Ireland in Schools

English & Irish history for primary schools

Birmingham Pilot Scheme Version 1, 11 September 2007

Should We Call Grace O’Malley* a Pirate?
Contents About this unit/helpful texts/lesson plans Lessons, sources & worksheets 1. What is a pirate? 2. What were the main events of Grace O’Malley’s life? 3. What do you think happened when Grace met Elizabeth I? 4. How far does Grace fit your image of a typical pirate? Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. ‘Grace O'Malley aroused the excited curiosity of Years 1 & 2' More about Grace O’Malley on the Internet Historical novelist’s account of Grace’s meeting with Elizabeth I Every Child Matters

* Grace is also called Granuaile (Grace the Bald) in the Irish. A rough phonetic pronunciation is GRAN-YAH WAIL.

For a PowerPoint of the pictures used, and more resources, please go to: http://iisresource.org/pirates.aspx

Key Stage 1
University of Birmingham BASS University of Northampton

About the study unit
This study unit is intended as a depth study within the Key Stage 1 History curriculum when studying the lives of significant men, women and children drawn from the history of Britain and the wider world. The key question asks: Should we call Grace O’Malley a pirate? Using a variety of stimulus material, the unit encourages children to explore the past by examining the image of pirates, with particular reference to Grace O’Malley. The key question leads children to consider what are the characteristics of a pirate and to challenge stereotypes in the light of historical enquiry. The key question also leads to a better understanding of the complexities of the life and values of a significant woman living in the more distant part. The unit also offers scope for work in Literacy and PSHE/Citizenship. National Curriculum Historical objectives - Key Stage 2
1. Chronological understanding a. place events and objects in chronological order b. use common words and phrases relating to the passing of time Knowledge and understanding of events, people and changes in the past a. recognise why people did things, why events happened and what happened as a result b identify differences between ways of life at different times. 3. Historical interpretation Pupils should be taught to identify different ways in which the past is represented Historical enquiry a. how to find out about the past from a range of sources of information b. to ask and answer questions about the past Organisation and communication
Pupils should be taught to select from their knowledge of history and communicate it in a variety of ways

Prior knowledge Children will be expected to know something about pirates. It would be helpful if the children were aware that sources help them to learn about the past.

4.

2.

5.

Every Child Matters
The unit fully embraces the Every Child Matters strategy - see Note 3.

Helpful texts
My Very First Books of Pirates by Richard Walker, Barefoot Press, 1-84148-304-4 Granuaile. Chieftain, Pirate, Trader by Mary Moriarty O’Brien Press, 0-86278-162-0 Granuaile. The Life & Times of Grace O’Malley by Anne Chambers, Wolfhound Press, 0-86327-631-8 Granuaile. The Pirate Queen by Morgan Llywelyn O’Brien Press, 0-86278-578-2 (historical fiction) The Ghost of Grania O’Malley by Michael Morpurgo Egmont, 0-74974-691-2

Thank you
This unit is indebted to Sandra Kirkland, Naseby CoE Primary School, and Maria Wykes, Northamptonshire Inspection & Advisory Service, who devised the original Ireland in Schools study units on Grace O’Malley: http://www.qca.org.uk/history/innovating/history_matters/worked_for_me/ks1/cameo-1/index.htm Lesson plans on following page.

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Lesson

Key question
What is a pirate?

Starter

Activities

NC History PSHE
2a 3 4b* 5

1

Watch the Lazy Town video ‘You are a Pirate’ video http://uk.youtube.com/watc h?v=3AzpByR3MvI (for karaoke version, go to http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=_ylIuTCn02s). What have they done to look like pirates?

1. Whole class activity. Look at the picture of Blackbeard. What tells you he is a pirate? 2. Look at these pictures of pirates with captions. a. Who looks like a pirate and why? Explain you choices. b. Are you surprised by any of the pictures? Have you any questions you want to ask? 3. Review. Look again at the pictures of Grace O’Malley and Francis Drake and also at pictures of their statues. a. Teacher explains why Drake met the queen and that in the next lessons we will be finding out why Grace O’Malley met the queen. b. What else would you like to know about Grace? 1. The story of Grace O’Malley. a. Display pictures illustrating the story. Teacher reads story twice, the first time stopping and explaining the differences between then and now, the second time dramatically b. Discuss the questions in the story. 2. Working in groups of four, sequence the pictures of Grace’s life. (Encourage pupils to use conventional and sequential language in discussing the sequencing, eg.day, night, weeks, months years; long ago, before, after, next.) 3. Review. a. What have you learned about Grace? b. How do we know that she lived a long time ago? c. Have you answered any of the questions from Lesson 1? 1. Whole class activity, rehearse the points made about Grace’s letter to Elizabeth in Lesson 2. 2. Whole class activity. Teacher displays meeting cards one by one and children decide to whom each one refers. 3. In groups of four, fill in the speech and thought bubbles and place and choose four to place on the meeting worksheet- two speech and two thought bubbles for Grace and the same for Elizabeth. 4. Use Drama conventions and ideas from activity 3 to reconstruct the picture of Grace and Elizabeth. Reconstruct the conversation between the two women, e.g., ‘Still image’ and ‘Thought tapping’. Or Use hand puppets to act out the imagined conversation. 5. Review. Have your views of Grace changed as a result of this lesson? 1. Look again at the pictures of pirates in Lesson 1 and recall your ideas of what pirates were like. 2. How far do you think Grace was a pirate? Place a picture of Grace on a continuum line (1, least like, 10 most like) and explain why you think that.* 3. Look at the images of Grace, which one would you choose as a front cover for the story you heard in lesson 2.P25 to 4, plus MLs. 4. Write a blurb for the back cover of your book.

1a 2a, c 5g

2

What were the main events of Grace O’Malley’s life?

Look at this picture of Grace O’Malley playing cards as a child? Which one is Grace? What does this tell you about her?

1a*, b 2a, b 4a, 4b 5

1a 2a, c 5g

3

What do you think happened when Grace met Elizabeth I?

Look again at picture of Grace meeting Elizabeth. Which phrases do you think apply to Granuaile and which to Elizabeth I? linen saffron smock gown richly embroidered lace handkerchief weather-beaten face chalk-like face large woollen sleeveless cloak sober dress ornamental style. Why do you think their clothes are different? Thought-shower words you would use to describe Grace O’Malley.

2a*, b* 4a*, b 5

2a 4c

4

How far does Grace fit your image of a typical pirate?

2a 3* 5

2a 4c 5g

* At this stage the teacher should explain that we do not know what Grace looked like. There is no surviving picture of Grace from her own lifetime. The nearest we have is this portrait of her great-great granddaughter, Maud Burke, born around 1642. The result is that people make up their own minds of what Grace looked like, as the selection of pictures shows.

NB.

If you have difficulty in obtaining resources from the Internet, please contact Ireland in Schools at: iisresources@yahoo.co.uk.

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Lesson 1

What is a pirate?
Starter Activities NC History PSHE 2a 3 4b* 5

Watch the Lazy Town video ‘You are a Pirate’ video http://uk.youtube.co m/watch?v=3AzpByR 3MvI (for karaoke version, go to http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=_ylIuT Cn02s). What have they done to look like pirates?

1. Whole class activity. Look at the picture of Blackbeard. What tells you he is a pirate? 2. Look at these pictures of pirates with captions. a. Who looks like a pirate and why? Explain you choices. b. Are you surprised by any of the pictures? Have you any questions you want to ask? 3. Review. Look again at the pictures of Grace O’Malley and Francis Drake and also at pictures of their statues. a. Teacher explains why Drake met the queen and that in the next lessons we will be finding out why Grace O’Malley met her. b. What else would you like to know about Grace?

1b 2a 4c 5g

* For a karaoke version, go to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ylIuTCn02s. For a Pirates of the Caribbean version, go to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NpSG0h_bo0.

L1, Starter
Lazy Town video ‘You are a Pirate’ video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bEBbu-wkKrs

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 4

L1, Activity 1

Blackbeard (c. 1680-1718)
Also known as Edward Teach. Notorious Golden Age pirate renowned for his devilish appearance and rule-by-fear tactics.

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L1, Activity 2

Hook, Captain

Renowned fictional bewigged pirate featured in J.M. Barrie’s legendary Peter Pan.

L’Ollonais, Francois (c. 1635 - c. 1668)

Born Jean David Nau. One of the most cruel and sadistic pirates known.

Silver, Long John

One-legged pirate in the story Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson.

Bonny, Ann (c. 1698 - d ?)
Irish pirate who partnered Calico Jack in the Caribbean.

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Sparrow, Captain Jack
The fictional character in the Pirates of the Caribbean films, played by Johnny Depp.

Grace O’Malley, aka Granuaile, (1530-1603)
Meeting Queen Elizabeth I, 1593 - 18th century engraving.

Morgan, Captain Henry (1635-87)

Notorious Welsh buccaneer who became ‘the greatest of the Brethren of the Coast’.

Sir Francis Drake (c. 1534 - 1596)

Being knighted by Elizabeth I on board the Golden Hind, 1571 - 19th century painting.

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L1, Activity 3

Grace O’Malley, aka Granuaile, (1530-1603)

Meeting Queen Elizabeth I, 1593 - 18th century engraving.

Being knighted by Elizabeth I on board the Golden Hind, 1571 - 19th century painting. The queen was rewarding Drake after his successful voyage around the world and for giving her riches of gold, silver and other treasures taken from the England enemy, Spain, and others.

Sir Francis Drake (c. 1534 - 1596)

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Lesson 2

What were the main events of Grace O’Malley’s life?
Starter Activities NC History PSHE 1a*, b 2a, b 4a, 4b 5

Look at this picture of Grace O’Malley playing cards as a child? Which one is Grace?* What does this tell you about her?

1. The story of Grace O’Malley. a. Display pictures illustrating the story of Grace O’Malley. Teacher reads story twice, the first time stopping and explaining the differences between then and now, the second time dramatically. b. Discuss the questions in the story. 2. Working in groups of four, sequence the pictures of Grace’s life. (Encourage pupils to use conventional and sequential language in discussing the sequencing, eg., day, night, weeks, months years; long ago, before, after, next.) 3. Review. a. What have you learned about Grace? b. How do we know that she lived a long time ago? c. Have you answered any of the questions from Lesson 1?

1a 2a, c 5g

* Bottom left.

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L2, Starter

Drawing by David Rooney Granuaile. Chieftain, Pirate, Trader by Mary Moriarty & Catherine Sweeney, O’Brien Press, 0-86278-162-0, p. 11.

Grace loved to play cards - one of her nicknames was ‘Grace of the Gamblers’.

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L2, Activity 1

The story of Grace O’Malley - supporting maps & pictures start on page 13 Grace O’Malley was one of the most successful pirates ever to sail the seas off the west coast of Ireland. She had lots of ships and over 200 men. She robbed any ship that dared to sail through waters she ruled. According to the English, Grace ‘has not acted like a woman and has caused a lot of problems as chief commander and director of thieves and murderers at sea. She has thieved from this part of Ireland’. Grace also traded as far away as Spain where she sold fish and cows’ hides [skins]for wine, salt and iron. She was at sea so much that her youngest son was born aboard ship in 1567. Grace had a very exciting life. Many stories are told about the adventures she had. Here are four of them. Why she was called Grace the Bald Even though she had long, dark hair, Grace is often called Grace the Bald. It is said that when Grace was a young girl, she asked her father could she sail with him. He refused to take her, because she was a girl. However, Grace was determined to go with him, so she cut off all her hair and dressed in boys’ clothes. She went back to her father and said, ‘Now will you take me?’ We don’t know what her father answered. What do you think he said? How Grace showed that she was strong When Grace was sixteen years old, she married her first husband, a chieftain called Donal O’Flaherty. He was always fighting. Donal captured a small castle from his neighbours, the Joyces. Donal fought so fiercely that he was given a new nickname Donal the Cock. The castle was renamed Cock’s Castle. Shortly afterwards, in 1565, Donal was killed by the Joyces when he was out in the mountains. Luckily, some of his men managed to return to the castle to warn Grace. The Joyces thought that it would be easy to get their castle back. They were wrong. Grace and her men fiercely defended the castle and won. The Joyce’s ran away liked scared rabbits. The castle’s name was changed to Hen’s Castle to show how brave Grace was. What does this story tell us about Grace?
IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 11

How she taught Lord Howth lesson Many years later, in 1576, Grace’s galleys landed at Howth near Dublin. At that time, Irish chieftains offered food and shelter to other chieftains who were travelling through their lands. When Grace went to Howth Castle to be welcomed as a guest. Imagine her surprise and anger when they would not even let her in. She was furious. On her way back, Grace came upon the son of the lord playing with his friends. She kidnapped the boy and sailed off with him. Lord Howth was very upset when he found out what had happened. He went to see Grace and offered a lot of money to get his son back. Grace did want not money. What she wanted was to teach Lord Howth a lesson he would never forget. She made him promise that the gates of Howth Castle would never again be closed to anyone looking for food and shelter and that promised an extra place would always be laid at the dinner table in Howth Castle to remind the people of the castle of how badly they had treated Grace. Only then did Grace give the lord back his son. To this day, there is always an extra place at the dinner table in Howth Castle. Do you think Grace behaved properly? How did Grace try to deal with her biggest enemy? Sir Richard Bingham was a very important man in Ireland. He had been sent to the west of Ireland by the Queen of England to control the Irish. Grace and Bingham were deadly enemies. He made life very difficult for Grace, taking her lands and cattle. Once, locked her away in jail. Grace became so angry that, in 1593, she wrote to Queen Elizabeth I to complain about Bingham and his nasty ways. What do you think Grace wrote? [Note to teacher. Store responses for use in next lesson.] Elizabeth agreed to see Grace. She was probably curious to meet this Irish woman who had caused the English in Ireland so much trouble. Queen Elizabeth must have liked Grace because she ordered Bingham to return the lands and cattle which he had taken from her. Grace returned to home only to find Bingham had not changed his ways. She died about ten years later.

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 12

L2, Activity 1 - pictures to support ‘The story of Grace O’Malley’

Grace’s sheltered but strategically-placed territory in Mayo (in red) and neighbouring counties Galway and Clare - in light red) in the west of Ireland, the province of Connaught or Connacht.
IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 13

Granuaile. the Life & Times of Grace O’Malley by Anne Chambers, Wolfhound Press, 0-86327-631-8, p. 14

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An artist’s impression of Grace O’Malley

Time Traveller 2 by Roddy Day, CJ Fallon, 0-71441-129-9, p. 84

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IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 16 Time Traveller 2by Roddy Day, CJ Fallon, 0-71441-129-9, p. 83.

An artist’s impression of Grace’s galley.

Why she was called Grace the Bald

Time Traveller 2 by Roddy Day, CJ Fallon, 0-71441-129-9, p. 84

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 17

Carraighowley Castle, Co. Mayo, Ireland, one of Grace’s favourite homes.

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 18

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 19 My Very First Book of Piratesretold by Richard Walker & illustrated by Olwyn Whelan, Barefoot Books, 1-84148-304-4, p. 38.

How Grace taught Lord Howth lesson.

Sir Richard Bingham

How did Grace try to deal with her biggest enemy?

Queen Elizabeth I
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L2, Activity 2 - cards for sorting & sequencing Grace’s life
* Drawings by David Rooney in Granuaile. Chieftain, Pirate, Trader by M. Moriarty et al., O’Brien Press, 0-86278-162-0 G5/9 Time Traveller 2 by Roddy Day, CJ Fallon, 0-71441-129-9, p. 84; G8 Horrible Histories. Ireland by Terry Deary, Scholastic, 0-43901-436-0

G7. Grace loved to play cards - one of her nicknames was ‘Grace of the Gamblers’.*

G.3. Upset when her father refused to take her on a [sea] trip because she was a girl, the story goes that Grace cut off her hair and donned male clothes.*

G1. Terrified English soldiers flee Hen’s Castle as Grace’s men pour molten metal down on them.*

G2. Attacked by Turkish pirates, the story goes that Grace rushed on deck and blasted them off the ship.*

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 21

G8. Grace’s son Tibbott (Toby) was born aboard her ship. She defended her new-born son from an attack from Barbary Pirates.

G9. Grace’s galley.

G5. Grace teaches Lord Howth a lesson.

G6. Imprisoned in the dungeons of Dublin Castle, Grace must have longed to be home in Connaught.*

G4. The meeting between Grace and Queen Elizabeth at Greenwich Castle, London.*

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Lesson 3

What do you think happened when Grace met Elizabeth I?
Starter Activities NC History PSHE 2a*, b* 4a*, b 5

Look again at picture of Grace meeting Elizabeth. Which phrases do you think apply to Granuaile and which to Elizabeth I? linen; saffron smock; gown richly embroidered; lace handkerchief; weather-beaten face; chalk-like face; large woollen sleeveless cloak; sober dress; ornamental style. Why do you think their clothes are different?

1. Whole class activity, rehearse the points made about Grace’s letter to Elizabeth in Lesson 2. 2. Whole class activity. Teacher displays meeting cards one by one and children decide to whom each one refers. 3. In groups of four, fill in the speech and thought bubbles and place and choose four to place on the meeting worksheet- two speech and two thought bubbles Grace and the same for Elizabeth. 4. a. Use Drama conventions and ideas from activity 3 to reconstruct the picture of Grace and Elizabeth. b. Reconstruct the conversation between the two women, e.g., ‘Still image’ and ‘Thought tapping’. Or Use hand puppets to act out the imagined conversation. 5. Review. Have your views of Grace changed as a result of this lesson?

2a 4c

L3, Starter
Which phrases do you think apply to Grace and which to Elizabeth I?

lace handkerchief

weather-beaten face

linen saffron smock

gown richly embroidered

sober dress

ornamental style.

chalk-like face

large woollen sleeveless cloak

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 23

L3, Activity 2 - meeting cards

1, 4, 7, & 9 might have been thought by Grace; 2, 5, 8 & 10 by Elizabeth; 3 & 6 by either. The blank cards be used for more thoughts.

1 What has she got around her neck.

2 Is she impressed by my outfit?

3 I wonder what she’s really thinking.

4 Isn’t she pale?

5 She is not the ruffian I thought she would be.

6 Can I trust her?

7 Why does she need so many people her?

8 Where are the rest of her servants?

9 Was it really worth coming all this way?

10 What will happen if I give her what she wants?

11 She is very small.

12 She is very big.

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 24

L3, Activity 3 - meeting worksheet for thought & speech bubbles Grace’s thoughts & speech

enlarge to A3

Elizabeth’s thoughts & speech

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 25

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 26

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 27

Lesson 4

How far does Grace fit your image of a typical pirate?
Starter Activities NC History PSHE 2a 3* 5

Thought-shower words you would use to describe Grace O’Malley.

1. Look again at the pictures of pirates in Lesson 1 and recall your ideas of what pirates were like. 2. How far do you think Grace was a pirate? Place a picture of Grace on a continuum line (1, least like, 10 most like) and explain why you think that. 3. Look at the images of Grace, which one would you choose as a front cover for the story you heard in lesson 2? 4. Write a blurb for the back cover of your book.

2a 4c 5g

* At this stage the teacher should explain that we do not know what Grace looked like. There is no surviving picture of Grace from her own lifetime. The nearest we have is the portrait below of her great-great granddaughter, Maud Burke, who was born around 1642. The result is that people make up their own minds of what Grace looked like, as the selection of pictures shows.

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 28

L4, Activity 1 - pirates from Lesson 1

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 29

L4, Activity 2 Continuum line

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 30

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Least like

Most like

L4, Activity 3 - images of Grace O’Malley
C1 C2 C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C9

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Note 1

‘Grace O’Malley aroused the excited curiosity of Years 1 & 2'
Tired of teaching Florence Nightingale, Sandra Kirkland at Naseby CE Primary School gave herself a new lease of life and aroused the excited curiosity of Years 1 & 2 by announcing that they were going to study an Irish pirate. The excitement became almost irrepressible when it gradually dawned on the children that the pirate was a woman - the fearless Grace O’’Malley (c.1530-1603), also known as Granuaile (pronounced Gran-oo-ale).
Telling a good story

which accounts of her life are based - mainly English State Papers. How far could English officials in Ireland be relied upon to report fairly on a woman who was often their enemy? There were imaginative dramatisations of Granuaile’’s meeting with Elizabeth, accompanied by much disagreement on how fairly or otherwise Elizabeth and her officials treated Granuaile towards the end of her life. Addressing the whole curriculum The enjoyment and learning went beyond History. Central issues in PSHE were addressed in the debate on gender roles, then and now, stimulated by Granuaile’’s disguising herself as a boy to go to sea, while the English dismissal of Granuaile as a ‘‘pirate’’ prompted a debate about perceptions - ‘‘pirate’’ to some, ‘‘freedom fighter’’ to others. The existence of a suite of songs, with telling words and evocative music (Granuaile, sung by Rita Connolly, Tara CD 3071), encouraged the children to ‘‘explore and express their ideas and feelings about music using movement [and] dance’’ and to appreciate ‘‘how music is used for particular purposes’’. The song ‘‘Free and Easy’’ prompted children to apply their geographical skills by asking ‘‘What can you see from the masthead? ... Spanish ships a-fishing.... A Portugee from Newfoundland.... A trading ship from Galway.’’ and ‘‘Where shall we go for a cargo? We’’ll run right down to Vigo.... We’’ll take a look in at Bordeaux.’’
Building on Key Stage 1

More than the ‘‘pirate queen’’ of Irish legend, Granuaile was a courageous woman who stood up for her rights during the turbulent Tudor conquest of Ireland. When young, it is said she cut off her hair and wore male clothes to go to sea. More than a woman, Granuaile was a Gaelic chieftain. She commanded a fleet of war and merchant ships, trading with France, Spain, England and Portugal, dominating the waters off Western Ireland, resisting and then treating with the invading Tudors. By land Granuaile stormed and defended castles, engaged in the then favourite Irish practice of cattle-rustling, gave birth to four children and generally showed she was the equal if not the better of any man. According to one horrified Tudor official, she ‘‘hath impudently passed the part of womanhood and been a great spoiler and chief commander and director of thieves and murderers at sea’’. Such was Granuaile’’s power that in 1593 Elizabeth I agreed to meet her in London to consider requests for money and permission ‘‘to invade with sword and fire’’ the queen’’s enemies. The only Gaelic woman ever to appear at court, ‘‘the wild grandeur of her mien erect and high, before the English Queen she dauntless stood ... well used to power [and] dominion over men of savage mood’’. Her petition was successful, but Granuaile died ten years later outwitted and impoverished by Tudor officials who never forgave her earlier ‘‘betrayals’’.
Enlivening the History curriculum

What is more, work at Key Stage 1 can be built upon at Key Stage 2 to offer a different perspective on the Tudors. Ireland became ‘‘Elizabeth’’s Vietnam’’ as Irish chieftains responded to the English invasion of their territories. Some, like Granuaile, tried to be clever, pretending to co-operate with the Tudors, yet continued in their old ways. Others resisted violently and, according to one Englishman, ‘‘They spoil and burn and bear away as fit occasion serve’’.
Exploiting the Literacy Hour

Sandra unfolded Granuaile’’s life in a series of compelling stories, drawn from a number of accessible texts, including My Very First Book of Pirates (R. Walker, Barefoot Books, 184148-304-4, pp 34-41), Time Traveller 2 (R. Day et al., C.J. Fallon, 0-71441-129-9, pp 83-8); a biography, Granuaile (M. Moriarty & C. Sweeney, O’’Brien Press, 0-86278-62-0), and an historical novel, Granuaile (M. Llywelyn, O’’Brien Press, 0-86278-578-2). These stories provided the basis for five key questions: How many Irish people can you name? Who was Granuaile? What adventures did Granuaile undertake throughout her life? What was Granuaile like? Why did Granuaile meet Queen Elizabeth I? This approach encouraged children to develop a range of historical skills almost without noticing. They were delighted that their pictures of Granuaile were as valid as any of those produced in the books they read - there are no contemporary portraits of her. They debated the reliability of the evidence on

Finally, for some History teachers, Granuaile provides a way of asserting the place of History in the curriculum. Maggi Denton of St Paul’’s Catholic Junior School in Liverpool uses four stories about Granuaile primarily for non-fiction work in the Literacy Hour in Year 3 but also to develop historical skills. At Gorsemoor Primary School in Staffordshire, Rebecca Brookes encourages children to distinguish between fact and fiction by using historical texts on Tudor Ireland and an imaginative novel, The Ghost of Grania O’’Malley (M. Morpurgo, Egmont, 0-74974-691-2).
Enriching the curriculum through Ireland

The story of Grace O’’Malley, Granuaile, is just one of Ireland’’s rich store of stories which help to provide a ‘‘sounder map of the past’’ and increase ‘‘choice, range and fun in our teaching’’. Teachers - and their pupils - can only benefit by taking more account of Ireland and its stories. It is easy to do since Ireland in School provides - without charge a wealth of teaching and learning materials and advice: http://iisresource.org.

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 32

Note 2

More about Grace O’Malley on the Internet
Songs about Grace Óró sé do bheatha ‘bhaile (You are welcome home) is a rousing song about Grace as Ireland’s saviour. For further details and download links, please go to pages 20-1 in http://iisresource.org/Documents/Pirates_Grace_Drake_Booklet_01.pdf. Granuaile, TARA CD 3071 (1985), is an engaging album of songs, sung by Rita Connolly, and based on a mixture of legend and fact surrounding the life of Grace O’Malley. Particularly evocative are ‘The Defence of Hen’s Castle’, ‘Free and Easy’ and ‘The New Age; which respectively capture Grace’s bravery, her life on the ocean and her optimism about meeting Elizabeth I. For further details and media clips, please go to: http://www.taramusic.com/sleevenotes/cd3017.htm. Videos Warrior Women 2 - Grace O’Malley. Short documentary hosted by Lucy Lawless; 8+ mins http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yAm2kAlP-KQ A Pirate’s Life for She. Morgan Llywelyn on Granuaile becoming a musical; 4 mins http://video.google.co.uk/videoplay?docid=3446421899632807146 Granuaile. Sung by Rita Connolly; 10 mins http://video.google.co.uk/videoplay?docid=-8307735547834017733 Texts http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_O’Malley Wikipedia http://www.graceomalley.com/whowasgrace.php ‘The Official Site’ by Anne chambers. Grace’s biographer http://journals.aol.co.uk/iis04/GraceOMalley Ireland in Schools resources www.geocities.com/Heartland/Park/7669/granuaile.html Good context www.omalley_clan.org/uow/omalley_web/granuaile.htm Web resources http://bestoflegends.org/pirates/grainne.html Pirates and privateers. http://www.thepirateking.com/bios/omalley_grace.htm An excellent resource for pirates and their vessels www.rootsweb.com/~nwa/grace.html Biography of Grace O’Malley, Irish Chieftain, pirate, trader and seafarer. http://www.rencentral.com/oct_nov_vol1/graceomalley.shtml Illustrated biography www.themediadrome.com/content/articles/history_articles/grace_omalley.htm ‘Put down that Barbie doll, sweetie, I have a story for you…’ http://home.fiac.net/marshaw/mhaille.htm Informative www.angelfire.com/dragon2/supercooper/index.htm Questions about Grace, but with annoying pop-ups http://www.irishcultureandcustoms.com/1Kids/PlateHowth.html The Howth story www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2007/apr/08/escape.ireland.restandrelaxation A tourist attraction

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 33

Note 3

Historical novelist’s account of Grace’s meeting with Elizabeth I
Although she will never admit it, Granuaile’s heart is in her throat when she calls upon Elizabeth at her palace at Greenwich. The queen has already received angry letters from Bingham about her. It is up to Granuaile to present a very different picture of herself. To remind Elizabeth that they are both she-kings, she dresses as a woman of the Gaelic nobility. The green velvet of her gown is fabric she herself once imported. The gown is made with slitted arms to reveal the bell-shaped sleeves of an Ulster linen smock beneath. The bodice is cut low to show that Granuaile’s throat and bosom are still as firm as a girl’s. Although they are the same age, Elizabeth cannot make the same boast. Over her gown Granuaile wears a great fur cloak, lined with silk. Its fringed hem sweeps the ground. The English like to believe that the Irish go barefoot, but in truth, almost everyone has leather shoes. Until the English began seizing Irish herds there was plenty of leather. For her meeting with Elizabeth, Granuaile selects a pair of soft boots made from Mayo hides. The toes are ornamented with gold embroidery. Hidden in her belt is a dagger. A Spanish dagger. The English never think to search this mere woman for weapons. When Granuaile is brought before the queen in her audience chamber, she fights to hide her astonishment. She expected someone as tall as a Gaelic chieftain, a mighty monarch, a warrior like herself. But Elizabeth Tudor does not reach her shoulder. She is a wee brittle thing Granuaile could break over her knee. Attendants cluster around the English queen, doing everything but breathe for her. Her face is as white as chalk. At first Granuaile thinks Elizabeth is ill. Then she realises the woman’s skin is caked with powder. Granuaile’s heavy hair is pinned with silver bodkins. Elizabeth wears a red wig of a most unnatural hue. Can it be the woman is bald? Granuaile wonders. The English queen’s costume seems ridiculous. A vast lace collar surrounds her face and head. She cannot possibly see anyone sneaking up behind her. The bodice of her gown is so rigid she can hardly breathe. Jewels encrust her person from head to heels, weighing her down. Her feet are squeezed into tiny shoes with heels so high she can hardly walk. What could she do if she was attacked? Granuaile bites her lip to keep from laughing. Then their eyes meet. And lock. A strange sensation passes over Granuaile.

Granuaile. The Pirate Queen by Morgan Llywelyn, O’Brien Press, 0-86278-578-2, pp 146-9

She knows Elizabeth. Knows her as she knows the sea or the wind. The queen of England is a woman who has suffered, as the Irish she-king has suffered. Granuaile feels a sudden pity for Elizabeth. This immensely powerful woman, imprisoned within her stiff clothes and her crowding courtiers, can never be free. Granuaile refuses an interpreter and speaks with Elizabeth in Latin. The two women were born in the same year, Granuaile learns. ‘Had we been born in the same place we might have been friends,’ she says to the queen. Elizabeth invites Granuaile to sit beside her while they talk together. Her courtiers wait, shifting from one foot to the other. The queen does not invite them to sit. For all her physical weakness, it is soon obvious that Elizabeth Tudor has the mind of a born ruler. Hard, practical. Granuaile treats the queen with the respect she seeks for herself. She does not lie to Elizabeth. She does not tell all the truth, but what she does say is true. She puts her case calmly and reasonably, and the queen listens in the same way. During the long afternoon they speak of many things. They discuss what it is like for a woman to be a leader of men. Elizabeth says she is amazed by Granuaile’s success. Granuaile replies that she is equally amazed by Elizabeth. The queen does not smile, but her eyes dance. They are fine eyes. She must have been beautiful, once. When their meeting is over, Elizabeth offers Granuaile the hospitality of the palace until a decision is made about her case. Granuaile thanks her and starts to leave the chamber. Abruptly, the Irish woman sneezes. A great big whoop of a sneeze. The queen nods to one of her attendants, who hands Granuaile a tiny square of cambric. She blows her nose long and loud. Then she tosses the handkerchief into the fire on the hearth. Elizabeth cannot raise her eyebrows, for she has none. But there is icy disapproval in her voice. ‘In England we put our used handkerchiefs back into our sleeves,’ she says. ‘In Ireland,’ Granuaile replies, ‘we are not so unclean that we stuff soiled handkerchiefs into our clothing.’ Elizabeth stares at her. She stares back. Slowly, Elizabeth begins to smile. The powder on her face cracks like glazed porcelain, but she smiles.

IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 34

Note 4

Every Child Matters
Every Child Matters Be healthy Physically healthy Mentally and emotionally healthy Sexually healthy Choose not to take illegal drugs. Stay safe Safe from maltreatment, neglect, violence and sexual exploitation Safe from accidental injury and death Safe from bullying and discrimination Safe from crime and anti-social behaviour in and out of school. Have security, stability and cared for. Enjoy and achieve Ready for school Achieve stretching national and educational standards at primary school Achieve personal and social development and enjoy recreation. Evidence in History Developing self esteem by including aspects of a pupil’s community’s history We do By focussing on an Irish female pirate we give status to those of Irish ancestry and girls. The unit challenges the image of pirates. The unit a highlights the heroic nature of female characters so often written out of history. It also shows the violent reality of piracy. By providing a Unit that is not Anglo-centric in approach and looks at the ‘wider world’. The unit deals with an interesting, popular and ‘Romantic’ historical topic. A range of pedagogic devices are used enabling all pupils to experience success. Throughout the unit pupils work in a variety of grouping and ways. The Unit challenges stereotypical views of people i.e. pirates, women. The unit places the characters in a variety of contexts thus emphasising the global nature of the stories. Providing opportunities to develop literacy and communication skills to explore historical issues The pupils communicate their conclusions in a variety of ways in the unit.

Developing a questioning disposition so pupils do not take things at face value. Challenging stereotypes and exploring the histories of different people and their society or context. Providing opportunities to explore and value pupil’s identity and place in the world. Providing opportunities to enjoy finding out exciting and interesting experiences of different people in the past. Providing opportunities to enjoy and reach their potential through a wide range of teaching and learning experiences (e.g. drama). Providing opportunities to work collaboratively, e.g. in discussion. Providing an appreciation of a child’s place in the wider world by exploring the achievement of other people within their society and other parts of the world.

Make a positive contribution Engage in decision-making and support the community and environment Engage in law-abiding and positive behaviour in and out of school Develop positive relationships and choose not to bully and discriminate Develop self-confidence and successfully deal with significant life changes and challenges Develop enterprising behaviour. Achieve economic well-being Engage in further education, employment or training on leaving school Ready for employment. Live in decent homes and sustainable communities Access to transport and material good Live in households free from low income.

Providing opportunities for problem solving when exploring historical questions. Developing critical abilities when examining sources such as artefacts, pictures etc
IiS, Grace O'Malley - a pirate?, 35

Problem solving is central to the activities

The core of the unit is to challenge popular concepts of piracy and lawlessness.

Ireland in Schools 19 Woodlands Road Liverpool L17 0AJ Tel: 0151 727 6817 Email: iisresources@yahoo.co.uk web site: http://.iisresource.org For more free teaching & learning resources

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