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Soumyadev Adhikari

The most recent question that is dealt with the paleontologists today is about the course of human
evolution. In a simple sentence the question is how human beings are evolved in different parts of the
world. There are two big theories fighting to each other. One is the “Multiregional Hypothesis”. It
says that the peoples of different parts of the world evolved in their present state in different and
parallel ways. That means the present Asians evolved from the short & black Homo erectus while
the Europeans from healthy Homo neanderthalensis. On the other hand the second one is “Out of
Africa Hypothesis”. It opposes the previous view strictly. It says from a certain corner of the world
an intelligent group of people once come out and replace all the old habitats of different places and
evolved into present day human beings. If the first hypothesis is true, which directly supports the
existence of classifications in our society, then the people who always want to see all of us equal will
feel helpless. But fortunately or unfortunately the second hypothesis is nearly proved. It always
supports the equality.

In 2007 a tremendous research is
done by Dr Andrea Manica (and his
team) of Cambridge University.
Before going to the result of his
research we have to take a look on
Genes. If there anything real
difference exists between any two
people then it will be the difference
of their genes. Every living particle
in earth has its own genetic
property which is being carried by it and its ancestors
and will be carried by its successors. Manica’s
research consists of testing the genetic variations among the peoples of the five continents.
Interestingly he found the largest genetic variation among the African people (Africa is the country
which is estimated as the birthplace of human beings by Darwin and the estimation proved to be true
after a discovery of a cranium of Australopithecus africanus in 1924 in South Africa). And the
smallest variation observed in the new world such as South American countries. So what? Just
consider a bowl containing different colors of fishes like red, blue, green, pink and yellow. Now if you
pick up some of them in closed eyes and put them in another bowl then certainly the second bowl will
contain reduced number of fishes with of less color variation that was seen in the first bowl. After 1
year, the population of second bowl will be increased but color variation will remain as same as it was
1 year before. Now consider the source bowl as Africa, from where an intelligent group of peoples
(the migrated fishes) come out and get entry to new destination (the destination bowl). So after
watching the largest genetic variation among the African people we can easily think that all of us
originated mainly from Africa! Remember, from the above experiment it is clear that genetic variation
(color variation) decreases with increasing the distance from motherland.

Out Of Africa supporters already concluded that nearly 200000 years ago the Homo sapiens
evolved in East Africa. After ruling their birthplace for nearly 100000 years an intelligent group of
modern Homo sapiens come out of Africa and replace all the original habitats of different places out
of Africa. There is confusion about the actual time when the completely modern human starts leaving
Africa. We may take it as a certain time between 55000 to 100000 years ago. Perhaps they faced
some tough battles with the original habitats but it is to remember that they were modern Homo
sapiens, a completely modern and skilled people enough to defeat the old habitats. The routes that
were traveled by the modern Homo sapiens are shown in the figure. But it is a big and different story.
For example, there were three routes from the Old World to New World in earlier times, across the

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Bering Straits, island between one Aleutian Island to another and across the Atlantic. All those three
today requires sea voyages but the intense cold at that time perhaps helped the migratory peoples to
use some ice bridges. However Manica’s research directly helps the Out Of Africa supporters to
establish their views over the Multiregional supporters.

So, why we will accept the existence religions or casts or any kind of classifications which not at all
based on the talent of people rather divide them? It is the truth that we are all equal in that sense we
all originated from a group of African. So, should there be any kind of reason to make people different
from each other? There is certainly an effect of climates on the peoples. For example the Europeans
are white and the Africans black. It is due to the melanin which is responsible for the skin color. But
our society is divided into several parts like Hindu, Muslim, Christians, Buddhist etc and etc. It is the
defeat of all human beings who never accept such classifications at the same time who never think
themselves out of their classes, their religions. But every scientific truth takes some times to be
established in our hesitant minds. We have taken already a long time to accept that our blue planet is
round!

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