering the moment equilibrium at the centre line of the walls in the Figure 2.9 ) The bending moments in each wall is a superposition of a) free bending due to external applied load and b) reverse bending due to shear and axial force in the connecting beams.7 ) 2.4) .

16 ) Simplifying the above equation and applying the following notations:  +  =  ( 2. =0 [.14 ) By differentiating equation ( 2. $  .10 ) ( 2.18 )  12 $   -()*$ 12 /()* − /()*.  . the following equation can be derived: C  1  1 1 /()) = $ Z  B())[ + =0 Z  /())[ ℎ − H + J ) ) 12 )    -()) − $/()) 12   +  /()* 12 $Z + /()*[ − H . O 6())) − '+ =  . Z J   ( +  ) ℎ )  .17 )  +  =  ( 2.8  ) into above equation gives the moment curvature relation equal to: ' + ' = -()) − $.12 ) Where '+ is the moment caused by the axial force. ℎ. H J 2 ) ) P X  B ' = − H +  J . Substituting equation ( 2.13 ) ( 2.19 ) Gives: 11 .11 ) ( 2. /()) = ( +  ) Z This can be written as: Z  B())[ )   -()) − $/()) B())[ =  ( +  ) ) ( 2. -()) is the applied (X\P)] external moment which is equal to in case if uniform distributed load. .15 ) ( 2. H1 + J=−    ) . in the connecting beams. H J 2 ) ) P X  ' + ' = -()) − $ WO 6()))Y = ( +  ) Z  B())[ ) P ( 2.7 ) and substituting equation ( 2.14 ) into it. 0()). O 6())) + '+ = .H  J Z [ .   ℎ ( 2.ℎ ( 2.Coupled shear walls TU Delft X  B ' = -()) − H +  J .   .

Consequently two required boundry condtions to solve the ODE ( 2.7 ) will become zero. Therfore the first term in the compatibility equation ( 2. Z1 − a R1 S + [f . $  ( 2. $  [ =   . :0ℎ(− ) + * .22 ) The normal force in the shear walls can be derived by solving the ordinary differential equation (ODE) and using the boundary conditions.22 )will be as follow: 1.19 ) gives a second-order differential equations based on the normal force of the shear walls: Z 12.23 )  /()* = 0 ) ( 2. -()) $ ( 2.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Assuming the following parameters and substituting them into equation ( 2.  J=  . Boundary conditions: The walls can be considered as cantilever beams which are restrained at the bottom. Obviously the stiffness of the walls system will be increased by increasing the magnitude of k and α. − .  H1 + . the walls are rigidly connected to the foundation wich leads to a zero slope at the base.21 ) Note that.7 ). It is assumed that. the integration range is from zero to zero.24 ) 2. Note that the calculations have been made in Maple programme. 12  1 )  1 cosh( )* + . the equation of normal force in the shear walls will be: /`  ()* = =. > ) =  /(* = 0 ( 2. The second boudary conditions can be obtaied by inserting z=0 in equation ( 2.20 )  ( 2. More details about solving and simplified equations can be found in appendix 1.25 ) . > ) = 0 As a result. ℎ. /()) = −    . the axial force at the top is equal to zero which gives the first boundary condition .  /()) − )   . $  ( * 2  cosh( * ( 2. . the stiffness factor ( ) depends only on dimension of the coupled walls system.  .  . The third term in cmopatibilty equation is also zero since.8 ). According to equation ( 2.

Z=.5: Variation of the axial force factor in the walls for uniform distributed load Considering Figure 2. the amount of normal force at each level is equal to the integration of the 13 .  will be increased by decreasing the walls dimensions. Z1 K [  ( * 2  cosh( * ( 2. Furthermore.20 ) and ( 2. height of the connecting beams and the story height. :0(K ) I *  = .27 ) The variation of the axial force in the walls due to uniformly distributed load has been drawn for different height ratio and stiffness factor in Figure 2. connecting beam span. According to equation ( 2. The reason is that.26 ) Where () is the axial force factor in the walls due to the applied external load and can be defined as following: 1 )  1 cosh( )* I . the higher the stiffness of the connecting beams. the larger the amount of axial force in the walls will be for the same height ratio. decreasing the length of the connecting beams. it can be seen that.5.   $[ ( 2.21 )the stiffness factor ( * depends on the walls dimensions. as can be seen the axial force will be decreased along the height of the walls.Coupled shear walls TU Delft The normal force in the walls can also be rewritten as follow: /`  ()) =  . increasing the story height and increasing the height of the connecting beams. R1 K S I .5 High stiffness low stiffness Figure 2.

Coupled shear walls TU Delft shear flow from that level to the top. Calculating the area under the shear flow curve for a specified level gives the shear force in that beam. cosh( )[ ( 2.6.28 ) This equation can also be rewritten as a function of height ratio and stiffness ratio: 6`  ()) = = .30 ) The variation of shear flow factor () versus the height ratio and the stiffness factor  has been illustrated in the Figure 2. by increasing ! the position of the maximum loaded beam will move downwards which is illustrated by the dashed line on the curve. At the lower level. cosh( ) − ).29 ) In which  is the shear flow factor in the connecting mediums and can be given by the following equation:  = 1 Tsinh( )) − . increasing the stiffness leads to increasing shear flow in lamellas. Tsinh( )) − . As can be seen from the curves. This means that. cosh( ( − )))V + . the shear flow in the connecting mediums can be determined: 6`  = = 1 . cosh( )  $ ZkαH. cosh( ( − )))V + .2 Shear force in connecting beams According to equation ( 2.33 ). It is worth to mention that axial force in the walls is inversely proportional to the walls ‘bending moment. the shear flow in the connecting beams is directly related to the stiffness parameter ! which means that. bending moment in the walls can be reduced by increasing the stiffness of the connecting beams which leads into increasing the axial force in the walls. 14 . 2.  $ ( 2.9 ) by differentiating from the axial force in the wall. The shear force in each individual connecting beam can be calculated by integrating the shear flow over the height of each story. Moreover. cosh( ) kαH. the integration range is larger which leads into a lager axial force. cosh( ) − ). Note that the equation of the bending moment will be derived later in section 0 and is given by equation ( 2. cosh( ) ( 2.

:0( )` *. :0 R2 S 7` &`j ()) =  +  $  .31 ) m Pk \  1 =ℎ 2=. .Coupled shear walls TU Delft m Pk l  7` &`j ()) = O 6`  ())) ( 2.

:0( *. sinh( )` * . . :0 R S 2=.n:( * $ 1 1 2=.

32 ) I K  $. :0 R S 2 2 ( 2.n:( )` *. .

15 .6 : Variation of shear flow in the beams for uniform distributed load.n:( *  $ =)`  K  $ High stiffness low stiffness Figure 2.

The larger the axial force.  J 2. it can be concluded that. 16 . $J  2  ( 2.  J 2.3 Bending moment in the walls By considering moment curvature relation of the walls and the assumption of identical deflection of the walls. =  HR1 − S −  .37 ) ( 2. 2. H =  R1 − S − /()).7 ) and ( 2.36 ) into the first derivative of the compatibility equation ( 2. the smaller the bending moment will be.14 ) and getting rid of the axial force. the moment at each level of height (z) will be: ' =  1 )  .34 ) Where N(z) is the axial force in the walls and it has been derived earlier. According to the equation ( 2. As a result.7 ) gives the equation of the deflection. =  HR1 − S −  .4 Deflection The equation of the lateral deflection of the system can be determined by using the equation ( 2.  -()) − H  B())J  ) /()) = $   H  -())J − H  B())J   ) ) /()) = )  $ C  1  1 1 /()) = $ Z  B())[ + =0 Z  /())[ ℎ − H + J ) ) 12 )    ( 2.   ( 2.   ( 2.36 ) ( 2.35 ) As can be seen the axial force in the walls has an inverse effect on the amount of the walls’ bending moment.26 ) the bending moment of the walls can be rewritten as follows: ' = ' =  )  2 .33 )  )  2 . a fourth order differential equation according to the height of the structure will be found.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 2. So for the coupled shear walls subjected to uniform distributed load.38 ) Substituting the second derivative of the normal force from equation ( 2. bending moment in each wall is proportional to its flexural rigidity.

Now. external bending moment is equal to: -()) = =( − )) 2 Boundary conditions The governing boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the coupled walls on the rigid foundation are: 1.42 ) > B =   q | =0 )  PsX ( 2. W -()* −   (  ) )  ) By determining the value of N and its first derivative t P  X − 1*. the ODE of deflection can be written as follows:  =   ( 2. ( +  )[ ) 12 $ ) )  1 1 1 − H + J o-()) − ( +  ) Z  B())[p = 0   $ ) By substituting the equations of a   B())f − B())[ Z )  )   and   . ( 2. the ordinary differential equation of the deflection can be solved by using these boundary conditions.44 ) according to the equation ( 2. (  )  − 1)  [ ( 2.the last boundary condition at z=H can be derived.43 )   1  B()* − ( * .39 ) 1  . Z  -()) − -()).Coupled shear walls TU Delft  ℎ   $ Z  B())[ + Z  -()) −  B()). > B = 0 B()* = 0 ( 2. O -()*)Y + ( 2.36 ) and substituting them into the compatibility equation ( 2. Consequently the deflection of the walls due to uniform distributed load B()*`  at each height level will be: 17 .41 ) B q | =0 ) Ps+ 2.40 ) Where for walls subjected to uniform distributed load.7 ). B()* = .

24 B())`  = TU Delft 1 . .Coupled shear walls 1 . T=(6  v   ) .

n:ℎ( * − 4)   v   . .

.n:ℎ( * ( *  + )  v   .

n:ℎ( * − 6    )  . .

.n:ℎ( * + 4  )   .

n:ℎ( * −   )   . .

n:ℎ( * + 24)    .

n:ℎ( * − 12)     .

n:ℎ( *
+ 24 . :0ℎ(  − )* − 24 . :0ℎ( * + 24.

n:ℎ( )* − 24*V
v .  



n:ℎ

( 2.45 )

According to this equation the deflection depends on the height (z) and stiffness parameter α and k.
Therefore it is not possible to draw a diagram which shows the variation of the deflection against the
height ratio. It is known that the maximum deflection occurs at the top of the coupled walls. Therefore,
the height level (z) in the above equation will be substituted equal to total height of the wall (H) which
gives the maximum lateral deflection of the wall as a function of ! and K. The variation of the
deflection factor is illustrated in Figure 2.7.
B`  (* =

= 
.
8 

( 2.46 )

Where  is the deflection factor of the walls system due to the uniform distributed load and can be given
by following equation: 
= −

1 

+1−

8. sinh ( *
− 
   y . cosh ( *    

8

v . cosh ( 

*

+

4 
 

+

8 


v

( 2.47 )

Considering Figure 2.7, it can be seen that, as expected the larger stiffness of the walls leads to a smaller
lateral deflection at the top. Furthermore, for the larger amount of the deflection at the top is also
larger. As can be seen in equation ( 2.20 ) and ( 2.21 ) the stiffness parameters and  depend on the
dimension of the walls and beams. Increasing the amount of when the value of  remains constant
means that, the value of  have been decreased. The value of  can be diminished by reducing the beam
height which will have negative influence on coupling effectivity of the shear walls. As a result, the top
deflection of the walls will be increased.

18

− . $ − −  J . -())  2 )  ) In which m(z) is the external moment and for the uniform distributed load is equal to -()) =  =( − )) and  19 t P = −6 ( 2.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 2.48 )  /   9 = H . -())  2 )  ) ( 2.50 ) .8 . z ' = (' + C' ) − ' + (9 + C9 ). the shear force in each wall will be:  /   9 = H . $ − −  J .49 ) Considering the same conditions for the wall 2.5 Walls’ shear The shear force of the walls can be derived by considering the moment equilibrium of a small part of the wall which is shown in Figure 2.7 : Variation of top deflection factor for uniform distributed load 2. − . ) + C/. H +  J = 0 2 ( 2.

6. if both walls have the same properties the shear force in the walls for a uniform distributed load is: 9 = 9 = = ) R1 − S 2  ( 2.52 ) In which q is defined by equation ( 2.54 ) . 6())    2 ( 2.28 ) and it is illustrated graphically in Figure 2.51 ) ( 2. 6())    2 =.Coupled shear walls TU Delft N+δN N+δN M2+ δM2 S2+δS2 M1+ δM1 S1+δS1 w n q S1 M1 δz q S2 M2 N N d1 2 2 d2 Figure 2.  )  R1 − S − H $ − −  J .53 ) 2.8. .  )  R1 − S − H $ − −  J .8 : Internal forces on small element of the coupled walls Hence. . the equation of the shear force of the walls can be rewritten as following: 9 = 9 = =. ) − =. ) − 9 − C9 + 9 = 0 20 ( 2. It is worth to mention that.6 Axial force in the connecting beams The axial force in the connecting beams can be derived by considering the horizontal force equilibrium of the small part of the walls which is shown in Figure 2. Horizontal equilibrium in wall 1 (left part in Figure 2.8) z X = 0.

. $. 0= = −  1  .55 ) ( 2.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Horizontal equilibrium in wall 2 (right part in Figure 2. As a result the equation of the normal force in the connecting beams can be derived. H 9 − 9 + =J 2 ) ) ( 2.51 ) and ( 2.8) z X = 0. ) + 9 + C9 − 9 = 0 1   0 = .56 ) 9 and 9 have been defined in equations ( 2.52 ). .

cosh( )Sf ( 2. $  2 ( 2. sinh T ( − ))V −kα .57 ) The normal force in the beams can also be rewritten as follows: 0 = ={  1  −  H . sinhTkα(H − z)V − cosh( ) .` &`j = cosh( )) + . $ − −  J . R .n:ℎ( )  $ . =. .58 ) In which .` &`j |  .` &`j is the axial force factor in the connecting mediums due to uniform distributed load and can be given by the following equations: . aH − −  J . cosh( ))  2 + k  α H.

increasing the amount of  leads into higher axial force in the connecting beams. The smaller the stiffness factor ( ).9 can be seen that.59 ) From Figure 2. Further it can be seen that. As well as the magnitude of axial force. the higher the minimum loaded beam is positioned. 21 .n:ℎ( ) ( 2. it can be seen that. for the walls with lower  this value will change slightly. the beams at the lower level of the walls carry larger compression force. the position of the minimum loaded beam depends also on the stiffness factor. for the walls with higher stiffness factor the normal force in the beams changes significantly along the height of the walls though.58 ). Further. Considering equation ( 2. the maximum variation of the axial load factor in the connecting beams occurs at the lower level of the walls.

The stress distribution at any section due to the applied load is shown in Figure 2. . $V .10. . Consider a pair of coupled shear walls.7 Stress in the walls Up to now the internal forces and the deflection of the coupled shear walls have been considered which P are depending on the stiffness factor.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 2.A? V. . Another important aspect about the X coupled shear walls is the efficiency of the coupling which has a large impact on the design and optimization of the connection. The actual stress at each section is a superposition of the stress due to axial load on the wall and the stress due to acting bending moment in each wall. .9 : Variation of axial force factor in the beams for uniform distributed load 2.~ = . and the height ratio.€ = T-()) − T/` .

A? +   ( 2. 22 .A? V.61 ) In which /` . the same expression holds for the stress in wall 2 at point C and D.  and  are the summation of second moment of area of the walls 1 and 2 and cross sectional area of wall 1 respectively.  /` . $V .A? is the axial force in the walls.A? +   T-()) − T/` . /` . Further. Note that.60 ) ( 2.

the total moment which will be carried by the walls is: '@ ` = -()* ∗  100 ( 2.62 ) Consequently the stress distribution at each section will be: .~ = .H + .Coupled shear walls TU Delft The actual stress distribution can also be derived by an alternative superposition of: 1. If it is assumed that K2 is the percentage of the bending moment which is resisted by the walls as a composite cantilever system. Assuming that the coupled walls act as a single composite cantilever system.10 c. as has been illustrated in Figure 2. In this case the neutral axis is situated at the centroidal axes of the wall element.€ = -()*  . $  .

64 ) 2. If K1 is the percentage of the bending moment which is resisted by the two independent cantilever system the total moment carried by the walls will be: 'ƒ„`"`j?A = -()* ∗ . H J     100 R +  .H −  J . . $ S ( 2.~ =  100 ' . $ S ( 2. J .63 ) -()*  . $  . Assuming that the coupled shear walls act as two completely independent cantilevers. In this case the neutral axis is situated at the centre of each wall. H J     100 R +  .

 -()*.

66 ).   100 ( 2.   100 .65 ) * ' .67 ) Substituting summation of equation ( 2. (100 − = .€ = − ( 2. the value of composite factor k2 can be determined.63 ) equal to equation ( 2.60 ).  -()* (100 − =− . ( 2.  = 200 −.66 ) * ( 2.

n:ℎ( )* − . :0ℎ(  − )*
+1+ 
.Z
)

n:ℎ( *
( * . R1 − S  

( − )*[
2 



( 2.68 )

The variation of  and  as a function of height ratio and  has been illustrated in Figure 2.11. As can
be seen, in the higher level of the walls the composite action factor is larger which can be concluded that,
coupling of the walls is more effective for the tall buildings. Furthermore, it can be seen that the value of
composite action will be increased by enlarging the stiffness factor,  till a certain point. Increasing the
23

Coupled shear walls

TU Delft

stiffness factor additionally, will reduce significantly the composite factor at the higher level of the walls.
Moreover, increasing the stiffness parameter at the lower level does not change the magnitude of
composite factor greatly.

Figure 2.10 : Stress distribution due to composite and individual cantilever action

Note that, c.g is used as a notation for centre of gravity.

24

Coupled shear walls

TU Delft

Figure 2.11 : Variation of wall moment composite and individual action factor K1 and K2

Design example 1:

Consider a typical system of coupled shear walls with one row of opening shown in Figure 2.12. The
dimensions are given in
Table 1. It is assumed that the system consists of 20 stories and it is subjected to a uniform distributed
load with a magnitude of 17kN/m.
To determine the stress, bending moment, axial force and the deflection of the walls and connecting
beams the curves from the previous sections have been used.

25

Coupled shear walls

TU Delft

Figure 2.12: Example structure

i.

Determine the area and the second moment of area of the connecting beams and the shear walls
illustrated in Figure 2.12. It should be noted that in this example a high modulus of elasticity is
used for the walls and beams since the walls system is assumed to be uncracked.
Table 1: properties of the coupled walls

…†‡
†‡

[m]

5

…†…

[m]

2.5

†…

[m]

7

ˆ

[m]

3.5

‰

[m]

2.5

Š

[m]

8.5

‹

[m]

3

ŒŽ‰‰

[m]

60

ŒˆŽ

[m]

0.3

‘

[m]

’
“

26

0.4
2

[kN/m ]

15000000

[kN/m2]

36000000
0.2

Coupled shear walls

TU Delft
Table 2: Cross sectional properties of connected beams and shear walls

”‡
”…
•Œ
–‡
–…
– = –‡ + –…
–ˆ

˜=

”ˆ

3.125
8.575
11.7
1.5
2.1
3.6
0.12

[m4]

0.0016
1.2

‡…’”ˆ
—
ˆ… ‘–ˆ

” =

ii.

—

[m4]
[m4]
[m4]
[m2]
[m2]
[m2]
[m2]

”ˆ
‡+˜

0.073728
[m4]

0.00149

Determine the stiffness parameter ! 

= H1 +

= 1.088 

= Z 

. 
3.6 ∗ 11.7
J = H1 +
J = 1.18  

. . $
1.5 ∗ 2.1 ∗ 8.5

12.  . $ 
12 ∗ 0.00149 ∗ 8
=
[
Z
[ = 0.00235
 . ℎ. 
2.5 ∗ 3 ∗ 11.7 

= 0.0485 

= 1.099 ∗ 0.0456 ∗ 60 = 3.17

iii.

By using the curves in Figure 2.5 and equation ( 2.26 ) the axial force at any level of the walls can
be determined.

iv.

The bending moment throughout the height in each wall can be determined according to the
equation ( 2.34 ) and ( 2.35 ). The variation of the axial force and the bending moment for this
example have been shown in Figure 2.13 to indicate the effect of coupling on the magnitude of
bending moment in the walls. As can be seen, the positive bending moment at the upper level of
the walls turned into negative which is the consequence of the bending moment in the connecting

27

Coupled shear walls

TU Delft

beams. Furthermore it can be noticed from the bending moment curves that, the effect of the
coupling reduces toward the base but it is still efficient.

Figure 2.13: Distribution of the axial force and bending moment in the walls

v.

To determine the max shear force, the curve from the Figure 2.6 has been used. The maximum
P
shear occurs at the level of = 0.412 and the maximum shear factor  at this level is about 0.36.
X
as a result the maximum shear flow will be:
6@? =

=
17 ∗ 60
kN
.  =
∗ 0.36 = 36.5 
$
1.185 ∗ 8.5
m

Consequently the maximum shear force in connecting beams will be:
7@? = 6@? . ℎ = 109.4 /

The maximum possible moment in any connecting beam is:

2.5
'@? = 7@? . = 109.36 ∗
= 136.7 /. 2
2

It should be noted that, with this method the amount of shear force in the connecting beams can
be overestimated. The reason is that here, it is assumed that the maximum shear flow is constant
throughout the height of a story though, the accurate shear force in a connecting beam is equal to
m
m
the integration of the shear flow from above to under the considered beam. The precise  

maximum shear force in this example is equal to 108.17 kN. Note that, because in this example
the beams have intermediate stiffness, the difference is negligible but for the beams with higher
stiffness the difference will be considerable.
28

Coupled shear walls
vi.

TU Delft

To determine the maximum deflection at the top, Figure 2.7 will be used to figure out the
deflection factor and then the top deflection will be given by equation ( 2.46 ). For = 1.088 and 
= 3.17 ,  is equal to 0.35.
B() =

= 
17 ∗ 60
.  =
∗ 0.35 = 0.0228 8
8 ∗ 36 ∗ 10v ∗ 11.7

As can be seen due to coupling, the maximum deflection at the top is reduced by to 0.355 of its
origin value, this means that if the walls were not coupled the maximum deflection would be:
B(* =

vii.

= 
= 0.0653 8

Now the effect of the coupling will be considered by determining the percentage of moment
carrying by individual cantilever action (! * and the percentage carrying by composite cantilever
action(! *. Using the curves in Figure 2.11 gives :
! = 45%

! = 55%

It is known that the maximum moment is applied at the base of the wall.
1
1
- = =.   = ∗ 17 ∗ 60 = 30600 /. 2
2

Part of the moment carried by individual action: ! . - = 0.45 ∗ 30600 = 13770 /. The bending moment in each wall is proportional to second moment of area.
Moment on wall 1: ' =
Moment on wall 1: ' =

viii.

ƒ¡
. -. !

ƒ]
. -. !

=
= 

.y
∗ 13770 

¤.y£y
∗ 13770 

= 3678 /. -

= 10092 /. -

Part of the moment carried by composite action: ! . - = 0.55 ∗ 30600 = 16830 /. -

Having the percentage of the composite cantilever action and the individual cantilever action, the
stress at the extreme fibre of the walls can be calculated by using beam theory.
Effective composite second moment of area of the wall system: 
.  
1.5 ∗ 2.1  
¥ =  +  +
. $ = 3.125 + 8.575 +
∗ 8 = 67.7 - 

3.6

Centre of the gravity for composite wall system is positioned at a distance of 7.45 m from the left
corner of the wall which is shown in Figure 2.12.
;~ =

3677.88 ∗ 2.5 16830 ∗ 7.45
/
+
= 4617.8 
3.125
67.7
-

;€ = −
29

3677.88 ∗ 2.5 16830 ∗ 2.45
/
+
= −2390.1 
3.125
67.7
-

Coupled shear walls
; =

10092.12 ∗ 3.5 16830 ∗ 0.05
/

= 4109.9 
8.575
67.6
-

;¦ = −

ix.

TU Delft

10092.12 ∗ 3.5 16830 ∗ 7.05
/

= −5701.1 
8.575
67.6
-

It is worth to mention that the stress for the extreme fibre of the walls for the uncoupled walls in
which the walls behave individually will be: 

R . -S . § 30600 ∗ 2.5
/
;~ = −;€ = 
=
= 6538.5  

11.7 

R  . -S . § 30600 ∗ 3.5
/
=
= 9153.9 
;¨ = −;¦ =  

11.7
-

Further, the axial force in the beams and the shear force in the walls at the most heavily loaded
section can be determine. Using equation ( 2.51 ) and ( 2.52 ) gives the shear force at the base of
the walls which is proportional to their flexural rigidity.
9 =

9 =

=. . 

) 

17 ∗ 60 ∗ 3.125
= 272.5 /
R1 − S − H $ − −  J . 6()) =   

2
11.7

=. . 
) 

17 ∗ 60 ∗ 8.575
= 747.6 /
R1 − S − H $ − −  J . 6()* = 

11.7  

2

The curve in Figure 2.9 gives the axial force factor at the base ( * equal to 2.17 . By using
equation ( 2.58 ) the axial load can be determined. 

1 

0 = = { −  H . $ − −  J .  | 

. $ 
2
8.575
1
2.5
3.125
= 17 ∗ {

∗ 8.5 −
− 2.5J ∗ (2.17*| = 17.9 kN
H
11.7 1.185 ∗ 8.5 11.7
2

Besides the maximum axial force, the magnitude of the axial force for the maximum loaded beam
in shear is also important:
0 = (17 ∗ ©0.7329 + 0.1469 ∗ 0.0033ª* ∗ 3 = 37.4 /

30

These types of the supports can be modelled as linear or rotational springs. the connecting beams will be replaced by continuous mediums. The walls can be supported by a single grade beam on the elastic foundation or by two individually grade beams. But in this case. In the case of individually supported walls on the elastic foundation.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 3 Walls supported on elastic foundation: In the previous chapter. The mediums will be cut along the line of contraflexure in the mediums. It has to be noted that. at the cut ends consist of : 31 . The relative vertical and rotational displacements are illustrated in Figure 2. the general equation and the approach of the solution will be the same as the walls on rigid foundation. the relative displacement at the base will not be zero anymore and it has to be taken into account. The relative displacements at the cut ends will be considered.e. However in reality the shear walls are mostly supported on piles or a portal frame to provide the required open areas. The total displacement C. $ Figure 3. the relative rotational and vertical displacements of the walls at base are identical to the rotational and vertical displacement of the base beams. relative rotational and or vertical displacements will occur at the base between the two coupled walls which leads into different behaviour and internal force of the walls.3 d. All these cases will be considered in this chapter and the next chapter.1: Coupled shear walls on elastic foundation According to the continuous method. the behaviour of the coupled shear walls supported on the rigid foundation for uniform distributed load has been considered. As a result.

$ is the distance between the centroidal axes of the walls.2 ) C . ( 2.1 ). $ − C" ( 3. C and C has been explained in chapter 1 and given by equation ( 2. '+ " " # % # 32 is the bending moment in wall 2 at bas is the vertical stiffness under wall 1 is the vertical stiffness under wall 2 is the rotational stiffness of the foundation under the wall 1 is the rotational stiffness of the foundation under the wall is the modulus of elasticity of the foundation ( 3.5 ) respectively. it is assumed that the horizontal deflection of both walls is identical at any height.1 ) C = C# .Coupled shear walls TU Delft C = C + C + C + C ( 3. Hence. In which. C# and C" are rotation and vertical displacement at the base respectively.4 ) . C# = '+ # = '+ # = '+ + '+ # + # In the previous equations: '+ is the bending moment in wall 1 at base /+ is the axial load in the walls at the base. C" = /+ " + /+ " = /+ H 1 " + 1 " J= /+ " ( 3. at the base the slope of wall 1 and 2 will be also equal.2 ) and ( 2.3 ) It is known that the slope and the curvature of both walls are identical at each level because.

the same approach as the one for walls on the rigid foundation will be used. T H /()*J + Z [− ) % $ % % 33   − 1V.8 ) ( 3. # " = % = % «0 «0 # " = % ( 3. here the same differential equation will be hold as the one for the rigid foundation.   . Since the first derivative of the equation of compatibility (equation ( 3. $ 12  .10 ) .7 ) 3. $*.9 ) ( 3. $ 12 12 . .6 ) Note that the subscript 1 and 2 are related to foundation beam 1 and 2. $*. H /()*J + H  J− H  J − /(0* Z [ Z [=0 ) % ℎ % ℎ %  .7 ) the boundary condition at the base can be expressed in the terms of axial force. $ C = $ H B()*J + − + ) 12   % + % 1 1 − /(0* Z + [=0 % % ( 3. In the case of elastic foundation the equation of relative displacements at the contraflexure line of the connecting beams will be: P 1 1    1 R) /()*S ℎ R +  S TU+ /()*)V (-+ + -+ *.7 )) does not consist the third and the fourth terms. the area ( ) and the second moment of area ( ) of the grade beam.5 ) = % ( 3. it can be concluded that. The only difference is the boundary condition at the base. $  +  1 R) /()*S ℎ C =0+ −0+ − /(0* Z [=0 12  % + % %  (/(0*. $   ℎ  -(0*. /(0*  T  V − /(0*. T  V ( 3.Coupled shear walls TU Delft The rotational and the vertical stiffness of the foundation can be expressed as a function of foundations modulus of elasticity.1 Walls subjected to uniform distributed load To derive the equation of the normal force and the lateral deflection.   (-(0* − /(0*. $  . The second boundary condition at level H is the same as the case of rigid foundation.   -(0*. By substituting the value of the relative displacement C into equation ( 3.

$ ( 3.13 )  .12 ) Where:  =   12. 1 /A? `. gives the boundary condition for the normal force in the walls as follows: 1. Further.`  ()* = − ZHRT 2 − %.16 ) The obtained ODE can be solved by using the boundary conditions.15 )  =  +  ( 3. the shear flow in the connecting mediums can be derived by differentiating from the equation of normal force in the walls.    $  ( 3.11 ) /(* = 0 ( 3. . /()* − -()*. > ) = 0   /()* = ) % 2. > ) =    .  %. (2 + + RT− − (2 +   T  (  −  − )*  * + 2:0ℎ( )* 34 −    − 2%V  − 2 − )*  * S .  $   ℎ =1+ ( 3.14 )  =  +  ( 3.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Simplifying the above equation.

n:ℎ( * T  (    − 2%V  + 2     S . . :0ℎ(   V. :0ℎ(   V.

n:ℎ( )* * + 2.

:0ℎ( )* * + %. .n:ℎ( )* %      J =[ / R $ R  .

17 ) .n:ℎ( *S   S ( 3.

.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 1 6A? `.`  = Z= HRT 2 +2  ( + RT−  T      − ))  %S .

  +2 −     (  −    − 2%V  − 2 − 2%V  + 2   V. .n:ℎ( ) T    + 2:0ℎ( )).

n:ℎ(   V. :0ℎ( ) + 2. :0ℎ( − ))   S .

.18 ) ) +  %.n:ℎ( ))   %J[ / R  $ R   :0ℎ( ))  ))    ( 3.

Hence the equation of bending moment in the walls will be as following: 'A? `..` .n:ℎ( )S   S According to equation ( 2.13 ) the total bending moment in the walls is a superposition of the external bending moment due to the applied load and the reverse bending moment due to the shear force in the connecting beams. . ()) = Z= HRT  (2 + RT− R   (2 +   (   T    − ))   )%S .

n:ℎ( ) + T  ( R     −    −  − 2%V  + 2   − 2%V  − 2   V. .

:0ℎ(     V.n:ℎ( )) − − ))   ) S . :0ℎ( ) + 2. :0ℎ( )) − + 2. :0ℎ( ))   .

n:ℎ( )) %J[ / ( 3. .19 ) ) +  %.

20 ) Boundary conditions At B = 0 B()* = 0 ( 3. $* B()* =  )  ( 3. 35 > B = 0 .  1 (-()* − /()*.21 )  -+ + -+ -(0* − /(0*$ B()* = = ) % # + # ( 3.n:ℎ( )S   S + 1/2=( − )* The equation of deflection can be derived by integrating two times from equation ( 3.22 ) 1.20 ) and using the following boundary conditions. 2.

. it is known that. The equation of lateral deflection in the case of walls supported on individual elastic support is given in the following. Further. Therefore. in case of elastic foundation the slope at the base is inversely proportional to the rotational stiffness of the sub-grade. the horizontal deflection at z=0 will be zero.Coupled shear walls TU Delft It is assumed that. 1 BA? `. only vertical and rotational displacements occur at the base.`  ()) = ¯W− % R−2 2 + RT   −  + RT   −  1 2 − ) aZ− −  + Z( − 1* + 2 R       V −2     V −2  Z( − 1)      (−2 + (  1 + Z % Z−4 2 +  %     %    −     ( + )  *S )   R2% +    T    S  [   *  *f %.

[ . :0ℎ( * + 2% R %. :0ℎ(        [  [   + 1 VS .n:ℎ( *  −4   − 1V. R   . T  / H   36 v   + %V − )   % . .

=°   * + %. :0ℎ( )* − RT) ( − ))V 2 1 ) H  − ) + )  J . . :0ℎT S SY .n:ℎ( )* +   . ( + 1)  + 4 − 2)[ % 3 6 2 1 ) H  − ) + )  J . ( + 1* 3 6   −     S  S .

23 ) .n:ℎ( *SJ ( 3.

Further the results will be compared with the results obtained from the previous example. To demonstrate the effect of the elastic foundation the variation of shear flow and bending moment for both walls on the rigid foundation and walls on the elastic foundation. The dimensions of the walls system are assumed to be the same as the previous example. 37 Since the dimensions of the walls system did not change the value of the stiffness factor  will be the same as before. Figure 3. have been plotted by using Maple program (see Figure 3. the variation of shear flow along the height of walls system. The only difference is the modulus of elasticity of the sub-grade and the foundation beams cross sections which are given in Table 3 and Table 4. The walls system and the dimensions are shown in Figure 3. II.2 : Example structure I. to just demonstrate the effect of the elasticity of the foundation. the previous problem of section 0 will be solved for the case walls supported on elastic foundation. 3.It is assumed that the length and the thickness of the foundation beams are identical to the dimensions of the walls above.17. can be determined.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Design example 2: To clarify the effect of elastic support on the coupled shear walls.2. Substituting the above parameters in the equation of shear flow.3) .

it can be observed that the bending moment value at the lower part of the walls has been reduced though.3 7 1. The most important thing is the effect of the elastic foundation which diminishes from the base to the top of the walls.575 3.5 2.m] [kN/m] [kN/m] 102000 318750 874650 153000 214200 [1/m^2] 0.3.002356 1.7 —±²³´†ŽŒ•²´ µ¶‡ = —”±‡ µ¶… = —”±… µ·‡ = —–±‡ µ·… = —–±… ‡…” ‰… ¸…± = ”± ˆ¹ Š µ…± = ‡ + –± ”± –±‡ –±… ‰… [kN/m3] [kN.1 3. the part of walls with negative moment has also been enlarged which occurs due to larger axial force in case of the elastic foundation.3 5 0.m] [kN.3 : Variation of the axial force and bending moment for walls supported on rigid and elastic foundation 38 . Figure 3. Besides. From the bending curves.185072 As can be seen in Figure 3. this value in the upper levels has been raised. the axial force in the walls has been increased in the case of the elastic foundation compared to the walls on the rigid foundation.125 8.6 11.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Table 3 : Properties of foundation beams ˆ±‡ ‰±… ˆ±… ‰±… –±‡ –±… ”±‡ ”±… –± = –±‡ + –±… ”± = ”±‡ + ”±… [m] [m] [m] [m] [m2] [m2] [m4] [m4] [m2] [m4] Table 4 : Properties of elastic foundation 0.

3 / The maximum possible moment in any connecting beam is: 2.4 for both walls on the rigid foundation and the elastic foundation. the shear flow has been considerably increased for the walls supported on the elastic foundation compared to the rigid foundation.03721 which gives the maximum shear equal to 6@? = 68. This means that for the elastic foundation a larger amount of reinforcement will be required. = 205.4: Shear flow along the height for rigid and elastic foundation IV. Furthermore. The X @ variation of shear flow in the connecting beams throughout the height is illustrated in Figure 3. as well as for the walls supported on the elastic foundation the maximum lateral deflection occurs at the top of the walls. Consequently the maximum shear force in connecting beams will be: 7@? = 6@? .Coupled shear walls III. it can be seen that the maximum shear force and the maximum moment in the connecting beams are both almost doubled. Figure 3. Note that the shear flow in the beams is inversely proportional to the rigidity of the sub-grade which means the higher the modulus of the elasticity of the sub-soil the smaller the shear flow in the connecting beams will be.61 /.29 ∗ = 256.432 .43 ∗ 3 = 205. Noticing that the position of the maximum loaded beam has been lowered and the shear force at base in not zero anymore in the case of the elastic foundation. 39 For the rigid foundation. ℎ = 68. 2 2 Comparing the result with the previous example.5 '@? = 7@? . As it was expected the lateral . TU Delft The maximum shear force in the connecting beams for the values given in this example occurs at P t the level of = 0.

Table 5 : Stress at the extreme fibres at base for both rigid foundation and individually elastic foundation Stress at the outer fibres [kN/m2] Foundations Rigid foundation Elastic support º– 4617.2 Figure 3. The maximum deflection at the top is equal to 0.1 º½ K5701. 40 Stress of extreme fibre of the walls at the base is the result of the stress due to bending and the stress due to axial force on each wall.1 K3019.271 m.8 3125.5.Coupled shear walls TU Delft deflection for the walls on the elastic foundation is significantly larger than the deflection of walls on the rigid foundation because the rotational displacement at the base is not restrained.5 : lateral deflection for walls supported on elastic and rigid foundation V.8 º» K2390.1 832. A comparison of the deflection along the height of the walls supported on the rigid and the elastic foundation has been done which is shown in Figure 3.9 192.2 º¼ 4109. .

 . $).Coupled shear walls .~ = (-(0) − /(0).

7 1. $*. + = +    11.8  - .5) ∗ 2.54 .5 / = 3125.  . /(0) (30600 − 2968.54 ∗ 8.€ = − (-(0* − /(0*.5 2968.

¦ = − (-(0* − /(0*.2     - . + = 832.  . /(0* / . $*.

¨ = TU Delft (-(0* − /(0*.  . + = −3019. /(0* / . $*.2     - .

To assure that these equations are correct the equations related to rigid foundation have to be obtained when the modulus of elasticity of the sub grade tens to infinite.5 2968. the behaviour of the coupled shear walls becomes similar to the behaviour of coupled shear walls on the rigid foundation as expected.1 - Comparing the results with previous example (illustrated in Table 5) it can be seen that the absolute value of the stress at extreme fibres of the walls has been significantly decreased. bending moment and lateral deflection of the walls versus height have been drawn in Figure 3.10002000 «0 100002000 //- The results of axial force. Therefore the previous example will be reanalyzed for four different foundation stiffness: % = 102000.7 2. /(0* (30600 − 2968. From the figures it can be noticed that.5* ∗ 3. Since the walls are supported on the elastic foundation a part of bending moment and axial force will cause displacement at the base which leads into reduction of the stresses at the base. 41 .1     11. 1002000. − = − = 192. shear force.54 / .54 ∗ 8.6 to Figure 3.2 Prove validity of the derived equations It is very important to show that the derived equations in this chapter are correct since the equation depend on many parameters.9 for these four elastic foundation and rigid foundation. 3. by increasing the modulus of elasticity of the foundation.

6: Shear flow throughout the height for different foundation stiffness Figure 3.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 3.7: Axial force throughout the height for different foundation stiffness 42 .

8: Deflection at top of the walls for different foundation stiffness Figure 3.9: Bending comment in wall 1 throughout the height for different foundation stiffness 43 .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 3.

-()) = 3( − )) ( 3. in this section the same approach has been used as the one used for the walls subjected to a uniform distributed load. bending moment and the lateral deflection of the walls subjected to a point load at the top are given below. Note that.T + +   V − %( − )*S . shear flow. .Coupled shear walls TU Delft The equation of the internal forces and the lateral deflection for the walls subjected to a concentrated point load at the top and subjected to triangularly distributed load are given in the follows: 3.24 ) Axial force in the walls /A? `.`„ ()) = − ZHRTT − V .3 Walls subjected to point load The equation of the normal force. The only difference is the external bending moment applied on the walls.

n:ℎ( * − RTT − +  /H    (  V. . T   V − %V . :0ℎ( )* − %V .

:0ℎ( *J 2[ $ R %.n:ℎ( )* − )*S . .

n:ℎ( * +    .25 ) *SJ Shear flow in the connecting mediums 6A? `.`„ ()* = ZHRTT − − RTT − /R 44  V  V. T .T + +   V   V − %V. . :0ℎ( ( 3.

.n:ℎ( )*  + %S .

. :0ℎ( )*  −  $T % .n:ℎ( * − %V .

26 ) .n:ℎ( * +    . sinh(  *VS  S . :0ℎ( *J 2[ ( 3.

. ()* = 2( − )* + ZHRTT − − RTT − +  /H    ( V  V.`„.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Internal bending moment in the walls 'A? `. :0ℎ( )* − %( − )*S .T + +   V   V − %V . T . .

.n:ℎ( * − %V .

:0ℎ( *J 2[ R %.n:ℎ( )* − )*S . .

27 ) *SJ Lateral deflection BA? `. % +    R% +   T  − 1V. :0ℎ( ( 3.`„ ()* = WZ− %T 1 + H H−2% 2    −    − %V . sinhT ( − )*V 1 1 +  H  H− ) + J  )   + H−  H− ) + J  )  + 2J 3 3 J J  − 2   . . T  + 1 VS ) 1 1 − % aZH−1 −   H− ) + J ) 3 2 +  T − −  +  V[  1 1 +   H− ) + J ) 2 3   ( − 1*( + 1*f .n:ℎ( * +    .

:0ℎ( *   + .n:ℎ( *) [ 3Y   / R   45  VT   % T.

:0ℎ( * ( 3.28 ) .n:ℎ( * %VS   J J.% .

&`?„¥jA?& ()) 1 = − ¯3 WaH  H 3 1 − ZH + )J ( − )* 2 + aH−  H −   ZH   −    3 − %J 2  + 3)[  %f . .29 ) Axial force in the walls /A? `.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 3. The equation related to normal forces and lateral deflections are given below. (2 + )) 6 ( 3. -()) = 3 ( − )) . the walls subjected to a triangularly distributed load has been studied.4 Walls subjected to triangularly distributed load As well as the walls subjected to point load.

.n:ℎ( *   −  1 + )J ( − )* 2   3 − %J 2  − 3%J .

.n:ℎ( )*    + 3)[  f . :0ℎ( *   + 3T %.

. :0ℎ( )*   $ R% .n:ℎ( )* + :0ℎ( )* / H  46   + 3%J .

n:ℎ( * +      VY° . :0ℎ( *SJ ( 3.30 ) .

Coupled shear walls TU Delft Shear flow in the connecting mediums 6A? `. .&`?„¥jA?& ()* 1 = W3 aZH  H 3 1 − H ( − )* 2  −    3 − %J 2  + 3%J .

.n:ℎ( )*    1  − 2 H + )J ( − )*    + 3 J  %[ .

n:ℎ( * 2 3 + ZH− H  −   − %J    − 3%J . :0ℎ( )*  2 1 1 −  H ( − )*    − 2 H + )J ( − )*    + 3J   [ . :0ℎ( )* + . :0ℎ( * 2 2 + 3T  / H      %.

.n:ℎ( )*  $ R% .

 ()* 1 3( − )* . :0ℎ( ( 3. (2 + )* = 6  1 + ¯3 WaH  H 3 1 − ZH + )J ( − )* 2 + aH− H −   ZH   −    3 − %J 2  + 3)[  %f .31 )   VfY *SJ Internal bending moment in the walls 'A? `.. .&`?„¥jA?&.n:ℎ( * +    .

n:ℎ( *   −  1 + )J ( − )* 2   3 − %J 2  − 3%J . .

:0ℎ( *   + 3T %.n:ℎ( )*    + 3)[  f . .

n:ℎ( )* + :0ℎ( )* / H  47   + 3%J . :0ℎ( )*    R% . .

:0ℎ( *SJ ( 3.32 ) .n:ℎ( * +      VY° .

.&`?„¥jA?& ()) 1 3 = ¯3 W−% ZH− 3 2 +    T −   1 + Z % a(−3   2 +     Z( +  − 2   − 1)   − ) +     3 ) ZH 2       + 3J %  VT + 6)%    )    [  f   T  − 1VT   J  + 1 V[    [ .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Lateral deflection BA? `. :0ℎ( *  1 1 ) H  −  ) + )  J ( + 1*  2 20 % +    T − − 3 H %.

.n:ℎ( )* +   . :0ℎ( )* / R −      + %V − )   v   VT     ( − 1*( + 1*f .

:0ℎ( *   +  V[    + . :0ℎT + SJ ° % T.n:ℎ( *   −  RT)     − 3J % 3 1 − H  − )  J 2 3 48 ( − ))V 1 1 H  −   ) + )  J ( + 1 *  + 2  2 20 1 − % Z ) aZH3 − ( − 1* 2 −    V[  .

33 ) .n:ℎ( * %VS ( 3.

Now the relative vertical deflection of the cut ends of the laminas can be written as equation ( 4.Coull [4].3).1 ) . δ# K C" G 0 ) 12    P + 49 ( 4. the effect of the coupling will be reduced in the case of coupled shear walls on the elastic foundation.  . − 6()* K . It should be noted that in most cases the coupled shear walls are stiffened by a beam (called grade or stiffened beam) at the base. a cut will be made along the point of contraflexure (Figure 2. In this part the static behaviour of the coupled shear walls stiffened by a bottom beam supported on the elastic foundation will be studied. This study is based on the work of A.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 4 Walls on elastic foundation with base stiffened beam In the previous sections the behaviour of the coupled shear walls supported on the rigid and the elastic foundations have been considered. As has been shown. This relative displacement consists of deflection of walls due to axial force and bending moment. deflection of beams due to shear and bending (more detail can be found in chapter 1) and relative vertical and rotational displacement at base due to foundation displacement (C" and C# shown in Figure 4. however sometimes the coupled shear walls are stiffened with more than one beam along the height of the walls.1 ) which should be equal to zero.1: Coupled shear walls stiffened by base beam As have been shown in the previous part. $   =     . Figure 4. H I J O /()*) I $.3) B ℎ 1 1 1 C = $. As well as the previous parts the continuous method will be used.

$ )  ( 4.1 )does not contains the effect of the rotational and vertical deflection at the base. − 7 − .2 : Axial force in the walls Since the first derivative of the compatibility equation ( 4.3 ) n w q ' N(z) d1 2 q 2 ' N(z) d2 Figure 4. ( 4.2 ) Considering the top part of the wall which is shown in the Figure 4.4 )  have been illustrated in the The compatibility equation for the stiff beam at the base is: + B  1 1 1 $.20 )and ( 2.Coupled shear walls TU Delft The same as before the moment curvature relation for the wall is:  .  .    + 50 ( 4.5 ) . /()) = −    . -()) $ Where -()) is the applied external moment on the walls and   and equations ( 2.2 the axial force in each wall can be given by: X /()) = O 6) P ( 4.  /()) − )   . it can be concluded that second order differential equation which have been used for the rigid foundation will also govern here. H + J O /())) + $. δ# − C" = 0 ) 12 .  B = -()) − /()).21 ). Note that the boundary conditions will be different.

that the rotational displacements (C# * for both walls are assumed to e identical. 6(0) 4= ( 4.  and  . N0 C" d1 δ# M10 7+ N0 b d2 7+ M20 δ# Figure 4. $ − 7+ .ℎ  ( 4.10 ) ( 4. .8 ) -(0* − /(0*. . the shear force in the stiff beam can be derived. 7+ = 4. given by: ( 4. are the modulus of elasticity and second moment inertia of the lamellas and stiff beam at the base respectively.  .7 ) In which . .  .5 )).Coupled shear walls TU Delft Using the compatibility equation ( 4.11 ) . $ # ( 4. Note. independent of their dimensions.6 )  .1 ) at z=0 and assuming it equal to compatibility equation for stiff beam (equation ( 4.3 : Vertical and rotational deflection at base C" = δ# = (/(0* + 7+* " '+ + '+ Where 1 " # 51 = = 1 " " # # and + + 1 " # # = ( 4.9 ) are the equivalent vertical and rotational stiffness of the soil respectively.

$ /(0* + 7+ − 6(0* − . $ + -(0* = -(0* − 7+ . the boundary condition at the top of the walls remains equal to the top boundary condition in the previous case since.6 )-( 4.15 ) .4 : Moment of the walls at the base with stiffened beam Substituting the equation ( 4. ". H +  J + -(0* − 7+ . X '+ = − O 6()*). H + J O /()*) + $. $ − /(0*.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Note that.14 ) N(0) Q0 d1 2 Q0 2 '+ d2 Figure 4.By considering the moment equilibrium in Figure 4.5 ) and ( 3.1 ) gives the boundary condition at the base. H +  J − 7+ . # and # are the vertical and rotational stiffness of soil under wall 1 and 2 which are given by equation ( 3.13 ) X '+ + '+ = − O 6()*).12 ) X '+ = − O 6()*). H +  J 2 2 + ( 4. Furthermore. H +  J 2 2 + ( 4.4 the summation of moment in the walls at base under the beam can be derived.9 ) into compatibility equation ( 4. $ − 7+ . ". Z [−Z [=0 12    # " + 52 ( 4. $ − 7+ . $ + q w q N(0) '+ ( 4. there is no stiffened beam at the top.6 ). +  ℎ 1 1 1 -(0* − /(0*.

 = %& + %" %& = 12 $  12 . %" =   # ℎ " ℎ ( 4. %& . .  in the above equations refers to the modulus of elasticity of the connecting mediums. Walls subjected to uniform distributed load Solving the differential equation ( 4. / `„. $ ( 4.`  ()* 1 = − a= ZHRT%& 2 − (2 +  ( + RT−T%& − . .17 ) In which: . Since in this chapter the modulus of elasticity of the shear walls and connecting mediums are assumed to be equal no difference has been made between the notation for the young’s modulus of beams and shear walls.4 ) and using the above boundary conditions the axial force in the walls can be obtained. B=0 6(0*.16 ) ( 4. T1 + 4. S . -(0* − /(0*. :0ℎ( )*   − )*   * T4.18 ) Note that.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Boundary conditions 1. V = B= /(* = 0 2. (2 +   − 2 + (− − 24* . V   − 2. . + 1VJ .

n:ℎ( * − 2 + (− − 24*. V. V  (  *  + 2. .

n:ℎ( )*   − )*  S . + 1V. . :0ℎ( * + 2 T4.

 [f / R  R T4. :0ℎ( )*. + 1V. .n:ℎ( )* + 2.

53 . the equation of the shear force in the lamellas can be derived. Further. :0ℎ( *S . $ ( 4. .n:ℎ( * + .19 )  S By differentiating from the axial force equation. for the lateral deflection the same differential equation as the one for the rigid foundation will be govern.

Coupled shear walls 6 `„. V.`  ()) = TU Delft 1 ZHRT 2 +2  T%&  − 2 + (− − 24*. V  − 2. .

n:ℎ( )*  T. . 4 + 1V( − )*S .

 ( − )*S . :0ℎ( )* + 2 . :0ℎ( )* + 2. 4 + 1V. . :0ℎ( * + 2 T.n:ℎ( *   + RT−  T%&  − 2 + (− − 24*. V  + 2. V.

. 4 + 1V.n:ℎ( )*.20 ) $ R T. J =[ / H  ( 4.

  2 3 6   + R%&  T4%& − 4. V  − 2. :0ℎT ( − )*V   1 2 1 + ) H− )( + 1* H  − ) + )  J  ( − 1*. the following boundary conditions have been used. At B = 0 B()* = 0 1. V.`  ()* 1 = − a= ZTT%&  2  − 2 + (− − 24*.19 )) the equation of lateral deflection as a function of height can be obtained.22 ) ) B()* =    )  %& The equation of lateral deflection for each type of loading can be derived by applying these boundary conditions and differentiating two times from the equation of moment curvature of the coupled walls.  -(0* − /(0*$ + 4. . :0ℎ( *SJ By considering equation ( 4. J . $. To derive the equation of deflection.2 ) and differentiating two time and substituting the relative equation of normal force (equation ( 4. VS  + 2%&    − 2. + 1V. + 1V) − T2 + ( + 24*. /(0*  ( 4. . ( 4. − 1V + 2  %&   + T4.21 ) B `„. T4.n:ℎ( * + .

 )  ( + 1* H  − ) + )  J  ( − 1*  2 3 6    + R%&  )T%& − . V − %& ( + 2)*  + )  . + T2 + ( + 24*. + 1V.n:ℎ( * 1 2 1 + H− . J . :0ℎ( * − 2 T4. . VS   + 2.

 − ). − 2 T  )%& − 4.n:ℎ( )* − 2:0ℎ( )*. − 1V[f / R  R T4. + 1V. .

23 ) .n:ℎ( * + . :0ℎ( *S 54 v  S ( 4.

S .2 ). . T%&   − 2 + (− − 24). V  − 2.  . :0ℎ( )) + (−2 +   1). V. 4 + 1V.Coupled shear walls TU Delft The internal moment in the walls at each level can be calculated by substituting equation ( 4.25 ) As a result the summation of the internal moments in the coupled walls as a function of height will be equal to: (' + ' ) `„.  B = ' + ' )  ( 4.`  ()) =  Z= HRT.24 ) Which gives the total moment in the walls equal to: ' + ' = -()) − /()).24 ) into equation ( 4. ( − ))   )T. $ ( 4.

 V. .n:ℎ( ) + RT−T%& 2.

.  +   − 1). .n:ℎ( )) + . (−2 + (  ( − 1). V. ( − )) . ( + − 2 + (− − 24). :0ℎ( ) + 2 T. ( + 1). 4 + 1).   )S .

.26 ) R T.n:ℎ( )) + 2:0ℎ( )). J[ / H   ( 4. 4 + 1V.

the modulus of elasticity of the foundation is assumed to be infinite. 55 . This is done by using the Maple programme and it is given in appendix 3.n:ℎ( ) + . The results should be equal to the equations related to rigid foundation. :0ℎ( )SJ Note that. to prove the validity of the equations related to elastic foundation.

I.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Design example 3 Consider the walls system which is given in the previous example.5 : Example structure The properties of the base beam are given Table 6.19 ) and ( 4.5).20 ) the deviation of the shear force and the axial force along the height will be given. In the second part of this example the dimensions of the grade beam will be changed to determine the effect of beam’s properties on the behaviour of the walls. Figure 4. Further the dimensions of the walls and the connecting beams remain the same as before. A comparison has been made between the walls supported on individual elastic foundation and the walls supported on elastic foundation by a stiffened beam at base. At the first step it is assumed that the beam has the same dimensions of the connecting beams to consider only the effect of the stiffening of the coupled walls. The result is given in Figure 4.6 . 56 By inserting the above parameter in equations ( 4. But is this example the coupled walls are stiffened at the base with a continuous beam (See Figure 4.

As is known. X Maximum shear force per unit of length: 6@? = 61. As is mentioned before.m] [kN/m] [1/m] 1193400 89250 0. the bending moment in walls in this case is larger than the bending moment when the walls are supported on individual elastic foundation.118 which is significantly higher than the previous example. the axial force in the walls has been reduced which leads into increasing the bending moment in the walls since the summation of the bending moment and the axial force times the level arm is equal to the external moment applied on the system.ˆ ”¿. t  The curves in Figure 4.0016 3.ˆ ”¿. II.221184 [1/m] 0. According to the curve the P maximum shear force occurs at = 0.153872 [kN.ˆ ’¿. the axial force at each level of the wall is equal to the integration of the shear flow from the top to that specific level which leads to increasing the difference at the lower part of the walls. 57 .3 36000000 0.24 ∗ = 228.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Table 6 : Properties of the stiffened beam at base Š¿.4 0.831419 [1/m] 0. It is worth to mention that since the shear force in the beams is smaller.018 @ Maximum shear force in connecting beam: 7@? = 61. The reason could be the smaller vertical displacement at the base which is partly restrained by the stiffened beam. As well as the axial force. Therefore.08 ∗ 3 = 183.ˆ ’¿.y Maximum possible moment in beams:183.81 /. applying beams at the base of shear walls could reduce the cost of the structure.24 / .7.7 show that the shear force in case of walls supported on a stiffened beam is smaller compared to the walls supported on individual foundations. the amount of required reinforcement in the beams will be smaller as well.985291 According to the curves. The reason is that the rotational displacement at the base is partly restrained by the stiffened beam at base. the variation of the shear force in the connecting beams has been drawn throughout the height of system which is shown in Figure 4.ˆ À= Š ’” —˜ = ‡…’”‰… µ¶ ˆ¹ Š —· = ‡…’” µ · ˆ¹ Š µ¶ µ· Á± = —˜ + —· [m] [m] [kN/m2] [m4] [m] 0.ˆ Œ¿.

1 mm in case of two individual elastic foundations to 26 mm in case of coupled walls stiffened with a base beam. Lateral deflection is one of the most important aspects about the studying the behaviour of the shear walls.6 : Axial force and bending moment for walls on individual elastic foundation and walls with stiffened beam III. Stress at extreme fibre of the walls at the base is the result of the stress due to bending and the stress due to axial force on each wall.  .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 4.~ = . However the deflection is reduced from 27. Therefore. $*. As can be observed from Figure 4.€ = − (-(0* − /(0*.8 the reduction of the lateral deflection due to applying a stiffened beam at base is not significant. IV. . There are some limitations concerning the maximum lateral deflection which have to be satisfied in the design of tall structure. it is very important to reduce the deflection of the walls. The reason is that in this example the base beam is not stiff enough to resist the deflection at base.

¦ = − (-(0* − /(0*. $*. /(0* / .  .5     - . + = 387.

$).4     - . /(0* / .¨ = 58 (-(0) − /(0). + = −3389.  .

$*.5) ∗ 2.7 1.44 ∗ 8.44 . + = +    11.  .5 / = 3331.5 2789.8  - (-(0* − /(0*. /(0) (30600 − 2789.

7 2.1 - .5 2789.44 ∗ 8. − = − = 732.8     11.44 / .5* ∗ 3. /(0* (30600 − 2789.

It can be concluded that the behaviour of the shear walls supported on a stiffened beam is more similar to the behaviour of the walls on the rigid foundation.8 : Lateral deflection for the walls supported on individual foundation and walls with stiffened beam Comparing the results with the previous example it can be seen that the absolute value of the stress at extreme fibres of the walls has been increased.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 4.7 : Shear force in the connecting beams along the height of the walls Figure 4. 59 .

the previous walls system given in Figure 4.ˆ Œ¿.492646 Table 12 : Vertical and rotational stiffness of base beam 3 Base beam 3 ”¿.ˆ ’¿.ˆ 60 —· = ‡…’” µ· ˆ¹ Š µ¶ µ· Á± = —˜ + —· [1/m] 0.0256 [m] 51.m] [kN/m] [1/m] 3182400 238000 0.53894 Table 11: Properties of base beam 3 Š¿. Š ’” [m] 0.ˆ .ˆ Table 8: Vertical and rotational stiffness of base beam 1 Base beam 1 ”¿.ˆ Œ¿. the rotational stiffness of the base # and the vertical stiffness " both depend on the dimension of the base beam.ˆ .8 [m] 0.41571 [1/m] 0.311782 [1/m] 0.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Design example 4 In this example numerical investigation will be presented in order to consider the influence of the properties of base beam on behaviour of the coupled shear walls.ˆ À = ’¿. This means that by changing the properties of the stiffened base beam the vertical and rotational stiffness will also change.153872 [kN.985291 —˜ = ‡…’” ‰… µ¶ ˆ¹ Š —· = ‡…’” µ· ˆ¹ Š µ¶ µ· Á± = —˜ + —· [1/m] 0.076936 [kN.ˆ ’¿.1152 [m] 231.2 [m] 0.7 ) changing the parameters of base beam will change the magnitude of 4 (stiffness factor of base beam to connecting beams).ˆ À = ’¿.m] [kN/m] [1/m] 1193400 89250 0. It is known that.ˆ ”¿.6 [kN/m2] 36000000 [m4] 0.m] [kN/m] [1/m] 2386800 178500 0.369484 . According to equation ( 4.5 will be considered for three different value of 4. Š ’” —˜ = [m] 1. Note that.9252 —˜ = ‡…’” ‰… µ¶ ˆ¹ Š —· = ‡…’” µ· ˆ¹ Š µ¶ µ· Á± = —˜ + —· [1/m] 0.4 [m] 0.ˆ .8 2 [kN/m ] 36000000 [m4] 0. the modulus of elasticity of the t soil is taken equal to % = 10200 ©@ ª in all cases.ˆ ”¿.ˆ ”¿. Therefore.831419 [1/m] 0.ˆ À = ’¿.057702 [kN. The base beam’s properties are given in Table 7 to Table 12.0016 [m] 3.ˆ Œ¿.ˆ ’¿.3 2 [kN/m ] 36000000 [m4] 0.ˆ [m] 0. Table 7: Properties of base beam 1 Š¿. Š ’” ‡…’” ‰… µ¶ ˆ¹ Š Table 10 : Vertical and rotational stiffness of base beam 2 Base beam 2 ”¿.221184 Table 9 : Properties of base beam 2 Š¿.

5 = 2.27 ∗ 10\ 238000 -(0* − (/ (0* + 7 *. Comparing the results it can be noticed that.53 ∗ 18. As was expected the lateral deflection at the top has been decreased by increasing the stiffness of the base beam.5 = 1. = / (0* + 7 " = 2789. axial force in the walls and bending moment in the walls throughout the height of the system have been demonstrated in Figure 4.68 ∗ 10\ 178500 1782. = C#. the rotational and vertical stiffness of the base are directly proportional to the base beam stiffness.8 = 1.8 + 1240.04 / 7 = 51.04 = 3. Further.5* ∗ 8.92 ∗ 5. According to equation ( 4. by increasing the stiffness of the base beam.12.72 = 964.8 ) and ( 4. increasing the stiffness of base beam will considerably improve the behaviour of the coupled walls.9 to Figure 4. the axial force in the walls and shear force in the connecting beams are greatly decreased. 61 .8* ∗ 8. = C". will may improve the behaviour of the coupled walls system. = C#. But the total bending moment in the walls has been increased. Furthermore.4 ∗ 10\ N« 1193400 30600 − (2035 + 964.8 + 1240.22 ∗ 58.5 ∗ 10\ N« 3182400 As can be seen by increasing the stiffness of the base beam the shear force in the base beam will increase.04* ∗ 8. the rotational and the vertical displacement at the base can be determined.Coupled shear walls TU Delft The variation of the shear force in the connecting beams. It is worth to mention that increasing the stiffness of the stiffened beam when it is located at the higher level of the walls.1 + 189.9 ) and the shear force in the base beam.6 ).5 = 1.8 / 7 = 231. the vertical and the rotational displacements at base will decrease by increasing the stiffness of the base beam since. However. $ # = 30600 − (2789.7 = 189. 6 (0) = 3. the level of the maximum loaded beam has been raised for the base beam with higher stiffness. The results show that increasing the stiffness of the base beam does not improve the behaviour of the coupled shear walls regarding the internal forces in the walls and lintels.5 / C".34 = 1240.33 ∗ 10\ 89250 2035 + 964.1 + 189.5 = 4. though it was expected. 7 = 4 . with regard to lateral deflection of the walls. = C".1 ∗ 10\ N« 2386800 30600 − (1782. = C#. lateral deflection. ( 4.

Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 4.9 : Variation of axial force for the walls supported on different base beams Figure 4.10 : Variation of bending moment for the walls supported on different base beams 62 .

12: Lateral deflection for the walls supported on different base beams 63 .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 4.11 : Variation of shear flow for the walls supported on different base beams Figure 4.

34 ). The results are given in the equation ( 4. . Axial force in the shear walls / `„ .Coupled shear walls TU Delft 4. :0ℎ( )* − T4. the same approach has been taken as the one has been taken for the uniform distributed load.27 ) To ( 4.1 Walls subjected to a point load at top For the walls carrying a point load and the walls carrying a triangularly distributed load.`„ ()* = aZHR(− − 4*. +   %& − 1S . + 1V( − )*J .

 +  / H$   %& − 1S . .n:ℎ( * − :0ℎ( * HR(− − 4*.

27 ) R T4. ( − )*J[ 2f ( 4.n:ℎ( )* + . + 1V. .

:0ℎ( *SJ 6 `„. +  − R R(− − 4*.n:ℎ( * + . . +  / H$    %& − 1S . .`„ ()* Shear force in the connecting beams = a2 ZHR(− − 4*.

. + 1J  .n:ℎ( )* + 4.

:0ℎ( )* − . + 1V.n:ℎ( * %& − 1S . . S . :0ℎ( *[f R T4.

 .`„ ()* = ZHRT  %&  − 1 + (− − 4*.n:ℎ( * + . :0ℎ( )* + ( − 1*( + 1*T4. V.28 ) Internal bending moment of the shear walls (' + ' * `„ . :0ℎ( *SJ ( 4. + 1V( − )*S . .

.n:ℎ( * + :0ℎ( * RT−  %&  + 1 + ( + 4*. V.

 ( − 1*( + 1*( − )*SJ 2[ /H 64  R T4. + 1V.n:ℎ( )* + . .

n:ℎ( * + . :0ℎ( *SJ ( 4.29 ) . .

.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Lateral deflection of the walls system B `„ . :0ℎT ( − )*V 1 1 + aZ− ) H − )J T4. f ). − 1V[ 3 2 1 1 + H ) H − )J T4.`„ ()* = − ¯WT  %&  − 1 + (− − 4*. + 1V  + 2%& J 2 3  − 1 + (− − 4*. + 1V  + %& T4%& − 4. V.

n:ℎ( * 1 1 + :0ℎ( * Z) Z− . )  H − )J   − %& ( + )*[ 2 3   + 1 + ( + 4*. ) H − )J   + %& T%& − . + 1V. [Y 2° / HR T4. . V[ 2 3 1 1 + Z .

:0ℎ( *S 65      J ( 4.30 ) . .n:ℎ( * + .

&`?„¥jA?& ()* 1 = − W3 aZH 3  H%&  3 3 − + H− − 4J . :0ℎ( )* 2 2 1 − )* H + )J   + 3)J T4.2 Walls subjected to triangularly distributed load Axial force in the shear walls / `„ . + 1V[ . + 3J . J     + 34.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 4. .

 − 3J . J     − 34.n:ℎ( * 2 3 3 + ZH−  H%&  − + H− − 4J . .

 [ .n:ℎ( )* 2 2 − H  (  ( − H 1 − )* H + )J   + 3)J . :0ℎ( * 2 ( 4. + 1V.31 ) + 3T T4. .

.n:ℎ( )* + :0ℎ( )*. + 1V. VfY /R  R T4.

 + 3J .&`?„¥jA?& ()* 1 = W3 a ZH 3   H%&  3 3 − + H− − 4J . J   + 34. :0ℎ( *S $S   Shear force in the connecting beams 6 `„ . . .n:ℎ( * + .

n:ℎ( )* 2 2 3 + T4. + 1V(−2 + (  − )  *    *[ . .

:0ℎ( * + 3 T T4. + 3 J . :0ℎ( )* 2 2 3 + .n:ℎ( * 2 3 3 + Z−  H    H%&  − + H− − 4J . J   + 34. :0ℎ( )* + . + 1V. (−2 + (  − )  * 2   *[  .

 VfY /R 66   R T4. + 1V.n:ℎ( )*.

n:ℎ( * + .32 ) . :0ℎ( *S $  S ( 4. .

 + 1Vf .&`?„¥jA?& 1 = ¯WaZH%& 3  3 3 − + H− 4 − J .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Internal bending moment of the shear walls (' + ' ) `„ . :0ℎ( *   1 + Z( − 1*( − )* H + )J 2 ( + 1*  − 3)[ T4. J   2 2  + 34. + 3[ . .

n:ℎ( * 1 + Z( − 1*( − )* H + )J 2 ( + 1*  − 3)[ . f . :0ℎ( * + aH− H%&  3 3 − + H− 4 − J . . − 3J . J   2 2  − 34.

n:ℎ( )* 



+ 3T T4. + 1V.

n:ℎ( )* + :0ℎ( )*. VY 3°
/ R

67 

R T4. + 1V.

n:ℎ( * + . . :0ℎ( *S   S

( 4.33 )

Coupled shear walls

TU Delft

Lateral defection of the walls system
B `„ ,&`?„¥jA?& ()*

1
= − ¯3 WH%&    
3 

+ 3J . :0ℎT ( − )*V

3
3
−     H. + . 4 + J
2
2 

+ 3. 4

1
1
1
+ Z  Z− T4. + 1V) H  − )  + )  J   + %&   T4%& − 4. − 1V[
2
2
20
1
1
1  
+ 2 H T4. + 1V) H  − )  +
) J  + %&   J   
4
2
20
3
3
1
− Z  . + H 4. + J   − )  T4. + 1V[    + 34.
2
2
2

v

+ 3[ ).

n:ℎ( *

1
1
1
+ aZ− ). H  − )  + )  J  
2
2
20

+ %&   T%& − . V[ )
3
+ %&   H + )J[
2

1
1
1 
— Z− )  . H  − )  + )  J  
2
2
20

v 

3
3
1 
+ ZH  . + H 4. + J   + )  . J   + 3)%& [
2
2
2 



− 34. − 3f . :0ℎ( *

− 3 R T4. + 1V.

 − 1VS Y° / R  R T4. . . + 1V. :0ℎ( )* + T  )%& − 4.n:ℎ( )* + . −  – ).

:0ℎ( *S  68 v S ( 4.n:ℎ( * + .34 )  . .

This method can be used for any types of coupled shear walls with one or several rows of openings. To assure that the behaviour of the frame model is identical to the behaviour of the coupled walls. First. Therefore these end beams are assumed to have an infinite large area and moment of inertia. Up to now the continuous method for the coupled shear walls with one row of opening has been studied.1). the cross sectional properties of the walls and connecting beams will be assigned to the columns and centre beams in the equivalent frame. Furthermore. (For more details see Figure 5. The only disadvantage of this method is the requirement of a frame analysis computer programme. These values are given in Table 13. it is required to assign a very high stiffness to the end beams which are extended from centre line of walls to the end of the connecting beams.y¡ are given by Joseph Schwaighofer to choose the appropriate cross sectional properties for the end beams. It is worth to mention that if a frame analysis computer programme does not have the capability to define a member with infinite axial and flexural rigidity. Though the results from the discrete method could be very accurate. Furthermore. in this method a system of coupled shear walls will simulated by an equivalent frame which will be formed by the centre lines of the walls section and connecting beams. respectively. the related equations and the design curves have been derived. in case of walls with more than two rows of opening or with larger story numbers. some  advisable values based on the length ratio of the connecting beams +. there are two main methods to analyse the coupled shear walls: the continuous method and the discrete method. the discrete method will be explained and in the second part of this chapter the results obtained from the both methods will be compared.1 Introduction In analysing the coupled shear walls using the discrete method. Additionally. As has been mentioned. 69 . the walls will be treated as frame structures. In this chapter the analysis of the coupled shear walls based on the discrete method will be considered.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 5 Analysis of coupled shear walls using discrete method As has been mentioned before. the modelling of the coupled walls system and analysing the results could be very time consuming specially. Opposed to the continuous method there is no limitation regarding to symmetry and dimensions variety throughout the height of the walls for the discrete method. 5. a reasonable large value of about 103 -104 times the corresponding values for the connecting beams will give a fairly adequate result.

0 5.  È = ! .5 1.0 2.0 (Joseph Schwaighofer.1 : Coupled shear walls and equivalent frame Table 13 : Coefficient of axial and flexural rigidity for end beams in discrete method †‡ Å.  is the clear span of connecting beams  is the half of the width of wall 1 È is the cross sectional area which should be assigned to the end beams È is the second moment of area which should be assigned to the end beams  is the cross sectional area of the connecting beams (centre beams)  is the second moment of area of the connecting beams 70 Dž 200 700 2600 6300 21500 . Æ ˆ 0. 1969) LJ 50 100 200 300 500 È = ! .0 3.Coupled shear walls TU Delft  $ ℎ   È È  (a) (b) Figure 5.

16 3. The coupled shear walls system has been modelled as an equivalent frame. Note that. Table 14 : Properties of columns and beams Section of left column Section area [m2] Section moment of inertia [m4] Section of right column Section area [m2] Section moment of inertia [m4] Section of middle beam Section area [m2] Section moment of inertia [m4] Section elasticity [kN/m2] Section poisson ratio P4 1.6*1015 0.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 5. the system of coupled shear walls which was given in the previous examples have been analysed by using the discrete method.6*107 0.5 3. For this model four different cross sections have been defined : for the left wall. Matrix Frame. The output of the programme is given in appendix 4. More details can be found in design example 1. The effect of self-weight of the members has been ignored since in the continuous method the effect of self-weight does not considered.2*10-1 1. for all members the modulus of elasticity (E) is assumed to be equal to 36*106 kN/m2.575 P1 1.2 Numerical investigation For the numerical investigation. The cross sectional properties are given below in Table 14 and Table 15. For this reason the frame analysis computer programme. for the connecting beams and for the end beams. a horizontal uniform distributed load of 17 kN/m is applied on the frame. illustrated in Figure 5. Design example 5 In the first model it is assumed that.2.2 . the walls are supported on a rigid foundation. has been be used.1 8. for the right wall. The results will be compared with the continuous method on the rigid foundation. Two rigid supports have been defined under the columns. Further.2 Table 15 : Properties of end beams Section of side beam Section area Section moment of inertia Section elasticity Section poisson ratio 71 2 [m ] [m4] [kN/m2] P12 21.6*10-3 3.125 P3 2.4 4.

Coupled shear walls TU Delft z x 72 Figure 5.2 : Matrix Frame model of coupled shear walls example 1 .

1 Figure 5.73*1000 -2.53*1000 . The Matrix Frame programme gives the result of the analysis as a report in Pdf format.67 11949.m] [kN] [kN.5 4482.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Note that.5 ) Table 16 : Result of internal forces for walls supported on rigid foundation according to continuous and discrete method Walls on rigid foundation Maximum axial force in the walls Bending moment at base in the wall 1 Bending moment at base in the wall 2 Maximum shear force in the connecting beams Bending moment in the connecting beams Maximum deflection at the top [kN] [kN.m] [kN.3 to Figure 5. A comparison has been made between the extreme values resulted from the Matrix Frame and from the continuous method.9 0.3 137. (See Figure 5. given in Table 16 and Table 17.m] [m] Continuous method 1681.77 -2390.44*1000 3.9 4354.9 110.8 11550. a linear elastic analysis has been used for this example.022 Matrix frame 1712.21 109.3 : Axial force throughout the height of walls on rigid foundation 73 Matrix frame 4.87 -5701. the variation of the axial force and bending moment in wall 1 and 2 along the height has been drawn for both continuous and discrete method.36 136.9*1000 -5. Additionally.7 0.06 4109.022 Table 17 : Stresses at base of walls supported on rigid foundation according to continuous and discrete method Walls on rigid foundation Stress at A Stress at B Stress at C Stress at D 2 [kN/m ] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] Continuous method 4617.

Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 5.5 : Comparison of bending moment in wall 2 between continuous and discrete method 74 .4 : Comparison of bending moment in wall 1 between continuous and discrete method Figure 5.

75 . But to draw a definitive conclusion it is needed to analyzing different models with different dimensions and comparing the results. the results from both methods are fairly similar however the extreme values from the discrete method are within 1% to 3% larger than the values from the continuous method. The exact values from the results of Matrix Frame programme will give stepwise curves for both bending and axial force. it can be concluded the accuracy of the continuous method in case of the rigid foundation is fairly acceptable.6 : Exact value of axial force according to Matrix Frame programme According to the results. in Figure 5. the above curves have been drawn by using the mean values form the Matrix Frame programme for each column. As a result the axial force at the top of the walls could not be zero which leads into a nonzero value for the bending moment at the top.Coupled shear walls TU Delft The investigation has shown that. Figure 5. one at the top and one at the bottom. the axial force and the bending moment at the top of the walls are equal to zero according to the continuous method. This will be done in the next chapter. there are two different bending moments at each level resisted by the walls. Further the value of the axial force changes at the connection point between two different stories.3 the magnitude of the axial force at the top is taken equal to zero to draw the curve. though the discrete method gives a nonzero value for the bending moment and axial force at the top of the walls. The reason is that in the Matrix Frame programme the walls between each two stories are assumed to be a column in which the axial force along the height is constant. Note that. It should be mention that. One of the major differences between both methods is that. Since the walls in-between each two stories is considered as a column.

58 3933.0 277.5 1440. The elastic foundation has been modelled as two linear springs under both columns (see Figure 5.00 318750. The effect of selfweight does not considered.m] [kN.55 1433. The horizontal deflection of the springs is restrained at base. a linear elastic analysis has been carried out.m] [m] Continuous method 2968.271 .3 3945.7 : Equivalent frame on elastic support As well as the previous example. The rotational and the vertical stiffness of the sub soil are given in Table 18.m]  fixed 153000.00 z x Figure 5.00 [kN.5 0.29 256. Table 19 : Result of internal forces for walls supported on elastic foundation according to continuous and discrete method Walls on elastic foundation Maximum axial force in the walls Bending moment at base in the wall 1 Bending moment at base in the wall 2 Maximum shear force in the connecting beams Bending moment in the connecting beams Maximum deflection at the top 76 [kN] [kN.m] 874650. Table 18 : Properties of elastic foundation µÉ µÊ µ˜ left Support [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN.61 0. The only difference is that.7). The frame is subjected to a horizontal uniformly distributed load of 17 kN/m.m] [kN] [kN.74 205. The extreme values of the internal forces and the lateral deflection are given in the following table.271 Matrix frame 2971. The coupled walls system is modelled as an equivalent frame structure identical to the frame structure in previous example.1 222. here the walls are supported on elastic foundations. The output of the programme can be found in appendix 5. Consider the same structure of the design example 2 when it is supported on an elastic foundation.00 P & Right support [kN/m] fixed [kN/m] 214200.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Design example 6: In this example the behaviour of the coupled shear walls supported on an individual elastic foundation will be considered by using the discrete method.

Figure 5. one at the top and one at the bottom. to draw the curves the exact values obtained from the MatrixFrame program have been used and not the mean values which were used in the previous example.9 illustrate the comparison of axial force and bending moment in wall 1 along the height between discrete and continuous method.8 : Axial force throughout the height according to discrete and continuous method 77 . the connection at each story sustains two different bending moments.9 832.2 Matrix frame 3.8 and Figure 5. Figure 5.03*1000 It can be observed from above tables that. the connections designed by the discrete method should be about 30% stiffer than the connection designed according to the continuous method.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Table 20 : Stresses at the base of walls supported on elastic foundation according to continuous and discrete method Walls on elastic foundation Stress at A Stress at B Stress at C Stress at D 2 [kN/m ] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] Continuous method 3125. According to the curves the differences between both methods are more negligible at the intermediate levels.13*1000 0. As can be seen from the bending moment curve.83*1000 0. the connections have to be designed for the larger value at each level which is almost 30% larger than the obtained value from the continuous method. the extreme value of the internal forces and stresses form both methods are very similar. Note that. As a result.2*1000 3. Regarding to the Matrix Frame results.01 3019.16 192.

Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 5.9 : Bending moment in wall 1 according to discrete and continuous method 78 .

10 for more details). The properties of the tow end beams at base are given below. Table 21 : Cross sectional properties of end beam at base. Further. Therefore. The effect of self-weight has been ignored. Consider the same system given in design example 3. Section of side beam Section area Section moment of inertia Section elasticity Section poisson ratio 2 [m ] [m4] [kN/m2] P12 21. due to the high stiffness of the walls.16 3. supported on an elastic foundation will be studied by using the Matrix Frame programme. The only applied load on the structure is a horizontal uniformly distributed load of 17 kN/m. As is known. The input and the output of the analysis can be found in appendix 6. the base beam in the equivalent frame is modelled into three beams from which the two sides’ beams have higher axial rigidity to prevent the free rotation of the beam. the part of the base beam under the walls cannot rotate freely. As well as previous example the elastic foundation has been modelled as two linear springs under the columns.10 : Equivalent frame of the walls on Elastic foundation with base beam The cross sectional properties of the base beam is assumed to be identical to the connecting beams. According to the results 79 . Figure 5. The coupled walls system is modelled as an equivalent frame in frame analysis programme MatrixFrame.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Design example 7 In this example the behaviour of a system of coupled shear walls with a stiffened beam at the base. a comparison has been made between the results obtained from the continuous method and results from the discrete method.2 A linear elastic analysis has been carried out. The rotational and vertical stiffness of the springs are given in table Table 18. (See Figure 5.6*1015 0.4 4. The cross sectional properties of the beams and columns are given in Table 14 and Table 15.

97 5051.Coupled shear walls TU Delft which are given in Table 22 the differences between the continuous and the discrete method are not considerable as was expected. It is worth to mention that. in this example the differences between the results from the continuous and discrete method are larger than the differences in the previous example. According to Table 22 the differences are within 1 to 5 percent.4 2141.m] [kN.01 228.6 195.270 189.5 Figure 5.03 Matrix frame 2797.m] [kN] [kN.3 4809.7 0.271 192.77 0. Table 22 : Results of internal forces for walls stiffened with base beam according to continuous and discrete method Walls on elastic foundation Maximum axial force in the walls Bending moment at base in the wall 1 Bending moment at base in the wall 2 Maximum shear force in the connecting beams Bending moment in the connecting beams Maximum deflection at the top Shear force in the base beam [kN] [kN.m] [m] [kN] Continuous method 2789.1 1840.7 244.64 183.11 : Variation of axial force along the height for continuous and discrete method 80 .

12: Variation of bending moment along the height for continuous and discrete method 81 .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 5.

The continuous mediums will be cut along their contraflexure points. The connecting beams will be replaced by continuous mediums. It is known that. a system of coupled shear walls subjected to uniform distributed load will be analyzed again when different Young’s modulus has been assigned to shear walls and connecting beams. Considering the relative displacement at the cut ends.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 6 Investigating the effect of stiffness of walls and connecting beams Up to now a certain Young’s modulus of elasticity has been used for both shear walls and the connecting beams to analyze a system of coupled shear walls.1. 82 . in reality reinforced concrete with different strengths may be used for different members of a system. gives the following equation. Therefore. $ Figure 6. The same approach as explained in chapter 2 will be taken here. For this reason.1 Walls on rigid foundation analyzed by the continuous method Consider a system of coupled shear walls supported on the rigid foundation with one row of openings. Furthermore. shown in Figure 6. But in this section the Young’s modulus of the connecting beams will be defined by  .1: Coupled shear walls according to continuous method 6. to take the effect of possible cracking into account the young ‘modulus should be adjusted. it is important to study the effect of Young’s modulus variation on behaviour of the coupled shear walls.

3 and given by equation ( 2. Since in reality there is no relative displacement at the cut ends.  /()) − )   ζ . it can be seen that by substituting Ë = 1 into equation ( 6. $      ζ .7 ) ( 6.4 ) Differentiating from equation ( 6. the equation of normal force in the shear walls will be derived.4) the equation of moment curvature and the relation of normal force and shear flow in the mediums can be obtained. the ordinary differential equation ( 2.5 ).1 ). ℎ.2 ) and ( 2. Considering the result.Coupled shear walls TU Delft C = C + C + C = 0 ( 6.8 ) To get rid of the dimensions. $  [ =   .5 ) . the summations of displacements are substituted equal to zero. Considering the moment equilibrium and vertical force equilibrium in the walls (see Figure 2.2 ) Note that.  H1 + ζ = .2 ) and substituting the walls’ moment . -()) $ ( 6.curvature relationship into it. a stiffness ratio (Ë ) has been defined which is equal to modulus of elasticity of the connecting beams ( ) over modulus of elasticity of the walls ().  J=  .  . relative displacements have been illustrated in Figure 2.5 ) ( 6.6 )  ( 6.3 ) P  -()) − $/()) Z  B())[ = ( +  ) ) ( 6. /()) = −    Where: Z 12.1 ) P 1 1    1 R) /())S ℎ R +  S TU+ /()))V C = $ H B())J + − =0 ) 12    ( 6.  . X WO 6()))Y = /()) ( 6. ( 2.22 ) will be 83 .

. > ) = 0  /()* = 0 ) ( 6. − a R1 S .  is replaced by Ë. the solution of the ODE is similar to equation ( 2. the shear flow and the lateral deflection of the walls’ system can be obtained by substituting Ë instead of  into the relevant equations.  1 )  . the order of Ë is identical to the order of . Z1 − [f  ( Ë* cosh( Ë* ( 6. Note that.. The required boundary conditions to solve the obtained ODE are given below. 6` .10 ) 2. .25 ) where. the calculations have been done by using Maple program and are given in appendix 7. :0ℎ( Ë( − )** + .11 ) As can be seen.`  ()* = = 1 . T:0ℎ( Ë)* − Ë. first boundary condition can be obtained by inserting z=0 in the compatibility equation ( 6. It is worth to mention that.2 ) Solving the ODE of normal force by applying the given boundary conditions gives the equation of axial force in the wall as: /` . Boundary conditions 1.`  ()* = =. .Coupled shear walls TU Delft obtained. $ 2  1 cosh( Ë)* + Ë.9 ) /(* = 0 ( 6. > ) =  Note that. As well as the axial force.

n:ℎ( Ë( − )**V  $ a Ë. .

n:ℎ( Ë* + Ë. .

n:ℎ( Ë* − Ë). .

12 ) .n:ℎ( Ë*[ 84 ( 6.

16 ) As has been mentioned before. The only difference is the forth boundary condition at ) =  (equation ( 2. to derive the ODE related to lateral deflection. B()* = . O -()*)Y + ( 6.` .2 ). by applying the boundary conditions gives the equation of lateral deflection of the coupled walls system as following: 1 Z= H4.44 )).17 ) Solving the above ODE.15 )   1  B()* − ( Ë* . Boundary conditions 1.7 ) ZPÍ B()*[ − ZP] B()*[ Í ]  Ë = .14 ) > Ì =   q | =0 )  PsX ( 6. (     ¢ ]  − 1*  Ë  S ( 6. in which  will be replaced by Ë.13 ) B q | =0 ) Ps+ 2. W -()* −   Ë  (  ) )  )  X − 1*. :0ℎT Ë( − )*V Ë  .( 2. > B = 0 B()* = 0 ( 6. RP] -()* − -()*. the second derivative of the normal force has to be substituted into the first derivative of the compatibility equation ( 6. ( 6. .Coupled shear walls TU Delft The required boundary conditions to solve the ODE of deflection are similar to the ones given in chapter 1.

. .n:ℎ( Ë* 2 1 +    Ë  ) HË  )( + 1*  H  − ) + )  J ( − 1*  + 4 3 6 B`.`  ()* = 1 4 v  Ë − 2)J .

.n:ℎ( Ë* − 4. :0ℎ( Ë* Ë + 4.

composite cantilever factor in the coupled shear walls can be obtained by considering the stress at the base of the walls.18 ) Moreover.n:ℎ( Ë)* − 4J[ ( 6. when two different modulus of elasticity are applied to shear walls and connecting beams will be: 85 .10. For more details see Figure 2. The composite cantilever factor for the case.

Z )  ( Ë) .Coupled shear walls  = 200 . R1 − S  TU Delft −.

n:ℎ( Ë)) − Ë. :0ℎ( Ë − Ë)) +1+ .

for the case of shear walls and connecting beams with different modulus of elasticity. the results from the analysis of coupled shear walls supported on rigid foundations (design example 1) have been used.5 ÐN« $Ñ $n« + 1. Matrix Frame. Thus. the design of the reinforcement will be done in ULS. 6.1 Walls on an elastic foundation analysed by the continuous method The coupled shear walls supported on elastic foundation for both walls on individual foundation and walls stiffened by a base beam have been studied. The internal forces in this beam are illustrated in Figure 6.19 ) 2    Individual cantilever action is equal to :  = 100 −  ( 6. The calculations and the derived equations can be found in appendix 8. to determine equations related to coupled walls system with different modulus of elasticity. As is known.weight of the coupled walls system had been ignored. Ï = 1. Load combination: As is known.2 3ÑN-«0Ñ> $n« 86 . For reinforcement design.1 Considering the reinforcement ratio in the connecting beams In the previous sections a few examples have been shown for walls on different types of foundations. the heaviest loaded beam has been chosen. (More details are given in example 2).2. which are obtained from discrete method by using the frame analysis programme. Note that in previous sections for comparing the results from discrete method and continuous method the effect of self. the stiffness factor  should be replaced by Ë in the relative equations for coupled walls system with a unique modulus of elasticity. Since the dimensions of connecting beams throughout the height of the walls are constant.20 ) 6. But for reinforcement design the weight of the structure will be taken into accounts. there are some limits in Euro code for the maximum and the minimum reinforcement ratio in the beams.n:ℎ( Ë)  Ë ( − )) [ ( 6. it is important to prove whether the design of the connecting beams in these examples satisfies the Euro code’s requirements or not. Î. According to the results. according to the continuous and the discrete method. Therefore a combination of dead loads and live loads should be applied on the structure to determine the internal forces in connecting beams.

4.2. '.3 = 239.54 /.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 6. the section at the support should be designed for a bending moment arising from partial fixity of at least Ò of the maximum bending moment in the span.15 ∗ 208.15. Assumption: o o o Environmental conditions: XC2 Concrete strength class : C45/55 Minimum cover according to EC2.1.5 meter long with a height of 400 mm and thickness of 300 mm. The recommended value is 0. section 4. the strength of the concrete is assumed to be C45/55 for the whole structure.2 in monolithic constructions.. Bending reinforcement According to Euro code part 9.2 : Internal forces of the connecting beam with high stiffness The beam is 2.1:2.1.@? = 1.

„@ = .

@`„ + ∆.

" = 25 + 10 = 35 -- The amount of the reinforcement area can be determined by using standard table of GTB 2010 (table 11.7) which is based on the following equation: 2 Based on the recommended values in Euro code 2 NEN-EN 1992-1-1 87 .

Coupled shear walls TU Delft '.52 8  = ℎ − H∅ `&&j +  [  ( 6.21 ) ∅ 25 + .  Z1 − 0. =  .  .

1 the area of longitudinal reinforcement should not be taken less than  .5 = 1879.019 340.8  .5 = 201. 240 = = 6900 ÕÖÖÖ× 1008 = 1. 88 .@? = 0.@`„  .@`„ = 0. .84 ∗ 10\ ∗ 300 ∗ 340.56 -- If steel bars of ∅25 will be used.J = 400 − H12 + + 35J = 340.84    0.1. 4 bars are needed at the top and at the bottom of the cross section.@? outside the lap locations. which gives a reinforcement area of 4 ∗ Ø 8= 1963. 9.26 @ 3.4 = 0.04  = 0. 3405  = 8.  .04 times the cross section.2.  = 0. The value of  .49 -- Maximum and minimum reinforcement ratio According to EC2.8 --  500 Furthermore.@? for beams may be found in national annex but the recommended value according to Euro code is 0.  = 1.04 ∗ 300 ∗ 400 = 4800 -- As can be seen the design reinforcement ration is within the minimum and maximum allowed limits.5 ∗ 300 y]  = 1963.5 -2 2 `A '.3 ∗ 0.26 ∗ ∗ 300 ∗ 340. the cross sectional area of tension or compression reinforcement should not exceed  .

15 ∗ 0.5 ∗ 10\ = 87.15  .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Shear reinforcement: According to section 6.  ( 6.02 ≤ 2.12 ∗ 1.019 300 ∗ 340. the shear force capacity can be determined with the following equation:  <Ù. = 56.7 ∗ 10 = 0.5 .76(100 ∗ 0. tßà ~á /. . is the normal force in the cross section as a result of the load or pre-stress force  is the area of the concrete cross section  = 45 '2« = 1+â 8 = 200 = 1.  ) +  .12 =1+Ú 8 ~ÜÝ Þ   A ++  ≤ 0.83 / < 169. 8 . | .5 / 89 . =0.49 = 0.2. = {ÏÙ.47| ∗ 300 ∗ 340.5 1963.2 of NEN-EN 1992-1-1. (100. .47 300 ∗ 400  <Ù.0 is the area of the tension reinforcement is the smallest width = 0. = {0.76 340. is the shear resistance  is the characteristic compression strength ÏÙ.22 ) In which : <Ù.019 ∗ 45* − 0.

Note that the total shear force on the beam has to be carried by shear reinforcement. . therefore shear reinforcements are required. hence the distance between the stirrups can be detremined by using the following equation  <. = : ). It is assummed that the diameter of stirups is equal to 12 mm.Coupled shear walls TU Delft As can be seen the shear capacity is much lower than the applied shear force on the beam.

z=0.9d  is the calculation value of the yield strenght of the reinforcement  is the angle between the compression diagonals: 1 < .  In which:  is the area of the shear force reinforcment : is the centre to centre distance of the shear reinforcement ) is the internal lever arm. When thre is no normal force.n>.

5 = 306.5 <.9 ∗ 340.45 -- .n> < 2.19 -- 4 ) = 0. is the present shear force  = 2 ∗ Ø ∗ 12 = 226.

5 As a result the centre to centre distance beween the stirrups will be equal to : := ). .n> is assumed to be equal to 2.

@? 3 = 300 -- = 0.45 ∗ 2.5 ∗ 435 ∗ 226.19 = = 444. 169.  .@? A.72 -<.n>.5 ∗ 10 - 39 49 The maximum spacing between the stirrups should not exceed 9A. A.75(1 + .@? .  306.

37 < 444.72 -- According to Dutch national annex 90 ( 6.23 ) .75 ∗ 340.n>* = 0.5(1 + 0* = 255.

2.3(3). Note.@? = 0. 8 .2.Coupled shear walls TU Delft As can be seen the calculated centre to centre distance of the stirrups is larger than the maximum allowable spacing between stirrus.95 ∗ 10\ > 8 .08 ∗ = 1.19 = = 2.08æ √45 = 0. Therefore.@? =  ) Where:  Ð 4 Ð  (. The recommended value for 8 .37 ≤ 600 -- 9 = 300 − 2(35 + 6* = 218 -. ∅12_255 wil be used as shear reinforcement.@? (section 9. the value of the shear reinforcement should also be checcked.@`„ → :«>:Ñ: >ℎÑ NÑ6åNÑ-Ñ0> . The value of the shear reinforcement should be larger than 8 .@`„ = 0.75 = 255.(8)) - 9.@`„ . <Ù.9) which should be larger than the force in the compression diagonals. : 300 ∗ 255 Maximum shear resistance: The maximum allowable shear resistance in a member is given by the following equations (NEn-EN 1992 section 6.@? → :«>:Ñ: >ℎÑ NÑ6åNÑ-Ñ0>: Consequently .2(5) EC2 is given below.07 ∗ 10\  500 8?A` =  226. that in the previous equations  is the inclination of the shear reinforcement to the longitudinal axis of the beam. the maximum spacing should be applied. equation6.2.2.≤ 9.@`„ according to 9. The transverse spacing of the legs in a series of shear links should not exceed 9. Besides the centre to centre disctance of the stirrups.

2(6) 91 .2.n>é + >«0é* is a coefficient taking account of the state of the stress in the compression chord is a strenght reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear According to EC2 clause 9.

87 / < <Ù. will be conservative regarding to reinforcement.6 ∗ 30 ∗ 10\ = 570.4* <. 161.corresponding to the bending moment in the element under consideration.3 (obtained by applying the discrete method. Comparing the results. To prove this statement the Young’s modulus of the connecting beams in this example will be reduced to 18*106 and the system will be analysed again. is the design value of the conrete compression force in the direction of the longitudinal memebr axis is the angle between the concrete compression strut and the beam axis perpendicualr to the shear force The recommended value for Ð is equal to 0.Coupled shear walls )  é TU Delft is the inner lever arm. The internal forces in the maximum loaded beam have been illustrated in Figure 6. it can be seen that. In the shear anaysis of reinforced concrete without axial force. Because designing connecting beams regarding to higher stiffness. we cannot definitively conclude that high stiffness of the beams does not bring up any problems for reinforcement design.@? → :«>Ñ: >ℎÑ NÑ6åNÑ-Ñ0>: :0é :021. it can be concluded that the high stiffness of the connecting beams does not cause any problem in the design.. the internal forces for the beams with lower stiffness are smaller than the internal forces for beams with higher stiffness. <Ù.5 = = 434.`?¥„?A = 0. the approximation value z=0. 92 . By using the above parameter the maximum shear resistance can be obtained. In some cases. One might ask: will the requirements be still satisfied when a smaller Young’s modulus will be assigned to the beams? The answer is yes because decreasing the Young’s modulus leads into decreasing the stiffness and consequently reducing the internal forces.8 According to the analysis the requirements for the longitudinal and the shear reinforcement are satisfied in the connecting beams.9d may normally be used. However the values are very similar to the values which are used in reality but. for a member with constant depth. Therefore. using the Matrix Frame programme).631 / (2.45 ∗ The force in the diagonal is: <. assigning a very high stiffness to the connecting beams will leads into a very large reinforcement ratio which will not satisfy the requirements according to Euro code.@? = 1 ∗ 300 ∗ 306.5 + 0. It should be mention that all the dimensions and magnitude of the loads in this example are based on some assumptions.6 for  < 60 '2« and the  is equal to 1 for nonprestressed structures.

The system will be analysed by using the continuous method.12 . Desing example 8 Consider the coupled shear walls system given in Figure 2. Note that the equations of internal forces have been derived in section 6. Ë = 93 14. in the case of walls on elastic foundation preferably lower stiffness have to be assigned to the connecting beams to reduce the internal forces carrying by beams.25 ∗ 10v = 0.The dimensions and the properties are given in Table 1 and Table 2. The calculations have been done in Maple programme.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 6. considering only uniform distributed load on the system. If the bending moment and shear force in the beams are too large.2 Connecting beams with lower Young’s modulus To find out the influence of the beams’ stiffness on the behaviour of the coupled shear walls. the design example 1 of the walls on rigid foundation will be recalculated by assigning a lower modulus of elasticity to connecting beams. In this example it is assumed that the young’s modulus of the beams is equal to 14. The only parameter which has been changed.25 ∗ 10v .3 : Internal force in the connecting beam with low stiffness It is worth to mention that if the walls are supported on individual elastic foundations. The results are given in Table 23. 6. is the stiffness of the connecting beams. Therefore. not only the Young’s modulus of the beams has to be decreased but the height of the beams should also be increased. the internal forces of the connecting beams will be increased.3958 36 ∗ 10v .1.

Moreover.28 According to the results. designing the reinforcement of the beams based on the high stiffness will be more conservative. Considering all the results. the level of the maximum shear flow has been grown. The other aspect which has been changed due to the stiffness change. it can be concluded that.25*106 1221.72 Ecb=14.74 93.43 32. it is known that assigning a very high Young’s modulus to the connecting beams is not realistic since. 94 .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Ë = 0.21 0. the shear force and the bending moment in the connecting beams have been decreased by decreasing the Young’s modulus of the beams.6291 Table 23: Results of internal forces for walls on rigid foundation for different beams’ stiffness Walls on rigid foundation Maximum axial force in the walls Bending moment at base in the wall 1 Bending moment at base in the wall 2 Maximum deflection at the top Composite cantilever action K2 Maximum shear force in the connecting beams Bending moment in the connecting beams level of the maximum loaded beam [kN] [kN.m] [m] [%] [kN] [kN.m] [m] Ecb=36*106 1681.56 5399.76 14816. the higher the efficiency of the coupling of walls will be. it can be seen that the axial force in the walls and composite cantilever action percentage have been decreased by decreasing the stiffness of the connecting beams.m] [kN. the higher the stiffness of the connecting beams. lateral deflection and the bending moments in the walls have been increased for the beams with lower stiffness.022 55 109. the stiffness of the beams will be decreased due to the crack formation. By reducing the stiffness of the connecting beams.7 24. Furthermore. As a result. is the level of the maximum loaded beam.032 40. Connecting the shear walls with less stiff beams will cause small internal forces in the beams and large bending moments in the walls.94 0.36 136. However.67 11949.9 4354.21 74.

The walls will be analysed according to the continuous method by using the Maple programme and according to the discrete method by using the MatrixFrame programme. Further it can be seen that the effect of the beams length on  is much larger than its effect on since. Figure 7. 2.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 7 Effect of dimensions on behaviour of the coupled walls Up to now a system of coupled shear walls has been analyzed for different foundation types and properties.5 and 7 meter.1. Consider a coupled walls system supported on the rigid foundation shown in Figure 7.1 Effect of the beams’ length: The first aspect which can affect the behaviour of coupled walls is the length of the connecting beams. It is expected that by enlarging the length of the beams. In this section the effect of the dimension of the walls and the connecting beams on the behaviour of the system and coupling efficiency will be considered. To investigate this effect. The dimensions are given in Table 24. the efficiency of the coupling will decrease and the individual action of the walls will be increased.  is proportional to the cube of length and is proportional to the square of length.1 : Design example 95 . 7.5. the stiffness factor ( ) will be decreased as the length of the beam increased. a system of the coupled walls will be analysed for five different lengths of the connecting: 1.4. The results from the continuous and the discrete methods will be compared to find out the effect of the dimensions on discrepancy between both methods. As can be seen in Table 25.

4 15000000 36000000 0. Furthermore.2 17 [kN/m] Table 25 : Stiffness properties of the coupled walls systems –•Œ J –‡ –… ‰… ‡…” ‰… [ ˆ… Š•Œ µ¸‹ [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] 1 2.2729 1.0024 0. As was expected by increasing the length of the connecting beams.5 variable variable 3 60 0.0004 9.1902 1. Furthermore.1702 1.1337 1. 96 . the stiffness factor ( ) has been decreased.0008 0. the axial force in the walls.8414 1.1105 1. bending moment at base.0004 0. as can be seen the similarity of the bending moment between both methods will decrease as the length of the beams increase. it can be seen from the curves that the difference of axial force between the discrete and the continuous method have been diminished by enlarging the length of connecting beams.1902 To compare the results of the continuous and the discrete method. shown in Figure 7. it should be mention that the bending moment in both walls will increase when the walls are connected by longer beams.1851 1. axial force in the walls as well as the shear force in the beams will decrease because.5 7 3. maximum shear force in the connecting beam and the deflection at the top have been drown versus the length of the beams. The reason is that increasing the length of the connecting beams will lead into increasing the size of the opening regarding to the walls system. Additionally. The larger the connecting beams the more similar the bending moment in wall 1 will be.0929 0.5.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Table 24: Properties of the coupled walls system …†‡ †‡ …†… †… ˆ ‰ Š ‹ ŒŽ‰‰ ŒˆŽ ‘ ’ “  ˆ ©ª µ… = H‡ + ¸… = Z 5 2. As a result the coupling effect of the system will decrease and the individual action will increase.2 to Figure 7.3 0. though the differences between both methods in wall 2 is almost constant by increasing the length.5 4 5 6 1.1695 3.0183 0.

Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 7.3: Variation of maximum shear force in the beams versus length of the beams 97 .2 : Variation of axial force in the walls versus the length of the beam Figure 7.

4: Variation of bending moment in walls 1 at the base versus length of the beams Figure 7.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 7.5: Variation of bending moment in wall 2 at base versus length of the beam 98 .

1851 0. 0.0073 2.0024 1.1851 0.3.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 7.6 meter.5891 .4.5 0. 0. 0.1851 1. the coupled walls system shown in Figure 7.6 :Design example Table 26 : Stiffness properties of the coupled walls systems ŠˆŽ µ… = H‡ + ¸… = Z –•Œ J –‡ –… ‰… ‡…” ‰… [ ˆ… Š•Œ µ¸‹ 99 0. Figure 7. The stiffness factor of each case has been given in Table 26.7 to Figure 7.3 0. The results are illustrated in Figure 7.5 and 0. For this reason.3473 5.10 as axial force. shear force and the bending moment versus height of the connecting beams.1851 1.6 will be analysed again by assuming four different heights of the connecting beams.0907 3.6 1.1851 1.2 Effect of the height of the connecting beams For the second consideration the height if the connecting beams will be changed and the behaviour of the coupled walls will be studied.0010 0.4 0.1702 4.

Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 7.8 : Variation of maximum shear force in the beams versus height of the beam 100 .7: Variation of axial force in the walls versus height of the beam Figure 7.

9 : Variation of bending moment at the base of wall 1 versus height of the beams Figure 7.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 7.10: Variation of bending moment at the base of wall 2 versus height of the beams 101 .

11: Variation of lateral deflection at top versus height of the beams As can be seen in Figure 7. The differences are very small and can be neglected. 102 . it can be seen that changing the height of the lintels does not have any effect on accuracy of axial force and bending moment in the walls. The precision of the shear force in the lintels was the only aspect which was affected by increasing the height of the beams.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Considering the previous curves it can be seen that. Altogether it can be concluded that changing the height of the lintels does not influence the accuracy of the results considering the continuous method. Figure 7. However the differences are negligible.11 lateral deflections according to both methods are very similar. By increasing the height of the beams the differences between the continuous method and the discrete method will also increase. Therefore it can be concluded that changing the height of the connecting beams does not affect the accuracy of the lateral deflection. Further. changing the height of the lintels only affects the accuracy of the shear force in connecting beams.

3.5.1702 3. Figure 7.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 7. 3.1851 1.13 to Figure 7.16. 2.1851 1.5 3 3.12 : Design example Table 27 : Stiffness properties of the coupled walls systems Š µ… = H‡ + ¸… = Z –•Œ J –‡ –… ‰… ‡…” ‰… [ ˆ… Š•Œ µ¸‹ 103 2.0024 0.1851 1.4242 4.0028 0.0014 2.0927 .3 Effect of the height of story The next aspect which can affect the behaviour of the coupled shear walls is the story height.1851 0. The results are given in Figure 7. Therefore in this consideration the story height will be changed.12 will be analysed for four different story height.8940 3.5 and 5 meter. The coupled walls system shown in Figure 7.0020 0.5 5 1.

14 : Variation of axial force in the walls versus story height 104 .Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 7.13: Variation of maximum shear force in the beams versus story height Figure 7.

15 : Variation of bending moment at the base under wall 1 versus story height Figure 7.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 7.16 : Variation of bending moment at the base under wall 2 versus story height 105 .

the larger the differences between the continuous method and the discrete method will be. In this example the width of the wall 1 and the span of opening remain constant.4 Effect of the width ratio of the walls The last aspect which can be considered is the effect of the width ratio of wall 1 to wall 2 on accuracy of the continuous method. A comparison has been made between both results which are shown in Table 29 and Table 30. Assume the structure showed in Figure 7. The systems have been analyzed according to the continuous and the discrete method. It is known that. bending moment here has been considered per wall therefore the differences will be shared between both walls. Further. it can be seen that the differences in bending moment is smaller than the differences of the axial force in the walls. the summation of the bending moment in the walls and the axial force times the distance between the centroidal axes of the walls are always equal to external bending moment applied on the structure. 7. The width of wall two will be varied from 1 times width wall 1 to 10 times width wall 1.17 : Variation of lateral deflection at top versus story height As can be seen from the previous curves the larger the story height of a system of the coupled shear walls. The reason that the differences concerning the bending moment are smaller is that.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 7.18. 106 . Consequently the differences will be not as considerable as the differences of the axial force in the walls.

2876 0.99161 1.69895 2.65591 2.18 : Design example Table 28 : various width ration and the stiffness properties width ratio µ… = H‡ + ¸… = Z –•Œ J –‡ –… ‰… ‡…” ‰… [ ˆ… Š•Œ µ¸‹ 107 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1.1235 2.5965 1.65285 1.4024 2.9863 3.24442 1.83431 1.81584 3.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 7.0004 0.0002 5.0003 0.6907 2.20663 1.0002 0.00307 0.09917 1.38754 1.85746 2.60937 1.00145 0.00854 0.00086 0.55313 .0002 0.72840 1.00059 0.

6 310. but the variations are within the range of 1 to 3 percent which simply can be neglected.6 866 595.74 68.20 As can be seen.5 2.5 1334.354 3. 108 .8 52.9 1721.6 1306.2 828.3 413.1 141.839 39. Therefore it is recommended to not using the continuous method for the walls with a width ratio larger than 6.3 575.738 3. By changing other aspects. for the walls with a width ratio larger than 6 the difference of bending moment in wall 1 between the continuous and the discrete method are enormous.1 841.844 3.1 239.8 250.3 2190.679 2 1.323 4. Further it can be seen that a system of symmetric coupled walls gives the most accurate results. It is worth to mention that the curves in this chapter have been drawn based on a few examples and just by connecting the resulting points by straight line to each other. Table 30 : Bending moment in wall 1 according to continuous and discrete method for various width ratio Width ratio Continuous method [kN] Discrete method [kN] Difference in % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5314.40 80.5 199.48 6.17 50.96 27.48 154. the resulting curves should be smooth. For the walls with a width ratio of 10 the difference of axial force will become about 5%.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Table 29 : Axial force according to continuous and discrete method for various width ratios Width ratio Continuous method [kN] Discrete method [kN] Difference in % 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3618.5 162.131 Comparing the axial force in the walls it can be seen that.3 429.497 3 2.32 190.7 313.34 116.4 27.7 322. some distinction will occur between the results from the continuous method and the discrete method.70 60.5 2157.3 168 152.1 235.8 193. Analysing the coupled walls systems with a width ratio equal or smaller than 6 according to the continuous method gives difference of about 3% which is acceptable.17 37. Doing this gives a few lines with different slopes for each comparison however .924 4.6 5348.63 0. by increasing the width ratio of the walls the accuracy of the results will be decreased.7 696.3 341.6 468.94 75.6 190. Finlay it can be concluded that changing the dimensions of the coupled walls system does not influence the accuracy of the results except the higher width ratio which considerably decrease the accuracy.5 1848.761 0.520 4.7 3643.648 15.2 75.

The building contains 30 floors with a total height of 90 meters. By inserting the dimensions and properties of coupled shear walls and connecting beams in these excel sheets the following results will be given • Axial force in the shear walls • Maximum positive and negative bending moment in the shear walls • The height at which maximum bending moment in the walls occur • Maximum shear force in the connecting beams • The height at which maximum shear force in beams occur • Maximum deflection at top The most important advantage of these excel sheets is that there is no requirements for time consuming modeling of the coupled walls structure. The second example is a coupled shear walls supported by a foundation beam on piles. Further.250 25*106 15*106 . The first example is a system of coupled shear walls on rigid foundation. two different examples will be shown.250 0.4 meter.3 meter and the opening span is 2. There are three different sheets for three different types of foundations which can be used. The coupled walls are symmetrical with a width of 6. Design example 1 Consider a coupled shear walls on a rigid foundation with one row of opening illustrated in Figure 8. These equations are written in Visual Basic for Applications by using the excel programs. The walls are subjected to lateral wind load with a magnitude of 3 kN/m2. walls on two individual elastic foundation and walls supported by a grade beam on elastic foundation.6 0. Therefore.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 8 Practical design In the previous chapters the behavior of the coupled shear walls has been studied according to the continuous method.1 Practical example To show the application of these excel sheets. This example will be analysed by using the excel sheet and the results will be used for reinforcement design. these equations are dependent on many stiffness parameters and dimensions which increases the probability of errors in the calculations. As can be seen for the walls on the elastic foundation the related equations of internal forces and deflections are very lengthy which makes them difficult to be used in practice.1.3 0. for walls on a rigid foundation. It is worth to mention that obtained results have good accuracy. The results from this example will be compared with a hand calculation which is commonly used in practice. Calculate the stresses under the walls and deflection at the top. Table 31: dimensions and properties of coupled walls system Height of story Total height of building Width of shear wall Thickness of wall Height of connecting beams Width of connecting beams Modulus of elasticity of walls Modulus of elasticity of lintels 109 [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] 3 90 6. 8. to make these equations more applicable three excel sheets have been made by applying the related equations.

Coupled shear walls TU Delft Figure 8. example 1 110 .1 :Side view and plan of the coupled walls system.

2 ' `„ (3* = 1 ∗ 22.05 ' `„ (0* − ' `„ (3* 91.2 ∗ 10 <A`„A = = = 590 / ) 10 1 ' `„ (0* = ∗ 22.5 ∗ 90 = 91.5 = 22.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Hand calculation Stress under walls t Horizontal load. `„ = = = ±10 //-- = 9 ∗ 10ê Shear force in lintels ) = 0.1 ∗ 10 − 85.2 ∗ 10 /. 2 2 Lateral deformation å„`„¥ = = 6$ 15 ∗ 90 = = 0. wind = 3 ] @ / 6 `„.67 ∗ 15 = 10. 2 If the load is uniform distributed <A`„A = To check the strength yê+  = 295 / 1 590 <A`„A.1 ∗ 10 /. 2 ' `„ 91 ∗ 10 .5 ∗ 87 = 85.= 70 -8 8 ∗ 25000 ∗ 10 ∗ 70. ∗ $ 2.4 = 442 ∗ = 531 /. = 3 ∗ 7.5 = 15 111 / - .31 - 12 6 `„.5 1 = = 250 ∗ 15000 = 9 ∗ 10ê -- 6 1 ' `„ (0* = 22.& = 2 ∗ 7. = <A`„A.31 1 ∗ 0.5 ∗ 90 = 91 ∗ 10 /. = H590 + J = 442 / 2 2 'A`„A.07 .25 ∗ 15 = 70.

57 ∗ 10\ 5000 − 0.5 ∗ 10\ - 12 Shear deformation 0.33 -- .2 = ∗2 = ∗ 2 = 0.= 5-3 3 ∗ 15000 ∗ 10 ∗ 4.4 -- 112 êv.6 = 4.y = 196.25 ∗ 0.5í9 5000 − 0.2 : Deformation of lintels 442 = 290 / 1.75 ∗ 20\ ∗ 90 ∗ 10 = 59 -If the load is uniform distributed <A`„A.5 ∗ 2400 Figure 8.y∗+ï êy .& = åA`„A = îA  .£∗.5åA`„A 0.3: Deformation of walls due to shear å = ì ∗  = 6.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Deformation of lintels åA`„A <& = = <$  290 ∗ 1.7 / = 3.5 ∗ 5 ì= = = 6.5 1 ∗ 0.5 ∗ 10\ Figure 8.ƒ ∗2= å = 39. ∗y+++∗+ ∗.005 .

Stress under wall .= (-()* − (/*.  . $*.7 -3 The result from analysing according to the continuous method is given in Table 32.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Total deformation å?A = å m?& + å„`„¥ + å&?`„?A = 70 + 40 + Using excel sheets (70 + 40) = 147. More details can be found in appendix 9.

69 + = + = ±9.575 Note that.6 //--   10.26* ∗ 3. / (18785.15 6155. .41 1. here  is the cross section of wall 1 which is equal to cross section of wall 2 due to symmetry.

69 8555 [kN] 0.56 [kN.95 Maximum shear force in lintels is equal to 296.m] Maximum bending moment in wall 2 18785. Axial force in the walls: It is assumed that the axial force in the walls are equal to summation of shear walls in the lintels.148 0.26 45500 [kN.67 [m] Maximum negative bending moment in wall 1 -1381.111 0.08 295 [kN] Maximum axial force in walls is equal to 6155.m] [m] .11 [m] 0.147 [m] Maximum deflection (rotation at base not concluded) Maximum deflection (rotation at base concluded) 113 Hand calculation [m] The height of maximum positive moment 0.56 [kN. / = 29 ∗ 295 = 8555 / Table 32: internal forces and deflection according to hand calculation and excel sheet Internal forces and deflection Excel sheet The height at which maximum shear occurs 28.m] The height of maximum negative moment 69.26 45500 [kN.m] Maximum negative bending moment in wall 2 -1381. is the distance of the centre of the gravity of wall 1 or 2 to the most extreme fibres of wall 1 or 2.00 Maximum bending moment in wall 1 18785.

is the lateral deflection at top. it can be noticed that both calculations give the same results for the maximum shear force in lintels. Further as can be seen the stress under the walls are smaller according to excel sheet compared to hand calculation. the lateral deflection of the coupled walls system according to excel sheet and hand calculation are almost the same. Here also the effect of the coupling in the hand calculations has been neglected. As can be seen. Note that it is assumed that the forces will be uniformly distributed over the height of lintel. the obtained bending moment is significantly larger.Coupled shear walls TU Delft As can be seen the maximum bending moment in the walls according to excel sheet is considerably smaller than the bending moment according to hand calculation. Therefore. Considering the results. it can be concluded that hand calculation is more conservative. in hand calculations it was assumed that rotation at base will cause a lateral deflection of about one third of the total defection due to bending and shear deformation. Therefore. 114 . Further. But in hand calculation the effect of the axial force has been ignored. One of the important aspects in analysing the coupled shear walls. It is worth to mention that. though the excel sheet based on continuous method gives more accurate results. in the above table two different lateral deflections have been presented which gives 1) total deformation of the walls by considering the rotation at base and 2) total deformation of the walls when rotation at base is not included. The reason is that when the walls are coupled a part of bending moment applied on the walls will be resisted by axial force.

Coupled shear walls TU Delft Design example 2 Consider the coupled shear walls shown in Figure 8.2 0.4 : Side view and plan of the shear walls. example 2 Table 33: Dimensions and properties of coupled walls system Height of story Total height of building Thickness of wall Height of connecting beams Width of connecting beams Modulus of elasticity of walls Modulus of elasticity of lintels Height of stiffened beam Width of stiffened beam 115 [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] [m] [m] 2. The structure consists of 13 floors with a total height of 38. The walls are stiffened with a foundation beam at base which is supported by 4 piles.1 in the first five floors to 2. The magnitude of wind load is assumed to be 25 kN/m. The span of lintels will be changed throughout the height from 1.535 0. two different variations will be considered with two different opening spans.4.5 . The walls have a T shape cross section. The dimensions and stiffness parameter can be taken form Table 33. Therefore. 1 3 4 2 Figure 8.48 meter.15 in the upper levels.48 0.25 11*106 11*106 1.96 38.25 0.

03 282. -/N« ∑ ` B` 125 ∗ 9. 1 ".1 The height at which maximum shear occurs 13.225 − 3. More details about calculations can be found in appendix 10.25 [kN] Maximum axial force in walls is equal to 1703 2263.125 − 3. =z + 1 ".8 ∗ 10y + 2225 ∗ 7 ∗ 10 + 5225 ∗ 7 ∗ 10 + 7325 ∗ 9.6 [kN.8 ∗ 10y 9.?A = 506896.m] Maximum bending moment in wall 2 105 619.325 − 3.8 ∗ 10y ∗ (7. the reinforcement design can be done for the maximum forces.071 0.725* + 7 ∗ 10 ∗ (2.67 9.72 5761. The results for both variations are given in Table 34.8 ∗ 10y ".9 [kN.?A B@ = = 1 ".9 [kN] Maximum deflection 0. (B` = 1 1 + →  + 7 ∗ 10 9.725* + 7 ∗ 10 ∗ (5.6 / - − B@ * = 9.225 − 3.m] Shear force in the foundation beam 330 468. The equivalent rotational and vertical stiffness of the piles are as following.8 ∗ 10y = 7 ∗ 10 t @ t @ Equivalent rotational and vertical stiffness of piles Note that. Table 34 : Internal forces and deflection of the shear walls for short and long span 116 Internal forces and deflection Span=2. Considering the results.9 [kN] .15 Span=1.725* = 25716600 /.053 [m] The height of maximum positive moment 0 0 [m] Maximum bending moment in wall 1 8686.8 ∗ 10y = = 3725 -∑ ` 2 ∗ 9. ` . in this example.?A #. it is assumed that the piles 1 and 3 work together under wall 1 and pile 2 works under walls 2.83 [m] Maximum shear force in lintels is equal to 183.8 ∗ 10y + 2 ∗ 7 ∗ 10 By using the continuous method the internal forces in the walls and lintels can be obtained.725* + 9.8 ∗ 10y ∗ (0.Coupled shear walls TU Delft The stiffness of the piles are as follows: Outer piles Inner piles   = =   = 9.

?A = 36 ∗ 13 = 468 //- //- Maximum stress in the walls due to vertical forces : .2 = 588.y + 24 ∗ 38.56" = 1.48 = 2608. = y¤¤.26 + 1.8 @] = 3.ê +.5 ∗ 18. = 0. .9 ∗ +.22 //-^2 → 6".3 2.@? = (-()* − (/*.2 ∗ 468 + 1.22 = 3463.y + 1108.2 ∗ 24 ∗ 38.?A = 1.48 = 1108.  .2 //- → 1.4 ∗ 13 = 18.6 //--  v¤ t @] = Stress in the walls due to wind .t Load combination: @ t @ → 6.9 6. $*.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Stress in walls due to vertical forces Self weight of concrete: 6 = 24 @ t Permanent load per floor: 6 = 36 Variable load per floor : 6" = .46 //-- t Minimum stress in the walls due to vertical forces : .?A = 1.

01 //--   3. / (8686.625 .  . $*. .266 1.49 1703 + = + = 5.7* ∗ 1.@`„ = − (-()* − (/*.

- 117 t .5 ∗ 6..46 + 1. then design strength of concrete will be  =  > . / (8686.5 //--   3.625 Total stress in the walls Maximum stress: .15/2 = 532.21 t @@ Using concrete C28/35.5 = 13.y = 18.853 1703 + =− + = −6.„ `„ = −2.9 @@ The walls could be in tension which does not satisfy the requirements.@? = 1.7* ∗ 2.6 + 1. Reinforcement design for foundation beam '.12 /.@& `„ = 3. The design of shear walls subjected to tension is beyond the scope of this thesis.67 //-- Minimum stress: .@& `„ satisfy the requirement ¤ .5 ∗ 5.5 ∗ 330 ∗ 2.266 1.01 = 4.

Coupled shear walls TU Delft Assumption: o o o Environmental conditions: XC2 Concrete strength class : C28/35 Minimum cover according to EC2. section 4.4.1.1:5.

„@ = .

@`„ + ∆.

" = 25 + 10 = 35 -- The required reinforcement area can be determined by using standard table of GTB 2010 (table 11.  = ℎ − H∅ `&&j + ∅ 25 + .2).

82 ÕÖÖÖ× -0-å.J = 1200 − H12 + + 35J = 1140.NÑ0nN. 533 = = 43.5 -2 2 `A '.

5 ∗ 500 y]  = 981.  = 1.-Ñ0>   0. | .0017 1140.@`„ = 0.456 ∗ 10\ ∗ 1140.26 ∗ ∗ 500 ∗ 1140. As a result the applied reinforcement area will be 6 ∗ Ø 8= 981. (100.74 = 0.5 = 830.2 of NEN-EN 1992-1-1.7  = 8.2.1. .26 @ 2. the shear force capacity can be determined with the following equation:  <Ù. 9. .  In which: 5 Based on the recommended values in Euro code 2 NEN-EN 1992-1-1 118 ( 8.5 ∗ 500 = 830. Shear reinforcement: According to section 6.28 -- 4 bars are required at the top and at the bottom of the cross section if steel bars of ∅25 will be used. 8 .74 -- Maximum and minimum reinforcement ratio According to EC2.28 -- 500   @? = 0.8  .@`„  .5 = 22810 -- As can be seen the design reinforcement ratio is within the minimum and maximum allowed limits.1405 ∗ 18.  = 0. .  * +  .1 ) .5 ∗ 1. = {ÏÙ.2.1 the area of longitudinal reinforcement should not be taken less than  .04  = 0.04 ∗ 500 ∗ 1140.

Coupled shear walls ÏÙ. TU Delft =0.0 = 1 + Ú+.15 tßà ~á is the normal force in the cross section as a result of the load or pre-stress force  <Ù.41 ++ = 0.y = 1.16 kN < Vóô = 468.12 ∗ 1. It is assummed that the diameter of stirups is equal to 12 mm. therefore shear reinforcements are required.5 = 703.4 kN As can be seen the shear capacity is much lower than the applied shear force on the beam. = {0.5 = 252. 8  . = : ).9 ∗ 1. hence the distance between the stirrups can be detremined by using following equation  <.02 ≤ 2.12 =1+Ú ~ÜÝ Þ  ++  ≤ 0. /. .0051 ∗ 35* | ∗ 500 ∗ 1140.41(100 ∗ 0.

n>.1 -- 4 It has to mention that. When thre is no normal force.   = 2 ∗ Ø ∗ 10 = 157. : ) is the centre to centre distance of the shear reinforcement is the internal lever arm.9d  is the angle between the compression diagonals: 1 < . z=0.

9 ∗ 1140.n> < 2.5 which is assummed to be equal to 2.45 -- 119 .5 = 1026.5 ) = 0.

. the centre to centre distance beween the stirrups (s) will be equal to : := ).Coupled shear walls TU Delft Therefore.

A.75(1 + .@? = 300 -- = 0.3 -<.45 ∗ 2. the maximum spacing between the stirrups should not exceed 9A.n>.5 ∗ 435 ∗ 157.1 = = 249.@? .  .4 ∗ 10 - 69 79 Note that. 703.@? A.  1026.

37-- Where  is the inclination of the shear reinforcement to the longitudinal axis of the beam. - The transverse apacing of the legs in a series of shear links should not exceed 9.5(1 + 0* = 855. As can be seen the derived value for centre to centre distance of stirrups is smaller than the maximum allowable distance.@? : 9.75 = 855.n>* = 0.@? = 0.37 < 600 -- 9 = ℎ − 2 R.75 ∗ 1140.

< 9. + Ü¢köö÷øÜ  S = 1200 − 2 R35 + + S  = 1120 -.5 Z1200 − 2 H35 + J[ = 561 -.@? 2 2 → :>«:§ >ℎÑ NÑ6åNÑ-Ñ0>: 9 = ℎ − 2 Z. the stirrups should be applied in three rows. Therefore the transverse distance will be:  `&&j 8 [ = 0.@? Since the transverse distance is larger than the maximum allwoable value.> 9.

. +  = 3 ∗ Ø ∗ := 8 = 150.7 -- 4 ).

 .4 ∗ 10 Consequently . 703.7 = = 239.  1026.3 -<.2(6) 120 .2 ∅12_235 wil be used as shear reinforcement.45 ∗ 2.n>.5 ∗ 435 ∗ 150.2. 6 7 According to Dutch national annex According to EC2 clause 9.

@`„ = 0.08æ √35 = 0.2.08 ∗ = 9. the value of the shear reinforcement should also be controled. : 500 ∗ 235 Maximum shear resistance: The maximum allowable shear resistance in a member is given by the following equations (NEn-EN 1992 section 6. <Ù. equation 6.@? =  ) Where:  Ð é Ð  (.2(5) EC2 is given below.@`„ → :«>:Ñ: >ℎÑ NÑ6åNÑ-Ñ0> . The recommended value for 8 .2.28 ∗ 10\ > 8 .@`„ .3(3). The value of the shear reinforcement ratio should be larger than 8 .9) which should be larger than the force in the compression diagonals.7 = = 1.@`„ according to 9. 8 .46 ∗ 10\  500 8?A` =  150.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Besides the centre to centre disctance of the stirrups.

`?¥„?A = 121 0. 703. <Ù.@? → :«>Ñ: >ℎÑ NÑ6åNÑ-Ñ0>: :0é :021.1 / (2. By using the above parameter the maximum shear resistance can be obtained.6 ∗ 18..@? = 1 ∗ 500 ∗ 1026.4* <.7 ∗ 10\ = 1982.n>é + >«0é* is a coefficient taking account of the state of the stress in the compression chord is a strenght reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear is the angle between the concrete compression strut and the beam axis perpendicualr to the shear force The recommended value for Ð is equal to 0.8 .4 = = 1894.45 ∗ The force in the diagonal is: <.5 + 0.6 for  < 60 '2« and the  is equal to 1 for nonprestressed structures.1 / < <Ù.

122 . One of the important limitations is that the cross section of the shear walls and connecting beams are asummed constant along the height. an extensive study for walls with variable cross section along the height is recommended. two individual elastic foundations and walls on an elastic foundation stiffened by a foundation beam.Coupled shear walls TU Delft 9 Conclusions and discussions This chapter presents the answers to the main research questions and thereby the conclusions to this research. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. The findings of this research will be discussed by flagging limitations and by making Implications for further research. it will be difficult to use them in practical examples. • Since the obtained equations for walls supported on elastic foundation are very large. These excel sheets can be simply used in practical examples to get a rapid evaluation of internal forces of the coupled walls and lintels and lateral deflection. Note that comparing to the frame analysis programme this excels sheet gives a very good result with an accuracy of 1 to 3 percent. shear force in the connecting beams and lateral deflection of the coupled walls system can be obtained. Note that. • Further. 9. Comparisons have been made between the results obtained from the continuous and discrete method. • The behaviour of the coupled shear walls subjected to lateral loading has been considered according to the continuous method for walls on rigid foundation. without any requirements of modelling the coupled walls system. in this thesis the continuous method has been extended for analysis of coupled shear walls system with different stiffness for the connecting beams and shear walls which is more applicable in practice. bending moment in the walls.1 Conclusions The main objective of this paper was to study the behaviour of coupled shear walls according to the continuous and the discrete method. • In this thesis the previous study about analysis of coupled shear walls according to continuous method has been revised. Therefore by applying these equations a programme has been written in VBA for analysing the coupled shear walls which is given as two excel sheets for Dutch and English users. the coupled shear walls systems have been studied according to the discrete method.2 Limitation and future research This research aimed to extend the application of the continuous method for analysing coupled shear walls supported by elastic foundation and with different stiffness for walls and connecting beams. The obtained results are exactly identical to the results given in other researches. Therefore. However there are still some limitations in the continuous method. According to the results it can be concluded that the continuous method gives very good results with high accuracy to analyse the coupled shear walls. 9. The results have been given as some equations and curves from which the axial force in the walls.

123 . One other important method to analysing coupled shear walls is the finite element method. An interesting fact would be to compare the results of FEM with the continuous method.Coupled shear walls TU Delft Further. as can be noticed from the results. the continuous method and discrete method have been compared in this paper.

 can be substituted by 6()*. which is assumed to be applied at the midpoint of the span.  is the cross sectional area of the connecting beams  is the second moment area of the connecting beams According to GTB 2010 . m?& = . the length of  the beam is assumed to be equal to since.%  . The total deflection of a beam subjected to a point load consists of shear and bending deflection. o o o o o 8 9  = 6()*. Note that ℎ is the height of one story.„`„¥ = . will be applied at the end beam. cross sectional area of  and second moment of area of  . each connecting beam is subjected to a shear force of 6()*.Newlin. Further. the beam will deflect. . The shearing deflection of a beam due to a point load is 9 : C. ℎ  Î =  is half of the span of the connecting beams % is the form factor of the cross section which is equal to 1.   and  are the modulus of elasticity and shear modulus of the beam.1 According to study of J.A. As a result. deflection of beams with special reference to shear deformation 124 . respectively. ℎ in the above equations. ℎ. If a point load. Consequently. a.2 for a rectangular cross section. the relative displacement at the midpoint of the beams  has to be considered. Î 3 . Î  C Figure 10. the total deflection of the beam can be obtained. By substituting the following parameter in the above equations.1 Verification of the equivalent flexural rigidity of the connecting beams Consider a beam with a length of Î. table 7. C. It is known that the bending deflection of a beam due to a point load is 8 .  b.1: cantilever beam with appoint load In this thesis it is assumed that the shear flow 6()* is applied at the point of contraflexure (middle point) of the continuous mediums. Î .Coupled shear walls TU Delft 10 Appendix 1: 10.

TC. ℎ6()) 12   .Coupled shear walls TU Delft As a result the total deformation of the connecting beams could be written as:  R2 S C = −2.  . 6()) o p. ¯ℎ. .  .  .  Note that. ℎ + . %° 3 .„`„¥ + C.% and  ƒý =þ l & ƒû ቃ 1 + N . 6()) = − .~û C = − { .  . ℎ |.  ) 1+ . .  1 12 ℎ  .  . ℎ  .  ú.ƒû ) üû . 6()). 6()* = − . ℎ 1  .2 Maple output for the walls subjected to uniform distributed load on rigid foundation Maple file of walls on rigid foundation subjected to uniform distributed load: 125 .] . m?& V = −2. %| . the factor 2 has been used because the relative displacement is considered at the midpoint of the beam. 6()) = −ù  12 Assuming the following parameters: N= (. ..  . C = − o C = − {  + .  . 6()*  12  12 10. %  .   .  . Therefore the relative displacement is equal to two times the displacement of half span. %p . %  . 12  .  + 12. 2 . + ℎ. 6()).û .  (12. .  12   .

m z . d dz z 1 1 $ A1 A2 b h H b M1 D m z . $d1  2 b M2 D. q z dz .H1 D l dx .Mb = E I1 H N z dz 0 E H 1 b $d1 2 m z . l d x z dz 1 $ 12 3 . 1 b $d1 2 H q z dz . (8) . dz d x z dz l (1) 3 dN b h H2 D  .Mb = EI1 z z d dz (4) . diff . d z 12EIe d N z dz E Ie 1 12 b3 h (2) z 1 1 1 H3 D. 2 z q z dz $Mb = EI2 1 . 0 . z 1 b $d2 2 H q z dz = E I1 z 2 d x z dz2 (7) 2 $E I2 d x z 2 dz > > sol1 D collect M1 $M2.  $ E A1 A2 N z dz. $d2  2 d N z dz E Ie dx dz d x z dz2 (5) . b $d2 2 dx dz q z dz . z 1 1 $ A1 A2 N z dz 0 (3) E H D H1 $H2 $H3. H q z dz $Mb = E I2 z d2 x z dz2 (6) > M1 $M2 .

d1 .12 Ie A2 I2 .12 Ie A2 I1 . sol3 . 3 dz > eqnormal force D algsubs Ait 1$ 12 N z Ie l lm z E I1 $I2 $ E A1 A2 I1 $I2 Ie 2 $ .d2 d2 q z dz $m z = E I1 $E I2 2 > sol3 D algsubs x z (9) dz z . z H sol2 := . algsubs l =0 12Ie m z l  .l. q z dz . algsubs 1 .12 l2 A1 A2 Ie N z 3 > eq1 D = .b .N z  dz 12Iel2 3 b hit  1$ Ait 2 A1A2l eq1 := d 2 2 N z . d2 x z 2 dz q z dz l $m z = E I1 $E I2 z (10) H > sol4 D algsubs q z dz = N z .H 1 b $d1 2 sol1 := m z . H sol3 := .d1 .12 Ie A1 I2 . 2 E = .b . H 1 b $d2 2 q z dz .d2 =. eq1 12Iel A it 2 A1 A2 l 3 b hit . sol2 .12 Ie A1 I1 . H=0 . z q z dz = E I1 (8) z 2 d x z dz2 $E I2 H > sol2 D collect sol1. A1A2l = k . b h it 2 2 =. 3 it b h =. 2 N z dz E I1 $E I2 dz . 1 sol5 := 12 $ 2 d x z 2 dz > sol5 D collect collect algsubs (11) 12 m z l Ie (13) 3 it b h 2 12Iel 3 b hit 2 = E .l N z $m z = E I1 $E I2 2 N z . (12) E A1 A2 I1 $I2 Ie d2 N z dz2 3 b h A1 A2 I1 $b h A1 A2 I2 1 12 d2 2 N z . z 2 d x z 2 dz sol4 := .l N z $m z d d .

algsubs $ > ode2 D algsubs . d m z 2 dz E it .12 Ie A2 m z > ode1 D eqdeflec.b h A1 A2 x z dz $12 Ie A1 d2 x z dz2 E it . dz > eqdeflec. 1. 4 D algsubs N z = eqdeflec. z . 2 dz2 E it . 3 2 1 1 2 12 l 12 E Ie l A1 A2 3 2 dz 1 1 $ A1 A2 b3 h E it (18) E it .m z x z (15) l > eqdeflec. 2 d eqdeflec. m z E l (14) . algsubs eqdeflec. 4 d x z 4 dz 3 E Ie A1 A2 . 1 D solve algsubs E I1 $E I2 = Eit. 3 =. collect collect expand ode1  lIe12 3 hb it . 1 := .b h A1 A2 d2 x z 2 dz N z N z = eqdeflec.d2 2 2 eqnormal force := .N z k E $ 2 2 N z =.1 E .m z . sol4 . .12 Ie A1 m z E it . d2 2 x z . z . 1 1 ode1 := 12 l2 12 E Ie l A1 A2 d2 m z dz2 $b3 h A1 A2 $12 Ie A2 d2 x z dz2 d 2 2 3 E Ie A1 A2 . 2 := . z. N z d eqdeflec.12 Ie A2 m z d 4 4 x z E it dz (19) E it . 3 D diff H. 2. 4 := d2 m z 2 dz $b h A1 A2 $12 Ie A2 d2 x z dz2 . 1. 4 2 d x z 4 dz eqdeflec. 3 3 3 it E b h it E A2 b h it E A1 b h it b h A2 12 Ie $ 12 Ie 3 b h A1 2 2 12 Ie = k E .12 Ie A1 m z =0 > 2 2 12 Ie l 12 Ie k2 . dz (20) . 2 D diff eqdeflec. 3 := l 2 2 d N z dz2 E Ie 1 $ 12 x z dz d2 > eqdeflec. d x z 2 dz $12 Ie A1 (17) E . 4 = 0. (16) l > eqdeflec. eqdeflec.

2 dz 2 d2 x z dz2 d4 x z dz4 2 k2 E .4 z3 H w k6 E cosh k E H $4 w E H z3 k4 cosh k E H 4 (24) 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 $z w k E cosh k E H .k2 E D x H = k2 .6 w E H2 k4 z2 cosh k E H .12 z2 w k2 E cosh k E H $6 E k6 w H2 z2 cosh k E H 4 4 4 .z w $ E k wH z 2 2 k4 E i E 2 t (23) 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 4 1 1 3 1 w E H2 k2 z2 .1 w H3 E it 1 E .m z k . D x 0 = 0. x z . z H w k4 E $ w E H z3 k2 $ z w k4 E . 1 1 soldeflection := x z = 24 H w k E sinh k E H . w E z4 k2 3 12 2 3 12 $_C3 z $_C4 . dz2 m := z 1 w H . D 3 2 x H . D 3 x H .k E z 2 2 2 x z = 2 k _C2 E it e $2 _C1 k E it e . x z .z 2 > m z D 2 . 'size' (25) .2 ode2 := . 2 it E dz 2 2 d 2 m z . D x 0 = 0 .1 E dz2 2 2 k E = it E 2 k E = x z dz (21) > w H . kE D x H = 1 Eit H m z dz .24 w k E H sinh k E H . d m z 2 k .E  k2 .1 E dz2 $ $ it E it E 2 m z 4 2 d x z 4 dz > ode3 D ode3 := d x z 2 dz .24 w > simplify (25).w E z k cosh k E H $24 z H w k E cosh k E H .z 2 w 2 (22) > > dsolve ode3. =0 (20) 2 2 1 d 2  m z .k E z 24 k6 E i E4 cosh k E H t 2 4 $24 w cosh k E z .1  dz ics := x 0 = 0. d4 4 d2 x z . 0 2 x H = 0. D 2 2 x H = 0. 1 1 1 2 4 2 kEz 2 . > ics D x 0 = 0.m z k .1 E . D 2 2 d  m H . trig . 6 > > soldeflection D combine convert dsolve ode3. ics . d2 m z .

E z4 k4 cosh k E H $24 z H k2 E cosh k E H .cosh k E z $1 > simplify (25) 1 1 x z = 4 24 k6 E i E cosh k E H t 4 6 4 4 6 4 2 2 3 4 2 4 2 6 4 3 4 $z k E cosh k E H .H sinh k E H . distributed := 1 . soldeflection deflectionmax := x H = . w H sinh k E H 1 w H4 1 w H4 $ . 4 . subs y = 1.cosh x 1.z 4 k6 E it E cosh k E H 2 2 . subs y (31) .2 z cosh k E H $k E H sinh k E H 6 3 . 2 3 8 k Ei 8 E it k5 E it E cosh k E H t H w 1 w $ 4 6 2 k4 E i E2 k E it E t $ 4 k6 E it E cosh k E H 8Eit deflectionmax . F3.4 z H k E cosh k E H (27) 1 2 2 2 z H$ z E $4 H . y2 > F3. F3. 3 5 3 k H k E cosh k E H > F3 D expand F3 := 8 E it x H wH (28) 2 w .24 k E H sinh k E H $24 cosh k E z . 8 $ 4 H4 k6 E cosh k E H 4 2 4 2 (29) H k E 8 $ 4 H4 k6 E 4 > x H = wH F 8Eit 3 x H = x H = 8 sinh k E H 1 1 1 w H4 .1. 1 w . wH4 8 sinh k E H 1 = . subs y = 1. k (26) w 6 E k H z cosh k E H .x z =. > plot 2 1. distributed .1 k H .6 E H k z cosh k E H $4 E H z k cosh k E H 4 2 2 . 3 5 3 8 E it k H k E cosh k E H 8 .05.12 z2 k2 E cosh k E H $24 H k E sinh H E k . . 2 $ 4 x x cosh x F3.E k z . 2 $1 . subs y = 1. 1 2 2 E z k z k $1 4 E k. distributed D 1 . distributed . 4 6 4 $ 4 H k E cosh k E H 1 2 4 2 H k E 4 $ 8 4 6 4 H k E 8  1 $xsinh x . distributed . 2 $ 4 (30) . F3. 2 $1 .cosh x x cosh x y x 4 8 1 $x sinh x .24 > deflectionmax D expand algsubs z = H.

F3. "k=1.7 0.8 0.= 1.9 Deflection force factor F_3 0. "k=1.15.25 4 k=1.2.25. "Niagara Purple" .6 0. title = "Variation of deflection factor F_3 for uniform distributed load".2 0. "Orange".4 0. "Black". "k=1.2 16 . labeldirections = "horizontal".1 0 2 k=1 k=1..25" .1 10 12 k=1. legend = "k=1". "Red".05".1". "NavyBlue".0 0. "Deflection force factor F_3" . F3. F3. color = "DarkGreen". distributed .15".15 14 k=1. "k=1. distributed .5 0. labels = "k E H". subs y = 1.16. "k=1. "vertical" . subs y = 1.05 6 8 kĮH k=1.3 0. distributed .2". Variation of deflection factor F_3 for uniform distributed load 1. x = 0 .

.z 4 2 (1) 2 E w (2) 2 k lE > ics D N H = 0.z > ode D diff N z .sinh k E z 1 2 w k E H cosh k E H $sinh k E H 2 k4 l E cosh k E H cosh k E z $sinh k E z 1 2 w H cosh k E H .z 2 2 E w 2 4 k lE .sinh k E H (3) 2 2 E (6) . 2 2 k4 l E cosh k E H $ $ 1 2 cosh k E z $sinh k E z 1 2 2 $k (4) E k .k E N z = . sa1 := 1 1 2 2 k4 l E cosh k E H .1 2 4 k l E cosh k E H w k E H cosh k E H $sinh k E H cosh k E z . z . 2 2 E w H .2 cosh k E z w 2 E k $ 2 $k H . load D $ w H cosh k E H . load := . D N 0 = 0.z 2 2 E w 2 4 Ndist.z $1 2 > Ndist. 2 l dz dsolve ode .sinh k E H E k . ics . ics := N H = 0.1 2 k l E cosh k E H 2 2 $k 1 $ 2 H .> restart. size . 2 . load .sinh k E H 4 $1 (5) E k . z. l 2 2 1 E w H .sinh k E z w k E H cosh k E H $sinh k E H 1 N z =.z 4 2 2 E w 2 k lE > sa1 D simplify combine Ndist.1 k4 l E cosh k E H 2 H .k E z N z =e kE z _C2 $e 2 2 $k 1 _C1 $ 2 2 H .  . kE N z =. $ cosh k E z $sinh k E z 1 2 w H cosh k E H .sinh k E z 1 2 $1 2 4 k l E cosh k E H 2 2 $k 1 2 H .2 H sinh k E H . trig . D N 0 = 0 > convert dsolve ode. k lE cosh k E z . cosh k E z .z cosh k E H .z d2 2 2 ode := 2 N z .

1 1 2 2 k4 l E cosh k E H 2 2 2 2 2 w H cosh k E H E k . F1 .2 cosh y x y . "kEH=10". "Niagara Purple" .. "vertical" .2 cosh y x > plot subs y = 1. "Orange".2 cosh y x . F1 . algsubs z H k2 E = xy2. "Black". z =x H 1 1 y . "NavyBlue". subs y = 2. algsubs k E H = y.2 cosh y x substittuting kEH = y . labels = "z/H". subs y = 10. x = 0 . subs y = 5. subs y = 16. "kEH=5". legend = "kEH=1". 1 1 F1 := y . algsubs k E z = yx. labeldirections = "horizontal". "kEH=2".2 sinh y cosh y x $2 cosh y sinh y x 2 cosh y y2 $cosh y y2 $cosh y x2 y2 $2 cosh y .2 sinh y cosh y x 2 cosh y y2 > F1 D 2 2 2 $cosh y y $cosh y x y $2 cosh y .> simplify Ndist. subs y = 3. 1 1 k E .2 cosh y x y $2 cosh y sinh y x .2 H cosh k E H E k z (7) 2 $cosh k E H E k2 z2 $2 H cosh k E H sinh k E z E k . "Axial force factor F_1" . (9) . F1 . load . F1 . "kEH=3". title = "variation of axial force factor F_1 for uniform distributed load".2 cosh y x y $2 cosh y sinh y x . "kEH=16" . load 2 H w .1. color = "DarkGreen".2 sinh y cosh y x 2 cosh y H2 k2 E2 2 k2l H (8) 2 2 $cosh y y $cosh y x y $2 cosh y . F1 . "Red".2 H sinh k E H cosh k E z E k $2 cosh k E H .2 cosh k E z 2 2 > algsubs k2 E H2 = y2. F1 .  simplify Ndist.

3 0.diff Ndist.z w k2 l 2 k l > sim1 D simplify convert simplify qdist .4 0.1 0 0 0. load.H cosh k E z cosh k E H E k k H E cosh k E H $k E H cosh k E H .8 1 z/H kĮH=1 kĮH=10 kĮH=2 kĮH=16 kĮH=3 kĮH=5 wH2 : 2 k l > qdist D.variation of axial force factor F_1 for uniform distributed load Axial force factor F_1 0.1 sinh k E z k E $cosh k E z k E w H cosh k E H $ H . (10) sinh k E z k E .cosh k E z k E w k E H cosh k E H $sinh k E H $1 2 k4 l E cosh k E H 1 1 2 2 k4 l E cosh k E H . qdist := > Ndist D F1 1 2 . z .4 0.2 0. wH 1 sim1 := H sinh k E z sinh k E H E k .k E cosh k E H z $sinh k E z (11) .6 0.sinh k E H E k .2 0. trig .

x . k2l 1 qz.y ln ln > fstar y D $1 y ey $1 ey .y y y ey $1 1 ey .x . 1.> > algsubs k E H .y y .cosh y x cosh y y .cosh y x $cosh y . z .cosh y y x .cosh y x y $cosh y y $sinh y x cosh y H k E > F2 D . H sinh H E k .cosh y 1 . > 2 1 2 e $1 ln 2 e2 .y y . cosh y . y (18) ln $cosh y y . sinh y x $cosh y y .cosh k E H H cosh k E H > substituting-y.y sinh y 1 .y sinh y cosh y y y y y e $1 ln y e .H cosh k E z cosh k E H E k $k E H cosh k E H . cosh y (16) solve subs y = 2. algsubs k E H = y. sim1 sinh y x sinh y y .x y .cosh y 1 . .2 (17) 1 y ey $1 ln y y e . distibuted := 3 k E l cosh k E H > qz.x y .cosh y y .cosh y .E k z E k $cosh k E z . y y e $1 ey .k E cosh k E H z $sinh k E z > calculate-position-of-the-max-shear: qmax D combine diff sim1.cosh y x y F2 := cosh y y (12) (13) > wH sim1. distibuted D w H sinh k E z sinh k E H E k (14) .x (15) . cosh y y sinh y x $cosh y y .x: f1 D.z = y 1 .x . algsubs k E z = yx.ysinh y 1 . f1 = 0.cosh yx $cosh y .

y y (19) y y > with plots : > dualaxisplot plot subs y = 1. subs y = 16. ln .y ln $cosh y y ..11 e . fstar 6 . ln . subs y = 5. color = blue . subs y = 10. fstar 15 . "shear flow factor F_2" . F2 . ln 13 14 15 16 14 15 16 13 e . 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 e .8 9 10 11 12 1 9 e $1 1 10 e $1 1 11 e $1 1 12 e $1 ln .4 5 e5 $1 1 6 e6 $1 1 7 e7 $1 1 8 e8 $1 1 ln . "vertical" . 6 7 8 5 e5 .7 e8 . style = polygon.y y y ey $1 ey . F2 . "kEH=10". title = "variation of shear flow factor F_2 for uniform distributed load" . "Orange". fstar 5 .1 cosh y ln $1 y$ y y e $1 ey . legend = "kEH=1".y y ln fstar := y 1 sinh cosh y y .6 e7 .3 e4 . labeldirections = "horizontal". "kEH=16" . subs y = 3. ln . fstar 2 . F2 .12 13 14 15 16 13 e $1 1 14 e $1 1 15 e $1 1 16 e $1 1 ln . 2 3 4 e1 .cosh y .1 e2 . x = 0 . fstar 16 . fstar 12 . F2 . ln . color = "DarkGreen". ln .2 e3 . title = "variation of shear flow factor F_2 for uniform distributed load". ln . subs y = 2. Vector fstar 1 . "Black". ln . ln .13 e . "NavyBlue". fstar 3 . fstar 10 . fstar 11 .10 e . "kEH=5". fstar 8 . .15 e . labels = "z/H". fstar 7 . ln . F2 .1. ln .9 e . plot Vector 1 1 1e1 $1 1 2 e2 $1 1 3 e3 $1 1 4 e4 $1 .5 e6 . "kEH=3". "Red". ln .16  ln . y e $1 ey . fstar 14 .14 e . "Niagara Purple" . fstar 4 . "kEH=2". F2 . fstar 9 . fstar 13 .

k l 2 w H sinh k E H sinh $ 2 w H sinh 3 1 k E h cosh k E zi 2 (20) 3 k El 1 k E h sinh k E zi 2 k E l cosh k E H 2 w sinh $ 4 1 k E h sinh k E zi 2 2 k E l cosh k E H > > solve d q = 0. distibuted dz . h z.5 0.7 shear flow factor F_2 0.6 0.variation of shear flow factor F_2 for uniform distributed load 0.2 0. 2 i Qz.4 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.8 1 z/H kĮH=1 kĮH=10 kĮH=2 kĮH=16 kĮH=3 kĮH=5 > > shear-of-each-connecting-beam: h z$ 2 i > Qz.7 0.4 0.3 0. z . distributed := wHh 2 . d z dist (21) . distributed D expand simplify qz.5 0.2 0.6 0.4 0. w h zi k l 2 .

z H z H $ $ I1 it l . b it 2 it 2 k E l cosh k E H > nD 2 (25) 2 . .  S $ w . 2 I1 l 1 3 it k E l cosh k E H . 2 dz dz 2 1 w I1 1 n := .ln . normal . H 2 it .d1 w H sinh k E z sinh k E H E k .k E cosh k E H z $sinh k E z > S2 D wHI2 it w H I2 1 .d1 w H cosh k E z k2 E sinh k E H .force . distibuted.H sinh k E z k2 E cosh k E H . S1 := 1. b . .e kE (21) > normal-force-beam. S $w .H cosh k E z cosh k E H E k $k E H cosh k E H .k E cosh k E H z $sinh k E z > 1 d 1 1 d  S . 3 2 it k E l cosh k E H $ 1 w I2 1 $ w 2 it 2 . z H it (22) I1 z b . l . 1 b 2 > nD I1 l it (26) .d1 qz.k cosh k E H E $cosh k E z k E 1 d d  S1. 1 b 2 (23) . 1 b 2 (24) .d1 w H sinh k E z sinh k E H E k . .H cosh k E z cosh k E H E k $k E H cosh k E H .beam > S1 D wHI1 it w H I1 1 . distibuted.d1 qz. 2 dz 1 2 2 dz 2 I1 l 1 w I1 1 1 n := . k E H ek E H $1 H. 3 . kE H k E H . S2 := it 1. I1 l 1 3 k E l cosh k E H it .

. "Black". plot := .2 2 . 1 .H sinh k E z k2 E cosh k E H . plot . subs y = 10.k cosh k E H E $cosh k E z k E 1  cosh yx $y sinh y 1 . "kEH=5". plot . "Niagara Purple" . labeldirections = "horizontal". plot D . "axial force in beam F_4" . subs y = 16.d1 w H cosh k E z k2 E sinh k E H . legend = "kEH=1". title = "variation of axial force factor in beams F_4 for uniform distributed load".x F4. distributed := 1 w I2 1 $ w 2 it 2 1 I1 w 1 I2 w 1 $ $ w 2 it 2 it 2 1 k E cosh k E H 2 $ 2 2  k l  w 1 I1 l . subs y = 3.k cosh k E H E $cosh k E z k E > F4. F4. cosh y cosh y x $y sinh y 1 . > F4. color = "DarkGreen". labels = "z/H".1 (28) cosh y > plot subs y = 1. "Red". F4.x . F4. .1 . plot . "kEH=2". n . "NavyBlue". distributed D. "Orange". "vertical" . F4. plot . plot . F4.d1 it 2 2 H cosh k E z k E sinh k E H (27) 2 .H sinh k E z k E cosh k E H . subs y = 2. "kEH=3". plot . x = 0 . F4. subs y = 5. "kEH=16" . "kEH=10". F4. b .1.

1 2 w H . alternative.2 0. load A1 .z 2 .variation of axial force factor in beams F_4 for uniform distributed load axial force in beam F_4 15 10 5 0 0.method > es1 D es1 := .1 . 2 (30) cosh k E z .8 1 z/H kĮH=1 kĮH=16 kĮH=2 kĮH=3 kĮH=5 kĮH=10 > alternative-method. load l c1 2 $ it (29) w k E H cosh k E H $sinh k E H 4 $1 2 k l E cosh k E H 1 2 1 $ 2 cosh k E z $sinh k E z w H cosh k E H .sinh k E z 1 2 $ 1 w H .z 2 k4 l E 2 2 E w l c1 $ 1 A1 E k . 1 it Ndist.4 0. Ndist.z .6 0.sinh k E H 2 k4 l E cosh k E H 2 2 $k H .

k E H cosh k E z sinh k E H cosh k E H $k E H sinh k E z .sinh k E H 4 E k . trig (34) . k2 .z 1 2 c1 1 .z 4 2 2 w E 2 k lE 2 A2l k2 w H ..z c1 > es3 D   .2 cosh k E z $2 cosh k E H 2 H .z 1 es2 := 100 2 it $ . trig es4 := 1 2 A H .sinh k E z 1 2 $ w k E H cosh k E H $sinh k E H $1 2 4 k l E cosh k E H 1 2 1 $ 2 > es2 D cosh k E z $sinh k E z w H cosh k E H .z 2 2 1 A1 cosh k E H l2 k2 2  2 l A1 A2 $A it 2 2 2 H .1 2 k l E cosh k E H 2 $k2 H . cosh k E z .2 H z $z k E . $H sinh k E z E k 2 2 cosh k E H . A2 2 H cosh k E z sinh k E H E k 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 H E k .k2 1 w H . A2 l $c1 k2 A 2 A1 A2 l2 (31) A 2 100 . cosh k E z cosh k E H > F5 D combine .z  $c1  100 A A1A2 2 2 it $ l A 2 w H .2 H cosh k E z sinh k E H E k $2 H sinh k E z cosh k E H E k . 1 k 100 2 (32) it > 2 > es4 D simplify convert solve es1 = es2 $es3. 200 2 2 2 H cosh k E H E k (33) 2 .1. it 100 2 es3 := 2 w H .H E k2 z $ E k z .2 H cosh k E H E k2 z $cosh k E H E k2 z2 . expand (33) .2 H z 2 $z > > expand algsubs it A 2 l A1 2 = k . $1 cosh k E z cosh k E H .

25". "NavyBlue". "z/H=0.x x .x x .625.y 2 $ 200 1 $ cosh x 2 K2. "z/H=0.K1. color = "DarkGreen".K1.16. labels = "k E H ". legend = "z/H=0". subs y = 0. x = 0 . plot .625. "z/H=0. "Orange".5".K1.25. 2 2 x 1 .75. . plot := 2 2 x 1 .cosh k E z 1 2 F5 := $1 $ k H .cosh y x $sinh y x . title = "variation of wall moment factor K_1 and K_2 for uniform distributed load" .16. plot. subs y = 0. plot subs y = 0.625".25. "Black" .5". plot .K2.y sinh x y . subs y = 0. "Black" . plot . plot := 100 . . 2 2 cosh x x  1 . 2 2 . legend = "z/H=0".E k z E k . plot .75" . subs y = 0. K2. "Red". (35) (36) (37) (38) .25". plot . plot D 100 .625". K2.cosh y x 1 2 x 1 . "(k_1 percentage of individual cantilever action)-1 " . "z/H=0. K2.H sinh H E k .x x > K2.y $ cosh x 2 K1.5. "NavyBlue". 2 sinh x y . plot D 2  1 $ x2 1 . "z/H=0. K2.k2 E H z $ k E z . "Orange". F5 . .cosh y x 1 2 $ k H .2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 k E H . x = 0 . "vertical" . subs y = 0. plot .z 2 E $1 cosh x 2 200 1 . "z/H=0. . K2.x x .y > > with plots : > dualaxisplot plot subs y = 0. 1 2 sinh x y . plot . "k_2 percentage of composite cantilever action " . subs y = 0. "vertical" .y > K1.5. labeldirections = "horizontal". labeldirections = "horizontal".K1. plot ..75" . "z/H=0.K1.y 2 $ . "Red". "z/H=0.cosh y x 2 200 1 $ x 1 . color = "DarkGreen".z 2 cosh k E H $1 $factor 2 2 E > algsubs k E z = yx.. labels = "k E H ". subs y = 0. plot .75. plot . subs y = 0. algsubs k E H = x. .

25 10 12 z/H=0.60 20 .5 14 16 z/H=0.80 .100 0 0 2 z/H=0 z/H=0.180 80 160 60 140 40 120 20 100 0 80 .20 60 .75 > > 4 6 8 kĮH z/H=0.40 40 .625 (k_1 percentage of individual cantilever action)*-1 k_2 percentage of composite cantilever action variation of wall moment factor K_1 and K_2 for uniform distributed load .

ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ ͳͳ ’’‡†‹šʹǣ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ƉĂƌƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞƋƵĂƚŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ĐƵƌǀĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ǁĂůůƐ ƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƉŽŝŶƚ ůŽĂĚ ĂŶĚ ƚƌŝĂŶŐƵůĂƌůLJ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚ ůŽĂĚ ŽŶ ƌŝŐŝĚ ĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ ǁŝůů ďĞ ŐŝǀĞŶ͘ &Žƌ ƚŚŝƐ ĐĂƐĞ ĂůƐŽ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƚŝŶƵŽƵƐ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƵƐĞĚ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ǁŽƌƚŚ ƚŽ ŵĞŶƚŝŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ͕ ĨŽƌ ďŽƚŚ ƉŽŝŶƚ ůŽĂĚ ĂŶĚ ƚƌŝĂŶŐƵůĂƌůLJ ůŽĂĚ ƚŚĞ ŽƌĚŝŶĂƌLJ ĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶƚŝĂů ĞƋƵĂƚŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŶŽƌŵĂů ĨŽƌĐĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĚĞĨůĞĐƚŝŽŶ ǁŝůů ďĞ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ĂƐ ŽŶĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƵŶŝĨŽƌŵ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚ ůŽĂĚ͘ dŚĞ ŽŶůLJ ĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ůŽĂĚ ĐĂƐĞƐ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ĂƉƉůŝĞĚ ŵŽŵĞŶƚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůůƐ͘ dŚĞ ůŽĂĚ ĐŽŶĨŝŐƵƌĂƚŝŽŶƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞĚŝŶ&ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϭ͘  &ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϭ͗ůŽĂĚĐŽŶĨŝŐƵƌĂƚŝŽŶŽŶƚŚĞǁĂůůƐ Ǥͳǣ‘‹–Ž‘ƒ†ǣ dŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶĐƵƌǀĞƐĨŽƌƚŚĞĐĂƐĞŽĨƚŚĞƉŽŝŶƚůŽĂĚŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞĚŝŶƚŚĞ&ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϮƚŽ&ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϰ͘ ݉ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ‫݌‬ሺ‫ ܪ‬െ ‫ݖ‬ሻ ܰ௣௢௜௡௧ǡ௟௢௔ௗ ൌ ‫ܪ݌‬ ‫ݖ‬ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ Ǥ ൭ቀͳ െ ቁ െ Ǥ ‫ ݄݊݅ݏ‬ቆ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬ቀͳ െ ቁቇ൱ ଶ ݇ ݈ ‫ܪ‬ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻǤ ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ ‫ܪ‬ ;ϭϭ͘ϭͿ ;ϭϭ͘ϮͿ /ƚƐŚŽƵůĚďĞŵĞŶƚŝŽŶĞĚƚŚĂƚƚŚĞǀĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨĂdžŝĂů ĨŽƌĐĞŝŶƚŚĞǁĂůůƚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚĞŚĞŝŐŚƚŽĨƚŚĞǁĂůůĨŽƌ ĂŶ ĂƉƉůŝĞĚƉŽŝŶƚůŽĂĚĂƚƚŚĞƚŽƉŽĨƚŚĞǁĂůůŝƐůŝŶĞĂƌ͘ ^ŚĞĂƌĨŽƌĐĞ͗  ϭϮϲ  .

ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ ‫ݍ‬௣௢௜௡௧ǡ௟௢௔ௗ ൌ െ ‫ ܪ݌‬ቆെ  ͳ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬൫݇ߙሺ‫ ܪ‬െ ‫ݖ‬ሻ൯ ൅ ቇ ‫ܪ‬ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ‫ܪ‬  ݇ ଶ݈ ‫ͳ ݈ܫ‬ ቀ ݅ଵ െ ʹ ܾ െ ݀ଵ ቁ Ǥ ‫݄݊݅ݏ݌‬൫݇ߙሺ‫ ܪ‬െ ‫ݖ‬ሻ൯Ǥ ߙ ;ϭϭ͘ϯͿ š‹ƒŽˆ‘”…‡‹–Š‡…‘‡…–‹‰„‡ƒ• ݊ൌെ ௧ ݈݇Ǥ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ  ;ϭϭ͘ϰͿ  ‡ˆŽ‡…–‹‘ ‫ݔ‬௣௢௜௡௧ǡ௟௢௔ௗ ͵‫ ݖ‬ଶ ‫ ݖ‬ଷ ଶ ͳ ͳ ‫ ۇ‬ଷ ͳ ሺെͳ ൅ ݇ ሻǤ ൬ ‫ ܪ‬ଶ െ ‫ ܪ‬ଷ ൰ ൌ Ǥ ‫ ܪ݌‬൮ Ǥ ͵ ‫݅ܧ‬௧ ‫ۈ‬ ʹ ݇ଶ ‫ۉ‬ ‫ݖ‬ ‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ െ ‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬െ ݇ߙ‫ݖ‬ሻ ͵൬ ଶ ଶ ଷ െ ൰ ‫ۊ‬ ݇ ߙ ‫ܪ‬ ݇ ଷ ߙ ଷ ‫ ܪ‬ଷ Ǥ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ൱ ൅ ‫ۋ‬ ݇ଶ ;ϭϭ͘ϱͿ ‫ی‬  ͳ ‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ͳ ͵൬ ൅ ଷ ଷ ଷ െ ଶ ଶ ଶ൰ ͵ ݇ ߙ ‫ܪ‬ Ǥ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ݇ ߙ ‫ܪ‬ ‫ ܪ݌‬ଷ ൮ͳ െ ൲ ݇ଶ ƒš‹—†‡ˆŽ‡…–‹‘ƒ––Š‡–‘’ ‫ݔ‬௠௔௫ǡ௣௢௜௡௧ ͳ ൌ Ǥ ͵ ‫݅ܧ‬௧ ;ϭϭ͘ϲͿ  LJ ĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶƚŝĂƚŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵĞƋƵĂƚŝŽŶ ; ϭϭ͘ϯ Ϳ ĂŶĚ ƐƵďƐƚŝƚƵƚŝŶŐ ŝƚĞƋƵĂůƚŽ njĞƌŽ ƚŚĞƉŽƐŝƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞŵĂdžŝŵƵŵ ƐŚĞĂƌĨůŽǁĐĂŶďĞĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ͘ƐĐĂŶďĞƐĞĞŶŝŶ&ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϮďLJĚĂƐŚĞĚůŝŶĞƚŚĞŵĂdžŝŵƵŵƐŚĞĂƌĨůŽǁŝŶ ƚŚĞĐĂƐĞŽĨǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽĂƉŽŝŶƚůŽĂĚŽĐĐƵƌƐĂƚƚŚĞƚŽƉŽĨƚŚĞǁĂůůƐ͘  ϭϮϳ  .

ŝŐŚƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ  &ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϯ͗ǀĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĂdžŝĂůĨŽƌĐĞĨĂĐƚŽƌŝŶƚŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚŝŶŐďĞĂŵƐĨŽƌǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƉŽŝŶƚůŽĂĚ ϭϮϴ  .ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ .ŝŐŚƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ ůŽǁƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ  &ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘Ϯ͗sĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƐŚĞĂƌĨůŽǁĨŽƌƚŚĞǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƉŽŝŶƚůŽĂĚ .

ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ ůŽǁƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ .ŝŐŚƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ  &ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϱ͗ǀĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶŽĨǁĂůůŵŽŵĞŶƚĐŽŵƉŽƐŝƚĞĂŶĚŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůĂĐƚŝŽŶĨĂĐƚŽƌ<ϭĂŶĚ<ϮĨŽƌǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƉŽŝŶƚůŽĂĚ ϭϮϵ  .ŝŐŚƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ  &ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϰ͗ǀĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞŵĂdžŝŵƵŵĚĞĨůĞĐƚŝŽŶĨĂĐƚŽƌĨŽƌǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽĂƉŽŝŶƚůŽĂĚĂƚƚŚĞƚŽƉ  ůŽǁƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ .

ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ Ǥʹǣ”‹ƒ‰—Žƒ”Ž›†‹•–”‹„—–‡†Ž‘ƒ†ǣ  ݉ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ‫݌‬ Ǥ ሺ‫ ܪ‬െ ‫ݖ‬ሻଶ Ǥ ሺʹ‫ ܪ‬൅ ‫ݖ‬ሻ ͸‫ܪ‬ ;ϭϭ͘ϳͿ dŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶĐƵƌǀĞƐĨŽƌƚŚĞĐĂƐĞŽĨǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƚƌŝĂŶŐƵůĂƌůLJĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚůŽĂĚŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞĚŝŶ ƚŚĞ&ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϲƚŽ&ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϭϬ͘ š‹ƒŽˆ‘”…‡‹–Š‡™ƒŽŽ• ܰ௧௥௜௔௡௚ǡ௟௢௔ௗ ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ͳ ‫ ܪ݌‬ଶ ‫݄݊݅ݏۇ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ െ ʹ ൅ ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬െ ݇ߙ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ଶ ‫ۈ‬ Ǥ ‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬െ ݇ߙ‫ݖ‬ሻ െ ଶ ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻଶ ݇ ݈ Ǥ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ‫ۉ‬ ͳ ‫ ݖ‬ଶ ͳ ‫ ݖ‬ଷ ͳ ‫ ݖ‬ቍ ൅ ቀͳ െ ቁ െ ቀͳ െ ቁ ൅ Ǥቀ ቁ  ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻଶ ‫ܪ‬ ʹ ‫ܪ‬ ͸ ‫ܪ‬ ;ϭϭ͘ϴͿ  ͳ ͳ ‫ ܪ݌‬ቀ‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ െ ʹ ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬൅ ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬ቁ Ǥ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬െ ݇ߙ‫ݖ‬ሻ ‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬െ ݇ߙ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ଶǤቌ െ ݈݇ ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬Ǥ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ Š‡ƒ”ˆ‘”…‡ ‫ݍ‬௧௥௜௔௡௚ǡ௟௢௔ௗ ‫ݖ‬ ͳ ‫ ݖ‬ଶ ͳ ൱ ൅ ቀͳ െ ቁ െ ቀͳ െ ቁ െ  ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻଶ ‫ܪ‬ ʹ ‫ܪ‬ ;ϭϭ͘ϵͿ  š‹ƒŽˆ‘”…‡‹–Š‡…‘‡…–‹‰„‡ƒ• ݊௕௘௔௠ ൌ ͳ ‫ܫ‬ଵ ݈ ͳ ൮൬ െ ܾ ଶ ݈݇ ݅௧ ʹ െ ݀ଵ ൰ Ǥ ‫ ܪ݌‬ଶ Ǥ ቌ ͳ ቆ൬‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ‫ ܪ‬ଶ Ǥ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ͳ ͳ െ ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬൅ ൰ Ǥ ‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ ʹ ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ ‫ݖ‬ ͳെ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬െ ݇ߙ‫ݖ‬ሻ ͳ ͳ ‫ܫݖ݌‬ଵ ‫ܪ‬ െ ݇ߙ‫ݖ‬ሻቇ െ ൅ ଶെ ൱ ൲ ൅ Ǥ  ‫ܪ‬ଶ ‫ܪ‬ଶ ‫ܪ‬ ʹ ‫݅ܪ‬௧ ϭϯϬ  ;ϭϭ͘ϭϬͿ .

ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ ƒ–‡”ƒŽ†‡ˆŽ‡…–‹‘ ͳ ‫ ܪ݌‬ସ ͳ ሺ݇ ଶ െ ͳሻ ‫ ݖ‬ଶ ‫ ݖ‬ଷ ‫ ݖ‬ହ ‫ݔ‬௧௥௜௔௡௚ǡ௟௢௔ௗ ൌ Ǥ Ǥ൮ Ǥቆ ቇ Ǥ ൬ʹͲ ቀ ቁ െ ͳͲǤ ቀ ቁ ൅ ቀ ቁ ൰ ଶ ʹ ‫݅ܧ‬௧ ͸Ͳ ݇ ‫ܪ‬ ‫ܪ‬ ‫ܪ‬ ൅ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ ʹ ͳ ‫ ݖ‬ଷ Ǥ ቌቀ Ǥ െ െ ቁ ൬ͳ ൰ ቀ ቁ ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻଶ ݇ ଶ Ǥ ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻଶ ‫ܪ‬ ͵ ‫ܪ‬ ʹ ൅ Ǥ ൭ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ݖ‬ሻ െ ͳ ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻଶ Ǥ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ;ϭϭ͘ϭϭͿ ͳ ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ ൅൬ െ ൰ Ǥ ൫‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ െ ‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬െ ݇ߙ‫ݖ‬ሻ൯ቇቍ൲ ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ ʹ  ƒš‹—†‡ˆŽ‡…–‹‘ƒ––Š‡–‘’ ‫ݔ‬௠௔௫ǡ௧௥௜௔௡௚    ϭϯϭ  ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ൅ ‫݄݊݅ݏ‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻ ቀʹ ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬െ ݇ߙ‫ ܪ‬ቁ ‫ۇ‬ ‫ۇ‬ ‫ۊۊ‬ ͳͳ ͳ ͳ ͳʹͲ ͵ െ ܿ‫݄ݏ݋‬ሺ݇ߙ‫ܪ‬ሻǤ ݇ ଶ ߙ ଶ ‫ ܪ‬ଶ ସ ‫ۈ‬ ‫ۋ‬ ൌ Ǥ ‫ ͳۈ ܪ݌‬െ ଶ ൅ Ǥ ‫ۋۋ‬ ͳʹͲ ‫݅ܧ‬௧ ‫ۈ‬ ݇ ͳͳ ݇ ସ ߙ ଶ ‫ܪ‬ଶ ‫ۉ‬ ‫ۉ‬ ‫یی‬ ;ϭϭ͘ϭϮͿ .

ŝŐŚƐƚŝĨŶĞƐƐ ůŽǁƐƚŝĨŶĞƐƐ  &ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϳ͗ǀĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƐŚĞĂƌĨůŽǁŝŶĨĂĐƚŽƌĨŽƌƚŚĞǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞƚƌŝĂŶŐƵůĂƌůLJĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚůŽĂĚ ϭϯϮ  .ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ .ŝŐŚƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ ůŽǁƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ  &ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϲ͗ǀĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĂdžŝĂůĨŽƌĐĞĨĂĐƚŽƌŝŶƚŚĞǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞƚƌŝĂŶŐƵůĂƌůLJĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚůŽĂĚ  .

ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ  &ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϴ͗ǀĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞŶŽƌŵĂůĨŽƌĐĞŝŶƚŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚŝŶŐďĞĂŵƐĨŽƌƚŚĞǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƚƌŝĂŶŐƵůĂƌůLJĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚůŽĂĚ ůŽǁƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ .ŝŐŚƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ  &ŝŐƵƌĞϭϭ͘ϵ͗ǀĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞŵĂdžŝŵƵŵĚĞĨůĞĐƚŝŽŶĨŽƌƚŚĞǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƚƌŝĂŶŐƵůĂƌůLJĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚůŽĂĚ ϭϯϯ  .

ŝŐŚƐƚŝĨŶĞƐƐ  &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϭ͘ϭϬ ͗ ǀĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ ǁĂůů ŵŽŵĞŶƚ ĐŽŵƉŽƐŝƚĞ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů ĂĐƚŝŽŶ ĨĂĐƚŽƌ <ϭ ĂŶĚ <Ϯ ĨŽƌ ǁĂůůƐ ƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚƌŝĂŶŐƵůĂƌůLJ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚůŽĂĚ ϭϯϰ  .ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ ůŽǁƐƚŝĨŶĞƐƐ .

ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ ͳʹ ’’‡†‹š͵ǣ Ɛ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ŵĞŶƚŝŽŶĞĚ ďĞĨŽƌĞ͕ ƚŽ ƉƌŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ ǀĂůŝĚŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞƋƵĂƚŝŽŶƐ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ǁĂůůƐ ŽŶ ĨůĞdžŝďůĞ ĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ͕ƚŚĞĞůĂƐƚŝĐŝƚLJŽĨƚŚĞƐŽŝůŝŶĚĞƌŝǀĞĚĞƋƵĂƚŝŽŶƐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĂƐƐƵŵĞĚĞƋƵĂůƚŽŝŶĨŝŶŝƚLJ͘dŚĞƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ŚĂǀĞƚŽďĞŝĚĞŶƚŝĐĂůƚŽƚŚĞƌĞƐƵůƚƐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞǁĂůůƐŽŶƌŝŐŝĚĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶƐ͘dŚŝƐǁŽƌŬŚĂƐďĞĞŶĚŽŶĞŝŶDĂƉůĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞĨŽƌĂůůƚŚƌĞĞƚLJƉĞƐŽĨůŽĂĚŝŶŐ͘/ŶƚŚŝƐƉĂƌƚŽŶůLJƚŚĞĐĂůĐƵůĂƚŝŽŶƐƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽ ƵŶŝĨŽƌŵĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚůŽĂĚƐǁŝůůďĞŐŝǀĞŶ͘ ͳʹǤͳ ƒŽŽ••—’’‘”–‡†‘‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ‡Žƒ•–‹…ˆ‘—†ƒ–‹‘   ϭϯϱ   .

H E Ef k2f .2 E Ef k2f sinh k E z .E Ef kf 2 $k 2 2 2 2 2 .2 P E $2 E Ef 2 H .sinh k E z w 1 $k E H cosh k E H $sinh k E H 2 k4 l E cosh k E H 2 1 w 2 $k H . infinite = Nrigid.z $ 2 4 2 k lE 2 2 E . > xrigid.restart.H k2 H E Ef k2 .z 2 sinh k E H $2 cosh k E z k E P E 2 $2 sinh k E z E Ef k2f w (1) k4 l E Ef k2f sinh k E H $P k E cosh k E H Nelastic.2 w H k E sinh k E H .2 P E $2 E Ef kf E sinh k E H $2 cosh k E z k E P $2 sinh k E z E Ef kf E 1 2 2 2 sinh k E z .k E z $2 w cosh k E H 2 cosh k E H k4 l E2 2 (2) 2 2 $w cosh k E H k2 E H2 .z 2 2 2 2 E cosh k E H 2 2 2 cosh k E z . uniform z D.2 w H k E sinh k E H .2 E Ef kf 2 $ .Ef kf E 2 $k 2 2 H w . P = $infinity 2 E .2 w cosh k E H k2 E H z $w cosh k E H k2 E z2 .2 w cosh k E z Nrigid.P k E 2 $k 2 H k2 H E Ef k2 2 2 2 cosh k E H $ E 2 2 2 cosh k E z . 2 2 2 2 2 H . 1 2 cosh k E z $sinh k E z 1 2 cosh k E H . true deflection.2 w cosh k E z evalb Nelastic. uni.1 2 k l E cosh k E H cosh k E z . 1 1 2 2 k4 l E E k2 sinh k E H $k E P cosh k E H f f 2 2 2 2 2 2 .H k 2 . uniform .z z. infinite D combine limit Nelastic. 2 2 H k2 H E Ef k2 . uniform D combine .H E Ef kf .2 P E .k E z $2 w cosh k E H 2 cosh k E H k4 l E2 2 2 2 2 2 (3) 2 2 2 $w cosh k E H k E H .sinh k E H w 4 k E H .z kf 2 2 H E Ef k .H E Ef kf .2 P E . 1 1 .P k E 2 $k2 H . uniform D 1 1 4 24 k6 E i E cosh k E H t 24 H w k E sinh k E H . uniform z .H E Ef k2f .k E z $24 w cosh k E z (4) .2 w cosh k E H k E H z $w cosh k E H k E z . uni. 1 1 . Nelastic.

kf .1 .l P If Ef kf $ H Ef kf $1 E $P . $ k $l .2 l $l2 k2 kf .l $k l k E $1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 k . 2 2 2 2 Ef 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 H z$ z k k $1 E $4 Ef H .1 $2 l2 $k2f H .2 k2 l2 .1 2 2 $ k 2 E $2 P l 2 H $z k sinh E k H 1 1 2 2 2 $ kf $l sinh E k z $ .4 l2 P 2 z $H $2 P P k l If cosh E k z $2 it E E .l 2 2 f P E cosh E k z $2 H .1 z .3 k2 l2 .1 E .2 E H .1 $2 l2 $kf it E E k sinh E k H $2 P 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 .6 w E H2 k4 z2 cosh k E H 3 4 6 4 3 4 4 4 6 . unidist := z w .w E z4 k4 cosh k E H $24 w cosh k E H k2 E H z . k .24 w k E H sinh k E H .2 k2f .1 $cosh E k z sinh E k H 2 2 2 f 4 2 2 k6 E E it l2 P If cosh E k H E Ef kf sinh E k H $E k P cosh E k H .24 w H k E sinh k E H . kf .k2f . H z$ z k k $1 E 3 2 6 .k l If H P $it E H 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 $ k $l 2 2 f kf $1 2 .l P If 2 2 2 2 2 2 E cosh E k H . 1 2 1 2 E k sinh E k z $E 2 2 $E z E it k l $1 . unidist z D . uniform := 24 w H k E sinh k E H .z P l k If $it H k 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 k l $2 l $kf . .2 l sinh k E z $z E k .kf 2 2 2 k l $1 .2 $4 l $2 (6) .12 w cosh k E H k2 E z2 $6 E k6 w H2 z2 cosh k E H .2 l .1 z H .2 $4 l2 $2 2 2 kf E k P E cosh E k H 2 2 $k l 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 kf E k .1 E .2 z P l2 k2 If $it H2 k2 k4 l2 $2 l2 $k2f .2 4 4 .w E z k cosh k E H $24 z H w k E cosh k E H . l If Ef kf $it E .k2f .3 k l . 1 1 xrigid.2 k l If H P $2 it E H . 2 2 2 2 $2 H . z kf z E . 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 xelastic. 2 2 k E $1 .2 l 2 2 2 2 2 it E k2 E $ 2 .2 .2 k l If H P $2 it E H w 1 2 sinh E k z $z E 2 2 $4 H .l $k l k E $1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 .1 kf $1 E $P . kf .6 w E H2 k4 z2 cosh k E H 3 6 4 4 3 4 4 4 6 .4 z H w k E cosh k E H $4 w E H z k cosh k E H $z w k E cosh k E H 4 4 4 2 2 .4 z H w k E cosh k E H $4 w E H z k cosh k E H $z w k E cosh k E H 4 2 .l P If Ef kf $ H Ef 2 1 2 $l2 k2 kf .24 w 1 2 > xelastic.12 z2 w k2 E cosh k E H $6 E k6 w H2 z2 cosh k E H .4 H P 3 2 6 P l k If $it E H z H k Ef kf .k E z $24 w cosh k E z (5) 4 24 k6 E i E cosh k E H t 2 4 4 . 1 1 2 2 .24 w .1 z H .2 k l . H z$ z k k $1 E 3 6 2 2 .2 l2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 .

uni. k .2 kf .l2 P If Ef k2f $ H Ef 2 kf .l 2 2 f .1 z 2 it E . z kf z E .1 $2 l2 $k2f it E E k sinh k E H $2 P 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 .l2 P If Ef k2f $ H Ef 2 1 $l2 k2 kf .1 1 1 2 2 . l2 If Ef k2f $it E .2 k2f E k P E cosh k E H 2 2 2 $k2 l2 k2 E $1 .24 w H k E sinh k E H . uni. uni.2 l2 2 2 $l k 2 2 kf k .2 k2 l2 If H P $2 it E H2 $ 1 2 2 1 $ k $l 2 f 2 2 2 2 k E $ 2 . infinite D combine limit xelastic. P = $infinity . 4 k6 E E it l2 P If cosh k E H 2 E Ef k2f sinh k E H $P k E cosh k E H > > xelastic.1 kf $1 E $P .w E z k cosh k E H $24 w cosh k E H k E H z . unidist z .1 $cosh k E z sinh k E H 2 2 2 f .k2f k 2 k l $1 .k E z 24 k6 E i E4 cosh k E H (7) t 2 4 $24 w cosh k E z . 2 $E z E it k2 l2 $1 . true > (8) .6 w E H2 k4 z2 cosh k E H . infinite := 24 w H k E sinh k E H .2 E H . .2 H P 3 2 6 2 2 2 2 P l k If $it E H H z k Ef kf . .12 w cosh k E H k2 E z2 $6 E k6 w H2 z2 cosh k E H 4 4 4 . 2 2 kf $1 E $P .1 .2 l2 .l P If 2 f 2 2 2 E cosh k E H .24 w > evalb xrigid. uniform = xelastic.1 $2 l $kf H .k2f .4 l 2 $2 P P k l If cosh k E z $2 it E E . infinite . 1 1 xelastic.2 l 2 2 2 z $H 2 2 kf $1 E $2 P l P 2 H $z k sinh k E H 1 2 2 1 2 $ k $l sinh k E z $ .4 z3 H w k6 E cosh k E H $4 w E H z3 k4 cosh k E H 4 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 $z w k E cosh k E H . $ k $l . 2 P E cosh k E z $2 H . E k sinh k E z $E 1 2 2 1 E Ef 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 H z$ z k k $1 E $2 Ef H .

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. > 2 m z E d2 eqnormal. M10 $M20 l (6) kU1 $kU2 H4 D HU . N 0 $Q0 d N z dz E Ie 3 b h . dz d x z dz H1 := l (1) (2) 3 H2 D dN b h  .restart.  $ A1 A2 E N z dz. 0 . force D .Hv. d x z dz l 1 $ 12 . l dz 2 N z dz 0 E 1 1 $ kv1 kv2 2 z 1 1 $ A1 A2 $ M10 $M20 l kU1 $kU2 (8) . kv1 kv2 Hv D N 0 $Q0  H D z 1 1 $ A1 A2 1 1 $ kv1 kv2 (5) l. N 0 $Q0 (7) H D H1 $H2 $H3 $H4. d z 12EIe d N z dz E Ie 1 12 b3 h (3) z 1 1 1 H3 D. M10 $M20 l kU1 $kU2 1 1 $ kv1 kv2 .N z k E $ 2 N z =. > H1 D l dx . U kU1 $kU2 0 (4) E N 0 $Q0 M10 $M20 N z dz 1 1 $ .

N H = 0.sinh k E H 2 4 E k Pr 2 2 cosh k E H .z 2 2 k4 l E 2 _C2 $ cosh k E z . b3hit 2 12 Ie l 3 b h it ics D N H = 0.z 2 Pr m 0 (11) l 2 . force. trig .2 cosh k E H . z 1 w H . D N w H .sinh k E H E k $Qf cosh k E H $sinh k E H .2 k E $2 Qf k l E k ] Qf cosh k E H $sinh k E H 2 2 E k Qf . 2 dz m z E l (9) 2 12Iel 2 =k . load. cosh k E H .sinh k E H 2 4 2 2 Qf E $ 1 2 w H 2 cosh k E H $sinh k E H E k Pr .1$ Ait A1A2l2 2 d2 2 2 .sinh k E H .H 2 1 2 eqnormal.sinh k E H .2 E k ] Qf cosh k E z .N z k E $ N z =.sinh k E z $ cosh k E H .sinh k E z . elastic D convert dsolve N z =. 0 ] Qf $1 = Qf N 0 . trig .2 H cosh k E H 2 2 E k .z 2 (10) 0  1 $]Qf = Qf N 0 . cosh k E H .H cosh k E H $sinh k E H $sinh k E H E k ] Qf . N z cosh k E z $sinh k E z w H 2 . D N m z D 2 =E Pr l m 0 . _C1 2 E k Qf . N z = cosh k E z $sinh k E z 2 $ 1 w 2 $k H .2 Qf cosh k E H $sinh k E H 4 .2 H cosh k E H 2 2 E k ] Qf . 2 =E .sinh k E H E k ] Qf $E k cosh k E H $sinh k E H $ cosh k E H . ics .2 H cosh k E H $sinh k E H 2 2 . 2 (12) > convert dsolve eqnormal.sinh k E H 2 2 E k $2 E k ] Qf k4 l E k ] Qf cosh k E H Qf $2 k E $2 Qf $sinh k E H $ cosh k E H .sinh k E H E k ] Qf .2 H cosh k E H . force .sinh k E H (13) E nuniform.

sinh k E H E k z Qf .2 Qf sinh k E H $2 sinh k E z Qf 2 3 $H2 cosh k E H sinh k E z E k4 Pr .z $ 2 2 k4 l E 2 $ cosh k E H .H2 cosh k E H E k3 .2 ] Qf H E .z 2 2 E ] Qf $1 E cosh k E H $ .$E k cosh k E H $sinh k E H $Qf cosh k E H $sinh k E H 2 1 w 2 $k H .2 k E cosh k E H $2 sinh k E H cosh k E z Qf $2 cosh k E z E k .k 2 w $k2 H . 1 2 w .cosh k E H E k ] z Qf 2 2 .2 ] Qf H E $2 Qf cosh k E z .H E k Qf sinh k E H 2 2 2 2 2 .z $2 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E z $2 sinh k E z Qf $Qf sinh k E H (16) 2 2 E Qf sinh k E H k4 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E H 2 lE > > shear-of-lamellas.2 H cosh k E H sinh k E z E k 2 $2 H sinh k E H cosh k E z E k2 .k2 H Pr k2 .2 $ .H 2 .H sinh k E H cosh k E z E k Pr . 2 $k2 H .H2 cosh k E H E k3 ] Qf 2 4 2 3 3 2 .2 H cosh k E H sinh k E z E k2 ] Qf $2 H sinh k E H cosh k E z E k2 ] Qf 4 k l E k ] Qf cosh k E H $k E cosh k E H $Qf sinh k E H 2 E simplify = N z =.lamellas (17) .H2 cosh k E H sinh k E z E k2 Qf $H2 sinh k E H cosh k E z E k2 Qf 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 $2 H sinh k E H E k z Qf $2 H cosh k E H E k z .2 cosh k E H sinh k E z Qf .2 $ .sinh k E H Qf E 2 E simplify = N z =.2 Qf sinh k E z .2 E k ] Qf cosh k E H $2 cosh k E z E k ] Qf 3 3 3 .sinh k E H Ek 2 .of .cosh k E H E k3 z2 $2 H cosh k E H E k3 ] z Qf 2 2 . cosh k E H . shear .H . 1 2 2 k2 H Pr k2 .

2 D m z .H cosh k E H $ 2 .moment > minternal. 1.2 sinh k E z k E $2 cosh k E z cosh k E H Qf k3 E l E k ] Qf cosh k E H $k E cosh k E H .2 $ . elastic 2 4 1 2 =.z (19) .l N z $ $sinh k E z .d n .z sinh k E H $2 k E ] Qf l k3 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E H $1 sinh k E z $2 cosh k E z Qf $Qf sinh k E H 2 H H Pr k .2 $ . load. w H sinh k E z sinh k E H E k Pr 2 > quniform. elasticl. load. load. 2 2 4 2 2 2 (18) 2 2 2 .2 ] Qf k E $2 Qf sinh k E z $2 k E Qf H . internal. 1.2 H cosh k E H .H cosh k E z cosh k E H E k Pr . d z uniform.H E k2 Qf .2 H sinh k E H E k Qf .H . d N z dz quniform. 2 := .2 H sinh k E z sinh k E H E k 2 2 2 $2 H cosh k E z cosh k E H E k2 .2 sinh k E z sinh k E H Qf . 1 2 cosh k E H .2 H sinh k E z sinh k E H E k ] Qf 2 2 $2 H cosh k E z cosh k E H E k2 ] Qf . uni. elastic D simplify .2 Qf cosh k E z E > internal-moment. load.sinh k E H w H 2 2 1 w H .z 2 2 = .2 cosh k E z Qf $Qf sinh k E H > simplify (18). 'size' 1 d .2 sinh k E z E k ] Qf $2 sinh k E H E k z Qf . minternal.nuniform.2 H E k2 cosh k E H $2 cosh k E H E k2 z .2 H E k2 ] Qf cosh k E H 2 2 2 2 $2 cosh k E H E k ] z Qf . uni.l . elastic := .sinh k E H (20) cosh k E z (21) 2 4 E k Pr .sinh k E H 2 2 cosh k E H E k2 ] Qf .H sinh k E z sinh k E H E k Qf 2 2 $H cosh k E z cosh k E H E k Qf .H H Pr k2 . N z = w 2 dz 2 $2 k2 E 2 ] Qf $1 2 2 H .2 ] Qf k E .

H H Pr k .2 H cosh k E H $sinh k E H 2 2 .z 2 E k ] Qf Ek 2 Qf E 2 2 2 2 H H Pr k .2 $ .sinh k E H Qf E 2 4 2 2 $ 1 2 w H 2 cosh k E H 2 2 $sinh k E H E k Pr .sinh k E H E k $Qf cosh k E H $sinh k E H .H cosh k E H $sinh k E H $sinh k E H E k ] Qf .2 k E $2 Qf 4 k l E k ] Qf cosh k E H $sinh k E H $E k cosh k E H $sinh k E H 2 1 w 2 $k H .sinh k E H $Qf cosh k E H $sinh k E H $k2 k .z 2 2 = 2 1 2 $ $ cosh k E H .2 cosh k E H .2 E k2 $2 E k ] Qf .2 H cosh k E H .2 $ .2 k $1 H .sinh k E H 4 Qf $2 k E $2 Qf k l E k ] Qf cosh k E H $sinh k E H $ cosh k E H .2 ] Qf k E w . cosh k E H .2 Qf sinh k E z $ .2 $k2 k . 'size' 1 .sinh k E H .sinh k E H 2 E 2 2 E k .2 ] Qf k E $2 Qf cosh k E z $ . cosh k E H .sinh k E H E k ] Qf $E k cosh k E H $sinh k E H $ cosh k E H .z 2 2 E Qf sinh k E H $2 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E z (22) .2 H cosh k E H 2 k $1 H .z $ 2 2 k4 l E > simplify (21).1 cosh k E H $ cosh k E z .z 2 2 2 E ] Qf $1 k E 2 .H .2 Qf cosh k E H $sinh k E H .2 E k ] Qf $ cosh k E H .H .1 E k Qf .sinh k E H 1 w H .l N z $ w H .sinh k E z .

2 ] Qf k2 E $2 Qf cosh k E z $ .z 2 2 2 $ .2 Qf sinh k E z $E .z 4 k 2 2 2 ] Qf $1 k E cosh k E H $ E (23) .H .N z l .z 2 4 sinh k E H $2 k E Qf ] $1 cosh k E z $2 sinh k E z Qf w E k 2 2 E k E Qf ] $1 cosh k E H $Qf sinh k E H 1 2 2 2 M1 $M2 = w H H Pr k .N z l E it m 0 . 2 EitE Pr m 0 .2 Qf sinh k E z $ .2 ] Qf k2 E $2 Qf cosh k E z $Qf .H .2 $ k $1 H .2 ] Qf k E .2 $ .H H Pr k .2 cosh k E z k E 2 2 $2 sinh k E z Qf cosh k E H $2 sinh k E z H ] Qf k E cosh k E H (26) . 2 d x z dz2 > ode3 D = 1  m z .2 cosh k E z Qf sinh k E H . D x 0 = 0 l Pr 2 E it E > > N z D 1 2 2 2 w cosh k E z k4 Pr H2 E sinh k E H .1 .H .1 k $1 H .1 2 k4 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E H $Qf sinh k E H $2 sinh k E z Qf 2 2 E 2 H H Pr k . laterla.> M1 $M2 = 2 $k 1 2 k .N 0 l $]D N > ics3 D x 0 = 0.2 z H k E Qf sinh k E H $z k E ] Qf cosh k E H $2 k E cosh k E H .N 0 l $] D N ics3 := x 0 = 0.cosh k E z Qf E k2 H2 sinh k E H 4 2 2 2 2 2 .2 ] Qf k E .1 .H H Pr k .z 2 2 k Qf ] $1 E 2 cosh k E H $ 2 .2 $k2 k .sinh k E z k Pr H E cosh k E H $sinh k E z Qf E k H cosh k E H 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 $E k H ] Qf cosh k E H .H .2 $ .deflection (24) > restart.2 $k2 k .2 k $1 H .2 2 2 $k k . Eit ode3 := d 2 2 x z = dz m z . D x 0 = (25) 0 l .2 k $1 H Qf sinh k E H $2 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E z $2 sinh k E z Qf E k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E H $Qf sinh k E H 2 E > laterla-deflection.

trig .E k z .2 z H k E Qf sinh k E H 2 2 3 3 4 2 (27) 2 $z k E ] Qf cosh k E H $cosh k E z k Pr H E sinh k E H 2 2 2 4 2 2 .cosh k E z Qf E k H sinh k E H .2 cosh k E z H ] Qf k2 E sinh k E H .E k z $H Qf E k sinh H E k 3 5 2 2 4 2 4 2 .2 H cosh k E H E k5 ] z Qf $2 H E k2 sinh H E k . 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 2 N := z w z k E cosh k E H $E k H cosh k E H .Pr H E k sinh H E k .sinh k E z k Pr H E cosh k E H 2 3 $sinh k E z Qf E k2 H2 cosh k E H $E k3 H2 ] Qf cosh k E H .2 z H k E cosh k E H $z k E Qf sinh k E H $Qf E k H sinh k E H 2 $2 k E ] Qf cosh k E H . x z .E k z (29) .2 cosh k E z k E ] Qf 2 $2 sinh k E z H k2 E cosh k E H k4 l Qf sinh k E H $k E cosh k E H 2 $k E ] Qf cosh k E H E .2 cosh k E z Qf sinh k E H .2 cosh k E z H k2 E sinh k E H .z2 k3 E cosh k E H $2 H ] Qf E k2 sinh H E k 2 3 2 .E k z .E k3 H2 cosh k E H .2 cosh k E z H k E sinh k E H 2 2 4 . 3 3 2 1 x z = w .2 z H k E cosh k E H $z k E Qf sinh k E H .z 2 k l Qf sinh k E H 2 E 2 .2 z H k E ] Qf cosh k E H $Qf E k H sinh k E H $2 k E ] Qf cosh k E H 2 2 2 2 2 .2 3 .z k E ] Qf cosh k E H .2 cosh k E z H ] Qf k E sinh k E H 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 .2 z H k3 E ] Qf cosh k E H 3 3 $2 Qf sinh k E H . m := z 1 w H .2 H cosh k E H E k z $H sinh k E H E k Qf $sinh k E H E k z Qf 3 2 .2 cosh k E z k E ] Qf $2 sinh k E z H k E cosh k E H $k E cosh k E H $k E ] Qf cosh k E H > m z D w H .2 cosh k E z k E $2 sinh k E z Qf cosh k E H .2 sinh k E z Qf $E k3 H2 cosh k E H $z2 k3 E cosh k E H 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 .E k3 H2 ] Qf cosh k E H $2 z H k2 E Qf sinh k E H 2 3 3 2 2 4 2 2 2 .2 sinh k E z Qf $2 k E cosh k E H $2 Qf sinh k E H 2 2 2 2 $2 sinh k E z H ] Qf k E cosh k E H .z 2 2 (28) > > convert dsolve ode3.

2 cosh k E z Qf sinh k E H .1 E 3 6 2 2 Pr H z Pr .2 k E ] Qf cosh k E H 3 5 2 3 5 2 $2 cosh k E z k E ] Qf $H cosh k E H E k $cosh k E H E k z 2 4 E E k it Qf sinh k E H $k E cosh k E H $k E ] Qf cosh k E H dz dz $_C1 z $_C2 > simplify combine convert value dsolve ode3. z k $1 H .H 2 $ H $2 ] Qf k cosh k E H $ . 2 $k 1 2 Q z k $1 2 f 2 2 H .2 H sinh k E H E k4 z Qf $2 cosh k E z k E .2 ] Qf k2 E . size .] Qf .] Qf 2 3 6 4 2 2 2 . 2 1 x z =. uniform z D 2 3 $sinh k E z Qf E k2 H2 cosh k E H $E k3 H2 ] Qf cosh k E H 2 3 .2 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E z .2 cosh k E z k E $2 sinh k E z Qf cosh k E H 2 2 2 2 $2 sinh k E z H ] Qf k E cosh k E H .2 Qf sinh k E H 3 3 3 3 $2 z H k E ] Qf cosh k E H $2 Qf sinh H E k .2 cosh k E z H ] Qf k E sinh k E H 3 .of . z H$ z k k .equations (31) 1 4 2 2 w cosh k E z k Pr H E sinh k E H 2 2 2 .Qf k .validity.1 k $2 k Pr H $ ] Qf $1 z .2 z H k E cosh k E H 2 2 2 2 2 2 $z k E Qf sinh k E H $Qf E k H sinh k E H $2 k E ] Qf cosh k E H . trig .E k z $2 z H k E cosh k E H 2 2 .sinh k E z k4 Pr H2 E cosh k E H > Nelastic.z2 k2 E Qf sinh k E H .2 E k k z Pr 4 .H .z Qf .2 z H k2 E Qf sinh k E H $z2 k3 E ] Qf cosh k E H $2 k E cosh k E H .Pr H H $2 z k $z Qf $H 2 $ H $2 ] Qf 2 E 2 $2 Qf sinh k E H .the .2 Qf 4 2 1 2 4 z H$ z k k .2 sinh k E z Qf 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 $E k H cosh k E H $z k E cosh k E H .z $z E 2 4 1 2 1 2 4 2 2 .2 sinh k E z Qf . ics3 .3 3 2 $H2 cosh k E H E k5 ] Qf $cosh k E H E k5 ] z2 Qf .1 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E H $Qf sinh k E H EE k6 it > > prove-validity-of-the-equations. 4 2 (30) 2 k E $2 Pr k . trig . prove . w H Pr H k2 .2 z H k3 E ] Qf cosh k E H $2 Qf sinh k E H .cosh k E z Qf E k2 H2 sinh k E H . x z .2 k E cosh k E H $2 sinh k E z Qf .1 ] Qf $1 E $ Pr H ] Pr .Qf E k2 H2 sinh k E H .2 Qf sinh E k H .2 $ .

2 z H k3 E ] Qf cosh k E H k4 l Qf sinh k E H $k E cosh k E H 2 $k E ] Qf cosh k E H E > Nelastic. 1 4 2 2 Nelastic.2 w H cosh k E H E k z 2 2 cosh k E H k4 l E (34) 2 2 2 $w cosh k E H E k z .2 cosh k E z H ] Qf k E sinh k E H 3 . (33) 2 .2 w H cosh k E H E k2 z $w cosh k E H E k2 z2 .E k z E k w $2 w cosh k E H .sinh k E z k4 Pr H2 E cosh k E H 2 2 2 2 2 $sinh k E z Qf E k H cosh k E H . Pr = 0.2 cosh k E z Qf sinh k E H $2 sinh k E z Qf cosh k E H 3 2 $2 k E cosh k E H .2 cosh k E z k E .2 cosh k E z k E ] Qf 2 2 2 3 3 $2 sinh k E z H k E cosh k E H $2 Qf sinh k E H $z k E cosh k E H 3 3 2 2 2 2 $E k H cosh k E H $Qf E k H sinh k E H $2 k E ] Qf cosh k E H 2 2 2 2 $2 sinh k E z H ] Qf k E cosh k E H .2 cosh k E z H k2 E sinh k E H .2 .E k z E k w $2 w cosh k E H .2 H sinh H E k . infinite = Nrigid .2 z H k E Qf sinh k E H 3 3 $z2 k3 E ] Qf cosh k E H $E k3 H2 ] Qf cosh k E H . uniform.2 w H k E sinh k E H .2 w cosh k E H k2 E H z $w cosh k E H k2 E z2 . uniform.2 w cosh k E z > evalb Nelastic.2 H sinh H E k . uniform z .2 z H k3 E cosh k E H $z2 k2 E Qf sinh k E H 2 . 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 Nrigid := w H cosh k E H E k .cosh k E z Qf E k2 H2 sinh k E H . infinite := w H2 cosh k E H E k2 2 2 cosh k E H k4 l E 2 . true (35) .2 w cosh k E z . Qf = 0 2 1 1 Nelastic.2 sinh k E z Qf . uniform.k E z $2 w cosh k E H 2 cosh k E H k4 l E2 2 2 2 $w cosh k E H k2 E H2 . uniform := z w cosh k E z k Pr H E sinh k E H 2 (32) 2 2 .2 cosh k E z H k2 E sinh k E H .2 cosh k E z k E ] Qf 2 $2 sinh k E z H k2 E cosh k E H k4 l Qf sinh k E H $k E cosh k E H 2 $k E ] Qf cosh k E H E .2 w cosh k E z > Nrigid D 1 1 . infinite D combine limit Nelastic.

Qf = 0.k E z $24 w cosh k E z 4 6 2 2 4 2 4 2 . 2 6 H cosh k E H E k w z 4 6 3 4 6 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 (37) 4 4 2 2 .H . uni.cosh k E H E k w z $24 w H cosh k E H E k z 2 .12 w cosh k E H E k2 z2 $24 H sinh H E k . 1 2 2 z H$ z 6 3 4 2 k .> xelastic.] Qf .E k z E k w .Qf k4 . uniform D 2 1 1 24 k6 E i E4 cosh k E H t 2 2 24 H w k E sinh k E H .] Qf .2 Qf cosh k E H $ .12 z w k E cosh k E H $6 E k w H z cosh k E H .2 k E k z Pr .z k 1 4 k z k $1 2 2 H . 2 1 2 z H$ z 3 6 4 ] Qf $1 2 k .2 sinh k E z Qf .2 ] Qf H E . infinite D combine limit xelastic. uni.2 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E z .z Qf .6 w E H k z cosh k E H 4 4 4 . 2 zH 3 4 k . 2 $k Pr H 1 2 2 2 2 Pr H k . 1 2 2 2 2 Pr H k . 1 2 2 z H$ z 6 3 4 k .2 k E k2 z Pr . 1 4 2 k z k $1 2 4 2 H2 . 2 $ H 2 1 2 z 6 (36) 4 ] Qf $1 $2 ] Qf H E $2 k2 Pr . infinite := 4 6 2 . Pv = 0 1 1 4 6 24 k E i E cosh k E H t xelastic. 2 $ H $2 ] Qf H E $2 Pr k2 .1 k4 $2 k2 Pr H2 $ ] Qf $1 z . $k E z . k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E H $Qf sinh k E H xelastic.Pr H H $2 z k $z Qf $ 2 $ H $2 ] Qf H E $2 Qf sinh k E H 2 .1 E $k Pr H 2 ] Pr 2 .4 z3 H w k6 E cosh k E H $4 w E H z3 k4 cosh k E H $z4 w k6 E cosh k E H . uni. Pr = 0. $k z E .2 $ .2 sinh k E z Qf .2 $ .] Qf .6 H cosh k E H E k w z 2 2 $4 H cosh k E H E k w z .2 Qf cosh k E H $ .z Qf .1 Qf E $k2 Pr H2 z Pr .1 E 2 ] Pr . $ w 1 4 2 k z k $1 2 H2 . uniform.24 w > xrigid.1 4 6 $Qf sinh k E H k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E H w k it E E > xelastic.H .2 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E z .1 k $2 k Pr H $ ] Qf $1 z . uniform.24 H sinh k E H E k w $24 w cosh k E z .2 Qf sinh E k H .Pr H H $2 z k2 $z2 Qf $ 2 $ H 2 $2 ] Qf H E $2 Qf sinh k E H .z k 1 4 k z k $1 2 2 H2 .2 ] Qf H E . l z D .1 Qf E $k2 Pr H2 z Pr 2 2 .4 H cosh k E H E k w z $cosh k E H E k w z .2 Qf sinh k E H .Qf k .] Qf . l := z.1 4 k6 it E E . l z .

uniform .12 w cosh k E H E k z $24 H sinh H E k .E k z E k w .24 H sinh k E H E k w $24 w cosh k E z .4 H cosh k E H E k w z3 $cosh k E H E k6 w z4 .6 H2 cosh k E H E k4 w z2 2 $4 H cosh k E H E k4 w z3 .cosh k E H E k4 w z4 $24 w H cosh k E H E k2 z 2 2 2 . infinite = xrigid. uniform. uniform := 6 H2 cosh k E H E k6 w z2 (38) 4 6 24 k E i E cosh k E H t 4 6 4 4 4 4 .24 w > evalb xelastic.24 w . true (39) .w E z4 k4 cosh k E H $24 z H w k2 E cosh k E H . 4 1 1 xrigid.24 w k E H sinh k E H .4 2 .

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000 -51.000 8.500 5.500 2.000 -21.000 2.500 3.000 -30.500 2.500 0.500 8.000 0.000 8.000 5.000 8.000 2.000 2.000 -33.500 3.000 8.000 -45.000 -27.500 3.000 8.000 2.000 -36.000 -33.000 -27.000 0.000 -57.000 -39.000 -57.000 2.500 5.500 3.000 -48.500 5.000 -60.500 5.000 -36.000 2.500 3.000 8.500 MatrixFrame® 5.500 5.500 2.000 -30.500 0.500 3.500 0.500 8.000 -51.000 3.000 2.500 0.000 -27.000 -45.Job Name Part Description Client File Rigid foundation standard dimension Job Number 1 Structural Engineer M.500 3.mxe Structure Info Project Type 2D-Frame Nodes Members Supports Sections Loads Cases Loads Comb.000 -27.500 3.500 8.000 -54.000 -33.500 5.000 -30.500 3.500 3.500 3.000 2.500 2.500 0.000 -51.000 -42.000 -27.000 -60.000 -27.500 2.500 8.000 5.000 -27.000 -48.000 8.000 2.000 5.500 0.000 5.500 5.000 2.000 2.000 -39.000 -57.000 -45.000 -45.000 2.000 2.500 3.000 -30.500 3.500 0.500 5.000 -39.000 2.000 0.000 -45.000 -30.000 2.000 -42.000 -27.000 2.000 -39.000 2.000 2.000 -51.000 0.000 0.500 0.500 3.000 -42.000 -36.500 5.000 2.000 8.000 -36.000 8.000 -54.000 -54.500 3.500 2.000 -33.000 -42.000 -51.000 8.000 2.000 -24.000 -36.000 -24.500 5.000 -24.SH Units m.000 -24.000 -39.500 0.000 -54.000 -60.000 -24.000 8.000 -48.500 0.500 0.000 8.500 0.500 0.500 0.000 2.000 -48.000 -51.000 2.000 -48.000 -42.000 0.500 0.500 8.000 -60.000 -45.000 -48.500 0.500 3.000 8.000 0.500 2.000 -54.000 -57.000 5.000 5.000 -36.000 -21.500 3.500 0.000 -36.000 -24.000 -45.000 5.000 -39.000 -51.000 2.500 8. kN.500 3.0 SP11 1 .000 8.500 2.000 -51.000 8.000 2.000 5.500 3.500 3.000 -39.000 -30.500 5.000 8.500 5.000 -51.500 2.500 8.500 3.500 3.500 3.000 2.000 -39.500 3.000 5.000 0.000 -21.000 -30.000 8.500 0.500 3.000 -33.000 2.500 2.000 2.000 -39.500 0.000 2.000 -57.500 3.500 3.000 5.000 -33.500 0.500 8. kNm C:\Users\Acer\Dropbox\courses\gaduation work\working maple\worked_example_rigid_f.000 -42.000 -24.500 8.000 -45.500 3.000 0.000 8.000 -60.000 -21.500 2.000 0.500 8.000 2.000 2.500 5.000 -42.000 -36.000 8.000 -54.000 5.500 3.000 -33.000 2.000 8.500 8.000 2.000 -57.000 8.500 3.000 2.500 3.000 -30.500 0.000 -33.500 3.000 8.000 -54.000 -30.000 2.000 -57.000 2.000 -24.000 0.000 -48.000 -39.500 2.000 2.500 2.000 -60.000 -36.000 -45.000 0.000 -54.500 5.500 0.000 8.000 2.000 8.000 -42.000 -42.000 -48.000 0.000 -48.500 2.000 -24.500 3.000 -45.500 3.000 -57.500 0.000 -60.000 -48.000 -57.000 8.000 -51.000 2.000 -36.000 -42.000 8.000 -21.500 0.500 2.500 0.000 -54.500 3.000 -27.000 -57.500 3.500 5.500 3.500 2. 82 100 2 4 2 6 Members Member S2 S3 S4 S8 S11 S13 S14 S15 S16 S18 S19 S20 S21 S23 S25 S26 S27 S28 S30 S32 S33 S34 S35 S37 S39 S40 S41 S42 S44 S46 S47 S48 S49 S51 S53 S54 S55 S56 S58 S60 S61 S62 S63 S65 S67 S68 S69 S70 S72 S74 S75 S76 S77 S79 S81 S82 S83 S84 S86 S88 S89 S90 S91 S93 S95 S96 Node B B K2 K3 K4 K7 K10 K7 K11 K12 K13 K13 K14 K15 K16 K17 K17 K18 K19 K20 K21 K21 K22 K23 K24 K25 K25 K26 K27 K28 K29 K29 K30 K31 K32 K33 K33 K34 K35 K36 K37 K37 K38 K39 K40 K41 K41 K42 K43 K44 K45 K45 K46 K47 K48 K49 K49 K50 K51 K52 K53 K53 K54 K55 K56 K57 K57 K58 NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM 11/20/2013 3:56:00PM Release E NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM Node E Section X-B Z-B X-E Z-E Length K3 K4 K5 K2 K5 K11 K12 K10 K14 K7 K15 K16 K10 K18 K13 K19 K20 K16 K22 K17 K23 K24 K20 K26 K21 K27 K28 K24 K30 K25 K31 K32 K28 K34 K29 K35 K36 K32 K38 K33 K39 K40 K36 K42 K37 K43 K44 K40 K46 K41 K47 K48 K44 K50 K45 K51 K52 K48 K54 K49 K55 K56 K52 K58 K53 K59 P12 P1 P12 P4 P3 P12 P1 P12 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 0.000 -33.000 2.000 -27.000 2.000 -30.000 5.000 -54.500 -60.000 -33.000 0.

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000 -18.000 2.000 -6.000 -9.000 -12.000 5.500 3.000 8.500 5.000 2.000 - - - m m m m m Sections Section Section Name P1 R300x400 1.000 0.400 0.000 0.000 -15.500 3.000 0.000 -3.4000e+01 4.000 No 0.000 8.000 -21.000 -12.6000e+07 10.000 -9.000 5.000 0.000 5.000 -15.000 -15.000 -9.000 -21.000 -15.500 2.500 2.500 5.000 0.500 3.000 0.000 -6.000 3.500 5.500 3.300 0.000 2.000 0.000 0.500 3.000 0.000 2.500 0.1600e+00 Mat.500 3.000 5.300 0.500 -21.000 0.500 3.000 -6.000 -12.000 2.500 0.000 0. Exp.000 -3.500 0.000 8.0000e-06 0.000 7.500 -21.000 -18.500 2.500 0. 24.000 -6.000 -18.000 5.000 8.000 0.500 8.000 -6.500 0.000 -6.000 2.000 -9.000 0.000 - - m m m m m m m m- m Materials Material Name C45/55 Mat.500 8.500 8.000 -3.500 8.000 0.000 P3 No 7.000 -18.500 5.000 8. 3 - Density Youngs mod.2000e-01 Area 1.500 3.300 0.000 No 0.000 0.000 2.000 5.500 3.000 -9.000 -15.000 2.000 2.500 2.000 0.000 -12.000 2.000 -12.500 8.00 3.000 P4 No 5.000 -12.000 -9.000 0.000 -18.000 -3.500 0.500 0.6000e-03 C45/55 P3 R300x7000 2.500 0.000 8.000 8.000 -9.000 2.000 0.000 -3.000 8.000 -3.500 8.500 3.500 0.6000e+15 10.000 -18.000 5.500 8.000 No b2 Castellate 0.000 -3.000 2. Lin.000 -15.000 3.000 8.500 3.000 -3.000 3.500 3.000 3.500 3.5000e+00 3.000 -6.000 -6.000 -15.500 3.000 2.000 -12.500 8.5750e+00 C45/55 0 P4 R300x5000 1.400 0.500 5.000 0.500 2.1000e+00 8.000 -15.000 0.000 -18.000 8.000 2.000 -18.000 8.1250e+00 C45/55 0 2. 3 0 P12 - - Iy Material m2 Angle 0 m4 - ° Section Shapes Section Tapered hB hE tf tw tf2 B b1 P1 No 0.000 0.000 0.500 0.000 -3.500 8.000 8.000 2.0 SP11 2 Height .500 3.000 2.000 0.000 0.000 -9.000 0.000 -3.000 -24.Member Node B B S97 S98 S100 S102 S103 S104 S105 S107 S109 S110 S111 S112 S114 S116 S117 S118 S119 S121 S123 S124 S125 S126 S128 S130 S131 S132 S135 S136 S137 S138 S139 S140 S141 S142 K59 K60 K61 K61 K62 K63 K64 K65 K65 K66 K67 K68 K69 K69 K70 K71 K72 K73 K73 K74 K75 K76 K77 K77 K78 K79 K81 K1 K81 K82 K83 K84 K6 K80 NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM - - - Release E Node E Section X-B Z-B X-E Z-E Length NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM K60 K56 K62 K57 K63 K64 K60 K66 K61 K67 K68 K64 K70 K65 K71 K72 K68 K74 K69 K75 K76 K72 K78 K73 K79 K80 K82 K81 K77 K83 K84 K80 K84 K76 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P12 P4 P4 P1 P12 P3 P3 P3 5.000 -21.000 -12.0000e-06 kN/m3 kN/m2 C°m Supports Support Node X Z Yr AngleYr O1 K1 fixed fixed fixed 0 O2 K6 fixed fixed fixed 0 - - kN/m kN/m kNmrad ° 11/20/2013 3:56:12PM MatrixFrame® 5.000 -6.500 5.500 3.500 0.500 3.000 -12.000 8.500 2.000 -18.000 -15.500 8.000 -6.500 3.000 2.000 -18.000 -15.500 2.000 -12.00 3.000 -9.000 -9.

000 0.000 m .Height 0.000 0.

G.C.1 Permanent actions 1.00 - Direction Member/Node Z' S8.S18.S32. Geometrie: Doorgaande Ligger Loads Cases Type Value Begin B. Begin Dist.35 B.C.S81.2 Wind load 1. S95.S74.S60.S46. S39. End 17.G.2 B.S25.000 3. S136-S137 -- Persistent Loads Combinations L.2: Wind load q 17.5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[                                             5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 2 2 5[        $ % & ' Pic.S130.00 Sum of loads - X: - Value End Dist.00 kN Z: 0.S88. Description Pe. S116.20 1. S67.G.S102.S109.1 Pe.S53.0 SP11 3 .C.000(L) kN m m 1020.50 - Analysis Assumptions Linear Elastic Analysis performed 11/20/2013 3:56:12PM MatrixFrame® 5.00 0.S123.

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2: Wind load Normaalkracht (Nx) 11/20/2013 3:56:12PM MatrixFrame® 5. B.1: Permanent actions Normaalkracht (Nx)                                                                                  Pic. B.G.G.0 SP11 4 .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pic.

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G. B.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pic.0 SP11 5 .1: Permanent actions Dwarskracht (Vz)                                                                                       Pic.2: Wind load Dwarskracht (Vz) 11/20/2013 3:56:12PM MatrixFrame® 5. B.G.

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000 79.96 -63.000 0.000 0.00 0. Mb Mmax xMmax Me x-M0 Nmax Vb Vmax Ve S2 B.2 239.79 0.96 -6.G.96 57.96 -63.94 0.000 C -63.24 -6.G.0 SP11 6 .2 144.G.24 11/20/2013 3:56:12PM x-M0 TC MatrixFrame® 5. Extreme Member Forces Member L.G.000 0.000 T 6.000 -80.C.20 6.94 0.000 T 63.96 -63.27 -63.96 S8 B.248 0.000 239.C.00 0.000 0.96 -63.2 322.00 0.25 -63.00 0.96 -63.68 0.59 0.10 1.000 T 6. B.G.96 S3 B.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Pic.000 T 6.66 0.24 -6.2 79.2 -80.10 0.1: Permanent actions Momenten (My)                                                                                                   Pic.20 S11 B.79 0.00 0.96 S4 B.20 57.2: Wind load Momenten (My) L.68 0.G. B.96 -63.14 -63.G.000 -303.000 303.

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10 S25 B.G.50 -88.G.43 1.000 C -20.G.G.00 0.11 -107.2 -117.77 -65.09 S63 B.77 S14 B.000 T 271.94 -99.45 0.95 -68.10 -73.11 -107.04 1.000 1028.250 0.00 0.42 -77.00 0.000 0.249 0.2 -927.69 0.69 -68.000 0.58 -88.2 97.000 132.000 T 1145.52 0.18 0.000 C -35.75 -99.000 0.95 -68.55 158.2 -86.2 849.000 0.000 91.2 136.67 S37 B.000 0.G.000 0.00 0.00 0.20 222.000 C -37.27 S91 B.00 0.87 0.000 -347.00 0.61 -105.000 -91.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 -446.250 0.94 123.03 0.27 -110.000 -327.G.000 C -39.00 0.2 123.000 -508.00 0.70 236.35 S33 B.G.000 -132.000 1119.29 0.000 C -41.03 191.90 0.80 107.000 377.34 0.77 87.85 1.85 -73.000 C -615.09 -99.G.G.00 0.70 125.00 0.68 191.56 0.94 S61 B.44 0.70 185.000 0.000 -129.09 S27 B.49 338.000 T 198.66 0.2 246.63 261.12 0.41 0.000 C -34.95 S16 B.000 0.G.000 0.65 -107.000 T 925.14 0.92 S75 B.000 C -34.77 -65.71 0.000 T 1034.49 0.G.09 -99.000 -97.00 0.000 C -36.96 2.73 14.35 143.54 0.G.G.62 -105.27 -110.38 0.000 0.000 -537.2 258.000 C -38.2 -1245.000 129.000 -104.000 635.66 S46 B.000 C -818.00 0.66 412.2 -3.G.85 162.000 C -35.G.2 -118.88 0.000 C Nmax Vb Vmax Ve -20.000 C -38.06 0.739 0.000 C -36.000 123.000 117.93 S35 B.00 0.06 S26 B.62 36.000 -370.06 104.42 0.09 -99.000 126.95 0.00 0.83 S72 B.000 -272.20 S41 B.G.93 S34 B.61 11/20/2013 3:56:12PM MatrixFrame® 5.29 0.23 0.000 0.41 0.G.2 409.12 0.G.73 87.0 SP11 7 .93 -77.00 0.61 -105.65 0.000 0.250 0.55 -109.33 S56 B.23 302.G.000 C -129.2 329.00 0.61 -65.2 136.77 -65.G.000 269.42 0.2 772.09 -99.39 -109.00 0.65 -88.48 0.06 53.98 0.09 -73.82 0.000 T 615.000 C -37.00 0.11 -107.31 1.20 -83.000 488.000 800.000 0.42 14.04 -94.000 -52.21 0.000 C -38.G.77 -65.27 -110.000 0.12 0.95 S18 B.85 1.35 0.55 S67 B.85 0.20 S82 B.47 -109.00 0.000 C -35.93 -77.95 S20 B.99 -88.2 312.03 S68 B.000 0.58 1.69 0.21 0.13 0.04 198.81 236.82 0.66 0.000 C -1034.G.93 S30 B.68 267.G.000 C -41.92 155.09 -99.000 0.77 -65.000 0.00 0.2 -129.86 0.G.G.42 14.G.2 -2246.000 C -34.2 132.G.000 103.61 S102 B.83 267.88 0.55 S69 B.42 S23 B.2 413.42 0.00 0.06 233.65 S48 B.000 C -38.000 -86.2 -104.2 -91.04 S55 B.250 0.17 0.17 -103.52 -88.000 88.09 S62 B.73 -107.G.250 0.39 0.00 0.000 522.95 S21 B.20 S42 B.000 0.04 -94.20 S39 B.69 -65.94 174.250 0.13 S95 B.98 128.2 229.G.97 374.000 0.85 162.2 371.79 0.00 0.G.81 0.88 1.000 C -34.2 -274.27 S88 B.93 -83.55 0.47 S84 B.77 0.47 -109.02 199.00 0.2 -97.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.02 S96 B.96 0.31 0.35 116.000 T 349.00 0.00 0.000 C -35.2 -420.86 0.G.13 -109. Mb Mmax xMmax Me x-M0 x-M0 TC S13 B.00 0.G.000 T 818.00 0.00 0.54 0.2 -686.2 101.00 0.99 125.2 117.82 0.90 0.96 0.000 0.35 65.98 S40 B.00 0.000 -395.91 S79 B.47 -109.2 401.00 0.000 -110.000 0.27 -110.55 -103.000 C -198.26 0.000 -136.38 0.59 233.000 0.000 137.000 136.2 104.00 0.2 292.95 -68.000 0.000 -117.000 501.55 -103.000 -312.G.000 0.000 C -38.93 -77.00 0.00 0.59 0.2 82.2 110.G.G.13 -109.000 -137.000 C -349.92 0.04 S53 B.09 S60 B.88 0.07 412.20 -83.000 -523.000 C -34.2 388.000 0.G.02 0.55 -103.00 0.2 856.2 352.G.G.35 92.000 -407.000 C -925.13 S97 B.59 0.000 C -36.91 302.63 210.00 0.15 0.G.G.G.11 -107.39 0.000 C -34.82 1.47 -109.000 C -34.G.00 1.10 -73.2 -137.2 210.93 -77.51 0.81 0.00 0.G.69 0.33 S58 B.70 0.Member L.G.000 454.11 S76 B.000 919.93 48.29 0.000 C -432.G.78 -73.67 104.51 0.2 755.000 501.G.000 C -38.G.2 -82.250 0.000 C -36.65 -88.G.G.00 0.250 0.G.000 -519.41 0.47 S81 B.00 0.2 -123.000 136.000 C -34.77 -65.000 C -37.55 -103.000 T 129.2 332.000 -136.93 -77.26 0.250 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.000 -123.56 1.2 -136.09 -99.000 0.36 0.65 -88.04 -94.00 0.000 C -521.000 0.000 1176.74 -110.95 -68.2 6.000 0.43 0.66 S44 B.G.90 1.85 S51 B.91 302.00 0.000 86.2 274.000 C -36.79 0.000 T 714.83 267.36 0.61 -105.09 -73.81 0.80 S54 B.000 C -35.49 S86 B.77 116.88 -94.65 S49 B.00 0.000 463.71 0.81 -83.27 S90 B.000 C -39.11 -107.00 0.48 2.03 0.13 -109.24 0.03 140.17 -103.000 391.45 1.55 198.06 0.42 1.63 S103 B.000 -1008.87 0.47 -109.23 1.93 S32 B.00 0.82 -94.02 250.388 0.000 82.12 0.284 0.70 128.35 S47 B.49 338.20 -83.81 0.54 0.G.2 204.000 0.46 -109.2 169.31 0.43 -68.000 0.34 222.45 0.95 -68.000 T 1254.34 338.77 -68.2 581.000 C -35.2 -133.000 C -35.250 0.G.000 C -34.000 -491.11 0.G.66 S100 B.250 0.00 0.000 0.20 171.60 -105.11 -107.99 0.58 -109.78 -107.06 S65 B.00 0.G.14 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.97 374.2 91.93 -77.61 -65.80 -83.000 0.99 125.54 -68.249 0.85 0.000 -133.00 0.000 C -39.84 -99.000 521.G.55 S70 B.21 261.38 1.09 -73.79 0.67 87.2 -1531.20 -83.000 97.000 -82.00 0.00 0.88 0.000 0.66 -88.000 T 432.13 S98 B.000 C -1145.62 87.000 0.20 -83.04 -94.77 S15 B.10 0.000 C -35.000 -518.000 T 521.13 -109.000 0.G.23 206.33 198.00 0.55 -103.2 410.88 -94.09 -73.66 412.00 0.97 S93 B.06 233.11 S77 B.70 -110.00 0.08 250.65 -88.2 591.2 227.27 -110.000 0.000 C -36.67 87.00 0.2 137.39 0.70 -110.61 -105.2 86.G.000 110.000 0.44 -109.G.13 -109.000 0.50 0.000 -421.000 0.00 0.13 0.000 C -714.2 -110.C.2 129.83 0.53 -77.000 0.000 0.85 0.51 -109.G.80 158.G.20 -103.55 -103.00 0.09 S28 B.000 1227.46 -77.86 0.00 0.47 -109.59 174.G.000 -470.000 C -271.82 0.G.04 -94.00 0.000 C -35.98 77.90 143.2 133.80 -73.00 0.81 374.63 0.92 206.2 -136.2 -946.70 S89 B.13 -109.2 -463.93 48.640 0.00 0.90 162.2 396.G.409 0.13 0.000 1244.60 0.43 1.00 0.47 S83 B.013 0.43 0.000 0.250 0.00 0.11 S74 B.G.000 0.G.20 -83.67 48.000 133.27 -110.04 -94.000 C -20.62 S19 B.

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G.19 -89.92 -31.G.65 S130 B.000 -70.390e-03 K19 0.000 -111.2 0.000 -471.71 -99.0007 -0.000 0.000 0.92 0.0120 0.250 0.000 0.87 0.25 -56.000 124.00 0.02 0.380e-03 K15 0.000 -2133.05 278.00 0.0193 -0.00 0.000 -6164.410e-03 K29 0.2 212.23 -99.000 C -43.09 S105 B.400e-03 K22 0.0119 -0.00 0.000 0.99 650.2 -5203.000 C -1680. X Z Ry K2 B.000 -1727.72 -99.000 C -29.48 S126 B.420e-03 K30 0.G.44 581.410e-03 K26 0.0145 -0.47 S123 B.63 493.0007 -0.14 0.0006 -0.000 111.0170 0.92 -31.90 295.G.59 0.0145 0.435e-03 MatrixFrame® 5.0132 0.000 0.00 0.48 0.0008 -0.65 -56.2 283.40 S116 B.000 C -11.000 -269.65 -56.40 -89.29 S119 B.428e-03 K37 0.36 0.61 -105.000 C -1623.000 0.0009 -0.20 452.382e-03 K16 0.000 C -40.000 C -1712.00 0.2 -9714.23 S112 B.75 0.0193 -0.000 -501.00 0.0182 0.400e-03 K25 0.000 0.000 C -1359.2 -4482.420e-03 K31 0.2 119.000 T 1623.80 -31.390e-03 K21 0.000 C -29.0182 -0.0193 0.G.40 -89.2 335.000 0.G.000 -3591.000 C -40.434e-03 K38 0.0009 -0.000 0.0216 -0.08 0.0205 -0.000 0.0133 -0.C.420e-03 K33 0.66 S137 B.372e-03 K10 0.31 0.23 -99.G.000 0.G.000 -2732.376e-03 K11 0.410e-03 K27 0.65 S135 B.35 227.77 0.35 0.0007 -0. Mb Mmax xMmax Me x-M0 x-M0 TC Nmax Vb Vmax Ve S104 B.2 -1972.434e-03 K39 0.G.25 -56.000 C -44.61 452.23 -99.0002 -0.0216 0.80 -31.0009 -0.000 T 1680.2 -111.000 T 1712.63 493.30 -75.47 -75.00 0.92 S136 B.86 305.48 662.380e-03 K14 0.2 -4063.428e-03 K34 0.0170 0.65 S132 B.2 -94.0170 -0.0145 -0.000 C -1548.0008 -0.82 0.0205 -0.10 0.0 SP11 8 .80 -31.2 -11550.18 -89.00 0.0170 -0.00 0.99 650.32 0.45 581.000 C -11.76 1.75 0.23 -99.19 234.49 356.000 0.372e-03 K12 0.0007 -0.57 650.400e-03 K23 0.45 581.0000 -0.05 0.85 0.0007 -0.0204 0.0000 -0.0010 -0.0007 -0.0007 -0.G.00 0.000 -849.79 S142 B.00 0.0133 0.40 0.35 S117 B.2 124.000 C -29.420e-03 K32 0.428e-03 K35 0.G.000 0.92 -31.0000 -0.09 S107 B.0158 0.74 - - kNm kNm m kNm m m- kN kN kN kN L.49 0.05 0.0001 -0.G.48 -75.C.G.40 -89.92 621.373e-03 K5 0.00 0.00 0.000 C -40.66 S138 B.000 -94.75 0.00 0.000 C -44.C.55 0.02 0.2 -70.29 S121 B.48 0.0145 0.0006 -0.97 0.0120 -0.74 621.25 0.G.12 0.2 -3084.G.000 0.376e-03 K13 0.57 0.000 C -11.04 0.2 372.00 0.19 0.2 -6523.0193 0.2 94.00 0.71 0.000 -4779.000 0.000 -39.000 0.251 0.000 0.G.410e-03 K28 0.000 94.40 -89.390e-03 K18 0.48 -75.87 0.57 0.2 111.00 0.23 S109 B.23 -99.29 537.92 -31.82 1.00 0.00 0.G.86 356.34 0.53 0.48 S125 B.48 -75.40 -89.000 T 1359.00 0.06 0.000 C -1459.428e-03 K36 0.90 244.000 0.2 -132.75 1.65 -56.000 -1637.250 0.18 -89.0009 -0.0182 0.65 -56.0007 -0.0006 -0.05 1.000 -358.0002 -0.G.000 C -43.0216 -0.79 662.92 S140 B.000 -9562.92 -31.12 0.23 S111 B.66 0.45 S128 B.0158 -0.02 0.65 -56.000 C -41.250 0.382e-03 K17 0.57 317.0010 -0.78 0.40 S118 B.82 271.92 S139 B.000 -151.71 -99.000 C -43.42 0.000 -124.000 0.98 0.G.57 -105.75 0.63 S114 B.37 0.373e-03 K7 0.G.252 0.05 220.66 317.000 -3488.000 C -44.000 0.00 0.2 -39.19 S124 B.05 S110 B.0009 11/20/2013 3:56:12PM -0.0001 -0.0158 -0.000 T 1548.390e-03 K20 0.2 -124.00 0.40 537.00 0.G.367e-03 K3 0.00 0.03 0.30 -75.G.35 278.0216 -0.05 271.37 0.2 -8030.Member L.40 -89.09 452.000 -424.G.25 -56.0007 -0.00 0.0010 -0.79 662.0204 -0.400e-03 K24 0.93 295.367e-03 K4 0.86 266.0010 -0.84 0.000 39.000 -2582.0182 -0.82 493.92 -31.00 0.90 S131 B.G.G.0132 -0.000 C -1254.2 -2944.0001 -0.65 -56.0006 -0.68 0.32 1.73 0. Extreme Nodal Displacements Node L.2 70.0008 -0.G.95 0.0010 -0.000 -1214.2 -3608.000 0.G.G.00 0.2 -1586.23 -99.08 0.74 621.G.000 0.0001 -0.19 285.30 -75.000 -7761.2 -2416.000 0.000 T 1459.G.45 285.00 0.47 -75.000 0.04 537.48 -75.000 70.0158 0.2 39.00 0.61 -105.99 S141 B.

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0106 -0.G.0004 -0.190e-03 K78 0.439e-03 K45 0.0010 -0.0055 -0.256e-03 K76 0.311e-03 K73 0.0005 -0.434e-03 K51 0.386e-03 K65 0.0001 -0.0080 0.49 4482.0008 -0.435e-03 K41 0.0006 0.103e-03 K84 0.95 -1019.0031 -0.103e-03 m m rad - - L.438e-03 K43 0.0054 0.65 1020.0002 0.G.0021 0.0067 -0.0003 -0.0055 0.0006 -0.0005 -0.0006 -0.426e-03 K57 0.0042 -0.0004 -0.354e-03 K69 0.0003 -0.439e-03 K48 0.353e-03 K67 0.106e-03 K83 0.0022 -0.0093 0.0043 0.0119 0.0005 -0.311e-03 K70 0.0003 -0.0004 -0.48 11550.435e-03 K52 0.0080 0.409e-03 K59 0.190e-03 K79 0.01 0.0006 -0.0032 0.0013 0.0031 0.106e-03 K82 0.0093 -0.0010 -0.0013 -0.C.410e-03 K61 0.425e-03 K55 0.410e-03 K60 0.0004 -0.426e-03 K56 0.00 kN kNm - Sum Reactions Sum Loads - 11/20/2013 3:56:12PM - MatrixFrame® 5.439e-03 K49 0.439e-03 K47 0.0001 -0.258e-03 K74 0.256e-03 K77 0.0067 0.0006 -0.0067 0.0010 -0.0032 -0.439e-03 K46 0.386e-03 K64 0.0009 -0.C.0007 -0.86 1712.0002 -0.0002 -0.0002 -0.C.0004 -0.0002 -0.0008 -0.439e-03 K44 0.386e-03 K62 0.0106 0.434e-03 K50 0.0022 0.0054 -0.311e-03 K72 0.0006 0.0013 -0.0080 -0.0004 -0.0003 -0.0106 0.0093 0.0067 -0.0021 -0.0004 -0.353e-03 K66 0.188e-03 K80 0.0013 0.0043 -0.0005 -0.84 O2 K6 -662.2 0.0003 -0.354e-03 K68 0. X Z Ry K40 B.0001 -0.0008 -0.79 -1712.425e-03 K54 0.0010 -0.2 O1 K1 -356.0002 0.0004 -0.Node L.409e-03 K58 0.0004 -0.0042 0.0002 -0.0093 -0.0006 -0.0007 -0.438e-03 K42 0.0106 -0.0 SP11 9 .0007 -0.258e-03 K75 0.0004 -0.386e-03 K63 0. Support Node X Z My B.188e-03 K81 0.00 kN 0.0010 -0.435e-03 K53 0. Support Reactions L.0003 -0.0004 -0.0005 -0.0003 -0.311e-03 K71 0.0080 -0.0010 -0.

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000 -39.000 -45.000 -60.500 3.000 8.500 2.000 5.000 8.000 -42.000 2.000 -27.000 -39.500 0.000 -57.000 -48.500 3.000 -42.000 -24.000 2.000 -36.500 2.500 0.000 -45.000 8.000 -54.000 2.000 -51.000 -48.000 8.500 3.000 -36.000 -24.000 -51.000 2.000 -45.000 8.000 -27.000 -57.000 -54.000 -42.500 3.000 -33.000 -57.000 -54.000 -33.000 2.000 -45.000 -51.500 3.000 -36. kNm Structure Info Project Type 2D-Frame Nodes Members Supports Sections Loads Cases Loads Comb.000 8.500 3.000 2.000 -51.000 -42.500 5.000 5.000 0.000 2.000 -60.000 -51.500 2.000 0.000 -30.000 -36.500 8.500 2.500 3.000 5.000 -39.500 8.000 5.500 3.000 2.500 3.000 -54.000 -30.000 -27.000 8.000 -57.000 -42.000 -30.500 3.000 2.000 2.000 -27.000 2. 82 100 2 4 2 6 Members Member S2 S3 S4 S8 S11 S13 S14 S15 S16 S18 S19 S20 S21 S23 S25 S26 S27 S28 S30 S32 S33 S34 S35 S37 S39 S40 S41 S42 S44 S46 S47 S48 S49 S51 S53 S54 S55 S56 S58 S60 S61 S62 S63 S65 S67 S68 S69 S70 S72 S74 S75 S76 S77 S79 S81 S82 S83 S84 S86 S88 S89 S90 S91 S93 S95 Node B B K2 K3 K4 K7 K10 K7 K11 K12 K13 K13 K14 K15 K16 K17 K17 K18 K19 K20 K21 K21 K22 K23 K24 K25 K25 K26 K27 K28 K29 K29 K30 K31 K32 K33 K33 K34 K35 K36 K37 K37 K38 K39 K40 K41 K41 K42 K43 K44 K45 K45 K46 K47 K48 K49 K49 K50 K51 K52 K53 K53 K54 K55 K56 K57 K57 NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM 11/20/2013 4:00:58PM Release E NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM Node E Section X-B Z-B X-E Z-E Length K3 K4 K5 K2 K5 K11 K12 K10 K14 K7 K15 K16 K10 K18 K13 K19 K20 K16 K22 K17 K23 K24 K20 K26 K21 K27 K28 K24 K30 K25 K31 K32 K28 K34 K29 K35 K36 K32 K38 K33 K39 K40 K36 K42 K37 K43 K44 K40 K46 K41 K47 K48 K44 K50 K45 K51 K52 K48 K54 K49 K55 K56 K52 K58 K53 P12 P1 P12 P4 P3 P12 P1 P12 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 0.000 2.000 0.000 -60.000 -57.000 -24.000 8.000 8.000 -39.000 -24.000 -54.000 -39.000 2.500 8.000 -48.000 -27.500 5.000 8.500 5.500 5.000 8.000 3.000 2.000 -36.000 5.500 3.000 -48.500 3.500 3.000 2.500 3.000 -33.500 0.000 -36.000 -30.Job Name Part Description Client File Elastic individual supports standard dimensions Job Number Structural Engineer Units C:\Users\Acer\Dropbox\courses\gaduation work\working maple\worked_example_elastic_individual.000 2.000 8.500 3.500 3.000 2.500 2.000 2.000 0.000 -45.SH m.000 -42.000 0.500 0.000 -54.000 2.500 0.000 -48.000 -33.500 5.500 0.500 3.000 -48.000 8.000 -33.000 0.000 5.500 3.500 8.000 2.000 -42.500 8.000 -57.500 0.000 8.000 -27.000 5.000 2.500 0.500 3.000 2.000 2.500 3.500 2.500 0. kN.500 3.000 -33.000 -24.000 2.000 -21.000 -54.500 3.000 -54.000 8.000 -60.500 8.000 -51.000 -51.000 -21.000 8.000 5.000 2.500 0.mxe 1 M.500 3.500 3.000 2.000 -24.500 0.500 3.000 -45.500 8.000 -39.000 -30.0 SP11 1 .000 -33.000 -45.000 -27.500 0.000 -21.500 2.000 -33.500 5.500 2.000 0.500 2.000 -42.000 2.000 -48.500 0.000 -60.000 0.500 2.000 -36.000 2.500 0.000 2.000 2.000 -57.500 3.000 -39.500 3.500 2.000 -48.000 -39.500 0.500 0.500 0.000 2.000 0.000 -30.000 8.000 -42.000 -60.500 3.500 2.000 -45.000 -36.500 2.500 3.000 -30.500 8.500 0.000 -27.000 -57.500 3.500 5.000 -48.000 2.500 2.500 2.000 -48.000 2.500 3.000 8.000 0.500 3.000 2.000 2.000 -36.500 5.000 2.500 8.000 8.500 8.000 -51.000 -24.000 0.500 0.000 -57.500 2.500 0.000 -51.500 0.000 0.000 0.000 8.000 5.500 0.500 0.500 5.500 8.000 -42.000 -30.000 -54.000 -57.000 -24.500 5.000 2.000 0.000 -30.000 -51.000 8.500 3.000 -54.500 3.000 -36.000 5.500 0.000 MatrixFrame® 5.000 -33.000 8.000 8.500 3.000 -24.000 8.000 -39.000 2.000 -60.500 3.000 -39.500 5.000 -33.000 -45.000 8.000 -27.500 0.500 3.500 5.500 5.000 8.000 -45.000 5.500 5.000 -30.000 -60.500 5.000 -27.

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000 -18.000 -3.000 0.000 5.500 8.000 -15.500 2.500 2.500 0.000 5.500 -21.500 0.000 2.000 -6.500 0.000 -3.000 0.500 2.000 -15.500 0.000 -12.2000e-01 Area 1.000 -18.000 -18.000 P4 No 5.000 2.000 -15.000 No 0.000 -21.000 -18.000 8.000 -12.000 -3.500 5.000 2.000 -9.6000e+07 10.000 -3.500 3.000 0.000 -9.000 2.000 0.500 8.000 0.000 0. 3 0 P12 - - Iy Material m2 Angle 0 m4 - ° Section Shapes Section Tapered hB hE tf tw tf2 B b1 P1 No 0.500 5.500 0.500 2.000 -12.000 No 0.000 8.500 -21. 3 - Density Youngs mod.500 3.000 -15.500 0.000 -21.000 -9.000 8.000 -12.500 3.00 3.000 0.000 2.000 8.500 3.000 5.000 2.000 5.500 3.000 8.000 -12.000 -6.000 8.000 5.000 -21.000 2.000 0.500 2.000 0.500 5.000 -9.000 0.000 0.000 2.000 0.500 5.5750e+00 C45/55 0 P4 R300x5000 1.Member Node B B S96 S97 S98 S100 S102 S103 S104 S105 S107 S109 S110 S111 S112 S114 S116 S117 S118 S119 S121 S123 S124 S125 S126 S128 S130 S131 S132 S135 S136 S137 S138 S139 S140 S141 S142 K58 K59 K60 K61 K61 K62 K63 K64 K65 K65 K66 K67 K68 K69 K69 K70 K71 K72 K73 K73 K74 K75 K76 K77 K77 K78 K79 K81 K1 K81 K82 K83 K84 K6 K80 NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM - - - Release E Node E Section X-B Z-B X-E Z-E Length NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM K59 K60 K56 K62 K57 K63 K64 K60 K66 K61 K67 K68 K64 K70 K65 K71 K72 K68 K74 K69 K75 K76 K72 K78 K73 K79 K80 K82 K81 K77 K83 K84 K80 K84 K76 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P12 P4 P4 P1 P12 P3 P3 P3 2.000 8.000 8.000 -12.000 -6.000 P3 No 7.000 -6.000 -6.000 2.000 0.000 -21.500 2.000 -6.000 -6.500 3.000 0.000 -18.500 8.500 8.500 8.500 8.000 -18.000 -9.6000e-03 C45/55 P3 R300x7000 2.000 -18.000 3.000 2.000 2.000 8.000 0.000 -15.500 0.300 0.000 2.000 -3.1250e+00 C45/55 0 2.500 3.000 -6.000 - - - m m m m m Sections Section Section Name P1 R300x400 1.500 3.000 -9.500 8.000 8.000 -9.000 0.000 2.000 No b2 Castellate 0.500 3.000 0.000 8.000 5.000 -3.000 0.500 8.000 3.500 3.000 -12.000 -3.000 2.000 -6.500 0.0000e-06 0.000 -9.000 -12.000 -15.400 0.000 0.000 5.000 -3.000 0.500 5.0000e-06 kN/m3 kN/m2 C°m Supports Support Node X Z Yr AngleYr O1 K1 fixed 153000 318750 0 O2 K6 fixed 214200 874650 0 - - kN/m kN/m kNmrad ° 11/20/2013 4:01:07PM MatrixFrame® 5.1400e+01 4.400 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.1000e+00 8.300 0.500 3.000 -15.000 -9.5000e+00 3.000 3.000 -12.500 3.000 -21.000 -9.500 8.500 3.000 5.000 -6.300 0.000 -3.500 8.000 7.000 2.500 0.000 8.000 -18.500 3.000 -24.000 2.000 -12.500 0.0 SP11 2 Height .500 3.6000e+15 10.000 -3.500 0.000 0.500 3.000 2.500 3. Lin.000 - - m m m m m m m m- m Materials Material Name C45/55 Mat.500 5.000 -18.00 3.500 5.000 0.500 3.000 -18.1600e+00 Mat.000 0.000 8. Exp.000 -15.000 -15.000 -15.500 2.500 3. 24.

000 0.000 m .Height 0.000 0.

00 0.50 - Analysis Assumptions Linear Elastic Analysis performed 11/20/2013 4:01:07PM MatrixFrame® 5.S130. Geometrie: Doorgaande Ligger Loads Cases Type Value Begin B.2 B.0 SP11 3 .5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[                                             5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 2 2 5[        $ % & ' Pic.S46. S95. S67.C.S102.20 1.G.S53.S32.G.000 3.000(L) kN m m 1020.2: Wind load q 17.S88.S74. Begin Dist.2 Wind load 1. S136-S137 -- Persistent Loads Combinations L.S25.G.C.S81.00 kN Z: 0.S18.S109.1 Pe.35 B.1 Permanent actions 1. Description Pe. End 17. S39.S60. S116.00 - Direction Member/Node Z' S8.S123.00 Sum of loads - X: - Value End Dist.C.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pic. B.G. B.0 SP11 4 .G.1: Permanent actions Normaalkracht (Nx)                                                                                                                                           Pic.2: Wind load Normaalkracht (Nx) 11/20/2013 4:01:07PM MatrixFrame® 5.

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0 SP11 5 . B.G. B.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pic.G.1: Permanent actions Dwarskracht (Vz)                                                                                                Pic.2: Wind load Dwarskracht (Vz) 11/20/2013 4:01:07PM MatrixFrame® 5.

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38 0.00 0.61 -12.00 0. B.000 0.29 -80.23 1.000 99.00 0.0 SP11 Nmax Vb Vmax Ve 14.02 -80.2: Wind load Momenten (My) L.000 T 80.68 -80.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Pic.1: Permanent actions Momenten (My)                                                                                                   Pic.19 S11 B.2 418.C.19 13.04 -12.04 -80.C.G.00 0.2 -100.000 T MatrixFrame® 5.G.88 0.04 -80.04 -80.20 0.248 0.04 S8 B.02 -80.2 300.2 99.000 0.02 0.61 11/20/2013 4:01:07PM x-M0 TC 0.000 380.000 -380.000 300.00 0.G.000 0.38 0.04 64.G.000 T 12.61 -12.000 C -80.G. Mb Mmax xMmax Me x-M0 S2 B.23 0.04 -80.2 183.04 S4 B. B.00 0.G.86 0.02 6 .34 -80.19 64.000 -100. Extreme Member Forces Member L.G.000 T 12.000 S3 B.93 0.

.

2 289.34 S61 B.06 315.000 T 1543.86 -91.86 191.G.000 1892.000 C -34.49 187.000 C -32.79 0.2 360.36 -86.62 0.000 -123.19 S44 B.000 C -545.17 1.000 0.79 -86.000 C -32.01 0.2 1215.G.2 237.09 0.00 0.67 S90 B.000 202.2 125.000 C -33.94 0.04 -106.59 80.2 607.000 0.G.00 0.250 0.G.35 0.51 0.02 0.250 0. Mb Mmax xMmax Me x-M0 x-M0 TC S13 B.79 -132.00 0.00 0.00 0.G.24 220.32 -123.G.61 1.79 283.05 141.23 0.72 5.2 678.18 S76 B.05 0.G.06 0.000 C -35.93 -189.48 -98.95 0.000 0.2 202.000 -103.32 S55 B.56 1.000 C -33.G.24 220.67 -171.77 -162.19 117.000 C -34.000 T 439.000 -226.18 -152.16 0.11 0.82 0.81 -171.94 0.2 177.2 -190.87 S25 B.000 0.92 0.38 S33 B.56 0.79 -142.2 570.2 462.76 0.97 346.37 0.G.250 0.000 190.64 0.2 819.39 -86.000 165.48 0.79 0.2 1389.2 271.52 0.02 1.98 0.00 0.2 325.74 115.34 0.G.05 S40 B.56 0.00 0.16 156.97 S93 B.000 178.00 0.000 C -32.000 -114.G.31 0.000 C -659.000 T 340.42 S68 B.66 S91 B.66 0.00 0.83 -123.33 315.000 -676.93 -189.000 107.000 595.250 0.48 S34 B.000 787.00 0.00 0.250 0.G.89 283.G.00 0.09 0.39 S20 B.86 -91.39 283.00 0.86 -106.84 -114.000 -165.000 T 1057.06 -181.000 C -1372.32 -86.00 0.000 0.250 0.63 S88 B.G.73 379.000 0.00 0.70 -132.000 T 1372.00 0.04 1.2 114.22 0.000 C -35.97 227.G.00 0.33 315.00 0.81 0.000 -436.66 S60 B.898 0.000 C -33.35 S82 B.G.73 0.87 -91.20 153.37 -142.000 564.250 0.84 0.73 0.04 -106.000 0.000 0.08 -181.00 0.86 0.G.000 114.000 C -33.37 -142.98 0.50 0.2 15.38 -114.39 S100 B.000 C -782.00 0.00 0.250 0.98 0.000 T 248.00 0.00 0.97 0.G.000 -108.14 0.51 -181.90 0.39 379.000 -142.000 658.33 -114.000 -237.48 -98.000 781.41 -114.23 S47 B.97 346.000 C -33.000 0.000 0.71 227.2 643.76 S37 B.G.G.Member L.000 0.2 1042.000 0.57 0.63 -171.90 187.00 0.000 T 545.89 -91.65 S89 B.G.76 80.000 0.79 -123.G.000 -202.82 -86.2 383.2 225.000 C -38.000 0.48 -98.72 S23 B.34 140.97 0.G.00 11/20/2013 4:01:07PM MatrixFrame® 5.94 0.00 0.250 0.00 0.90 S58 B.000 0.000 0.2 226.000 -177.000 1515.2 548.19 117.33 0.74 41.000 C Nmax Vb Vmax Ve -18.G.000 C -35.000 142.00 0.37 -142.00 0.G.000 C -32.000 C -18.000 -214.04 S41 B.38 S49 B.000 -132.90 120.18 0.35 0.53 0.000 492.G.000 C -32.2 -103.05 -106.000 0.000 818.000 C -33.57 209.37 -142.000 T 915.00 0.48 -98.43 -82.250 0.00 0.76 80.70 S63 B.00 0.52 S103 B.000 T 1210.G.40 -86.61 0.000 T 659.42 0.19 -152.02 0.000 0.000 0.37 S67 B.00 -190.00 0.000 C -248.54 0.000 C -19.2 323.89 -98.97 0.38 -114.19 -152.32 -123.000 0.38 -114.09 0.000 0.000 C -1543.54 171.86 -91.00 -162.50 0.67 -171.35 0.98 1.G.000 -815.10 264.71 S75 B.45 0.000 -585.08 S95 B.2 1078.00 0.94 0.98 -181.G.65 264.G.2 -123.52 301.96 0.20 153.53 1.15 0.13 48.00 0.20 S51 B.2 1433.00 0.00 -162.84 1.04 -106.23 283.23 283.000 C -33.90 0.71 -132.000 0.000 C -32.G.2 -154.000 0.84 -106.00 0.52 250.2 -114.32 -82.G.2 154.30 0.30 -142.42 0.71 -132.15 0.000 C -33.000 0.23 156.G.000 0.04 -106.000 214.000 0.G.24 -152.2 712.39 -86.74 -142.32 S56 B.51 0.2 -177.000 226.2 497.38 77.2 -108.000 C -34.2 308.72 5.18 S77 B.35 0.000 123.2 1412.00 0.33 S53 B.77 -123.00 -190.29 0.69 -82.00 0.91 -98.000 0.48 S32 B.2 -214.62 0.000 669.00 0.000 0.00 0.06 S97 B.000 154.000 C -1210.000 C -33.000 841.000 0.80 250.06 -181.24 S74 B.55 0.87 0.98 1.00 -162.G.000 1202.000 1892.28 -181.410 0.000 0.41 S46 B.000 -391.2 132.000 237.61 0.250 0.000 0.00 0.55 0.2 -132.2 792.90 1.00 0.15 0.G.2 102.000 T 162.G.00 0.000 0.23 0.64 S26 B.000 C -36.87 -91.48 S35 B.00 S83 B.000 C -38.37 S70 B.0 SP11 7 .19 -152.64 115.66 -171.2 190.33 -123.39 S96 B.G.75 0.249 0.53 -132.2 343.85 0.43 0.G.000 0.33 S86 B.00 0.000 -190.01 0.G.38 -114.66 0.00 0.00 -162.80 0.000 -860.000 C -38.000 -467.000 0.000 0.10 -152.250 0.90 171.65 0.2 533.000 C -32.87 301.2 -202.00 0.000 C -34.38 99.00 0.13 S19 B.63 0.38 128.000 0.2 378.36 5.90 187.79 -171.04 -106.36 S16 B.G.77 -152.G.32 -82.000 C -340.31 S14 B.02 S81 B.000 C -162.15 -98.51 1.35 0.2 1338.42 209.000 732.000 C -38.000 102.90 0.32 -123.G.08 0.32 -123.000 0.00 0.2 216.2 107.000 1740.92 -91.00 0.G.000 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.71 176.38 S48 B.C.000 C -37.000 C -32.24 S65 B.000 -503.000 C -36.000 C -34.000 C -33.04 S42 B.64 128.27 0.000 C -33.000 132.000 809.34 1.30 -152.G.G.32 S15 B.37 -142.02 0.000 1765.25 1.G.00 0.G.00 0.G.000 823.02 -162.000 0.82 220.68 0.80 250.G.34 191.06 -181.000 C -915.32 -82.02 -162.42 158.G.G.15 141.04 -106.91 -162.G.39 0.81 0.91 -91.06 -181.000 T 782.G.000 0.00 S84 B.G.89 0.14 0.2 -165.25 41.G.26 -171.2 389.000 C -1057.33 -123.30 0.00 0.000 841.80 S72 B.48 0.2 369.31 -82.36 S18 B.000 C -33.31 -82.G.41 -114.000 0.23 0.12 246.66 -132.2 428.28 -162.000 -630.000 1968.000 0.2 397.35 246.48 -98.06 S98 B.00 0.2 214.61 0.24 -152.05 90.23 S79 B.79 -190.000 0.28 -132.2 1273.45 0.41 -86.50 0.000 1589.000 1363.2 -263.000 0.2 -114.40 S21 B.37 S69 B.71 -132.G.48 -98.23 105.86 -91.00 0.49 -114.29 0.90 S54 B.16 0.04 S39 B.25 S30 B.000 0.000 -769.000 C -33.000 1998.G.52 250.000 730.000 0.000 C -439.30 -189.00 0.11 153.25 41.000 0.37 -142.08 -181.71 0.00 0.39 232.56 0.65 213.94 0.000 1976.48 0.G.000 -543.64 64.000 -410.2 142.66 -132.00 0.00 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 -86.000 0.2 165.10 1.G.39 379.G.G.13 99.00 0.89 0.000 -722.55 0.59 0.G.000 C -31.G.86 S28 B.95 0.61 0.000 T 1724.63 -171.000 C -37.93 S102 B.07 117.46 -82.00 0.96 0.37 0.00 0.G.2 344.000 -154.2 -226.2 123.86 0.09 0.32 -82.249 0.000 0.35 195.66 -171.000 0.86 S27 B.05 346.67 0.2 -143.70 S62 B.

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45 -222.000 -11.90 S116 B.000 362.000 C -38.2316 -0.505e-03 K37 0.69 -198.C.00 0.89 0.G.472e-03 K26 0.29 635.000 247.473e-03 K28 0.58 0.G.0098 -4.000 -902.407 0.000 -277.0148 -4.2315 0.2 -277.00 0.000 T 2531.488e-03 K30 0.304 0.00 0.40 -198.2 -1003.01 -190.27 0.12 S110 B.250 0.2714 -0.34 -198.519e-03 K2 0.0149 -4.2581 0.2714 0.07 0.2 772.000 448.431e-03 K15 0.45 S107 B.40 S109 B.0007 -4.0149 -4.443e-03 K18 0.G.33 0.000 T 2749.2 277.00 0.00 0.50 -212.0208 -4.50 -212.0096 -4.000 0.G.99 0.G.2 -432.0148 -4.0006 K13 0.505e-03 K35 0. Extreme Nodal Displacements Node L.90 -205.90 304.000 -978.58 -198.94 0.91 0.44 0.G.00 0.000 -1009.457e-03 K22 0.936 0.0000 0.000 0.08 364.433e-03 K16 0.73 334.000 -640.000 -265.63 S128 B.43 0.0149 -4.00 0.12 268.25 0.G.34 S111 B.G.56 -212.2 -1650.2714 -0.48 -212.00 0.510e-03 K7 0.2048 -0.39 0.53 0.000 -1035.50 -212.000 0.05 S140 B.0 SP11 8 .66 0.000 C -33.000 C -35.443e-03 K19 0.25 S114 B.45 411.0006 -4.000 C -35.00 0.0194 -4.63 517.000 0.95 0.G.74 602.000 C -32.51 382.420e-03 K10 0.000 T 1914.49 560.2 -1075.05 S139 B.413e-03 K3 0.000 C -32.75 -212.0007 -4.34 0. X Z Ry K1 B.Member L.2 -3945.000 C -38.66 -205.000 -942.90 355.2048 -0.95 -217.00 0.250 0.08 S124 B.2 265.2 0.000 -2039.2 -1440.45 411.000 C -32.G.1779 -0.25 444.54 -190.000 1085.000 155.23 0.48 S126 B.97 -217.G.00 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.0208 -4.97 -217.433e-03 K17 0.34 -198.0000 -0.00 0.481 0.000 0.000 0.2 743.000 T 2113.2448 -0.2581 -0.08 347.94 -217.000 0.2 -265.63 517.000 C -1724.92 0.85 319.G.0095 -4.00 0.50 S123 B.000 265.29 S142 B.05 S136 B.34 0.80 0.0207 K34 0.58 -222.G.92 -205.425e-03 K11 0.2 -148.G.421e-03 K6 0.73 283.243 0.25 444.1643 -0.66 0.00 0.488e-03 K31 0.000 C -38.34 -198.000 C -2749.2 -2320.0207 -4.03 0.431e-03 K14 0.73 S117 B.08 296.C.00 0.15 334.G. Mb Mmax xMmax Me x-M0 x-M0 TC Nmax Vb Vmax Ve S104 B.65 0.G.95 -217.444e-03 K21 0.0097 -4.74 602.01 -217.58 0.10 0.2 -272.000 C -42.G.90 S131 B.0139 -4.59 1.2 -257.00 0.G.44 1.05 -222.00 0.472e-03 K27 0.00 0.54 1.81 0.40 479.40 S121 B.1779 -0.45 355.000 -1054.42 602.000 C -42.G.40 0.52 -222.01 S105 B.0094 -4.00 0.2 -247.000 C -35.00 0.1913 -0.00 0.0208 -4.04 - - kNm kNm m kNm m m- kN kN kN kN L.97 0.0148 -4.000 C -2113.40 -198.G.1914 -0.66 0.0008 -4.000 -257.2315 -0.14 0.85 0.90 S119 B.0208 -4.521e-03 11/20/2013 4:01:07PM MatrixFrame® 5.78 411.457e-03 K24 0.000 -1285.C.000 -247.05 -222.51 0.457e-03 K25 0.41 364.2048 -0.2 -616.39 0.2048 0.G.54 0.0149 -4.2 247.00 0.00 0.74 S141 B.08 313.04 560.2 832.50 -212.2316 -0.000 C -1914.07 -198.000 257.420e-03 -4.2 796.03 347.28 0.000 0.2182 -0.250 0.505e-03 K36 0.000 -272.01 -190.000 0.05 -222.0097 -4.000 277.14 0.90 -205.34 -198.1778 0.04 560.94 -217.G.28 0.2182 -0.2449 -0.0010 -4.00 0.250 0.47 635.000 0.05 -222.95 S132 B.1913 0.000 0.G.2 257.250 0.34 S112 B.62 S137 B.65 1.90 -205.000 -97.000 T 2319.62 331.01 517.413e-03 K4 0.50 -212.96 1.2449 -0.48 1.G.90 -205.000 0.1778 -0.34 0.2182 0.92 2.G.000 C -2319.000 272.0009 -4.91 2.000 C -42.2448 0.489e-03 K32 0.00 0.2581 -0.1914 -0.G.000 -185.2 -808.000 C -2971.2 272.489e-03 -4.2 -237.90 -205.0208 -4.12 319.G.000 T 2971.0207 -4.2 -579.88 -217.000 C -43.20 0.83 0.000 0.425e-03 K12 0.000 0.2 -3093.21 0.2 817.457e-03 K23 0.G.01 -217.48 S125 B.000 0.12 479.000 C -42.91 -205.41 1.90 -205.22 0.0208 -4.000 753.87 0.65 0.000 0.62 382.22 0.000 311.444e-03 K20 0.000 C -2531.2 -1201.97 S130 B.29 635.362 0.0098 -4.79 444.75 0.0098 -4.0006 -4.00 0.2182 -0.0149 -4.90 S118 B.50 -212.G.62 0.40 479.49 1.000 -368.473e-03 K29 0.05 -222.2581 -0.84 0.05 -222.08 S138 B.94 S135 B.00 0.G.505e-03 K33 0.421e-03 K5 0.000 C -43.2714 -0.00 0.

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537e-03 K45 0.0142 -4.1097 -0.0272 0.536e-03 K43 0.0547 -0.0206 -4.0146 -4.1234 -0.0199 -4.0094 -4.0144 -4.1507 -0.0012 -4.1371 0.573e-03 K54 0.586e-03 K64 0.2 O1 K1 O2 K6 - Sum Reactions Sum Loads - 11/20/2013 4:01:07PM - X Z My -382.0013 -4.C.1097 -0.0019 -4.0147 -4.0685 -0.0204 -4.0205 -4.573e-03 K55 0.1643 0.521e-03 K41 0.62 2971.1507 -0.0084 -4.582e-03 K71 0.0141 -4.0196 -4.0140 -4.0200 -4.G.585e-03 K62 0.Node L.0410 -0.0136 -0.574e-03 K74 0.1234 -0.0547 -0.540e-03 m m rad - - L.586e-03 K66 0.0136 -0.0014 -4.0203 -4.582e-03 K60 0.582e-03 K70 0.581e-03 K59 0.0685 -0.581e-03 K58 0.561e-03 K80 0.0018 -4.0684 0.1371 -0.28 -635.1371 -0.0206 -4.0960 -0.536e-03 K42 0.550e-03 K46 0.584e-03 K72 0.0083 -4.47 3945.0201 -4.0093 -4.0136 0.0092 -4.0547 -0.1234 0.0087 -4.563e-03 K50 0.575e-03 K76 0.0011 -4.0 SP11 9 .540e-03 K84 0.1097 -0.G.00 kN kNm MatrixFrame® 5.50 1440.1507 -0.564e-03 K53 0.574e-03 K75 0.0147 -4.1643 -0. X Z Ry K38 B.0960 -0.0684 -0.560e-03 K79 0.0091 -4.587e-03 K68 0.0136 -0.0146 -4.584e-03 K73 0.542e-03 K83 0.0822 -0.0822 -0.563e-03 K51 0.0012 -4.0089 -4.0017 -4.0015 -4.561e-03 K81 0.1371 -0.0960 0.C.0547 0.0273 -0.585e-03 K63 0.564e-03 K52 0.1234 -0.0145 -4.29 -2971.537e-03 K44 0.586e-03 K65 0. Support Reactions L.574e-03 K56 0.0145 -4.0410 -0.587e-03 K69 0.542e-03 K82 0.521e-03 K40 0.90 1020.1643 -0.04 0. Support Node B.560e-03 K78 0.0082 -4.550e-03 K47 0.582e-03 K61 0.1097 0.C.586e-03 K67 0.575e-03 K77 0.0960 -0.0273 -0.0409 0.551e-03 K48 0.574e-03 K57 0.07 -1017.551e-03 K49 0.0018 -4.0822 -0.521e-03 K39 0.0143 -4.0202 -4.0016 -4.0019 -4.0409 -0.2 0.0822 0.0197 -4.0086 -4.0148 -4.0090 -4.00 kN 0.0088 -4.1507 0.0272 -0.

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000 2.000 -39.500 2.500 5.500 3.000 -39.500 0.000 -57.500 0.500 5.000 -33.000 2.000 -24.000 -48.000 -24.000 8.000 -54.000 8.500 2.000 5.500 0.500 0.500 3.000 2.000 5.000 5.000 0.000 -39.500 0.000 -51.000 2.000 -30.500 3.500 3.000 -54.000 -48.000 8. 84 103 2 4 2 0 Members Member S2 S3 S4 S8 S11 S13 S14 S15 S16 S18 S19 S20 S21 S23 S25 S26 S27 S28 S30 S32 S33 S34 S35 S37 S39 S40 S41 S42 S44 S46 S47 S48 S49 S51 S53 S54 S55 S56 S58 S60 S61 S62 S63 S65 S67 S68 S69 S70 S72 S74 S75 S76 S77 S79 S81 S82 S83 S84 S86 S88 S89 S90 S91 S93 S95 S96 Node B B K2 K3 K4 K7 K10 K7 K11 K12 K13 K13 K14 K15 K16 K17 K17 K18 K19 K20 K21 K21 K22 K23 K24 K25 K25 K26 K27 K28 K29 K29 K30 K31 K32 K33 K33 K34 K35 K36 K37 K37 K38 K39 K40 K41 K41 K42 K43 K44 K45 K45 K46 K47 K48 K49 K49 K50 K51 K52 K53 K53 K54 K55 K56 K57 K57 K58 NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM 4-2-2014 12:28:48 Release E NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM Node E Section X-B Z-B X-E Z-E Length K3 K4 K5 K2 K5 K11 K12 K10 K14 K7 K15 K16 K10 K18 K13 K19 K20 K16 K22 K17 K23 K24 K20 K26 K21 K27 K28 K24 K30 K25 K31 K32 K28 K34 K29 K35 K36 K32 K38 K33 K39 K40 K36 K42 K37 K43 K44 K40 K46 K41 K47 K48 K44 K50 K45 K51 K52 K48 K54 K49 K55 K56 K52 K58 K53 K59 P12 P1 P12 P4 P3 P12 P1 P12 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 0.000 5.500 3.000 -60.000 -33.000 0.000 -48.500 3.500 0.000 -27.500 2.000 -42.000 -60.000 5.000 -54.000 -27.500 2.000 0.000 -27.000 8.000 -48.000 -45.000 -30.000 2.500 5.000 -33.500 3.500 5.500 3.000 -27.000 8.000 -36.500 0.500 3.000 -42.500 0.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 -51.Sh m.000 0.000 -39.000 2.000 8.500 0. kNm Structure Info Project Type 2D-Frame Nodes Members Supports Sections Loads Cases Loads Comb.000 0.000 -36.000 0.000 2.000 -30.000 5.000 0.000 -48.500 8.500 2.000 5.500 3.000 -54.000 -45.000 5.000 -60.000 5.000 -48.000 -36.000 2.500 5.500 0.000 -57.000 -27.000 -45.000 -57.000 -39.500 3.000 -54.000 -42.500 5.000 8.000 2.500 3.000 -42.500 8.500 0.500 0.000 2.000 -60.000 2.500 2.000 -51.000 -33.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 -51.000 -24.000 -54.000 -24.000 -45.000 -39.000 -30.500 5.mxe M.000 2.000 2.000 -51.500 5.500 MatrixFrame® 5.000 -39.500 3.500 5.000 -48.500 8.000 -45.000 2.000 -45.000 -30.000 -45.000 -57.000 -24.000 3.500 3.000 -24.500 3.500 3.500 2.000 0.000 2.500 3.500 2.000 -54.000 5.000 2.500 3.000 -42.000 -57.000 -39.500 8.000 -33.000 8.000 2.500 3.000 -36.500 0.000 -33.000 -21.000 8.000 -27.000 8.500 3.500 0.000 -30.500 3.000 -54.500 0.000 -27.000 -36.000 -51.000 8. kN.000 0.000 2.000 8.000 -54.500 3.000 -57.000 -39.500 3.500 5.500 0.000 2.000 -33.500 -60.000 -24.000 2.500 8.000 -57.500 2.500 2.000 0.000 -57.000 -36.000 -60.000 2.000 -30.500 2.500 8.000 -42.000 8.000 -51.500 3.000 5.000 8.000 -36.000 -48.500 2.500 3.500 0.500 0.000 8.500 2.000 0.500 3.000 -42.000 -21.000 2.500 3.000 -45.500 0.500 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 8.500 5.000 -24.500 3.500 3.000 -51.000 2.000 -60.000 0.500 8.500 3.500 2.000 8.000 -33.000 -30.000 8.000 -27.000 -39.000 2.500 3.500 3.500 0.000 -21.000 -24.500 0.000 8.000 -33.500 5.000 -57.000 -51.500 2.000 0.000 -42.500 8.000 -48.000 -21.000 -54.500 8.000 -30.500 5.000 -36.000 -60.000 -45.000 2.000 8.000 -51.000 -42.000 -36.000 -48.500 8.000 -27.500 3.000 -30.000 -21.500 3.000 -42.000 2.000 5.500 3.000 2.000 8.500 3.500 0.000 -36.000 -57.000 2.500 8.000 8.000 2.0 SP8 1 .Job Name Part Description Client File example stiffened beam Elastic foundation Job Number Structural Engineer Units h:\Desktop\worked_example_elastic_stiffned_beam.000 8.500 5.500 0.000 -33.000 8.500 0.000 8.500 5.000 -45.000 0.500 3.000 -27.000 8.500 0.

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000 -15.500 2.000 0.000 5.500 3.000 -9.6000e+15 10.000 0.000 0.000 -3.000 2.000 8.000 -15.500 8.500 0.000 0.500 3.500 3.000 -18.000 -9.500 3.000 -6.000 -12.000 -3.000 -15.000 -12.500 5.500 3.000 0.000 0.000 -3.500 3.000 0.500 0.000 -15.000 - - m m m m m m m m- m Materials Material Name Density Youngs mod.1600e+00 Mat.000 8.000 -6.000 -3.000 0. Lin.000 3.2000e-01 Area 1.500 8.000 0.000 0.000 -18.1000e+00 8.500 5.000 8.000 0.000 2.000 -3.000 8.500 8.000 -21.1250e+00 C45/55 0 2.300 0.000 8.000 -9.000 8.000 2.000 -6.500 3.000 -18.1400e+01 4.000 -6.500 2.000 -21.000 -9.500 0.000 -12.500 2.000 -12.000 5.000 2.000 2.00 3.500 3.000 No 0. 3 0 P12 - - Iy Material m2 Angle 0 m4 - ° Section Shapes Section Tapered hB hE tf tw tf2 B b1 P1 No 0.500 8.00 3.400 0.400 0.6000e+07 10.000 -9. 3 0.Member Node B B S97 S98 S100 S102 S103 S104 S105 S107 S109 S110 S111 S112 S114 S116 S117 S118 S119 S121 S123 S124 S125 S126 S128 S130 S131 S132 S135 S136 S137 S138 S139 S140 S141 S142 S143 S144 S145 K59 K60 K61 K61 K62 K63 K64 K65 K65 K66 K67 K68 K69 K69 K70 K71 K72 K73 K73 K74 K75 K76 K77 K77 K78 K79 K81 K1 K81 K82 K83 K84 K6 K80 K1 K85 K86 NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM - - - Release E Node E Section X-B Z-B X-E Z-E Length NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM NVM K60 K56 K62 K57 K63 K64 K60 K66 K61 K67 K68 K64 K70 K65 K71 K72 K68 K74 K69 K75 K76 K72 K78 K73 K79 K80 K82 K81 K77 K83 K84 K80 K84 K76 K85 K86 K6 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P3 P12 P4 P1 P12 P12 P4 P4 P1 P12 P3 P3 P3 P12 P1 P12 5.500 3.6000e-03 C45/55 P3 R300x7000 2.000 0.000 -18.000 -3.000 0.000 -18.500 0.000 0.000 -15.000 -15.000 0.500 8.500 3.000 -18.500 0.000 -9.000 2.0 SP8 2 Height .000 -6.000 2.000 2.000 3.000 -9.500 0.000 -18.000 -12.000 2.000 8.000 0.5750e+00 C45/55 0 P4 R300x5000 1.000 -3.000 -3. C45/55 24.500 5.000 2.000 0.500 0.500 3.000 -15.500 3.500 2.000 3.000 -12.000 0.000 0.500 3.500 3.000 7.0000e-06 Mat.500 3.500 - - - m m m m m Sections Section Section Name P1 R300x400 1.500 5.000 0.000 5.000 P4 No 5.000 -21.000 2.500 2.300 0.000 5.000 8.000 8.500 0.000 0.000 -12.000 -21. Exp.000 -18.500 0.500 3.000 -18.500 0.000 0.000 -6.500 2.000 5.000 -6.000 -24.5000e+00 3.000 8.000 -6.500 -21.000 -6.500 2.000 5.000 -9.000 5.000 2.000 -9.000 0.000 No 0.000 -15.000 2.500 2.000 -15.000 -3.500 2.000 2.000 No b2 Castellate 0.000 P3 No 7.500 8.000 2.000 2.000 0.500 8.500 3.000 0.000 0.500 8.000 -15.000 0.500 0.000 3.500 3.000 2.000 8.0000e-06 kN/m3 kN/m2 C°m - Supports Support Node X Z Yr AngleYr O1 K1 fixed 153000 318750 0 O2 K6 fixed 214200 874650 0 - - kN/m kN/m kNmrad ° 4-2-2014 12:28:53 MatrixFrame® 5.500 8.000 0.000 0.500 5.500 0.000 -18.000 8.000 8.000 2.000 -6.000 -12.000 -12.000 0.000 0.000 -12.500 5.500 5.500 3.500 8.500 5.000 8.000 2.000 -3.000 -9.300 0.

000 m .000 0.Height 0.000 0.

000 3. Geometrie: Doorgaande Ligger B. End 17.G. Begin Dist.00 X: 1.S102.S18.00 - MatrixFrame® 5.S46.S81. S116. S39.S123.S74. S136-S137 -- 3 .S88.2: Wind load Type Value Begin B. S95.S60.S53.2: Wind load q Sum of loads - 4-2-2014 12:28:53 Value End Dist.5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[                                             5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 5[ 2 2 5[ 5[        $ % & ' Pic.0 SP8 Direction Member/Node Z' S8.00 0.020.S25.G.S109.S32. S67.00 - kN Z: 0.S130.000(L) kN m m 17.

.

17 0.00 0.20 -119.000 0.000 C -38.68 S15 B.2 96.53 0.000 C -77.18 1.2 298.2 1045.79 116.33 0.000 C -20.20 -119.63 S46 B.77 S11 B.67 -102.49 S20 B.01 116.2 -97.000 -368.G.93 S27 B.000 C -36.2: Wind load L.77 S47 B.000 -452.58 S18 B.03 S26 B.29 -77.G.000 0.2 1233.79 116.88 95.67 78.G.000 138.000 -397.2 -119.82 -83.77 113.68 -79.G.69 -110.31 0.G.35 -95.15 0.000 C -33.64 S39 B.00 0.2 119.68 -79.2 178.54 S13 B.54 0.000 C -527.00 0.03 0.000 0.00 0.2 1363.12 5.000 0.000 477.61 0.G.69 S48 B.000 0.G.000 0.00 0.54 -12.G.66 0.71 0.2 -111.79 0.2 -104.000 T 527.000 T 329.000 0.91 -95.63 S14 B.38 -95.000 C -34.49 -77.88 0.000 C -39.00 0.94 S28 B.66 0.84 S23 B.86 -102.000 -111.000 T 157.00 0.000 1686.2 350.58 -83.00 0.15 95.000 C -36.000 0.000 0.48 0.000 0.000 C -35.94 0.07 138.00 0.G.66 0.000 708.G.C. Mb Mmax xMmax Me x-M0 S2 B.00 0.68 -110.91 -88.250 0.82 -110.G.G.00 0.70 0.62 0.G.02 0.00 0.54 -12.23 78.46 0.000 C -34.00 0.00 0.2 384.83 0.000 -487.000 T 240.77 153.00 0.00 0.55 138.00 0.000 -97.47 -77.248 0.000 -378.000 -138.58 1.62 -83.000 C -19.91 0.45 125.00 0.63 -110.68 S41 B.50 0.000 1468.04 0.000 C -425.00 0.000 -104.82 -110.00 0.64 -102.23 S37 B.000 -128.000 0.20 4-2-2014 12:28:53 MatrixFrame® 5.000 0.77 102.63 -79.249 0.000 104.000 0.000 C -19.G.35 S34 B.00 0.47 -77.000 T 12.55 87.G.G.000 0.000 1823.47 0.000 C -240.46 -79.41 39.000 C -35.000 96.58 0.50 0.2 138.000 C -39.68 -110.45 74.G.G.2 -99.2 405.G.G.00 0.82 -119.000 0.53 153.91 -88.74 39.00 0.G.58 -83. Extreme Member Forces Member L.91 -88.000 1164.03 62.55 S40 B.G.91 -95.35 -95.04 0.2 266.000 C -157.35 -95.G.G.38 S32 B.32 0.03 113.86 0.67 -79.00 0.77 11.33 0.93 -88.2 369.000 128.19 1.2 -138.17 0.000 149.62 S21 B.53 S51 B.000 T Nmax Vb Vmax Ve 12.2 111.49 -83.000 C -38.35 S35 B.95 0.00 0.36 -95.000 -422.39 0.01 1.G.18 0.59 0.18 0.47 S8 B.000 C -38.40 0.67 -102.000 753.22 0.33 1.37 0.G.00 0.48 -79.54 0.000 0.000 C -34.000 0.34 0.62 -83.000 T 11.36 1.2 -128.35 0.000 0.47 -77.2 1336.91 0.71 125.16 0.00 0.63 -110.249 0.67 -79.000 x-M0 TC S3 B.28 0.92 0.79 -83.000 650.2 333.00 0.00 0.93 -88.88 S19 B.G.000 C -34.000 0.06 0.84 5.2 313.2 766.68 S42 B.19 0.000 C -37.00 0.48 0.000 0.31 0.62 -83.00 0.000 0.2 99.53 -77.67 S16 B.000 290.250 0.69 S49 B.G.                     B.000 0.000 -525.79 S44 B.94 -88.29 -77.00 0.46 62.000 T 77.13 -88.000 0.49 -77.250 0.59 0.38 -95.G.53 153.47 -77.64 -102.C.000 C -40.94 -88.94 -88.48 0.2 316.15 0.0 SP8 4 .67 -102.45 S33 B.35 0.2 290.000 99.000 0.74 153.68 -102.77 0.000 0.000 -99.86 -102.2 446.30 -110.06 0.37 0.35 -95.47 S4 B.71 1.84 5.41 S30 B.63 -79.000 368.G.46 -12.G.88 44.41 39.G.2 128.77 62.68 -110.000 111.66 153.G.250 0.000 119.91 S25 B.67 0.000 784.62 -79.2 357.000 579.G.99 0.000 0.000 -119.000 T 425.G.20 0.00 0.62 -83.15 -102.2 368.2 415.2 104.11 0.00 0.23 78.000 C -329.

.

10 -146.00 0.2 -78.45 -163.000 0.63 S105 B.2 237.00 0.67 S110 B.G.98 -154.12 1.000 533.000 C -35.000 -736.000 C -33.05 -190.G.12 S76 B.000 -878.22 0.71 S135 B.97 0.250 0.250 0.2 -171.250 0.86 0.2 -242.60 0.G.74 0.000 C -33.66 0.76 0.86 0.00 0.000 795.00 0.000 -214.70 243.G.00 0.2 155.2 581.72 287.G.000 x-M0 TC 0.26 0.17 492.000 T 1022.19 2.56 -171.60 S124 B.45 S90 B.00 0.04 -128.14 0.000 C -1323.000 0.00 0.14 0.000 -574.2 -4809.2 612.63 -178.39 0.0 SP8 5 .000 0.G.79 -137.G.40 279.84 -178.34 0.04 -190.G.48 -195.12 S70 B.27 456.00 0.00 0.98 243.45 S88 B.09 -128.G.00 S103 B.000 0.29 0.G.40 0.000 C -1168.000 0.Member L.000 171.2 -2369.2 -1662.00 245.G.000 -303.00 0.25 0.000 C -23.65 0.000 C -2797.81 -154.26 -193.250 0.29 0.2 241.13 0.000 0.00 0.63 -178.00 0.2 -564.70 S132 B.97 0.00 0.2 231.21 528.40 S97 B.92 221.00 0.12 0.000 T 2797.34 0.45 -163.00 0.68 1.000 0.2 -3132.000 0.000 0.000 -160.G.09 S62 B.000 0.250 0.93 0.000 -242.2 669.000 273.000 C -33.05 0.74 -193.00 0.51 -195.89 -184.G.53 456.000 0.000 C -33.62 254.G.68 S130 B.49 1.00 0.2 -396.G.44 326.000 242.000 C -33.00 0.11 353.000 223.11 -137.11 353.37 326.G.G.76 -128.00 0.58 0.53 S114 B.000 0.000 1889.29 0.77 0.2 1070.16 561.26 S96 B.G.00 0.G.23 S56 B.G.65 188.74 -193.250 0.78 528.000 -1449.000 C -32.2 223.2 -584.000 C -23.79 -163.91 492.G.000 -231.04 -128.23 0.77 -146.62 0.000 C -33.2 480.76 S54 B.41 S98 B.47 -195.18 0.16 4-2-2014 12:28:53 MatrixFrame® 5.44 S117 B.10 0.37 0.2 193.28 0.2 270.45 -163.G.00 0.000 C -1022.000 0.000 0.26 228.000 C -2601.000 755.33 187.2 48.000 629.00 0.000 T 1658.00 0.34 0.2 712.250 0.02 0.37 S95 B.09 S63 B.000 231.98 0.70 -195.000 -848.G.00 0.44 -195.000 T 2212.000 T 2406.96 S84 B.30 0.22 -119.G.61 -184.00 0.45 225.10 593.46 0.33 1.G.57 0.31 1.80 0.13 0.984 0.00 0.12 -146.G.43 0.G.44 311.02 -190.2 1325.000 -902.2 593.2 859.60 0.000 -204.2 244.000 -694.37 -171.G.00 0.250 0.611 0.67 260.10 0.2 733.71 S89 B.90 0.000 C -1658.00 0.74 0.92 -184.000 0.000 193.000 T 2022.10 0.02 S116 B.63 -178.000 C -23.000 0.24 0.53 0.66 0.82 -119.37 S141 B.00 0.54 0.000 C -32.80 353.04 S118 B.09 0.17 1.06 S67 B.000 C -34.12 S77 B.96 S83 B.28 421.2 348.38 0.51 -193.000 415.000 C -34.00 0.11 -137.000 C -2022.000 -237.304 0.59 1.250 0.87 388.2 514.91 S112 B.000 C -885.07 156.00 0.000 284.39 0.00 0.97 0.87 187.12 -146.77 -128.35 287.2 1226.99 S142 B.000 T 1487.00 0.2 -231.54 2.000 C -36.45 S75 B.84 320.G.000 784.G.09 0.00 0.96 -154.G.30 S100 B.000 0.40 -171.79 -154.2 214.2 -214.2 726.42 341.000 699.G.58 0.00 0.34 0.53 429.000 -244.000 0.66 0.95 261.000 T 1837.47 S140 B.000 0. Mb Mmax xMmax Me x-M0 S53 B.00 320.000 C -32.37 584.G.000 C -32.33 0.22 S55 B.000 1721.000 244.000 -783.22 -119.000 0.89 -184.G.00 0.19 0.000 0.92 -184.91 S111 B.41 -171.000 C -34.00 0.10 -146.54 0.73 137.000 T 885.000 C -33.76 119.81 296.15 0.74 -193.39 1.000 C -35.76 S126 B.000 -223.000 C -1837.G.000 C -33.00 0.340 0.51 S136 B.63 0.53 378.01 0.2 -223.11 0.G.32 0.000 0.000 237.00 0.45 174.73 S61 B.G.G.296 0.17 1.G.00 0.000 -149.G.00 0.76 170.000 108.2 -244.00 0.63 S102 B.13 388.000 -2203.000 C -36.17 0.65 421.G.000 -651.76 S125 B.49 0.13 0.000 C -9.000 214.30 387.2 -227.06 -137.26 0.G.00 0.87 187.07 207.G.34 0.G.000 C -32.000 0.000 0.2 171.08 -128.G.2 642.78 S128 B.2 -1685.10 -190.2 547.78 528.45 -163.61 -184.2 305.000 0.01 0.46 S91 B.000 C -36.00 0.90 -171.000 0.000 1047.000 0.G.2 693.000 182.000 0.79 -154.000 160.23 0.21 -190.000 -920.G.000 -929.40 S131 B.71 -195.000 C -2212.02 -190.00 0.71 0.47 -195.19 -163.55 221.12 -137.00 0.00 296.00 0.250 0.G.000 -81.70 S82 B.37 584.000 C -36.G.99 593.94 561.000 1553.12 -146.000 0.25 387.63 254.86 0.2 733.53 456.43 170.46 -163.54 0.12 S69 B.70 0.000 C -34.G.000 T Nmax Vb Vmax Ve 638.000 C -34.68 0.G.63 S72 B.74 207.63 -178.000 0.22 -119.40 -171.63 -137.98 S81 B.2 204.000 C -1487.48 -195.G.43 0.2 -244.38 0.00 320.20 0.000 0.51 -195.000 -929.00 0.17 360.250 0.71 -195.000 -244.000 T 757.96 -154.69 -184.2 182.91 S121 B.000 C -9.2 -193.000 C -36.G.44 275.19 0.000 1834.2 242.46 -163.15 0.000 T 1168.00 0.23 -119.67 311.71 261.64 0.00 0.06 -137.28 -137.00 0.86 0.74 -193.000 0.91 492.38 0.63 -178.000 -193.74 -193.00 0.46 0.000 0.00 0.40 1.79 -146.65 0.2 -182.000 -566.74 S123 B.2 -149.2 149.03 0.68 0.835 0.90 0.2 -237.37 -171.35 S79 B.13 S138 B.21 0.2 -1085.000 C -33.85 225.23 -119.63 S104 B.000 -182.000 -776.G.000 C -34.67 1.000 0.55 0.08 -128.2 -3956.000 -3027.30 1.000 C -34.82 -163.57 1.11 -137.91 0.000 0.10 -190.92 -184.G.68 -195.91 -184.72 1.G.16 0.89 S109 B.000 T 1323.G.000 1891.00 0.66 -195.13 0.377 0.00 0.2 -114.69 -195.35 429.08 -128.G.2 -160.63 584.92 S65 B.000 C -35.92 221.C.13 0.30 0.000 0.66 -146.2 -2141.06 0.000 0.G.000 -928.000 0.000 244.27 1.000 703.394 0.70 192.000 C -638.30 387.73 0.000 C -33.G.G.42 -195.47 -193.84 0.35 287.00 0.000 -171.82 -171.000 0.28 S107 B.60 341.99 593.2 -1308.40 360.000 C -757.12 -146.04 0.16 561.63 254.00 0.250 0.G.000 C -33.000 -814.00 S86 B.60 290.000 0.2 -204.000 204.000 785.42 -195.03 1.000 C -2405.2 160.10 S74 B.07 S68 B.000 1330.04 S60 B.40 0.00 0.48 S139 B.00 0.31 0.49 0.13 337.00 0.G.41 -171.2 244.05 -190.68 -195.000 0.76 -193.000 0.000 T 2601.G.28 421.31 0.77 0.05 S119 B.53 S137 B.000 -608.000 C -36.16 0.27 0.000 -207.65 0.87 -178.2 -1029.000 0.250 0.00 0.40 309.G.71 210.87 S58 B.63 -178.00 0.G.04 -190.00 0.26 279.79 -128.29 0.96 -154.2 -794.00 0.98 -154.11 S93 B.000 C -9.73 188.70 -195.66 -195.00 0.33 -178.96 -154.000 0.35 0.00 0.00 0.

.

2442 -0.G.C.000 240.2175 -0.476e-03 K28 0.0195 -4.90 1419.1500 0.64 0.1636 0.99 -2989.0149 -4.521e-03 K39 0.63 3895.0009 -4.2175 -0.Member L.52 - - kNm kNm m kNm m m- kN kN kN kN L.00 0.0149 -4.448e-03 K21 0.558e-03 K51 0.0207 -4.2 -593.0010 -4.63 3895.419.0096 -4.63 Global extreme values O2 K6 B.1364 0.00 0.000 -914.0149 -4.0012 -4.2309 -0.1364 -0.418e-03 K3 0.447e-03 K18 0.G.C.425e-03 -4.491e-03 -4.1228 -0.549e-03 -4.2 0.0097 -4.461e-03 K24 0.2575 -0.1227 -0.430e-03 K11 0.000 - 0.000 0.2175 0.C.0 SP8 6 . Extreme Nodal Displacements Node L.1500 -0.00 -192.2 -429.G.0149 -4.2041 -0.476e-03 K27 0.1636 -0.0099 -4.461e-03 K25 0.425e-03 K10 0.535e-03 K43 0.437e-03 K17 0.G.549e-03 K48 0.506e-03 K35 0. Zmax My L.11 3895.90 1.0007 -4.1228 -0.1772 -0.2 -593.25 3895.559e-03 4-2-2014 12:28:53 Z Mymax MatrixFrame® 5.99 -2989.000 - 0.2442 0.548e-03 K47 0.491e-03 K32 0.0095 -4.00 kNm 1419. Xmax Z B.61 0.63 0.0208 -4.0209 -4.G.66 0.11 B.53 S145 B.2442 -0. Mb Mmax xMmax Me x-M0 Nmax Vb Vmax Ve S143 B.507e-03 K36 0.2 -429.1772 0.0008 -4.1364 -0.0209 -4.1772 -0.0006 -4.426e-03 K5 0.506e-03 K33 0.448e-03 K20 0.430e-03 K12 0.0149 -4.2175 -0.11 -593.2 240.2309 -0.2442 -0.0098 -4.0148 -4.99 -2.C.51 0.53 2989.522e-03 K40 0.00 0.0206 -4.000 x-M0 TC 0.2575 -0.11B.00 0.63 3.G.53 -192.0011 -4.99 -2989.0207 -4.0093 -4.0209 -4.0208 -4.1907 -0.2 -240.G.00 kN 0.0000 0.54 -192.53 X 2.453e-03 K2 0.507e-03 K37 0. X Z Ry K1 B.2575 0.52 -192.C.2309 -0.0209 -4.2 B.1364 -0.G.2 -593.491e-03 K30 0.0149 -4.G.0013 -4.0209 -4.C.437e-03 K16 0.250 0.0000 -0.453e-03 K7 0.2041 -0.0096 -4.67 1.1772 -0.1500 -0.2 -429.2708 0.0006 -4.536e-03 K44 0.989.G.0148 -4.435e-03 K15 0.2041 -0.536e-03 K45 0.53 2989.1907 -0.0206 -4.535e-03 K42 0.2708 -0.000 -240.1636 -0.0140 -4.461e-03 K22 0.521e-03 K38 0.99 -2989.418e-03 K4 0.476e-03 K26 0.2041 0. B.1907 -0.0009 -4.0148 -4.0093 -4.G.476e-03 K29 0.54 S144 B.2575 -0.989.0147 K49 0.52 -192.90 B.90 1419.0098 -4.2708 -0.0208 K34 0.25 -593.C.00 kN 0.558e-03 K50 0.25 B.11 - kN kN kNm - kN kN kNm L.2 O1 K1 O2 K6 O2 K6 - My L.2 722.548e-03 K46 0.G.0098 -4.G.2309 0.426e-03 K6 0.53 -192.00 -192.461e-03 K23 0.0094 -4.0092 -4.54 -192.1907 0.0149 -4. Extreme Support Reactions Support Node O1 K1 O1 K1 O2 K6 O2 K6 L.0007 -4.447e-03 K19 0.1500 -0.491e-03 K31 0.2708 -0.522e-03 K41 0.53 X 2989.2 -429.895.25 B.1636 -0.435e-03 K14 0.000 - 0.0006 K13 0.00 -192.

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258 -0.021 1.491e-03 K85 0.2 0.021 1.204 -0.271 -0.0016 -4.021 S68 B.0000 0.575 0.C.0016 -4.191 -0.0000 0.1227 0.001 S35 B.204 -0.0000 0.555 0.2 0.258 -0.258 -0.2 0.218 -0.191 0.0201 -4.559e-03 K73 0.0089 -4.625 0.592 0.0085 -4.244 -0.453e-03 K86 0.021 B.G.021 S40 B.2 0.0091 -4.015 S39 B.558e-03 K71 0.021 1.G.G.271 -0.015 1.2 0.2 0.0090 -4.G.0000 0.0000 0.177 -0.244 0.164 0.244 -0.021 S19 B.0017 -4.567 0.0816 -0.2 S26 S28 Node End X Z -0.0 SP8 7 .021 S33 B.559e-03 K53 0.001 1.2 0.0000 -0.G.0679 0.231 -0.G.G.0084 -4.218 0.0134 -0.553 0.0406 -0.204 0.G.1091 -0.2 0.0542 -0.177 0.244 -0.2 0.558e-03 K70 0.570e-03 K58 0.231 -0.015 1.G.021 1.2 0.0147 -4.972 -0.010 1.164 -0.488 0.0134 -0.0002 0.1090 0. Node Begin X Z Member Z' dist B.010 S8 B.0679 -0.0000 0.231 -0.544e-03 K76 0.2 0.015 -0.523e-03 K78 0.544e-03 K75 0.0000 0.559e-03 K72 0.0198 -4.218 0.972 -0.C.0269 -0.150 -0.0146 -4.972 -0.567e-03 K56 0.271 0.0003 0.009 1.571e-03 K60 0.570e-03 K59 0.001 4-2-2014 12:28:53 1.G.0085 -4.571e-03 K63 0.191 -0.567e-03 K57 0.606 0.164 -0.0134 0.2 0.015 S46 B.0270 -0.001 0.010 1.258 0.572 0.571e-03 K62 0.G.568e-03 K68 0.0015 -4.177 0.015 S60 B.0014 -4.015 1.0000 0.972 -0.0145 -4. X Z Ry K52 B.G.204 -0.021 1.G.G.2 0.969 Z' MatrixFrame® 5.566e-03 K55 0.218 -0.0542 0.0405 0.G.2 0.015 1.0143 -4.0002 0.513 0.567e-03 K66 0.G.021 1.0816 -0.G.2 0.177 -0.191 -0.0954 -0.164 -0.2 0.0016 -4.G.0953 -0.0679 -0.0954 -0.271 -0.001 S56 B.001 B.G.0203 -4.010 1.0000 0.218 -0.G.204 -0.010 1.Node L.972 -0.0542 -0.0002 0.021 S61 B.0000 0.0000 0.010 S21 B.0086 -4.015 1.0000 0.244 -0.191 -0.493e-03 K83 0.2 0.G.021 S47 B.001 S63 B.015 S32 B.503 0.258 0.0542 -0.2 0.0000 0.0269 0.015 1.2 0.544 0.0003 0.0087 -4.536 0.2 0.177 -0.0197 -4.021 S11 B.015 S67 B.0202 -4.582 0. Extreme Deflections Member S3 L.2 0.2 0.2 0.021 1.0204 -4.0002 0.0146 -4.009 1.567e-03 K67 0.G.015 1.0816 -0.0000 0.C.0000 0.0002 0.150 -0.0014 -4.010 1.0144 -4.0816 0.2 0.015 S53 B.491e-03 K84 0.1091 -0.544e-03 K74 0.G.0141 -4.572e-03 K64 0.0088 -4.0679 -0.0017 -4.2 0.0002 0.972 -0.021 1.0016 -4.0002 0.231 0.177 -0.021 1.218 -0.G.204 0.0144 -4.521e-03 K81 0.015 0.001 S49 B.493e-03 K82 0.571e-03 K61 0.572e-03 K65 0.0405 -0.0134 -0.G.0003 0.971 -0.522 0.191 0.453e-03 m m rad - - L.010 1.0000 -0.231 0.0270 -0.244 S25 B.G.015 S14 B.0953 0.001 1.570 0.568e-03 K69 0.970 S18 B.2 0.529 0.523e-03 K79 0.0000 0.0406 -0.1090 -0.001 S42 B.G.521e-03 K80 0.2 0.164 -0.566e-03 K54 0.0205 -4.G.231 -0.258 -0.150 -0.972 -0.0142 -4.544e-03 K77 0.0200 -4.0000 0.021 S54 B.

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G.000 -0.020 1.095 -0.109 -0.660 0.G.041 -0.054 -0.G.379 0.068 -0.G.008 0.002 S140 B.013 -0.2 0.150 Z Member Z' dist 0.000 -0.123 0.771 0.G.0000 0.095 0.000 -0.021 1.109 -0.0000 0.0000 0.013 -0.0000 0.009 1.G.136 -0.0003 0.0004 0.0000 0.G.054 0.2 0.972 -0.015 S95 B.972 -0.0000 0.G.G.008 1. S70 B.314 0.0000 0.2 0.015 1.014 S141 B.027 0.015 1.G.529 0.922 0.195 0.G.2 0.054 -0.014 S130 B.2 0.015 1.009 1.2 0.020 1.0004 0.Member L.009 1.020 1.014 1.054 -0.G.020 0.001 0.095 S98 B.0004 0.068 -0.972 -0.068 0.G.020 -0.027 0.G.G.0 SP8 8 .2 0.2 0.015 S88 B.2 0.0004 0.2 0.136 B.020 -0.990 0.0000 0.653 0.136 0.136 -0.G.G.2 0.020 S117 B.0000 0.164 0.001 S96 B.027 -0.150 -0.0000 0.972 -0.610 0.082 -0.013 0.G.009 1.292 0.0004 0.0000 0.095 -0.565 0.2 S81 Node Begin X 0.015 S116 B.041 S126 B.2 0.2 0.972 -0.021 0.082 -0.2 0.027 -0.020 1.001 S109 B.021 B.G.G.0000 0.401 0.G.2 0.015 S103 B.002 S124 B.2 0.009 0.2 S74 B.123 -0.2 0.020 S110 B.020 S131 B.0004 0.002 S119 B.054 -0.015 0.972 -0.443 0.082 0.009 1.109 0.020 1.528 0.2 0.583 0.013 -0.429 0.123 0.068 -0.528 0.123 -0.145 0.779 0.G.409 0.0000 0.136 -0.015 1.082 -0.021 1.G.002 - - m m m m m m 4-2-2014 12:28:53 MatrixFrame® 5.027 -0.009 1.014 S123 B.014 S142 B.0000 0.2 0.0000 0.020 S137 B.0000 0.696 0.0004 0.0004 0.014 1.2 0.068 -0.068 0.109 0.G.377 0.2 0.014 1.C.015 1.014 1.0004 0.002 S112 B.109 -0.0000 0.G.G.014 S144 B.0000 0.027 -0.G.2 S75 B.G.020 1.013 -0.2 S82 S84 Z' Node End X Z 0.021 S89 B.041 -0.2 0.2 0.014 1.109 -0.123 -0.G.041 0.054 0.150 0.0003 0.G.0000 0.009 0.2 S77 B.972 -0.001 S91 B.0000 0.0000 0.2 0.001 B.041 -0.G.123 -0.136 -0.2 0.009 0.002 S136 B.2 0.345 0.972 -0.G.015 1.014 1.041 0.2 0.000 0.013 0.020 S138 B.020 1.

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2 . Ecb Ie N z dz 0 (1) E d dz dx dz dx dz : : M1 $M2 . $d1  2 M2 D.d1 .l N z $m z d d .12 I2 Ie A1 Ecb .restart.d2 =. z .N z . q z dz . collect collect M1 $M2. q z dz = N z . 2 N z E I1 $E I2 dz dz .12 I2 Ie A2 Ecb N z 1 12 E A1 A2 I1 $I2 Ecb Ie $ 1 12 E b3 h I1 A1 A2 $E b3 h I2 A1 A2 E A1 A2 I1 $I2 Ecb Ie d2 N z dz2 $ m z l E I1 $I2 =0 (4) . algsubs z H q z dz . diff .12 I1 Ie A1 Ecb .l. d x z dz l 1 $ 12 H b M1 D m z . H 1 b $d1 2 m z . b $d2  2 q z dz . dx : dz 3 dN b h H2 D  : d z 12EcbIe H1 D l z 1 1 1 $ H3 D.M0 = EI1 z H q z dz $M0 = EI2 z d dz z 1 1 $ A1 A2 d 3 N z b h dz .12 l Ie A1 A2 Ecb .l N z $m z = E I1 $E I2 2 s1 D collect collect algsubs d x z 2 dz d 2 2 x z (3) dz 2 = .12 I1 Ie A2 Ecb .b .  E A1 A2 N z dz : 0 H D H1 $H2 $H3. z 1 b $d2 2 H 2 q z dz = E I1 z d x z 2 dz (2) 2 d x z 2 dz $E I2 H sol1 D algsubs . H=0 .

12 I2 Ie A1 Ecb . cur. 3 b h E A1 A2 I1 $b h E A1 A2 I2 N z 2 .12 Ecb Ie A1 I2 .N z .12 l Ie A1 A2 Ecb .12 I1 Ie A2 Ecb . cur D. l dz d 2 2 2 d2 2 2 E ^ m z N z .l N z $m z = Eit d 2 2 x z .12 Ecb Ie A1 I1 .12 Ecb Ie A2 I1 . dz2 12 Ecb Ie l2 1 $ N z $ A it 12 Iel b3 h it Ecb E m z = 0.l N z $m z = E it so1 D solve eqmoment.12 I2 Ie A2 Ecb N z (5) E A1 A2 I1 $I2 b3 h 3 2 d N z 2 dz 3 E b h I1 A1 A2 $E b h I2 A1 A2 $ $ E A1 A2 I1 $I2 b3 h 12 Ie m z l Ecb E I1 $I2 b3 h =0 2 simplify . dz d2 x z 2 dz (9) .   1 $ E b3 h i dz2 A1A2l2 t d2 N z .k E ^  N z $ ^  m z = 0.12 I1 Ie A1 Ecb . dz 2 . N z . N z A1 A2 l2 $ E b3 h it 2  12 Ie l Ecb m z b3 h it E =0 (7) 2 E 2 eqnormal.12 l A1 A2 Ecb Ie N z E A1 A2 I1 $I2 b3 h 2 d N z 2 dz b3 h E A1 A2 I1 $b3 h E A1 A2 I2 $simplify $ 3 E A1 A2 I1 $I2 b h 3 E I1 $I2 b h 2 .12 Ecb Ie A2 I2 .s1 12EA1 A2 I1 $I2 Ecb Ie s2 D collect collect simplify 3 d2 . force D 2 N z .k E ^ N z $ 2 l dz 2 2 2 =0 (8) Deflection: eqmoment. . 12 l m z Ecb Ie 12 Ecb Ie l A1 A2 $I1 A1 $I1 A2 $I2 A1 $I2 A2 N z $ 3 b h E A1 A2 I1 $I2 d 12 Ie m z l Ecb 2 2 N z $ dz = 0. 3 E I1 $I2 b h =0 (6) assumme E_cb/E is equal to ȗ^2 and we rewrite the ordinary differential equation 12Iel2 Ait Ecb 2 2 2 = E : 1 $ = k : I $I = i : =^ : 1 2 t 3 2 E b hit A1A2l 2 Ait Ecb 12 Iel d2 N z .

d2 m z dz2 . algsubs d4 x z 4 dz 1 1 .z 2 2 (14) convert dsolve eqnormal. trig . H=0 2 dz dz eqdeflec. z 1 w H . . Ecb Ie E A1 A2 d2 x z dz2 Ie A1 Ecb it . force .m z .12 E (12) Ie A2 Ecb it $12 m z Ie A1 Ecb $12 m z Ie A2 Ecb = 0 . 3 d2 x z 2 dz 2 b h A1 A2 it . d4 x z 4 dz E it . z .z $ 2 2 2 k4 l E ^ ics D N H = 0. collect collect expand 3 h b it E 2 . d2 . 4 d x z 4 dz =0 (13) 2 . D N 2 _C2 $ cosh k E ^ z .1 E ^ =. N z = cosh k E ^ z $sinh k E ^ z 2 2 1 w 2 $k ^ H .1 E ^ dz $ $ it E it E w H .E (11) l d2 d N z = so2.12 l d2 x z dz2 b3 h A1 A2 . z. algsubs it E 2 = k2E ^ . .z m z D 2 2 2 d2 x z 2 dz 2 2 k2 E ^ . 2 2 12 Ie Ecb h b E A1 eqdeflec.2 d x z dz2 l E it .12 E . m z m z 2 k2 .sinh k E ^ z _C1 (15) 2 E 0 = 0. 4 D algsubs $ 12 l2 Ie Ecb 3 12 Ie Ecb 3 h b it E A2 12 Ie Ecb $ 3 2 h b it E A1 2 2 k . E2 12 Ecb Ie l E A1 A2 d2 m z 2 dz . 2 d x z 2 dz . N H = 0. 4 D algsubs N z = so1. D N 0 =0 (16) . eqdeflection. 4  12Iel 3 b hit 12 Ie Ecb 3 h b E A2  Ecb E .m z (10) so2 D diff so1.

cosh y x $cosh y . rigid 1 1 D 2 2 2 k4 l E ^ cosh k E ^ H .x .z E cosh k E ^ H . load : S2 D it it H 2 d d 1 S1.z H (17) 2 2 $ 2 $k ^ H 2 cosh k E ^ H . load D.d1 quni. l . $ l .diff Nuni. $ . load : it it H 2 wHI2 I1 z b 1. ics E 2 E 2 ^ E k $ 2 $k2 ^ H (18) cosh k E ^ H . 1 1 w . z  (20) (21) .z 2 2 2 2 2 k E ^ . . b .2 H sinh k E ^ H 2 2 it 2 it 2 k4 l E ^ cosh k E ^ H 2 hmax.z 2 2 E cosh k E H .z 2 k4 l E2 ^2 cosh k E ^ H . .z 2 2 2 ^ E k $ 2 $k ^ w .z ^ E k .2 cosh k E ^ z Nuni.z .z 1 1 2 2 4 2 k l E ^ cosh k E ^ H 2 2 E 2 .2 sinh k E ^ z k E ^ position of maximum shear 2 k l . rigid.2 k E ^ H sinh k E ^ H .d1 quni. . force. cosh y axial force in beams: I1 wHI1 z b S1 D 1. . l. 1 1 2 2 4 2 k l E ^ cosh k E ^ H w 2 H cosh k E ^ H . l. size .simplify combine convert dsolve N z = .2 H sinh k E ^ H . nD  dz 2 dz 2 I1 l 1 w I1 1 1 1 .2 k E H sinh k E H . S $w .d1 w .2 H sinh k E ^ H .cosh k E ^ H $cosh k E ^ z H cosh k E ^ H .z eqnormal.2 cosh k E z 2 k4 l E cosh k E H shear force: quni. z .z 2 2 $ 2 $k H . wH H sinh k E ^ H . shear D simplify diff quni.2 cosh k E ^ z 1 w .y sinh y 1 . cosh k E ^ H . trig w . load.2 cosh k E ^ z .2 k ^ H (19) 2 .

z $ 2 ^ E k $ 2 $k2 ^ H 2 cosh k E ^ H .2 H cosh k E ^ H ^ E k2 z $cosh k E ^ H ^ E k2 z2 .2 H sinh k E ^ H . 2 it 100 1 2 w H . w .z 2 es2 D  $c1  A A1A2 2 100 2 it $ l A E 1 100 w H . A2 l $c1 k2 A 2 2 A1 A2 l (23) A 2 100 .3 3 2 2 2 2 k3 E ^ $2 k2 ^ E cosh k E ^ H .z 2 c1 1 .z (25) ^Ek $2 cosh k E ^ H . expand es4 .z cosh k E ^ H . l.z c1 es3 D   . rigid A1 1 1 1 w H .z 2 .2 H sinh k E ^ H .2 H sinh k E ^ H .2 cosh k E ^ z A2l k2 w H .k2 1 w H . z k2 E ^ es4 D solve es1 = es2 $es3.2 cosh k E ^ z k2 E ^ .z 2 E 2 1 w I2 1 $ w 2 it 2 . 2 2 2 k E ^ H sinh k E ^ H cosh k E ^ z 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 H ^ E k .2 cosh k E ^ z ^E k$ 2 (22) c1 1 1 w .z individual and composite factor: 1 w H . k2  .z 2 k4 l E2 ^2 cosh k E ^ H A 1 . 2 2 k4 E2 ^2 cosh k E ^ H 2 2 $k ^ $ 2 H . 2 2 cosh k E ^ H (26) . 1 k 100 2 (24) it 2 2 2 H . l.2 cosh k E ^ z expand algsubs it A 2 l A1 A2 = k2 .z 2 2 it $ . rigid l c1 2 es1 D $ it 1 it Nuni.z 2 . Nuni. 200 2 2 1 1 l2 A1 A2 $A it H2 cosh k E ^ H ^ E k2 2 2 2 A A cosh k E ^ H l k 2 1 2 2 2 2 .1.H ^ E k z $ ^ E k z .

D 2 x H = 0. kE^ D x H = (30) 1 Eit H m z dz .m z k .k E ^ H sinh H ^ E k .$k E ^ H sinh k E ^ z $1 . H . 2 2 2 2 H . trig . x z .z 2 k2 .^ E k z .z 2 2 1 2 2 k ^ H . D 3 x H .1 E ^ . 0 2 2 x H = 0.cosh k E ^ z 1 2 2 2 2 $1 $ k ^ H .z E 2 cosh k E ^ H K2 D H .z 2 $1 $ 2 2 E (29) 2 2 k E ^ deflection: 4 ode2 D d x z dz4 2 . D x 0 = 0 .E  ^  k . combine k E ^ H sinh k E ^ z . 2 it E dz 2 2 1 w.cosh k E ^ z cosh k E ^ H 200 100 . w H . D 2 2 d 2  m H . cosh k E ^ z cosh k E ^ H k E ^ H cosh k E ^ z sinh k E ^ H .k2 E ^ D x H = k . ics . D x 0 = 0. 2 2 . 1 E ^ 6 2 2 3 2 x H .1  dz x 0 = 0.k E ^ H sinh .k E ^ H sinh H ^ E k .k E ^ z $k E ^ H .^ E k z .k E ^ H sinh H ^ E k .z E 2 cosh k E ^ H (27) .cosh k E ^ z 1 2 2 2 2 $1 $ k ^ H . 4 dz d x z 2 dz ics D x 0 = 0.K2.^ E k z .1 E ^ 2 2 2 2 k E ^ = it E 2 2 2 k E ^ = 3 ode2. D 2 2 .1 w H E it combine convert dsolve 2 2 2 1 d 2  m z . . cosh k E ^ z $1 cosh k E ^ H cosh k E ^ H 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 $factor k E ^ H2 . d x z dz2 4 2 d x z . (31) .z (28) 2 2 2 2 k E ^ K1 D 100 . z k E ^ .z E 2 cosh k E ^ H 200  .cosh k E ^ z 1 2 2 2 2 200 $1 $ k ^ H .k2 E ^ H z $ k E ^ z2 .

6 w H2 z2 k4 E ^ cosh k E ^ H .z 2 2 E w .z 2 2 E w . Nuni. l. 2 2 k4 E2 ^2 cosh k E ^ H 2 2 $k ^ M2. l. 2 2 4 2 2 k E ^ cosh k E ^ H 2 2 $k ^ H .629153.4 z3 H w k6 E ^ cosh k E ^ H 3 4 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 $4 z H w k E ^ cosh k E ^ H $z w k E ^ cosh k E ^ H .^ E k z . H = 60.z 2 2 2 ^ E k $^ z k 2 ^ z k (33) 2 k . 1 1 1 w H .4 H sinh k E ^ H ^ E k $4 cosh ^ E k z .z 2 .Nuni. ^ = 0. k = 1.Nuni. l.z w k E ^ cosh k E ^ H 2 2 $24 w H z k2 E ^ cosh k E ^ H .24 H sinh k E ^ H ^ E k w $24 cosh k E ^ z w . I1 M1.12 w z k E ^ cosh k E ^ H $24 H w ^ E k sinh H ^ E k .24 w k E ^ H sinh k E ^ H .4 1 1 4 4 24 k6 E ^ i E cosh k E ^ H t xuni.2 H sinh k E ^ H .2 cosh k E ^ z Example: Nexample D subs E = 0.x z = 1 1 4 4 24 k6 E ^ E i cosh k E ^ H t 4 4 6 w H2 z2 k6 E ^ cosh k E ^ H 4 4 3 6 4 6 (32) 4 4 . w = 17.048535.2 cosh k E ^ z  m z .w z k E ^ cosh k E ^ H $24 w H z k E ^ cosh k E ^ H 2 2 2 2 . rigidl . 0 D 1 it I2 I2 it H . l = 8.12 z w k E ^ cosh k E ^ H $6 w H z k E ^ cosh k E ^ H 4 4 4 4 .5.z ^E k$ 2 (34) ^E k$ 2 (35) cosh k E ^ H .1 E $4 H . rigid : . rigid D 2 24 w H k E ^ sinh k E ^ H .24 w .2 z E cosh k E ^ H .z cosh k E ^ H . 0 D  m z . rigidl .6 w H z k E ^ cosh k E ^ H $4 w H z k E ^ cosh k E ^ H 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 .4 w H z k E ^ cosh k E ^ H $w z k E ^ cosh k E ^ H 4 4 2 2 4 3 4 4 4 .k E ^ z $24 w cosh k E ^ z 2 2 2 2 2 6 4 4 .z 2 . 1 2 2 z H$ z 6 3 w 4 H sinh k ^ E H .08861.24 w simplify = x z = 1 1 4 4 4 k6 E ^ E i cosh k E ^ H t 2 $1 k 2 H . it 1 it I1 1 1 1 w H .2 H sinh k E ^ H .

I1 = 3. 24. I2 = 8. w = 17.048535.125.Nuni.43577891 (40) 6 xexample D subs E = 0. H = 60.5. b D Qmax.5 2 . (45) 747. z = 32. ^ = 0. ^ = 0.575. it = 11. max D eval xexample. w = 17. l.Nuni.99999999.74862313 (39) Qmax.08861.4358974 eval S2. 40. it = 11.048535. w = 17. 0 D I2 it (42)  m z . l. shear = 0. k = 1. k = 1.44952673 (37) .048535. Mexam.048535. 5399.08861.125. H = 60.761720 M2.629153.5. it = 11.7. l = 8.5.575. H = 60.629153 36 (47) . k = 1.563781 (36) hexample.08861. E = 0. b = 2.eval Nexample.5641026 (46) Nb D 3 eval n. k = 1.7 .629153. l = 8. 0. z = 0. rigid : xexam. 59. max3.21224176 eval S1.125.629153.94616 eval K2.575.048535.5. xuni. 0. 37. k = 1. rigidl : eval M1.7. z .7 . z = 0 . it = 11. ^ = 0. k = 1.08861.5 .08861. E = 0. 0. E = 3610 . ^ = 0. 1221.629153. w = 17. l = 8. H = 60. E = 0. ^ = 0. H = 60. rigidl : eval M2. l = 8. I2 = 8.629153. l = 8. I2 = 8. z = 60 .5. H = 60. z = 32.91620771 (38) 74.5. 32. z = 0 (43) . z = 0. 14816.03252003159 M1. hmax. I1 = 3.36015311 2 0. exam2. H = 60. H = 60. load. 0 D I1 it (41)  m z . it = 11.048535.629153. w = 17. E = 0.08861. E = 0. H = 60.7 . w = 17.048535.5. k = 1. (44) 272. w = 17. l = 8. z = 0. d1 = 2. l = 8.5. w = 17. I1 = 3. z = 0. it = 11. max D solve subs E = 0.44952673.629153. exam D qexam. max. max D eval quni. ^ = 0.08861. ^ = 0.7 . 93. w = 17.28011024 qexam.

14.25000591 (48) .

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 A1 A2 E N z dz : 0 1 1 $ kv1 kv2 > Hv D N 0 $Q0  M10 $M20 > HU D : l : kU1 $kU2 > H4 D H .l. H := l $ d x z dz d N z b3 h dz .Hv : U > H D H1 $H2 $H3 $H4.b . $d1  2 M1 := m z . b $d2  > M2 D. algsubs z . collect collect M1 $M2.restart. m z . b $d2 2 N z dz 0 1 1 $ kv1 kv2 . Ecb Ie 1 $ 12 M10 $M20 l b > M1 D m z .d2 =. H 2 q z dz $M0 = E I2 z d x z 2 dz (3) M1 $M2 .d1 .M0 = EI1 z > (1) E d dz dx dz . (4) . H 1 b $d1 2 q z dz . H 1 b $d1 2 2 d x z dz2 q z dz . N 0 $Q0 kU1 $kU2 z 1 1 $ A2 A1 d dz dx dz (2) . dx : dz dN b3h > H2 D  : d z 12EcbIe > H1 D l z 1 1 1 $ > H3 D. z 1 b $d2 2 H q z dz = E I1 z 2 d x z dz2 2 $E I2 d x z dz2 H > sol1 D algsubs q z dz = N z . 2 H q z dz .M0 = E I1 z H q z dz $M0 = EI2 z 1 M2 := .

12 l A1 A2 Ecb Ie N z b3 h E A1 A2 I1 $b3 h E A1 A2 I2 $simplify d2 N z dz2 E A1 A2 I1 $I2 b3 h 2 .12 l Ie A1 A2 Ecb . z d2 sol1 := .12 I2 Ie A2 Ecb N z 3 2 3 E b h I1 A1 A2 $E b h I2 A1 A2 $ d N z dz2 3 $ E A1 A2 I1 $I2 b h > simplify 1 12 m z Ie l Ecb 3 E I1 $I2 b h =0 .12 I2 Ie A1 Ecb . q z dz . . 3 b h E A1 A2 I1 $b h E A1 A2 I2 =0 2 2 N z . dz s2 := (7) 1 3 A1 A2 E I1 $I2 b h . 12 m z Ie l Ecb d2 N z $ =0 2 3 dz E I1 $I2 b h Ecb E 2 =^ : (8) .l N z $m z = E I1 $E I2 2 d x z dz2 > s1 D collect collect algsubs N z = dz2 x z (5) 2 .12 Ecb Ie A2 I1 . 12 Ie Ecb l A1 A2 $I1 A1 $I1 A2 $I2 A1 $I2 A2 N z 3 $ E b h A1 A2 I1 $I2 > 12Iel2 3 b hit $ 2 =E : 1$ Ait 2 A1A2l = k2 : I1 $I2 = it : 12 l m z Ecb Ie E I1 $I2 b3 h = 0.12 I2 Ie A1 Ecb .12 Ecb Ie A1 I2 .12 l2 Ie A1 A2 Ecb . s1 := (6) 1 1 12 A1 A2 E I1 $I2 Ecb Ie 2 .12 I1 Ie A1 Ecb .12 I1 Ie A2 Ecb . 2 N z E I1 $E I2 dz dz .H diff . H=0 .12 I2 Ie A2 Ecb N z 1 12 $ 2 d N z dz2 E b3 h I1 A1 A2 $E b3 h I2 A1 A2 m z l E I1 $I2 $ A1 A2 E I1 $I2 Ecb Ie s1 12EA1 A2 I1 $I2 Ecb Ie > s2 D collect collect simplify 3 d .12 Ecb Ie A2 I2 .12 I1 Ie A1 Ecb .N z .l N z $m z d d .12 I1 Ie A2 Ecb .12 Ecb Ie A1 I1 E A1 A2 I1 $I2 b3 h 2 .

lamellas d > quniform. elastic D simplify convert dsolve eqnormal. D N 0  1 $]Qf = Qf N 0 . load.H . force D 2 N z . trig .H .2 $ .k E ^ N z $ l dz > ics D N H = 0.Qf 2 $k ^ 2 E (13) H sinh k E ^ H $2 k E ^ ] Qf $1 cosh k E ^ z $2 sinh k E ^ z Qf w 2 k E ^ ] Qf $1 cosh k E ^ H $Qf sinh k E ^ H 2 l^ E > shear-of-lamellas.2 H cosh k E ^ H cosh k E ^ z ^ E k ] Qf 2 2 2 $2 H sinh k E ^ H sinh k E ^ z ^ E k ] Qf $2 H ^ E k ] Qf cosh k E ^ H (14) (15) . elastic 2 2 4 d 1 2 quniform. k2 ^ H Pr k2 . N z = w H cosh k E ^ H cosh k E ^ z ^ E k Pr dz 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .z 4 k 2 H . n . elastic := .2 ] Qf H E $2 Qf cosh k E ^ z .H2 cosh k E ^ H cosh k E ^ z ^ E k2 Qf $H2 sinh k E ^ H sinh k E ^ z ^ E k2 Qf 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 0 =0 Pr m 0 (10) l 2 . D N w H . d z uniform.2 2 2 E 2 d2 > eqnormal.H2 sinh k E ^ H sinh k E ^ z ^ E k4 Pr . ics := N H = 0. size . 2 2 1 nuniform. force . elastic := N z = . elastic D simplify .k2E ^  N z $ ^  m z = 0. N z = cosh k E ^ z $sinh k E ^ z 2 2 1 w 2 $k ^ H .z $ 2 2 4 2 k lE ^ 2 _C2 $ cosh k E ^ z . force.sinh k E ^ z _C1 (12) 2 E > nuniform. load.z 2 2 E 2 2 cosh k E ^ H $ 2 2 H Pr k . load.k ^ ] Qf $1 E 2 $k ^ 2 2 . load.2 ] Qf H E 2 2 2 .z > m z D 2 Pr l (9) m 0 . l dz 2 2 E ^ m z d2 2 2 2 eqnormal. N z .2 Qf sinh k E ^ z .z 2 2 (11) > convert dsolve eqnormal. ] Qf $1 = Qf N 0 . ics . trig .2 $ . shear .of . m := z 1 w H .k ^ . load. force := 2 N z .

2 $k2 ^ 2 2 .2 $ . elasticl.2 $ .2 ] Qf H E $2 Qf sinh k E ^ z $2 k ^ E Qf H .2 ] Qf H E $2 Qf cosh k E ^ z k $1 H .2 $k ^ cosh k E ^ H $ 2 $ .z = 2 2 k E ^ ] Qf $1 cosh k E ^ H 1 w H . 2 1 1 minternal. N z = k ^ H Pr k .H 2 2 2 2 2 .z 2 2 E ^ E ] Qf $1 2 2 H Pr k .2 Qf cosh k E ^ z 2 dz 2 2 $2 k2 ^ E ] Qf $1 H .k ^ ] Qf $1 E 2 $k ^ cosh k E ^ H $ 2 .2 $ . 1 1 2 .2 2 2 2 .H sinh k E ^ H $2 k E ^ ] Qf k3 k E ^ ] Qf $1 cosh k E ^ H $1 sinh k E ^ z $2 cosh k E ^ z Qf w $Qf sinh k E ^ H (16) l^E > internal-moment.2 ] Qf H E $2 Qf cosh k E ^ z E $2 sinh k E ^ z Qf w H . 1. 2 := .z cosh k E ^ H $ 2 . 'size' . 2 1 d 2 2 2 .1 k $1 H .2 ] Qf H E k . 'size' .z 2 2 2 k ^ 2 2 .Qf 2 $k2 ^ 2 . load. uni. internal.z 2 = k2 ^ H Pr k2 .H .2 $ .2 ] Qf H E .2 $ .2 Qf sinh k E ^ z $k .l N z $ w H .2 H cosh k E ^ H cosh k E ^ z ^ E k2 2 2 2 2 $2 H sinh k E ^ H sinh k E ^ z ^ E k2 $2 H k2 E ^ cosh k E ^ H 2 2 2 .2 cosh k E ^ H ^ E k z $2 H sinh k E ^ H ^ E k Qf .2 sinh k E ^ H ^ E k z Qf $2 sinh k E ^ z ^ E k ] Qf $2 sinh k E ^ z k E ^.z H Pr k2 . 2 D m z . 1.k ^ k .nuniform.2 $ .1 2 E sinh k E ^ H $2 k E ^ ] Qf $1 cosh k E ^ z k 2 2 2 2 ^ E (18) H Pr k2 .z (17) 2 2 2 H Pr k .2 ] Qf H E .k2 ^ 2 .z 2 $Qf sinh k E ^ H 2 4 $ > simplify (18).l N z $ w H .2 cosh k E ^ H ^ E k2 ] z Qf .H . uni.2 Qf sinh k E ^ z .H .k2 ^ H .2 cosh k E ^ H cosh k E ^ z Qf $2 sinh k E ^ H sinh k E ^ z Qf $2 cosh k E ^ z Qf 3 k l E ^ ^ E k ] Qf cosh k E ^ H $k E ^ cosh k E ^ H $Qf sinh k E ^ H > simplify (15).moment > minternal.H .z 2 2 E $1 cosh k E ^ z $2 sinh k E ^ z Qf w Qf sinh k E ^ H $2 k E ^ ] Qf 4 2 2 k ^ E k E ^ ] Qf $1 cosh k E ^ H (19) .

H .Qf 2 $k2 ^ $2 k ^ ] Qf $1 E cosh k E ^ z $2 sinh k E ^ z Qf w $1 E cosh k E ^ H $Qf sinh k E ^ H > m z D w H .2 $ sinh k E ^ H k4 k ^ ] Qf 2 l^ E 2 .2 ] Qf H E .k2 ^ cosh k E ^ H $ E 2 2 2 .H .k ^ H .H . m := z 1 w H .z 2 2 > convert dsolve ode3. EitE ^ Pr m 0 . 2 1 2 2 2 N := z.2 Qf sinh k E ^ z 2 .2 H cosh k E ^ H ^ E k ] z Qf $2 H cosh k E ^ H ^ E k ] z Qf 2 (24) (25) .2 ] Qf H E .z 2 2 2 cosh k E ^ H $ 2 .z 2 2 2 .2 $ .N 0 l $]D N > ics3 D x 0 = 0.2 Qf sinh k E ^ z 2 2 2 .k ^ ] Qf $1 E 2 $k2 ^ H .deflection (20) > restart. w .2 $ sinh k E ^ H k E ^ ] Qf 2 $1 cosh k E ^ H $Qf sinh k E ^ H l ^ E . x z . Eit = ode3 := d2 2 x z = dz m z . 3 3 3 3 3 5 1 x z = .N z l .z 2 2 E 2 2 .2 ] Qf H E $2 Qf cosh k E ^ z .2 $ . D x 0 = > N z D.z k 2 E H Pr k2 . trig .N z l E it m 0 .Qf 2 $k ^ 4 $2 k E ^ ] Qf $1 cosh k E ^ z $2 sinh k E ^ z Qf w 2 2 H .H . D x 0 = 2 (21) 0 l 2 .k ^ ] Qf $1 E 2 $k ^ H . laterla.2 ] Qf H E $2 Qf cosh k E ^ z . k ^ H Pr k .z 2 2 E (23) 2 H Pr k .$Qf sinh k E ^ H > laterla-deflection. 1 2 2 k2 ^ 0 l Pr (22) 2 2 E it E ^ 2 H Pr k2 . 2 > ode3 D d x z dz2 1  m z .N 0 l $] D N ics3 := x 0 = 0.

2 2 1 x z = w H .2 H cosh k E ^ H ^ E k3 z $H2 sinh k E ^ H ^ E k2 Qf $sinh k E ^ H ^ E k2 z2 Qf 3 3 5 2 2 2 4 .^ E k z $k ^ E cosh k E ^ H $Qf sinh k E ^ H k4 cosh k E ^ H ^ E k ] Qf 2 2 ^ E E it dz dz $_C1 z $_C2 > simplify combine convert value dsolve ode3. 4 4 2 1 2 z H$ z Qf k .1 k ^ E $ Pr H .2 k ^ E cosh k E ^ z $2 Qf sinh k E ^ H 3 3 2 2 2 2 .1 z $H 2 $ H $2 ] Qf $2 Qf k ^ cosh k E ^ H $ 2 1 2 z k $1 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 k ^ E . trig .] Pr 2 6 3 4 2 2 $] Qf $1 k .z 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 $z E z k $1 ] Qf $1 H .Pr $Qf k $Pr H H $2 z k .k z Pr $] Qf $z Qf $1 $Qf sinh k E ^ H k ^ ] Qf $1 E cosh k E ^ H 4 6 4 it E E k ^ (26) .sinh k E ^ H ^ E k4 z2 Qf $2 cosh k E ^ H ^ E k ] Qf .2 Qf sinh k E ^ H $2 k ^ ] Qf $1 E cosh k E ^ z $2 sinh k E ^ z Qf .^ E k z $H cosh k E ^ H ^ E k ] Qf 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 $cosh k E ^ H ^ E k ] z Qf .$2 k ^ E cosh k E ^ H .^ E k z 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 .H Pr k2 $2 $ H $2 ] Qf k2 ^ E $2 Qf sinh k ^ E H .^ E k z 2 2 $H2 ^ E k4 Pr sinh H ^ E k .2 k2 ^ H E sinh H ^ E k .H cosh k E ^ H ^ E k ] Qf .1 k4 ^ E 3 6 2 k ^ E $ Pr H z .2 cosh k E ^ z ^ E k ] Qf $2 H cosh k E ^ H ^ E k z . z H$ z k .2 H sinh k E ^ H ^ E k z Qf 3 2 3 5 3 3 5 2 .cosh k E ^ H ^ E k ] z Qf 2 2 2 2 $2 H sinh k E ^ H ^ E k4 z Qf .2 Pr k H2 .2 Pr H k $ .Qf z .cosh k E ^ H ^ E k z . x z .2 k ^ E 2 .H2 cosh k E ^ H ^ E k5 3 3 5 2 2 2 2 2 .^ E k z 3 3 3 3 3 3 $H2 cosh k E ^ H ^ E k3 $cosh k E ^ H ^ E k3 z2 .2 Qf sinh H ^ E k .2 H ^ E k ] Qf sinh H ^ E k .] Qf .H 2 $ H $2 ] Qf 2 2 2 . size .H sinh k E ^ H ^ E k Qf 2 2 . trig . ics3 .H ^ E k Qf sinh H ^ E k .2 sinh k E ^ z Qf .

ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ ͳͺ ’’‡†‹šͻ   .

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ŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶƐŽĨǁĂůůƐĂŶĚůŝŶƚĞůƐ ^ƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐƉĂƌĂŵĞƚƌŝĞƐ ΀ŵ΁ Ϯ͘ϭϳϱ ΀ŵΔϮ΁ ΀ŵ΁ Ϭ͘ϰϳϱ ΀ŵΔϮ΁ ΀ŵ΁ Ϯ͘ϭϱ ΀ŵΔϮ΁ ΀ŵ΁ Ϯ͘ϵϲ ΀ŵΔϰ΁ ΀ŵ΁ ϯϴ͘ϰϴ ΀ŵΔϰ΁ ΀ŵ΁ ϰ͘ϴ ΀ŵΔϰ΁ ΀ŵ΁ Ϭ͘Ϯϱ ΀ŵΔϮ΁ ΀ŵ΁ Ϭ͘ϱϯϱ ΀ŵΔϰ΁ ΀ŬEͬŵΔϮ΁ ϭϭϬϬϬϬϬϬ ΀ŵΔϰ΁ ΀ŬEͬŵΔϮ΁ ϭϭϬϬϬϬϬϬ Ϭ͘Ϯ ΀ŬEͬŵΔϮ΁ ϰϱϴϯϯϯϯ͘ϯϯ ΀ϭͬŵ΁ ĞƐŝƌĞĚŚĞŝŐŚƚůĞǀĞů džƚĞƌŶĂůůŽĂĚ hŶŝĨŽƌŵĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚůŽĂĚ΀ŬEͬŵ΁ Ϯϱ WŽŝŶƚůŽĂĚ΀ŬE΁ Ϭ dƌŝĂŶŐƵůĂƌĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚůŽĂĚ΀ŬEͬŵ΁ Ϭ nj΀ŵ΁ DĂdžŝŵƵŵƐŚĞĂƌĨŽƌĐĞ͕ďĞŶĚŝŶŐŵŽŵĞŶƚĂŶĚĚĞĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶ dŚĞŚĞŝŐŚƚĂƚǁŚŝĐŚŵĂdžŝŵƵŵƐŚĞĂƌŽĐĐƵƌƐ ϭϮ͘ϴϮ ΀ŵ΁ DĂdžŝŵƵŵƐŚĞĂƌĨŽƌĐĞŝŶůŝŶƚĞůƐŝƐĞƋƵĂůƚŽ Ϯϭϭ͘ϯϰ ΀ŬE΁ DĂdžŝŵƵŵĂdžŝĂůĨŽƌĐĞŝŶǁĂůůƐŝƐĞƋƵĂůƚŽ ϭϴϰϰ͘ϱϴ ΀ŬE΁ DĂdžŝŵƵŵĚĞĨůĞĐƚŝŽŶ Ϭ͘ϭϯϬ ΀ŵ΁ dŚĞŚĞŝŐŚƚŽĨŵĂdžŝŵƵŵƉŽƐŝƚŝǀĞŵŽŵĞŶƚ Ϭ͘ϬϬ ΀ŵ΁ DĂdžŝŵƵŵƉŽƐŝƚŝǀĞďĞŶĚŝŶŐŵŽŵĞŶƚŝŶǁĂůůϭ ϵϱϱϱ͘ϯϵ ΀ŬE͘ŵ΁ DĂdžŝŵƵŵƉŽƐŝƚŝǀĞďĞŶĚŝŶŐŵŽŵĞŶƚŝŶǁĂůůϮ ϵϵ͘ϱϯ ΀ŬE͘ŵ΁ dŚĞŚĞŝŐŚƚŽĨŵĂdžŝŵƵŵŶĞŐĂƚŝǀĞŵŽŵĞŶƚ ϯϮ͘Ϯϴ ΀ŵ΁ DĂdžŝŵƵŵŶĞŐĂƚŝǀĞďĞŶĚŝŶŐŵŽŵĞŶƚŝŶǁĂůůϭ Ͳϯϯϴ͘ϰϯ ΀ŬE͘ŵ΁ DĂdžŝŵƵŵŶĞŐĂƚŝǀĞďĞŶĚŝŶŐŵŽŵĞŶƚŝŶǁĂůůϮ Ͳϯ͘ϱϯ ΀ŬE͘ŵ΁ ͲϭϮϬϱ͘ϱϱ ΀ŬE΁ ^ŚĞĂƌĨŽƌĐĞŝŶĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶďĞĂŵ DĂdžŝŵƵŵƐŚĞĂƌ ĨŽƌĐĞĂŶĚŝƚƐ ůŽĐĂƚŝŽŶ DĂdžƉŽƐŝƚŝǀĞĂŶĚ ŶĞŐĂƚŝǀĞďĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŵŽŵĞŶƚĂŶĚ ůŽĐĂƚŝŽŶ .

ĂƌĂŵĞƚƌŝĞƐ ϭ͘Ϭϴϳϱ Ϭ͘Ϯϯϳϱ ϭ͘ϯϮϱ ϭ͘ϳϭϰϴϱϭϱϲϯ Ϭ͘Ϭϭϳϴϲϭϵϳϵ WƌŽƉĞƌƚŝĞƐŽĨƚŚĞĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ ΀ŬE͘ŵ΁ ϭнϭϰ ΀ŬEͬŵ΁ ϱϬϲϴϵϲ͘ϱϱ ΀ŵ΁ Ϭ͘ϱ Ϭ͘ϭϯϯϳϱ ΀ŵ΁ ϭ͘Ϯ Ϭ͘ϬϬϯ ϭ ΀ŬEͬŵΔϮ΁ ϭϭϬϬϬϬϬϬ ΀ŵΔϰ΁ Ϭ͘ϬϳϮ ΀ŵ΁ ϳϴ͘ϳϭϳϰϭϴ ϭ͘ϭϳϳϮ ΀ϭͬŵ΁ Ϯ͘ϳϵϵͲϬϵ Ϭ͘ϭϮϭϮ ΀ϭͬŵ΁ Ϭ͘ϬϮϯϵϲϲϯ ĞŝŐŚƚůĞǀĞů ΀ϭͬŵ΁ Ϭ͘ϬϮϯϵϲϲϯ Ϭ ^ŚĞĂƌ&ŽƌĐĞ ŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶďĞĂŵ ϭ͘ϳϯϮϳϭϯϱϰϮ Ϭ͘ϬϬϯ džŝĂů&ŽƌĐĞ >ĂƚĞƌĂůĞĨůĞĐƚŝŽŶ ĞŶĚŝŶŐDŽŵĞŶƚ .

ŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐdhĞůĨƚ ͳͻ ’’‡†‹šͳͲ    .

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023966.Pr H H $2 z k $z Qf $H 2 $ H $2 ] Qf E $2 Qf sinh k E H .032152867 10 z $0. stiffenned D. E = 0.2 z H k E ] Qf cosh k E H $2 Qf sinh k E H 3 3 3 .266.0. l = 5.restart. 1 D simplify subs k = 1. Nelastic. it = 3. ] = 78. Qf = 0.71.01537.2 cosh k E z H k2 E sinh k E H .039336. Pr = 0. 1 D simplify subs k = 1.07129005728 (2) 2 2 2 1 4 2 2 w cosh k E z k Pr H E sinh k E H .4. Qf = 0.039336.2 $ .104908.1 .1153988 z $2953. w = 25. 1 Qf z2 k $1 2 4 2 H2 . z = 38.810812824 z .01537. 4 ] Qf $1 E $ Pr H 2 k cosh k E H $ . H = 38.745489691 10 z $5.00007058286952 cosh 0. stiffenned .1 E $k2 Pr H2 z Pr 6 3 2 2 . .sinh k E z k4 Pr H2 E cosh k E H $sinh k E z Qf E k2 H2 cosh k E H Nelastic.2 cosh k E z k E 2 $2 sinh k E z Qf cosh k E H $2 sinh k E z H ] Qf k2 E cosh k E H 2 2 3 3 .2 cosh k E z H ] Qf k E sinh k E H .3601549 z $1.z w 1 z k $1 2 4 2 2 1 2 4 z H$ z k k .2 ] Qf k2 E .139. Pv = 0.2 sinh k E z Qf . xelastic.01490507149 $0. 2 2 .2 sinh k E z Qf $E k3 H2 cosh k E H $z2 k3 E cosh k E H .1 4 EE 6 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E H $Qf sinh k E H k it : 6 xplot.2 cosh k E z Qf sinh k E H .2 Qf 4 1 2 4 2 z H$ z k k .1249. 1 2 2 H Pr H k2 .1153988 z $0.Qf k .002126458833 z .70494.1153988 z 2 . stiffened.2 Qf sinh E k H .889297 sinh 0.955157 cosh 0.H .2 E k k2 z Pr .71.7.2 z H k3 E cosh k E H 2 2 $z2 k2 E Qf sinh k E H $Qf E k2 H2 sinh k E H $2 k E ] Qf cosh k E H 2 . Pv = 0. E = 0.1 . (3) . stiffened D 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 $E k H ] Qf cosh k E H .] Qf 2 k E $2 Pr k .1153988 z eval xplot.z Qf .cosh k E z Qf E k H sinh k E H 2 2 2 .2 z H k E Qf sinh k E H $z k E ] Qf cosh k E H $2 k E cosh k E H .00002311395624 z2 -7 3 (1) -9 4 . Pr = 0.2 cosh k E z k E ] Qf 2 $2 sinh k E z H k2 E cosh k E H $k E ] Qf cosh k E H 2 E k4 l Qf sinh k E H $k E cosh k E H : Nplot. H = 38. E = 11106. 0.2 k E ] Qf $1 cosh k E z .266.48 .0. ] = 78.1153988 z $0.1 3 6 2 H . l = 5. stiffened. xelastic. $z E . it = 3.246836 .023966.0003498310834 sinh .000005873727383 sinh 0.H 2 $ H $2 ] Qf 2 ] Pr .48.70494. stiffened 1243.104908.] Qf .48.440545824 $0. E = 1110 . stiffened.1 k $2 k Pr H $ ] Qf $1 z . 1. w = 25.

H H Pr k .48.2 $k k .1153988 z .2 $ . stiffened. Qf = 0.621625644 z solve diff qplot.71 eval qplot. z = 0. stiffened.2 ] Qf k E $2 Qf cosh k E z $Qf . w = 25.266.1153988 z $144. 1703.3601548 .329. max D 2. 1.002710678906 (9) 18508.2 k E z Qf sinh k E H 2 2 2 . z = 0 . 13.47999946.01537.48 . z . E = 1110 .sinh k E z k Pr H E sinh k E H 2 $sinh k E z Qf E k2 H2 sinh k E H . Pr = 0. stiffened. (5) 38.039336. it = 3. H = 38. 1. (6) 183. N1. 0 D eval Nplot. E = 0.67742575 .70494. stiffened.2 k2 E z ] Qf cosh k E H $2 cosh k E z Qf . 1.cosh k E z Qf E k H cosh k E H .1 1 2 2 .5433322 cosh 0.1 .3. stiffened D 1 2 (4) 2 2 w 2 H ] Qf k2 E cosh k E H $cosh k E z k4 Pr H2 E cosh k E H 2 2 2 4 2 2 . z = 0 .2 cosh k E z Qf cosh k E H 2 $2 sinh k E z Qf sinh k E H $2 sinh k E z k E . 139.0 2 Mstiffened D . 506896.1 $2 k E Qf ] $1 cosh k E z $2 sinh k E z Qf w $Qf sinh k E H : 2 . 1 D m0 D .2 cosh k E z H k2 E cosh k E H $2 sinh k E z H k2 E sinh k E H 3 $2 sinh k E z k E ] Qf E k l Qf sinh k E H $k E cosh k E H $k E ] Qf cosh k E H : 6 qplot.2 $k2 k k $1 H .H k $1 2 4 E k H .2 cosh k E z H ] Qf k2 E cosh k E H 2 2 $2 sinh k E z H ] Qf k E sinh k E H $2 k E H Qf sinh k E H .2 k2 E z cosh k E H $2 H k2 E cosh k E H 2 2 .55 25 38. 1.67742575 q1.2433252 sinh 0.143.z 2 2 2 2 E k Qf ] $1 cosh k E H $ 2 . qelastic.023966. ] = 78.H .2 $ .2 Qf sinh k E z $E . l = 5.2578932 (8) 0.0314110 (7) . Pv = 0. 1 D simplify subs k = 1. z = 13.N1. 0 $Q1 Hv.z 2 2 E sinh k E H k E Qf ] $1 cosh k E H .291679 qelastic. 2 H H Pr k2 .2 ] Qf k2 E . stiffened .71. stiffened.88000 (10) Q1 D 78.96 eval qplot.104908.

l = 5.227 M1 D . . .9835957 I1 wHI1 wHI2 z b z S1 D 1. z = 0 0.2 E k Qf sinh E k H .853. it = 3.28.104908. stiffened. 2 dz 2 dz 2 I1 l 3 1 w I1 1 1 .01537. 6. (14) 1.15. E = 1110 . 3. it = 3. ] = 78.039 M2 D .023966.266.2 k E cosh E k H . Qf = 0. stiffened : S2 D 1.48.71.6 M plot. l = 5. w = 25.023966. . Pr = 0.039336.  S2 $ w . d1 = 2.487222524 $28. eval M plot. l . Qf = 0. Pv = 0.227.d1 w sinh E k z k5 E Pr H2 cosh E k H 2 it 2 2 it fnbeam D 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 5 (13) 2 .d1 qelastic. 1. . I1 = 3.1153988 z eval fn plot. 1. H = 38. H 2 H it it it (11) (12) $ I1 it l .2 sinh E k z k3 E H ] Qf cosh E k H $2 cosh E k z k3 E H ] Qf sinh E k H 2 2 .719572 eval M plot. 1. 1 D simplify subs k = 1.70494.1 .d1 qelastic.2 sinh E k z k E Qf cosh E k H 2 $2 cosh E k z k E Qf sinh E k H $2 cosh E k z k2 E 3 3 .25159827 2.266. Mstiffened .2 sinh E k z k E H cosh E k H 3 2 $2 cosh E k z k3 E H sinh E k H $2 cosh E k z k2 E ] Qf E k3 l Qf sinh E k H $k E cosh E k H $k E ] Qf cosh E k H $ 1 w I2 1 $ w 2 it 2 6 fn plot.266 104. stiffened. b 2 .01537. ] = 78. . w = 25.104908.sinh E k z k E Qf H cosh E k H . 1 D simplify subs k = 1. E = 1110 .48. b . Pr = 0.44410972 cosh 0. fnbeam . stiffened. H = 38.cosh E k z k E Pr H sinh E k H $cosh E k z k E Qf H sinh E k H .266 8686. E = 0. z = 14. 3. stiffened. I2 = 0.96. z = 0 3.1153988 z .926760792 (15) Second part (16) Second part. b = 2.30607437 sinh 0. stiffened : 1 d 1 d 1  S1 .70494.71. Pv = 0. E = 0. stiffened.039.2 k E ] Qf cosh E k H $2 sinh E k z k E Qf 2 2 3 3 .039336.1 .

88000 (26) 6 M plot.48 . Pv = 0. E = 0. H = 38. l = 5. w = 25.2480247 cosh 0. Qf = 0. it = 3. w = 25.099 . ] = 112.861711576 z solve diff qplot.31. Mstiffened . 2 D simplify subs k = 1. 9.48 .559644177 10-8 cosh 0.663. stiffened.071024. l = 5. 148. (21) 38.6 xplot. Pr = 0.3.2155. Qf = 0. stiffened.893031 cosh 0. Qf = 0.31. stiffened. H = 38.0 2 .196445. stiffenned -7 . 663.125421. stiffened.913441 (20) 6 qplot. 2263.2368345 z (27) .016634206 10 z $4. 2.196445.099 .2368345 z $2815. ] = 112.125421. E = 0.573751711 q2.196445.8126538 (24) 0. Pv = 0.3.558624094 10 z $0.2368345 z eval xplot.2516140 sinh 0.2368345 z . 18508.9.930855789 z $2927. E = 1110 .0008327370381 z . z = 38. Pv = 0.36. H = 38. ] = 112.071024.410931 .2155. l = 5. E = 11106.2155.48.125421.003539382517 (25) Q2 D 112. z = 0 .96 eval qplot.9725803 cosh 0. Pr = 0. z .001613904258 $3.157.574.2368345 z $1. E = 0. z = 0. Pv = 0.5111745 z $2. 1. 2 . E = 1110 . 2. E = 1110 .2368345 z $157.9574251 sinh 0.00003580672186 z -7 3 (17) -9 4 . w = 25.150612974 z2 $3558. Qf = 0.48.071024.099 .113391560 $0. Pr = 0.886021 N2. 2.31 eval qplot.574. stiffened .55 25 38. stiffened.574. stiffened. Pr = 0.5986616 z (19) 2 $1.196445.148. l = 5.573751711 . it = 3. stiffened.36. it = 3.2368345 z .0. it = 3.165. stiffened.469. z = 0 .48. 2 D simplify subs k = 1. qelastic. 0. 0 $Q2 506896. E = 0. z = 9. . xelastic. 2 D simplify subs k = 1.811800 sinh 0.125421.36.31.47997818.05363215431 (18) Nplot.36.2368345 z $0.280241014 10-9 sinh 0.5986615 . Hv.556333850 10 sinh .48. stiffened.071024. H = 38.2558841 (23) . 2.2368345 z . w = 25. 2 D simplify subs k = 1.7. 0 D eval Nplot. stiffened . Nelastic. max D 2.31. 2 D m0 D N2. 2 .2155.3558. (22) 282. ] = 112.574.099 .

w = 25.853. 7. 2 D simplify subs k = 1. E = 11106. Pv = 0. I1 = 3.36. 2.347. 3. stiffened. d1 = 2.96. fnbeam .M1. z = 0 3.227. H = 38.071024.2368345 z .829 2.57 619.196445.574.50140026 sinh 0.870836 eval M plot. z = 0 0. it = 3.2155. 2. z = 9. l = 5.5752030 (28) (29) fn plot. Qf = 0. 2. 8.125421.53.145838304 (30) (31) . s D eval M plot.50262149 cosh 0. stiffened. stiffened.48. E = 0.2368345 z eval fn plot.099 .227 3. Pr = 0. stiffened.347 M2.974975992 $53. 5761.57 .31. ] = 112.1. s D . I2 = 0. b = 1.

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ĞĨƚϰͿ Z͘ZŽƐŵĂŶĂŶĚ.Ğƚ ĞůĞŬƚƌŽŶŝƐĐŚ ďĞƌĞŬĞŶĞŶ ǀĂŶ ƌƵŝŵƚĞůŝũŬĞ ƐƚĂĂĨĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚŝĞ͕ ŵĞƚ ďŝũnjŽŶĚĞƌĞ ƚŽĞƉĂƐƐŝŶŐŽƉĞĞŶŚŽŐĞǁĂŶĚ͕;dEKŽŶĚĞƌnjŽĞŬ.͘D͘ƌƐůĂŶ͕  ƐŝŵƉůŝĨŝĞĚ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ŵƵůƚŝͲďĂLJ ƐƚŝĨĨĞŶĞĚ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐ͕;hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨƵŬƵƌŽǀĂ͕ůƐĞǀŝĞƌ͕ϭϮƵŐƵƐƚϮϬϬϲͿ /ƌ͘:͘ůĂĂƵǁĞŶĚƌĂĂĚ͕ .͘ĞĐŬ͕ƵƐĐŚƌŝĨƚ͕ƌǁŝĚĞƌƵŶŐƵŶĚƵƐĐŚƌŝĨƚŽƉ͕;ĂƵŝŶŐĞŶŝĞƵƌϭϵϲϬ͕.ƵďĞƌƚ͕ŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚŝŽŶƚŽĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨĐŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐ;/ũŽƵƌŶĂů͕ƵŐƵƐƚϭϵϲϮͿ ŽƵůů͕ ůĞdžĂŶĚĞƌ ĂŶĚ :͘Z͘ŚŽƵĚŚƵƌLJ͕ ƐƚƌĞƐƐ ĂŶĚ ĚĞĨůĞĐƚŝŽŶ ŝŶ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůůƐ ;/ ũŽƵƌŶĂů͕ &ĞďƌƵĂƌLJϭϵϲϳͿ ŽƵůů͕ůĞdžĂŶĚĞƌĂŶĚ:͘Z͘ŚŽƵĚŚƵƌLJ͕ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨĐŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐ;/ũŽƵƌŶĂů͕^ĞƉƚĞŵďĞƌϭϵϲϳͿ ^ĐŚĂǁĂŝŐŚŽĨĞƌ͕:ŽƐĞƉŚ͕ŽŽƌŽƉĞŶŝŶŐŝŶƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐ;/ũŽƵƌŶĂů͕EŽǀĞŵďĞƌϭϵϲϳͿ t͘<͘d^KĂŶĚW͘͘<͘ŚĂŶ͕&ůĞdžŝďůĞĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶĞĨĨĞĐƚŽŶĐŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐ;/ũŽƵƌŶĂů͕EŽǀĞŵďĞƌ ϭϵϳϮͿ ŽƵůů͕ ůĞdžĂŶĚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ͘͘ů ŚĂŐ͕ĨĨĞĐƚŝǀĞ ĐŽƵƉůŝŶŐ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůůƐ ďLJ ĨůŽŽƌ ƐůĂďƐ ;/ũŽƵƌŶĂů͕ ƵŐƵƐƚ ϭϵϳϱͿ ŝƉĞŶĚƵ͕ ŚƵŶŝĂ ĂŶĚ sŝƉƵů͕ WƌĂŬĂƐŚ ĂŶĚ ƐŚŽŬ ͕ WĂŶĚĞLJ͕ /ŶǀĞƐƚŝŐĂƚŝŽŶ ŝŶƚŽ ƚŚĞ ďĞŚĂǀŝŽƵƌ ŽĨ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐ͕;ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůĞŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƚŝŽŶĂů͕DĂƌĐŚϮϬϭϬͿ tŝŽŬƵƌ͕ ƌŶŽůĚ ĂŶĚ 'ůƵĐŬ͕ :ĂĐŽď͕ ƵůƚŝŵĂƚĞ ƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůůƐ͕ ;/ ũŽƵƌŶĂů͕ ĞĐĞŵďĞƌϭϵϲϴͿ ŽƵůů͕ůĞdžĂŶĚĞƌĂŶĚ͘t͘/ƌǁŝŶ͕ĚĞƐŝŐŶŽĨĐŽŶŶĞĐƚŝŶŐďĞĂŵƐŝŶĐŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕;/ ũŽƵƌŶĂů͕DĂƌĐŚϭϵϲϵͿ ŽƵůů͕ůĞdžĂŶĚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ͘^͘ŚŽŽ͕ ƐƚŝĨĨĞŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ ůĂƚĞƌĂůůLJ ůŽĂĚĞĚ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůůƐ ŽŶ ĞůĂƐƚŝĐ ĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ ^ĐŚĂǁĂŝŐŚŽĨĞƌ͕:ŽƐĞƉŚ ĂŶĚ &͘DŝĐƌŽLJƐ .ŽŬŬĂŝĚŽ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͕ ůƐĞǀŝĞƌ͕ ϲ &ĞďƌƵĂƌLJϮϬϬϳͿ K͘ŬƐŽŐĂŶ͕ D͘ŝŬĐĞ͕ ͘ŵƐĞŶ͕ .ŽĐŚďĂƵƚĞŶ͕ ;ĂƵŝŶŐĞŶŝĞƵƌϭϵϲϬ͕.   ʹͲ ‡ˆ‡”‡…‡•ǣ ΀ϭ΁͘ ΀Ϯ΁͘ ΀ϯ΁͘ ΀ϰ΁͘ ΀ϱ΁͘ ΀ϲ΁͘ ΀ϳ΁͘ ΀ϴ΁͘ ΀ϵ΁͘ ΀ϭϬ΁͘ ΀ϭϭ΁͘ ΀ϭϮ΁͘ ΀ϭϯ΁͘ ΀ϭϰ΁͘ ΀ϭϱ΁͘ ΀ϭϲ΁͘ ΀ϭϳ΁͘ ΀ϭϴ΁͘ ΀ϭϵ΁͘ ΀ϮϬ΁͘ ΀Ϯϭ΁͘ ΀ϮϮ΁͘ ΀Ϯϯ΁͘ ΀Ϯϰ΁͘   ^ŚĂůůŽǁĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ͗ĐŽŶƚŝŶƵŽƵƐƐŽŝůĂŶĚĚŝƐĐƌĞƚĞƐƉƌŝŶŐŵŽĚĞůƐĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ͕D͘:͘WĞŶĚĞƌ͕>͘ D͘tŽƚŚĞƌƐƉŽŽŶΘ:͘D͘/ŶŐŚĂŵ͕ϮϬϬϲE^ŽŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ĞĐŬ͕.ĞĨƚϭϮͿ ĞƚŽŶŬŽŶƐƚƌƵŬƚŝĞƐ ǀŽŽƌ sĞƌĚŝĞƉŝŶŐďŽƵǁ͕ EĂĂƌ ĚĞ ŬŽůůĞŐĞƐ ǀĂŶ ĚŽĐĞŶƚĞŶ ǀĂŬŐƌŽĞƉ ďĞƚŽŶŬŽŶƐƚƌƵŬƚŝĞƐ͕dĞĐŚŶŝƐĐŚĞŚŽŐĞƐĐŚŽŽůĞůĨƚ͕ũĂŶƵĂƌŝϭϵϳϳ DŽƚŽŚŝƌŽ^ĂƚŽ͕^ŚƵŶũŝ<ĂŶŝĞ͕dĂŬĂƐŚŝDŝŬĂŵŝ͕DĂƚŚĞŵĂƚŝĐĂůĂŶĂůŽŐLJŽĨďĞĂŵŽŶĞůĂƐƚŝĐƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐĂƐ Ă ďĞĂŵ ŽŶ ĞůĂƐƚŝĐ ĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ͕ ;'ƌĂĚƵĂƚĞ ƐĐŚŽŽů ŽĨ ĞŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐ͕ .ĞƌŽŶϭϱ͕ϭϵϲϲ͕ŶƵŵŵĞƌϭͿ dŽŵ WĂƵůĂLJ͕ dŚĞ ĚŝƐƉůĂĐĞŵĞŶƚ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƌĞŝŶĨŽƌĐĞĚ ĐŽŶĐƌĞƚĞ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚ ǁĂůůƐ͕; hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ĂŶƚĞƌďƵƌLJ͕ůƐĞǀŝĞƌ͕ϴƉƌŝůϮϬϬϮͿ .ĞůŵƵƚ͕ ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůůƐ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ĐŽŵƉƵƚĞƌ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐ͕;/ũŽƵƌŶĂů͕ĞĐĞŵďĞƌϭϵϲϵƉ͗ϭϬϬϱͿ ͘^͘ŚŽŽ ĂŶĚ '͘Y͘>ŝ͕ ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ŵƵůƚŝͲƐƚŝĨĨĞŶĞĚ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůůƐ ŽŶ ĨůĞdžŝďůĞ ĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶƐ;ŽŵƉƵƚĞƌĂŶĚ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞũŽƵƌŶĂů͕ǀŽůƵŵĞϲϰ͕ϭϵϵϳ͕Ɖ͗ϴϯϳͲϴϰϴϬ Z͘ZŽƐŵĂŶ͕ƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƚĞĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚƚŽůĂƚĞƌĂůůŽĂĚƐ;/ũŽƵƌŶĂů͕/ŶƐƚϲϭ͕ϭϵϲϰ͕ Ɖ͗ϳϭϳͲϳϯϰͿ ͘^͘ŚŽŽ ĂŶĚ ͘ŽƵůů͕ ^ƚŝĨĨĞŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ ůĂƚĞƌĂůůLJ ůŽĂĚĞĚ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůůƐ ŽŶ ĞůĂƐƚŝĐ ĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ ;ƵŝůĚŝŶŐĂŶĚŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚũŽƵƌŶĂůϭϵ͕ϭϵϴϰ͕Ɖ͗ϮϱϭͲϮϱϲͿ :͘^͘<ƵĂŶŐ ĂŶĚ ͘<͘ŚĂƵ͕ LJŶĂŵŝĐ ďĞŚĂǀŝŽƵƌ ŽĨ ƐƚŝĨĨĞŶĞĚ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůůƐ ǁŝƚŚ ĨůĞdžŝďůĞ ďĂƐĞƐ͕ ;ŽŵƉƵƚĞƌĂŶĚ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞũŽƵƌŶĂů͕ǀŽůƵŵĞϳϯ͕ϭϵϵϵ͕Ɖ͗ϯϮϳͲϯϯϵͿ :͘͘EĞǁůŝŶ ĂŶĚ '͘t͘dƌĂLJĞƌ͕ ĚĞĨůĞĐƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ ďĞĂŵƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ƚŽ ƐŚĞĂƌ ĚĞĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶ͕ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨtŝƐĐŽŶƐŝŶ͕DĂƌĐŚϭϵϱϲ Z͘ZŽƐŵĂŶ͕ ĞŝƚƌĂŐ njƵƌ ĞƌĞĐŚŶƵŶŐ ǁĂĂŐƌĞĐŚƚ ďĞůĂƐƚĞƚĞƌ YƵĞƌǁĂŶĚĞ ďĞŝ .

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   ΀Ϯϱ΁͘ /ƌ͘.͘^ŶŝũĚĞƌ͕ WƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ŽĨ ŚŝŐŚͲƌŝƐĞ ŽƵƚƌŝŐŐĞƌ ďƌĂĐĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽŶĨůĞdžŝďůĞĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ͕;ŝŶĚŚŽǀĞŶƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕ƉƌŽĐĞĞĚŝŶŐ ŽĨƚŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůĞŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐǁŽƌůĚĐŽŶŐƌĞƐƐ͘zŽŬŽŚĂŵĂͿ ΀Ϯϳ΁͘ ͘ŽƵůů͕ E͘<͘^ƵďĞĚŝ͕ ŽƵƉůĞĚ ǁĂůůƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚǁŽ ĂŶĚ ƚŚƌĞĞ ďĂŶĚƐ ŽĨ ŽƉĞŶŝŶŐƐ͕ ;ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ sŽůƵŵĞϳ͕ϭϵϳϮ͕ƉƉϴϭͲϴϲͿ ΀Ϯϴ΁͘ 'ƵŽ͘YŝĂŶŐ͘>ŝ͕͘^͘ŚŽŽ͕ĐŽŶƚŝŶƵŽƵƐͲĚŝƐĐƌĞƚĞ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚƚŽƚŚĞĨƌĞĞǀŝďƌĂƚŝŽŶĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨƐƚŝĨĨĞŶĞĚ ƉŝĞƌĐĞĚǁĂůůƐŽŶĨůĞdžŝďůĞĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ͕;/ŶƚĞƌŶĂƚŝŽŶĂůũŽƵƌŶĂů^ŽůŝĚƐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ǀŽůƵŵĞϯϯ͕ƉƉϮϰϵͲϮϲϯ ͕ϭϵϵϲͿ ΀Ϯϵ΁͘ /͘͘^͘ůŬŚŽůLJ͕.͘.͘t͘>ŽŽĨ͕ dŚĞ ƚŚĞŽƌLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚ ƐƉƌŝŶŐ ĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ ĂƐ ĂƉƉůŝĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŝŐĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĞĚŽŶƐŽŝů ΀Ϯϲ΁͘ :͘͘͘.ŽĞŶĚĞƌŬĂŵƉ͕ D͘͘D͘ĂŬŬĞƌ ĂŶĚ .͘ZŽďŝŶƐŽŶ͕ŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨŵƵůƚŝͲďĂLJĞĚĐŽƵƉůĞĚƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐ͕;ƵŝůĚ͘ƐĐŝ͕ǀŽůƵŵĞϴ͕ƉƉϭϱϯͲ ϭϱϳ͕ϭϵϳϯͿ ΀ϯϬ΁͘ ^͘^͘ĂĚŝĞƚ͕ ͘Đ͘^ĂůŵŽŶ͕ ͘t͘ĞƐŚĂƌĂ͕ ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůů ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŽŶ ĞůĂƐƚŝĐ ĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ͕ ;ĐŽŵƉƵƚĞƌĂŶĚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ǀŽůƵŵĞϲϱ͕EŽ͘Ϯ͕ƉƉϮϭϯͲϮϮϰ͕ϭϵϵϳͿ ΀ϯϭ΁͘ ͘^͘ŚŽŽ͕ '͘Y͘>ŝ͕ ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ŵƵůƚŝͲƐƚŝĨĨĞŶĞĚ ĐŽƵƉůĞĚ ƐŚĞĂƌ ǁĂůůƐ ŽŶ ƌŝŐŝĚ ĨŽƵŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ͕;ĐŽŵƉƵƚĞƌĂŶĚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ǀŽůƵŵĞϲϰ͕EŽ͘ϭ͕ƉƉϴϯϳͲϴϰϴ͕ϭϵϵϳͿ       <  .