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Finals'
March'3,'2014'–'absent'ko'ani'so'hinay2'lang'sa'ta.'
Rule'40'
APPEAL'FROM'MTC'TO'RTC'
A.'Where'to'appeal:'

Appeal'to'the'RTC'which'exercises'TERRITORIAL'JURISDICTION'
over'the'place'where'that'MTC'is'situated.''
EX1:' RTC' of' Cebu' –' it' exercises' jurisdiction' over' Cebu' City,' Talisay' City,'
Minglanilia,'Naga,'San'Fernando'up'to'Carcar.'
'
EX2:'RTC'of'Mandaue'–'jurisdiction'over'Mandaue,'Consolacion,'LiloEan'
'
EX3:' RTC' of' Danao' –' jurisdiction' over' Danao,' Compostela,' Carmen,'
Catmon,'Sugod'and'Camotes'Island.''
'
B.'When'to'Appeal:'

15'days'–'for'Notice'of'Appeal'

30'days'from'the'time'you'receive'the'decision'of'the'court'S'if'
records' on' appeal' is' required' –' special' proceedings' OR' it'
involves'multiple'appeal'
*Special' Proceedings' –' where' a' person' seeks' to' establish' a' status' or' a'
right.'
EX1:' Settlement' of' Estate' –' where' the' heirs' will' have' to' establish' their'
right'as'a'legitimate'child.''
EX2:'Adoption'
'
*Multiple'Appeal'–'where'a'portion'of'the'case'can'be'appealed'and'the'
remaining'potion'is'still'to'be'tried.''
'

48' hours' –' Habeas' Corpus' Cases' –' it' needs' to' be' resolved'
immediately'because'it'involves'liberty'of'a'person.'
'

Period' is' interrupted' by' motion' for' recon' or' new' trial' –'
explanation'later'–'nag'ambak2'si'sir,'dritso2'
'
C.'How'to'appeal'(MODES'OF'APPEAL)'

Notice' on' appeal' –' only' if' the' case' decided' by' the' MTC' is' an'
ordinary' civil' action' (collection' of' sum' of' money,' breach' of'
contract,'ownership'of'land,'recovery'of'personal'possession)'

Record'on'appeal'in'special'proceedings'and'multiple'appeal'
o
Actually'this'also'require'notice'on'appeal'–'file'the'
notice,'then'transmit'the'records.'''
'
*Why'is'there'a'difference'of'the'periods?'Because'in:''

In'Notice'to'Appeal'(15'days),'it'is'very'easy'for'lawyers'to'do'
that' –' 5S10mins' lang.' From' the' moment' you' receive' the'
decision,'you'can'file'directly'the'notice.'1'paragraph'lang,'just'
say'there:'“notice'is'hereby'given”'–'FILED'IN'THE'MTC'
o
State'that'you'received'the'decision'
o
State'the'date'when'you'have'received'the'decision'
o
State'the'date'when'you'filed'the'notice'
!
This'is'what'we'call'the'MATERIAL'DATA'
RULE'–'IMPORTANT'
MATERIAL' DATA' RULE' –' the' material' dates' that' you' must' state' in' your'
appeal'because'it'is'jurisdictional.'Without'those'dates,'the'appeal'shall'be'
denied.'–'IMPORTANT'
'

In'Records'of'Appeal'(30'days)'–'this'one'takes'time'–'you'must'
submit' a' SUMMARY' of' all' that' had' transpired' in' the' court' IN'
CRONOLOGICAL'ORDER'–'the'facts'and'order'of'the'court.'
o
All'the'pleadings'
o
All'resolutions'
o
All'motions'
o
All'their'dates'
o
Copy'of'all'the'answers'
o
All'must'be'CERTIFIED'BY'THE'COURT'–'TANAN!''

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'
IF' Notice' of' Appeal' S' the' 15' DAYS' –' NOT' EXTENDIBLE' –' kay' dali' ra' gali'
kaau,'mao'na!'
IF'Records'on'Appeal'–'30'DAYS'–'EXTENDIBLE'–'you'can'ask'for'another'
30'days'–'hassle'man,'takes'time,'do'I'have'to'explain?'"'E'IMPORTANT'
'
What'will'happen'if'there'is'filing'of'Motion'for'Reconsideration'or'New'
Trial?'

It'will'INTERRUPT'the'running'of'the'prescriptive'period''

If' it' will' be' denied' –' you' will' only' have' the' balance' of' the' 15'
days'
o
But'later'this'is'changed'by'the'Supreme'Court'in'the'
Case'of'Napes'–'will'be'discussed'in'Rule'41.''
'
D.'How'appeal'is'perfected:'(Rule'41,'sec'9)'

Deemed' perfected' from' the' moment' the' appellant' files' his'
notice'of'appeal'but'perfected'only'as'to'him.'
o
THUS,' IT' IS' NOT' YET' PERFECTED' TO' THE' OTHER'
PARTY'–'WHY?''
!
Because' that' other' party,' the' winner' of'
the' case,' can' also' appeal' the' decision' –'
he'is'not'yet'contented'of'the'decision'
EX:' Kaso' ta,' daug' ka.' But' then' you' appealed' because' you' feel' that' the'
court'is'also'wrong'in'its'decision.'You'are'not'contented'of'the''damages'
given.''
'
Q:'So'when'will'the'appeal'deemed'perfected'to'the'other'party'who'did'
not'appeal?'
A:' It' is' deemed' perfected' when' the' time' to' appeal' of' the' other' party'
EXPIRES.''

SIMPLIFY:'Ang'imo'Kuntra'ni'appeal'na'–'perfected'ONLY'as'to'
him'ra'na.''
o
On' your' part:' You' received' the' decision.' You' won'
the'case.'You'don’t'want'to'appeal'(daug'na'gd'ka!).'
However,'you'still'have'that'15Eday'period'to'appeal'
–'WHEN'THAT'15'DAYS'EXPIRE'–'APPEAL'IS'DEEMED'
PERFECTED'AS'TO'YOU.'
'
*So' the' appeal' is' deemed' perfected' AS' TO' BOTH' PARTIES' when' the'
APPELLANT' FILED' an' appeal' AND' when' the' period' to' appeal' of' the'
APPELLEE'EXPIRES'S'IMPORTANT'
'
Effect' of' the' Perfection' of' the' Appeal' –' the' court' loses' jurisdiction.'
Jurisdiction'transfers'to'the'Appellate'Court.'

BUT,' even' if' the' MTC' loses' its' jurisdiction,' the' court' of' origin'
still'retains'RECIDUAL'JURISDICTION'
*Residual' Jurisdiction' –' the' court' of' origin' can' still' entertain' motions' for'
the' preservation' of' the' protection' of' the' rights' of' either' party.' This'
includes:'

Motion'for'immediate'execution'

Grant'compromise'

Grant'Withdrawal''(if#you#know#what#I#mean#haha)'

An'all'other'motions'not'litigated'on'appeal'
'
When'will'the'Residual'Jurisdiction'Expires?'Until'the'records'of'that'case'
are'transmitted'to'the'RTC.'
'
E.'Payment'of'appellate'court'docket'fee'and'other'lawful'fees:'

IN'THE'OLD'RULES:'appeal'from'MTC'to'RTC,'you'pay'to'the'RTC''
o
Before' you' have' to' wait' for' the' RTC' to' send' you'
notice' so' that' you' will' pay.' E' abtan' kag' months' or'
even'years'in'waiting'

NOW:' pay' in' the' MTC' –' pay' it' in' the' court' of' origin' –' PAY'
WITHIN'THE'SAME'PERIOD'OF'THE'APPEAL'
'

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Q:' Can' you' file' notice' of' appeal' even' without' paying' the' docket' fee' AT'
THE'SAME'TIME?''
A:'YES.'For'as'long'as'you'pay'the'docket'fee'within'the'15'days'
'
“MANDATORY:'But'the'court'may'make'exception'on'justifiable'cause”'
Q:'What'happens'if'you'did'not'pay'the'docket'fee?''
A:' It' is' not' a' ground' of' dismissal.' Your' appeal' will' not' be' denied' simply'
because'you'did'not'pay'BECAUSE'IT'IS'NOT'ONE'OF'THE'JURISDICTIONAL'
REQUIREMENTS' OF' THE' PERFECTION' OF' THE' APPEAL' OF' THE' MTC'
DECISION.'

This'will'be'different'in'the'RTC'Decisions'to'the'CA'–'because'
one' of' its' grounds' of' the' denial' of' the' appeal' is' the' nonE
payment'of'docket'fee.'
'
SIMPLIFY:'S'IMPORTANT'

MTC'to'RTC'–'nonEpayment'of'docket'fee'–'APPEAL' WILL' NOT'
BE'DENIED'

RTC' to' CA' –' nonEpayment' of' docket' fee' –' APPEAL' SHALL' BE'
DENIED.'
'
F.'Duty'of'Clerk'of'Court'of'MTC:'

When'the'clerk'of'MTC'receives'the'record,'he'shall'forward'the'
records'of'the'case'to'RTC'within'15'days.''
o
If'clerk'of'RTC'–'30'days'to'forward'to'CA'
Q:'If'the'clerk'of'MTC'fails'to'transmit'the'record'within'15'days'to'RTC,'
does'the'Judge'of'the'MTC'still'have'residual'power'over'the'case?''
A:' YES.' The'provision'in'the'rules'of'court'is'clear'that'the'court'of'origin'
shall'retain'residual'jurisdiction'until'the'records'are'transmitted.''
'
*As'long'as'records'are'not'transmitted,'the'court'of'origin'can'exercise'
residual'jurisdiction.''
'
G.'Duty'of'Clerk'of'Court'of'RTC:'

Once'appeal'is'perfected,'clerk' of' RTC' will' sent' notices' to' the'
appellant' and' the' appellee' –' that' the' records' are' now' in' the'
RTC'

Parties' will' now' be' required' to' submit' their' Memorandum' on'
Appeal.'
'
H.'When'to'file'Appellant’s'Memorandum'

Within'15'days'upon'the'notice'of'the'RTC''

Here,'the'appellant'will'mention'what'are'the'errors'committed'
by'the'MTC,'which'needs'correction.''

It'shall'be'supported'with'articles'and'jurisprudence'

Before'he'will'file'it'to'the'RTC'–'HE'MUST'FURNISH'COPY'TO'
THE'APPELLEE'
o
The' court' will' not' entertain' your' memorandum' if'
there'is'no'proof'of'service'to'the'other'party'
o
So' IKAW' MISMO' ang' muhatag' sa' appellee' –' NOT'
THE'COURT.'
'
I.'When'to'file'Appellee’s'Memorandum'

Within' 15' days,' upon' receiving' the' memorandum' of' the'
appellant.''
'
Q:'Is'the'memorandum'MANDATORY?'
A:'Mandatory'only'as'to'the'APPELLANT.'Not'on'appellee.''

So'if'Appellant'did'not'file'–'DISMISS'E'mandatory'

When'he'furnished'copy'to'the'appellee'and'latter'did'not'file'–'
COURT' CAN' STILL' DECIDE' THE' CASE' WITHOUT' APPELLEE’S'
MEMORANDUM.'–'not'mandatory.''
o
But'it’s'better'if'you'will'file.'It'is'your'job'to'defend'
the' decision' of' the' MTC,' that' it' is' correct' in' its'
decision.''
'
'

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J.'When'is'the'case'deemed'submitted'for'decision?'

When'the'appellee'files'his'memorandum'

OR'when'the'appellee'DID'NOT'file'his'memorandum'
'
Q:'How'will'RTC'decide'the'appeal'from'decision'of'the'MTC'dismissing'a'
case'on'the'ground'of'lack'of'jurisdiction'where'there'is'no'presentation'
of'evidence?'
K.'Appeal'from'order'of'the'MTC'dismissing'the'case'without'trial'for'lack'
of'jurisdiction:'

Here' the' RTC' will' determine' whether' MTC' is' correct' or' not'
correct'in'dismissing'the'case.''
o
If' the' RTC' finds' that' MTC' is' CORRECT' in' dismissing'
the' case' (that' MTC' don’t' have' jurisdiction)' –' RTC'
will'ASSUME'JURISDICTION.'
EX:' You'file'collection'of'money'of'1M'in'the'MTC'–'obviously'the'correct'
jurisdiction'is'with'RTC.'MTC'will'dismiss'the'case'because'it'does'not'have'
jurisdiction.''
'
If'the'RTC'find'that'MTC'really'does'not'have'jurisdiction,'they'
will' say' that' the' MTC' is' correct' in' dismissing' the' case.' Thus,' they' will'
assume'the'jurisdiction'and'decide'the'case.''
'
o
If' the' RTC' finds' that' MTC' is' WRONG' in' dismissing'
the' case' (that' it' does' have' jurisdiction' –' it' should'
not'have'dismissed'it)'–'RTC'will'remand'the'records'
of'the'case.'
'
*Now' what' if' the' RTC' has' no' jurisdiction?' –' WHEN' THE' JURISDICTION'
BELONGS'TO'A'QUASISJUDICIAL'BODY'–'there'is'no'trial'of'the'merits'of'
the'case.'
EX:'Agrarian'Land'Dispute'filed'in'MTC.'MTC'dismissed'the'case'because'of'
lack'of'jurisdiction.'Appealed'to'the'RTC.'RTC'said'that'the'MTC'is'correct'in'
dismissing'because'the'jurisdiction'belongs'to'DARAB.''
'
RTC'will'have'to'dismiss'the'appeal.'WHY?'

It' cannot' remand' the' case' to' the' MTC' because' MTC' does' not'
have'jurisdiction'

And' SAMUT' NA' NGA' it' cannot' also' assume' jurisdiction'
because'RTC'also'does'not'have'jurisdiction'–'it'belongs'to'the'
DARAB.'

SO' NO' OTHER' CHOICE' BUT' TO' DISMISS' THE' CASE.' S'
IMPORTANT'
'
L.'Applicability'of'Rule'41'
'
Rule'41'
APPEAL'FROM'RTC'TO'CA'
'
Decisions' of' the' RTC' in' the' exercise' of' its' original' jurisdiction'
are'appealable'to'the'court'of'appeals.'
'
Original'Jurisdiction'–'case'filed'ORIGINALLY'in'the'RTC.''
'
Rule'41'vs'Rule'42'

Rule' 41' –' Appeal' from' RTC' decision' done' in' its' original'
jurisdiction'
o
Rule' 42' –' appeal' from' RTC' decision' done' in' its'
appellate'jurisdiction.'
'
A.'What'kind'of'decision'of'the'RTC'appealable'to'CA'

Refers' only' to' ALL' judgment' or' final' orders' that' completely'
disposes'the'case.''
*FINAL'JUDGMENT'–'judgment'of'the'court'that'completely'disposes'the'
case.'Nothing'left'to'be'done'by'the'court.''
'
E'if'there'is'still'something'to'be'done'by'the'court,'it'is'just'an'
interlocutory' order' –' NOT' APPEALABLE' (certiorari' only' under' Rule' 65.)' E'
IMPORTANT'
'
'

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B.'Kind'of'Final'Judgment'

One' that' disposes' a' case' –' here,'there'is'no'more'merit'to'be'
discussed' by' the' court' –' this' is' the' kind' that' is' FINAL' S'
APPEALABLE'

One'that'is'subject'to'execution'–'when'the'court'decides,'15E
day'period'lapses'–'the'decision'shall'be'executed'by'the'sheriff'
–'this'is'the'kind'that'is'FINAL'AND'EXECUTORY'–'YOU'CANNOT'
APPEAL'
nd
*”some'authors'said'that'it'is'the'2 'kind'but'for'me'S'it'is'the'first'kind'
that'we'are'talking'about'here.”'–'simply'put'nga'EXECUTORY'na'gd,'lapse'
na'ang'15'days'to'appeal'–'so'execute'na'dayun,'di'na'ka.appeal.'
'
Orders'of'the'Court'which'are'NOT'APPEALABLE:'

1.'Order'denying'Motion'for'New'Trial'or'Reconsideration''
o
REMEDY:' Appeal'from'the'Judgment' itself' –' IN' THE'
MAIN' CASE.' Not' the' order' denying' the' motion.' –'
IMPORTANT'

2.' Order' denying' Petition' from' Relief' from' Judgment' –' this'is'
the'remedy'from'a'decision'which'is'Final'and'Executory'(file'60'
days' from' knowledge' of' the' judgment,' but' not' later' than'
6months).''

3.'Interlocutory'Order'

4.'Order'disallowing'an'appeal'
o
REMEDY:' Mandamus' –' compel' the' court' to' accept'
the'appeal.'

5.' Order' denying' to' set' aside' judgment' by' consent' or' upon'
compromise'
o
This' judgment' is' immediately' executory' –' NOT'
APPEALABLE.'
o
WHY?' Because' it' is' the' product' of' the' mutual'
agreement' of' the' parties' –' (SABOT2( MO( NYA( DI(
NMU(TUMANON,(WORD(OF(HONOR(ASH4WHOLE!)'
*But' if' you' find' out' that' the' other' party' applied' fraud' that'
made' you' sign' the' compromise' agreement,' what' is' your'
REMEDY?' FILE' SEPARATE' ACTION' TO' SET' ASIDE' THE'
JUDGMENT'–'IMPORTANT'

6.' Order' of' Execution' –' execution' na' gd,' unsa' pay' e.appeal'
nmu?'Period'of'appeal'has'already'expired.''
o
REMEDY:'Petition'for'Relief'from'Judgment'

7.'Partial'Judgment'–'remaining'case'is'still'pending'unless'the'
court'provide'otherwise'
2'Kinds'of'Partial'Judgment:'
S' EX1:' Several' Judgment' –' more' than' 2' parties' to' a' case.' 1' Plaintiff,' 2'
defendants.'Suppose'the'court'will'decide'the'case'so'far'as'the'defendant'
1' is' concern' because' he' is' finish' in' presenting' evident.' Then' defendant' 2'
dayon.'
E' EX2:' Separate' Judgment' –' 1' plaintiff,' 1' defendant.' But' there' are' many'
claims' by' the' plaintiff.' Now' 1' claim' can' readily' be' decided' by' the' court'
because'all'the'evidences'are'already'in,'then'the'court'can'decide'on'that'
1'claim'alone.'''
*In'these'cases'–'GR:'THE'JUDGMENT'IS'NOT'YET'APPEALABLE'
EXCEPT:' When' the' court' says' otherwise' –' court' allows' you' to' file' an'
appeal'on'that'separate'judgment'or'several'judgment.' –'IMPORTANT'–'
so'ask'the'court'first'before'you'appeal.'
'

8.'Order'dismissing'an'action'WITHOUT'PREJUDICE'
*2'Kinds'of'Dismissal'of'the'Case:'
SDismissal'WITHOUT'Prejudice'–'the'plaintiff'can'reEfile'the'case'
E'Here,'you'don’t'have'to'appeal.'Your'remedy'is'to'RESFILE'THE'
CASE'S'IMPORTANT'
SDismissal'WITH'Prejudice'–'that’s'the'end,'you'cannot'reEfile'the'case'–'so'
if'you'are'the'plaintiff,'that’s'the'end'of'the'world'for'you.''
'
E'Here,'your'only'remedy'is'to'go'up'–'go'for'an'appeal''
'

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*What' are' these' dismissal' with' prejudice' –' “Let’s' go' back' to' Rule' 16' –'
MOTION'TO'DISMISS'–'under'motion'to'dismiss,'there'are'10'grounds.”'–'
some'of'these'grounds'are'WITH'prejudice'

Res'Judicata'

Abandonment'of'the'case'

Statute'of'Fraud'
S' so' if' the' court' dismiss' your' case' by' reason' of' these' 3,' your' dismissal' is'
WITH'PREJUDICE'
S'NOW'WHAT'WILL'HAPPEN'IF'THE'CASE'WILL'DISMISS'THESE'
CASES'BUT'WITHOUT'PREJUDICE?'–'The'court'is'wrong,'YOUR'
REMEDY'IS'CERTIORARI'S'IMPORTANT'
'
'
C.'Modes'of'Appeal'–'appeals'here'is'the'same'with'the'Appeal'from'MTC'
to'RTC'

Ordinary'Appeal'under'Rule'41'
o
As' discussed' in' Rule' 40,' it' only' take' 5E10mins' to'
accomplish'this'
o
By'Record'of'Appeal'also'–'discussed'already'in'rule'
40'

Petition'for'Review'under'Rule'42'–'appeal'from'the'Decision'of'
the'RTC'in'the'Exercise'of'its'Appellate'Jurisdiction'
o
So'the'case'actually'started'in'MTC'and'appeal'to'the'
RTC'–'when'the'latter'decides'the'case'and'you'are'
not' contented' –' you' can' appeal' to' the' CA' by'
Petition'for'Review'–'not'by'ordinary'appeal'

Appeal' by' Certiorari' under' Rule' 45' –' appeal' directly' to' the'
Supreme'Court;'you'don’t'have'to'go'to'CA'
o
This' is' only' allowed' if' you' will' appeal' on' pure'
questions'of'law'
o
If'there'is'question'of'facts/'mixture'of'facts'and'law,'
you'will'have'to'pass'CA'
'
*In' Criminal' Procedure,' there' is' a' mode' of' appeal' which' can' be' taken'
directly'be'the'SC'–'AUTOMATIC'REVIEW'

Applies'only'when'the'decision'of'criminal'case'involves'Death'
Penalty'

This' is' AUTOMATIC,' so' even' if' the' accused' does' not' want' to'
appeal'–'bahalag'ganahan'pa'sya'm.sit'in'the'electric'chair'–'SC'
shall'take'his'case.''
'
*Back' to' Civil' Procedures,' the' case' shall' be' elevated' directly' to' the' SC'
when'the'case'involves'PURE'QUESTION'OF'LAW.''

The' decision' appeal' here' is' done' in' the' RTC’s' Original'
Jurisdiction'
So'what'happens'if'the'case'is'decided'in'the'RTC’s'Appellate'Jurisdiction?'
'
MTC' decided' the' case.' You' appealed' to' the' RTC.' You' want' to'
appeal' the' decision' of' the' RTC' –' on' pure' questions' of' law.' –' WE' APPLY'
HERE'RULE'42.'
'
You'cannot'go'directly'to'the'SC,'you'must'go'to'the'CA.'We'will'
discuss'this'later'in'Rule'42.''
'
D.'Period'of'Appeal'

Ordinary'appeal'–'15'days'

Records'on'Appeal'E'30'days'

Habeas'Corpus'–'48'hours'
'
E.'Interruption'of'period'to'appeal'by'motion'for'new'trial'or'motion'for'
reconsideration.''

The'filing'of'motion'for'new'trial'or'motion'for'reconsideration'
interrupts'the'running'of'the'period.'
'
No' motion' for' extension' of' time' to' file' motion' for' new' trial' or'
reconsideration.'(See:'Neypes'vs'CA'Sept.'14,'2005)'

The'appellant'should'be'given'a'fresh'period'to'appeal.''
'

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*”If'you'read'Rule'40'and'Rule'41,'the'rule'used'the'word'INTERRUPTS'–'so'
meaning'if'your'motion'to'recon'or'new'trial'is'denied,'it'will'continue'to'
run.'This'has'been'the'interpretation'of'many'Remedial'Lawyers.”'

But'later'on'in'the'case'of'Napes,'the'SC'held'that,'“NO,'IT'NOT'
ONLY' INTERRUPTS,' YOU' SHOULD' BE' GIVEN' ANOTHER' 15'
DAYS.”'

The'court'in'this'case'even'discussed'Rule'42'and'Rul3'43'–'that'
once' you' file' motion' for' recon' or' new' trial' E' it' not' only' stops'
and'interrupts'–'IT'ALSO'GIVES'YOU'FRESH'PERIOD.'

WHY?'Because'if'you'read'Rule'42'and'Rule'43'–'“you'have'15'
days' to' file' an' appeal' from' the' judgment' or' NOTICE' OF' AN'
ORDER'DENYING'YOU'MOTION'FOR'RECONSIDERATION.”'
o
So'the'rule'is'clear'that'you'will'have'15'days'again.'
o
So'the'SC'said,'“if'we'have'that'rule'in'Rule'42'and'
Rule'43,'WHY'DON’T'WE'ALLOW'THAT'TO'RULE'41?'
The' rules' on' appeal' (MTC' to' RTC' and' RTC' to' CA)'
must'be'applied'in'UNIFORMITY”'–'IMPORTANT'
!
So' the' court' disobeyed' the' rules' they'
specifically' made.' (WHY?' Because' THIS…'
IS…'SUPREME'COURT!)'
'
PRINCIPLE:'
GR:'WHEN'YOUR'MOTION'TO'RECON'OR'NEW'TRIAL'IS'DENIED,'YOU'WILL'
HAVE'ANOTHER'FRESH'PERIOD'OF'15'DAYS'TO'FILE'AN'APPEAL'

In'conformity'of'Rule'42'and'Rule'43.'
'
F.'When'and'Where'to'pay'appellate'court'a'docket'pay'and'other'lawful'
fees:'S'the'same'as'Rule'41'

Pay'the'docket'fee'in'the'RTC'

Failed'to'Pay:'DISMISSAL'
o
REMEMBER:' In' rule' 40,' nonEpayment' is' not' a'
ground.'But'in'here,'NONSPAYMENT'IS'DISMISSAL.''
'
G.'Notice'of'Appeal'Contents'–'remember'the'Material'Data'Rule'
'
H.'Record'on'Appeal:'

Summary'of'the'entire'proceedings'where'you'reproduce'all'the'
pleadings,'motions,'order'of'the'court'in'connection'of'the'
case.''
*Why'are'you'required'to'file'records'on'appeal'in'Special'Proceedings'
and'Multiple'Appeal?'Because'in'these'cases,'the'records'will'still'remain'
with'the'RTC'–'this'only'means'that'the'case'is'not'yet'over'in'the'lower'
court.'
EX1:'Expropriation'Cases.'You'property'is'expropriated.'Here'there'are'2'
stages'–'first'is'to'determine'if'the'property'can'be'expropriated'and'
second'is'determination'of'just'compensation.''
'
Now'when'the'lower'court'determines'that'the'property'can'be'
expropriated'–'you'disagree'and'you'appealed'–'CAN'YOU'DO'THAT?'YES!'
nd
–'but'the'case'is'not'yet'over.'There'is'still'that'2 'part'–'so'probably'RTC'
will'not'transmit'the'record'to'CA'because'wa'pa'gd'nahuman.'
'
st
nd
EX2:'Partition'–'1 'is'the'determination'of'the'owner.'2 'is'the'actual'
partition.'So'after'the'decision'of'the'court'of'who'are'the'owners,'you'
want'to'appeal.'But'he'case'is'not'yet'over.''
'
*And'because'those'records'are'kept'by'the'RTC'–'THAT'IS'WHY'YOU'
MUST'MAKE'YOUR'OWN'RECORD'TO'BE'PASSED'TO'THE'CA.''

These'records'must'be'certified'by'the'RTC.''
o
So'it'is'SUBJECT'TO'THE'APPROVAL'OF'THE'COURT.'

When'you'submit'it'to'the'CA,'it'must'be'certified'again'by'the'
CA'
o
Because'your'records'might'not'be'complete'
!
The'other'party'can'comment/'object'that'
there'are'important'records'omitted'–'so'
the'CA'can'order'you'to'AMEND'THE'
RECORDS.''

4! !

!

!!!!!

!

*If'it'is'by'Records'of'Appeal'–'IT'IS'THE'APPROVAL'OF'THE'APPEAL'BY'
THE'CA'THAT'PERFECTS'THE'APPEAL.'Not'the'filing'of'the'records.'
'
I.'Approval'of'the'Records'on'Appeal:'

If'no'objection,'within'5'days'

Order'amendment'to'be'complied'within'10'days'
'
J.'Joint'records'on'appeal:'

The'court'may'extend'the'period'to'file'records'on'appeal.'
'
March'8,'2014'
“We'will'discuss'Rule'42'and'rule'43'in'one'setting'so'that'you'will'easily'
determine'the'difference'of'2'modes'of'appeal.”'
So'this'time,'bahalag'mag'balik2'ang'slides'ug'discussions.'I’ll'try'
to'go'with'the'flow.''
'
Rule'42'
PETITION'FOR'REVIEW'FROM'RTC'TO'CA'
'
This'refers'to'the'petition'for'review'to'the'CA'from'the'decision'
of'RTC'in'the'exercise'of'its'IN'ITS'APPELLATE'JURISDICTION.''
'
RECALL:'

If'in'Original'Jurisdiction'–'Rule'41'
'
A.'How'appeal'taken:'

By'verified'petition;'

Paying' at' the' same' time' the' docket' fees' and' other' lawful' fees'
with'the'CA;'

Deposit'P500'for'cost;'

Furnish'the'RTC'and'adverse'party'a'copy'of'the'petition.'
'
B.'When'to'file:'

Within'15'days'from'notice'of'decision'OR'denial'of'motion'for'
reconsideration'or'new'trial;'
o
Basis'of'the'fresh'15'days'–'(you#know#the#reason#for#
this#already#in#NEPES#CASE)'
o
File'it'DIRECTLY'TO'THE'CA'

The'CA'may'grant'extension'of'time'to'file'petition'for'15'days'
ONLY'after'complying'with'the'prior'conditions'of'payment'of'
docket'fees'and'cost'of'P500.'
o
Can'it'be'EXTENDED?'YES.'
!
You' must' first' comply' with' condition'
precedent'–'PAYMENT'OF'DOCKET'FEES'S'
IMPORTANT'

There'should'only'be'1'extension'allowed'

No'further'extension'except'for'most'compelling'reason.'
o
What' are' the' compelling' reasons?' IT’S' UP' TO' THE'
CA'
'
C.'Forms'and'Contents'of'Petition'for'Review:'

Petition'shall'be'in'7'legible'copies;'
o
Out'of'that'7'copies'–'you'must'specify'which'is'the'
ORIGINAL'
o
Why'7?'“I'do'not'know”'–'basin'ila'ning'baligya'

State' the' full' names' of' the' parties' without' impleading' the'
lower'court'judge'as'respondent;'
o
Why'not'to'implead'the'judge?'Because'you'can'only'
implead'the'judge'when'it'is'a'Petition'for'Certiorari'
–' his' grave' abuse' of' discretion' –' NOT' IN' PETITION'
FOR'REVIEW'

Indicate'specific'material'dates'
o
Material'Data'Rule'–'if'you'appeal,'you'must'specify'
the' material' dates' of' when' you' appeal,' when' the'
decision'was'made,'when'records'are'transferred.'–'
basta'tanan'dates,'butang'tanan!'

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Civil%Procedures%SY%201342014


!

!

Set'forth'concisely'a'statement'of'the'of'the'matters' involved,'
issues'raised,'specification'of'errors'of'facts'or'law'OR'both;'
Reasons' or' arguments' relied' upon' for' the' allowance' of' the'
appeal;'
Accompanied'by' clearly' legible' duplicate' original' or' true' copy'
of'the'judgment'or'final'orders'appealed;'
o
To'be'a'duplicate'original'copy'–'it'must'contain'the'
Stamp'of'the'Court'
Submit'a'certification'of'nonSforum'shopping.'
o
NonSforum' Shopping' –' certification' that' no' other'
case' pending' in' other' case' similar' to' the' present'
case.'

'
NB.' Appeal' here' may' be' on' question' of' fact,' question' of' law,' or' both'
facts'and'law.'
'
D.'Effects'of'failure'to'comply'with'requirements:'

DISMISSAL'
'
E.'Action'on'the'petition:'

Require'the'respondent'to'comment'within'10'days,'OR'

Dismiss'the'case'outright.'
o
If'unmeritorious''
'
F.'Ground'for'outright'dismissal:'

Petition'is'patently'without'merit;'

Prosecuted'manifestly'for'delay'

Questions' raised' therein' are' to' unsubstantial' to' warrant'
consideration'
'
G.'Comments'to'the'petitions'
*Respondent'must'wait'for'the'court'to'require'you'to'file'
*File'the'comment'within'10'days'
*The'comment'MUST'NOT'BE'A'MOTION'TO'DISMISS'–'just'comment'

Must'be'in'7'copies'

Statement' whether' he' accepts' the' statement' of' matters'
involve;'
o
Normally,' the' party' who' appealed' may' omit' those'
facts'not'favorable'to'him'
!
So' it' is' the' job' of' the' other' partyE
respondent' –' to' assert' what' are' the'
important'facts'that'must'be'included.''
!
If' tan.aw' nya' ok' ra,' then' he' may' accept'
the'statement.''

Point' out' insufficiencies' or' inaccuracies' in' the' statement' of'
matters'involved'

Statement' of' reasons' why' petition' should' not' be' given' due'
course.'
o
Here,' if' you' are' the' respondent' E' you' must' defend'
the' decision' of' the' lower' court' simply' because' the'
decision'is'RIGHT.'DAOG'NA'GD'KA!'
'
H.'Due'Course:'
'
If'the'Court'of'Appeals'find'prima'facie'that'the'lower'court'has'
committed' an' error' of' fact' or' law' that' will' warrant' a' reversal' or'
modification'of'its'decision,'then'it'will'give'due'course'to'the'petition.'

It' does' not' mean' that' if' your' petition' is' given' due' course,' the'
case'is'already'favorable'to'you.'

It'just'tells'you'to'continue'with'the'case'–'not'necessarily'you'
will'win'the'case.'
'
I.'Elevation'of'records:'
'
Whenever'the'Court'of'Appeals'deems'it'necessary'it'will'order'
elevation'of'records'within'15'days'from'notice.'
'
'

JKB!Rm!405!
!

!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

!

J.'When'appeal'is'deemed'perfected:'

From'the'moment'a'petition'for'review'is'file'

Upon'payment'of'docket'fees'

Upon'lapse'of'period'
'
K.'Effect'of'perfection:'

Trial'court'loses'jurisdiction'
o
EXCEPT:' Residual' Jurisdiction' –' The' RTC' also' they'
loses' jurisdiction,' they' can' still' entertain' motions'
that' matter' to' the' case' E' only' until' the' CA' GIVES'
DUE' COURSE' –' even' if' the' records' are' still' in' the'
RTC'–'RULE'42'
!
There' a' difference' to' rule' 41' here' –' in'
RULE' 41,' RTC' exercises' Residual'
Jurisdiction' only' until' the' records' are'
forwarded'to'CA.'S'IMPORTANT'

Appeal'stays'judgment'or'final'order'
o
EXCEPT:' Rule' on' Summary' Procedure' –' the' case' is'
immediately'executory'
!
Cases'involving'claim'less'than'10k'
!
Ejectment'Cases'

EXCEPTION'
TO'
THE'
EXCEPTION:' When' there' is' a'
TRO' issued' by' the' CA' S'
IMPORTANT'
'
J.'Submission'for'Decision:'
'
The' Court' may' set' case' for' oral' argument' or' ask' parties' to'
submit'memorandum.'

Normally'the'court'will'give'time'(own'discretion)'for'parties'to'
file'their'memorandum'

When'parties'submit'their'respective'memo,'court'will'decide,'
OR'

Even'if'parties'will'not'submit'and'the'given'time'expire,'court'
will'decide'with'/'without'the'memo.'
'
Rule'43'
APPEAL'FROM'CTA'AND'QUASI'JUDICIAL'AGENCIES'TO'THE'COURT'OF'
APPEALS'
'
Administrative' Bodies' are' giving' quasiEjudicial' power' because'
they' are' specialized' in' their' own' fields.' Because' of' these' specializations,'
any' issue' involving' that' specialty' should' be' resolved' first' by' the'
administrative'body.''
'
Doctrine'of'Primary'Jurisdiction'–'if'there'are'nonEjudicial'disputes,'under'
the'specialized'field'of'certain'administrative'body,'it'must'be'resolved'first'
in'that'administrative'body'before'going'to'the'courts'of'law.''
'
Mode'of'Appeal:'PETITION'FOR'REVIEW'under'Rule'43'

This' is' the' kind' of' appeal' from' a' decision' of' a' quasiEjudicial'
body.'
'
SCOPE:' This' Rule' applies' to' appeal' from' decision' of' the' following' quasiS
judicial' bodies,' in' the' exercise' of' its' quasiSjudicial' power' (IF'IT'IS'NOT'A'
MATTER'OF'ITS'FUNCTION,'YOU'DON’T'GO'TO'THE'CA):'

Civil'Service'Commission'

Central'Board'of'Assessment'Appeals'

Securities'and'Exchange'Commission'

Office'of'the'President'

Land'Registration'Authority'

Social'Security'Commission'

Civil'Aeronautics'Board'

Bureau'of'Patents,'Trademarks'and'Technology'Transfer'

National'Electrification'Administration'

Energy'Regulatory'Board'

National'Telecommunications'Commission'

5!

Civil%Procedures%SY%2013%42014!






Department'of'Agrarian'Reform'
Government'Service'Insurance'System'
Employees'Compensation'Commission'
Philippine'Atomic'Energy'Commission'
Board'of'Investment'
Construction'Industry'Arbitration'Commission'
Voluntary'Arbitrators'

!

'
EX:'Case'involving'disciplinary'action'against'an'employee'of'the'DAR.'The'
Secretary'decided'his'suspension.''

Would'you'appeal'that'decision'to'the'CA?'NO'
*Why?'Because'the'suspension'of'the'employee'in'CTA'is'not'decided'in'
the'official'function'of'DAR.''
*REMEDY:'Go'to'the'Civil'Service'Commission.''
'
PRINCIPLE:'For'Rule'43'to'apply,'the'decision'you'want'to'appeal'must'be'
a'decision'of'the'administrative'agency'in'the'exercise'of'its'function.'
'
NB:'Decisions'of'the'Court'of'Tax'Appeals'are'now'appealable'directly'to'
the'SC'pursuant'to'RA'9282'amending'RA'1125.'

Why?'Because'CTA'is'equal'in'rank'as'CA.'
o
It' decide' cases' from' BIR,' Bureau' of' Customs' (if' you'
are'taxed'excessively)''
'
B.'Cases'not'Covered:'

NLRC'and'DOLE'decisions'are'not'covered,'but'this'has'already'
been'abandoned'in'the'case'of'St.'Martin'Funeral'Homes.'
o
SC'SAID'THAT'NLRC'AND'DOLE'DECISIONS'MUST'BE'
APPEALED'TO'THE'CA'
!
BUT' NOT' UNDER' RULE' 43' –' FILE' UNDER'
RULE' 65' –' PETITION' FOR' CERTIORARI' S'
IMPORTANT'

Appeals'from'Ombudsman'decision'is'appealable' to' the' Court'
of'Appeals,'not'to'SC.'(Fabian'vs'Desierto).'–'wa'nananghid'ang'
Congress'in'making'this'law.'It'puts'additional'burnden'to'SC.'

RTC' decision' acting' as' a' corporate' court' is' appealable' to' the'
CA'under'Rule'43'and'not'under'Rule'41.'(RA'8799'&'AM)'
o
Here' the' RTC' is' treated' like' a' quasiEJudicial' Body' in'
deciding'IntraEcorporate'Dispute.''
'
C.'Where'to'Appeal:'CA'even'on'pure'questions'of'law'

The' only' way' that' you' will' go' directly' to' the' SC' is' when' you'
appeal' the' decision' of' the' RTC' in' the' exercise' of' its' original'
jurisdiction.''
'
D.'Period'to'Appeal:'

15'days'from'receipt'of'judgment'or'order'denying'motion'for'
reconsideration'or'new'trial'

Only'one'motion'for'reconsideration'is'allowed'

Motion' for' extension' of' time' to' file' petition' can' be' granted'
only'for'15'days''
o
Only'after'payment'of'required'fees.'
'
*Here'you'will'see'that'pariha'ra'jd'kaau'sla'sa'Rule'42'
E.'How'appeal'taken'

Verified'petition'in'7'copies'

Proof'of'service'to'adverse'party'and'the'court'or'agency'a'quo'

Payment'of'docket'fee,'etc.'
'
F.'Contents'of'petition:'

Full'name'of'parties'

Concise'statement'of'the'facts,'etc'

Copy'of'the'original'judgment'

Certification'of'non'forum'shopping'
'

6! !

!

!!!!!

!

G.'Effect'of'Failure'to'comply'with'Requirement'

Dismissal'
'
H.'Action'on'petition:'

DISMISSAL'
'
I.'Content'of'Comments:'(7'copies)'

Point'out'inaccuracies'in'petition’'

State'reason'why'petition'be'denied'

Must'be'filed'within'10'days'
'
J.'Due'Course'

Finding' of' fact' of' the' court' or' agency' concerned,' when'
supported'by'substantial'evidence,'shall'be'binding'on'the'CA'
'
K.'Submittal'of'records:'

When'CA'orders'the'record'to'be'submitted,'you'submit.''
'
L.'Effect'of'Appeal:'S'here'the'DIFFERENCE'of'Rule'42'and'Rule'43'

It'will'NOT'STAY'the'award,'judgment'or'final'order'sought'to'
be'reviewed'unless'the'Court'of'Appeals'provides'otherwise.'
o
EXCEPT:'There'is'a'TRO'or'Injunction'issued'by'CA'
'
*So'if'you'want'to'appeal'under'rule'43'–'ALWAYS'ASK'FOR'A'TRO.'
'
M.'Submission'for'decision:'

After'the'oral'argument'–'if'required'by'the'court'

And'after'the'submission'of'memorandum''E'if'required'
*After'those'2,'the'case'is'deemed'submitted'for'decision.''
'
March'11,'2014'
PROCEDURE'IN'THE'COURT'OF'APPEALS'
Rule'44'
ORDINARY'APPEALED'CASES'
'
We'are'referring'here'those'decisions'decided'by'the'RTC'in'its'
original'jurisdiction.'So'you'must'have'to'CONNECT'THIS'WITH'RULE'41.''
'
2' Kinds' of' appeal' from' the' decision' of' the' RTC' in' the' exercise' of' its'
original'jurisdiction:'

Appeal'by'Mere'Notice'of'Appeal'

Appeal'by'Notice'of'Appeal'+'Records'on'Appeal'
'
How'will'you'appeal?'

In'ordinary'civil'actions'(collection'of'sum'of'money,'breach'of'
contract,'etc.)'–'if'you'want'to'appeal'the'decision'of'the'RTC'to'
CA'–'NOTICE'OF'APPEAL'

In' Special' Proceedings' Case' or' if' Involve' Multiple' Appeal' –'
APPEAL'BY'RECORDS'OF'APPEAL'
'
A.'Title'of'cases:'
'
When'you'appeal,'you'do'not'change'the'title'of'the'case.'You'
will'just'ADD'–'Appellant'and'Appellee.''
'
Original'Title'of'the'Case:'
Republic'of'the'Philippines'
RTC'
Branch'No.''
Cebu'City'
'
Juan'De'la'Cruz'
'
'
'
Civil'Case'No.''
'''Plaintiff' '
'
'
'
Case:'Damages'
''''''''VS'
Pedro'Reyes'
'''Defendant''
X''S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'/!
'

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!JKB!Rm!405!

Civil%Procedures%SY%201342014

!

!

When'you'appeal,'it'changes'INTO:'
'
Republic'of'the'Philippines'
Court'of'Appeals'
Branch'No.''
Cebu'City'
'
Juan'De'la'Cruz'
'
'
CA'–'CV'(Central'Visayas).'No.''
'''Plaintiff'S'Appellee' '
'
Case:'Damages'
''''''''VS'
Pedro'Reyes'
'''Defendant'–'Appellant'
X''S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'S'/'
'
*If'you'want'to'change'your'Lawyer'–'you'must'Send'Notice'

If'no'notice,'the'CA'will'deem'that'you'have'the'same'lawyer.'

The'court'will'send'notices'to'these'lawyers.'
'
*When'is'the'appeal'deemed'perfected?'Let’s'go'back'to'rule'41'

As'to'Appellant'–'the'moment'they'file'Notice'of'Appeal'

As'to'Appellee'–'the'moment'the'period'to'appeal'expires'and'
no'appeal'is'made'by'him.'
'
Effect:'Lower'court'loses'jurisdiction'BUT'retains'RESIDUAL'JURISDICTION.''

Until'when?'When'the'records'of'the'case'are'forwarded.''
o
The'Clerk'of'Court'must'send'the'record.'It'must'be'
made'within'30'days.'
'
*What'happens'if'the'Clerk'of'Court'fails'to'transmit'the'record?'Does'the'
RTC' lose' Residual' Jurisdiction?' NO.' It' is' clear' that' records' must' be'
forwarded'before'it'loses'its'jurisdiction.'

This'only'means'that'the'30'days'is'NOT'MANDATORY.''

The'rules'recognizes'the'fact'that'there'could'be'lawful' delays'
(typhoon,'earthquakes,'fortuitous'events,'etc.)'
'
*So'if'the'records'are'not'yet'forwarded,'what'is'your'remedy?'
C.'Order'of'transmittal'of'record:'
'
That'if'the'records'will'not'be'forwarded,'you'can'ask' the' RTC'
(court'of'origin)'to'complete'the'record'and'to'forward'the'records'of'the'
case'to'the'CA.'

Imo' apurahon' ang' clerk,' HOI' NILAPAS' NA' ANG' 30' DAYS!'
E.FORWARD'NANA!'
'
What'happens'next'when'the'records'are'forwarded?'
D.'Docketing'of'cases:'S'court'will'assign'docket'number.'
'
Upon'receipt'of'the'original'records.'Clerk'of'Court'of'CA' must'
notify'the'parties.'Approved'records'on'appeal'to'be'filed'within'10days.'

Notice'must'be'send'to'the'parties'especially'to'the'appellant'–'
that'the'records'is'now'in'the'appellate'court.'

It'is'important'to'send'notice'to'the'appellant'because'he'will'
have'to'submit'an'Appellant’s'Brief'WITHIN'45'DAYS.'
'
REMEMBER:''

Notice'of'Appeal'is'just'easy.''
o
Not'Extendible.''
o
Your' arguments,' contentions' why' the' lower' court'
committed'error'–'You'reserve'that'when'the'court'
REQUIRES'YOU'TO'FILE'YOUR'APPELLANT’S'BRIEF''
!
Filed' within' 45' days' from' the' time' the'
court' informed' you' that' the' records' are'
already'with'them.'

In' here,' you' can' file' motion'
for'EXTENSION'–'IMPORTANT'

The' extension' is' not' only' for'
another' 45' days,' but' even' for'
90'days'–'total'of'135'days.'

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!

!

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!

'

Records' of' Appeal' –' required' only' in' Special' Proceedings' or'
Multiple'appeal'
o
File'first'notice'of'appeal'
o
Submit' Records' of' Appeal' –' 30' days' from' the' time'
you' receive' the' decision' of' the' case' you' are'
appealing.''
o
When' you' file' motion' for' reconsideration' or' new'
trial'–'later'on'denied'–'30'day'will'start'to'run'again'
from'RECEIPT'OF'THE'ORDER'OF'THE'RTC'DENYING'
THE'MOTION'FOR'RECON/'NEW'TRIAL'
o
Here,' you' must' present' summary' of' the' facts' in'
chronological'order.'–'Discussed'already'

'
'
IMPORTANT' –' NOW,' after'you'have'filed'the'summary,'you'must' have' it'
APPROVED'by'the'RTC'first.''

*BUT' WHEN' WILL' IT' BE' FORWARDED' TO' CA?' IS' IT'
AUTOMATIC?'NO!'–'you'must'wait'for'the'CA'to'require'you'to'
file'the'records'of'appeal.''
How' will' the' CA' know' you' will' appeal?' Remember,' before' you' forward'
the' record,' you' must' file' notice' of' appeal' first' in' the' RTC.' The' RTC' will'
forward'that'notice'to'CA.'This'is'the'reason'why'you'must'wait'until'the'
CA'will'order'you'to'file'the'APPROVED'records.''

You'have'to'do'this'within'10'days.'
'
NB:'NORMALLY,'the'RTC'forwards'the'notice'of'appeal'to'the'CA'AFTER'it'
has'approves'the'records'of'appeal'
'
E.' Completion' of' records' and' dispensing' with' complete' records' of' the'
case:'S'the'clerk'of'court'of'the'CA'will'examine'

If' he' founds' that' the' record' is' incomplete,' he' will' notify' the'
clerk'in'RTC'
o
Usually,'ang'perme'mahabilin'ARE'THE'TRANSCRIPT!'
NAAY' UBAN' STENOGRAPHERS' NGA' LIGOY' KAAU' –'
DUGAY'KAAU'MAHUMAN!'S'IMPORTANT'
'
*HOWEVER,' there' are' instances' in' which' the' records' cannot' be'
completed:'

EX:' The' Stenographer' died' –' unsaon' man' na' nmu?' Imo'
pukawon?' Stenographic' notes' here' is' hand' written,' the'
stenographer' only' knows' how' to' translate' his' own' writing.' So'
sya'ra'jd'ang'maka'sabot'ana.''
*So'if'the'records'cannot'be'had,'the'court'will'ask'the'parties'if'they'may'
agree' on' the' records.' –' They' will' just' stipulate' what' will' be' omitted' or'
included.'E'IMPORTANT'
*So'when'the'records'are'COMPLETE,'this'is'the'time'the'CA'will'require'
the'appellant'to'submit'his'brief.'

“That’s'why'lawyers'usually'do'things'in'brief.”'(brief#ra#ha.#So#if#
you’re# a# woman# –# do# it# in# brief…# or# no# brief# at# all…# aw#
huehuehue)'
'
F.'Appellant’s'brief,'when'to'file:'

Filed'within'45'days.''

2'copies'must'be'sent'to'other'party’s'lawyer'

1'to'your'client'

your'copy'

7'to'the'court'
*So' about' 11S12' copies' must' be' maid.' Out' of' all' those' 7' copies' filed' in'
Court'–'YOU'MUST'INDICATE'THE'ORIGINAL'COPY.'
WHY?' Because' the' CA' might' dismiss' your' appeal.' Remember' that' when'
you' file' the' appeal,' you' must' attach' the' Duplicate' Original' True' Copy' of'
the'Decision'of'the'RTC'or'if'not,'the'CERTIFIED'TRUE'COPY.''
'
In' case' there' is' already' a' decision,' the' original' copy' will' be'
retained'by'the'court.'The'duplicate'original'will'be'sent'to'the'parties.'
'

7!

Civil%Procedures%SY%2013%42014!

!

*If' you' loss' the' original,' then' you' can' ask' the' court' to' certify' another'
copy.'
'
*If'there'is'no'original'true'copy,'that'is'a'fatal'mistake'–'APPEAL'SHALL'
BE'DENIED.'
Q:'When'your'appeal'is'denied'because'you'failed'to'put'an'original'true'
copy,'IS'IT'AN'AUTOMATIC'DISMISSAL'OF'THE'CASE?'NOT'NECESSARILY.'
'
When' your' appeal' is' denied,' you' can' still' reSfile' it.' As' long' as'
the'period'to'appeal'is'not'yet'expired.'When'it'expires,'dismissal.'
'
G.'Appellee’s'brief,'when'to'file:'

Upon'receipt'of'the'Appellant’s'Brief,'appellee'also'has'45'days'
to'file'

This'is'just'optional'
*This' means' that' when' appellant’s' brief' is' mandatory,' it' is' ground' for'
dismissal'if'he'will'not'file.'If'the'appellee'does'not'file'his'brief,'it'will'not'
affect'the'appeal.''
'
H.'Appellant’s'reply'brief:'

The'answer'to'the'Appellee’s'brief'

This'is'just'optional''

Within'20'days'to'file.''
'
*In'Special'Civil'Actions,'briefs'are'not'required.'

This'is'in'the'cases'of'Certionrari,'Prohibition,'Mandamus,'Quo'
Warranto,'Habeas'Corpus'(Rule'65)'
'
*What'will'you'file'instead'of'Brief?'
I.' Memorandum' instead' of' Brief' for' certiorari,' prohibition' &' mandamus'
to'be'filed'in'30'DAYS.'

This'does'not'need'briefs.''

You' need' to' wait' for' the' CA' to' order' you' to' file' the'
Memorandum'
'
J.' Contents' of' Appellant’s' Brief:'S'this'is'like'making'a'thesis,'mura'ra'kag'
nag'himu'ug'libro.'

Subject'Index'
o
Table'of'Contents'
o
Site' all' the' laws,' jurisprudence,' resolutions,'
memorandum'of'the'court,'etc.'
o
Everything'you'used'in'your'paper,'include'that'here.'

Assignment'of'Errors'
o
the' things' you' think' is' wrong' in' the' lower' courts'
decision'

Statement'of'the'Case'
o
Usually' 1' paragraph,' just' state' briefly' what' is' the'
case'all'about.'

Statement'of'the'Facts'
o
This' is' where' you' tell' a' story,' detailed.' With' dates'
and'all.''

Statement'of'the'Issues'
o
What'are'the'issues'to'be'resolved'in'this'case?'

Arguments'
o
Present'the'arguments'per'assigned'errors'
st
st
!
So' 1 ' assigned' error' is' this,' my' 1 '
argument'is'this'
nd
nd
!
2 ' error' is' this,' my' 2 ' argument' is' this,'
and'so'on.'

Relief'
o
The'things'you'want.'
NB.' Copy' of' the' judgment' appealed' from' must' made' part' of' the'
appendix.'
E'in'the'appendix,'it’s'just'like'making'the'subject'index.'Must'be'detailed.''
'
K.'Contents'of'Appellee’s'Brief:'

Subject'Index'

8! !

!

!!!!!

!

CounterEStatement'of'Facts'
o
If' there' are' important' facts' you' want' to' add,' then'
add'it.'
o
If' the' appellee' agrees' statement' of' the' appellant,'
then' he' will' just' put' one' sentence' there,' “Appellee'
hereby' adopt' the' statement' of' facts' in' the'
appellants'brief.”'

Arguments'
o
To' answer' ever' arguments' of' the' appellant’s'
assigned'errors'
o
Remember,'the'job'of'the'appellant'is'to'destroy'the'
decision'of'the'lower'court.'
o
Your' job' as' the' appellee' –' defend' the' decision' of'
the' lower' court.' LABANAN' MO' AND' DECISION' NG'
RTC!'
*That’s'why'Appellee'who'has'not'appealed,'cannot'make'assignment'of'
errors'in'his'brief.'S'IMPORTANT'
'
The'Appellee'is'not'always'the'winning'party'
EX:'The'damages'awarded'is'not'enough.'Di'ka'ganahan'sa'gihatag,'so'you'
can' appeal.' So' when' you' appeal,' now' you' have' the' right' to' make' an'
assignment'of'error.'
'
PRINCIPLE:'Only'a'party'who'files'an'appeal'can'make'an'assignment'of'
error.'S'IMPORTANT'
'
L.'What'are'the'questions'that'may'be'raised'on'appeal:'

Any'question'of'law'or'fact'that'HAS'BEEN'RAISED'in'the'court'
below.'
'
*There'are'only'3'INSTANCES'where'the'CA'entertains'question'that'are'
NOT'RAISED'in'the'lower'court:'S'THESE'ARE'QUESTIONS'YOU'RAISED'FOR'
THE'FIRST'TIME'IN'THE'CA'

Questions'on'Jurisdiction'

Issues'on'error'that'are'clerical'or'typographical'

Issues'which'are'not'mentioned'in'the'assignment'of'errors'
o
These' issues' must' be' important' and' CLOSELY'
RELATED'TO'THE'ASSIGNED'ERROR.'
'
Rule'45'
APPEAL'BY'CERTIORARI'TO'THE'SUPREME'COURT'
This'is'the'only'mode'of'appeal'to'the'SC'ordinarily.''
'
A.'Scope:'

Decision' of' CA,' CTA,' Sandiganbayan,' &' RTC' on' pure' questions'
of'law'in'the'exercise'of'its'original'jurisdiction'

Only'questions'of'law'may'be'raised'

Distinguish'question'of'law'from'question'of'fact'
*Questions' of' Fact' –' requires' the' calibration' of' the' lower' court' which' is'
presented'by'both'parties'with'evidence'in'order'to'determine'which'one'
is'telling'the'truth.'
*Questions'of'Law'–'what'law'to'be'applied'and'appreciation'of'law'–'the'
interpretation'of'law.'–'IMPORTANT''

Whether' it' is' a' question' of' fact' or' law' is' to' be' determined' by'
the'appellate'court'
'
*The'factual'findings'of'the'CA'–'is'final'already'
'
GENERAL'RULE:'Only'question'of'law'may'be'raised'to'the'Supreme'Court'
EXCEPTIONS:'

When' conclusion' is' a' finding' grounded' freely' entirely' on'
speculations,'surmises'or'conjectures'
o
Because'it'has'no'sufficient'evidence.'

When' inference' made' is' manifestly' mistaken,' absurd' or'
impossible;'

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!

When'there'is' grave' abuse' of' discretion'in'the'appreciation'of'
facts;'

When'the'judgment'is'based'on'misapprehension'of'facts;'

When'the'findings'of'fact'of'the'Court'of'Appeals'are'conflicting'
with'RTC;'

When'the'Court'of'Appeals'went'beyond'the'issues'of'the'case'
and'the'same'is'contrary'to'the'admissions'of'both'parties;'

When'the'CA'manifestly'overlooked'certain'relevant'facts'not'
disputed' by' the' parties,' which' if' considered' would' justify' a'
different'conclusion’'

When' findings' of' fact' of' CA' are' contrary' to' the' trial' court’s'
findings.'
*SC' here' is' actually' defying' its' own' rules.' WHY' HAVE' THE' EXCEPTIONS?'
BECAUSE'WE'ARE'THE'SUPREME'COURT!'THAT’S'WHY!'Sukol'ka?'
'
Certiorari'in'Rule'45'VS'Certiorari'in'Rule'65'
Rule'45'
Rule'65'
1.'Question'of'Law'
1.'Grave'abuse'of'discretion'
2.' Mode' of' Appeal.' Review' 2.' Original' action' and' is' directed' on'
Judgment'on'the'Merit;'
interlocutory'order'
3.' Must' be' made' within'
3.' Must' be' filed' not' later' than' 60'
reglementary' period' to' Appeal'
days'from'notice'of'judgment'
(15'days)'
4.' Does' not' stay' judgment' unless'
4.'Appeal'stays'judgment,'award' TRO'is'issued'by'the'appellate'court'
or'order'appealed'from;'

So' ask' for' a' TRO' to' stay' E'
IMPORTANT'
5.'Aggrieved'party'against' the' lower'
court' or' quasiSjudicial' agency' and'
5.'Petitioner'and'respondent'are'
the'prevailing'party'
the' original' parties.' Lower' court'

Because' you' accused' the'
judge'not'to'be'impleaded'
court,' so' you' include' the'
court'
6.' Filing' of' a' motion' for'
reconsideration' is' CONDITION'
6.' Prior' filing' of' a' motion' for' PRECEDENT'
reconsideration'not'required'

To' give' the' judge'
opportunity' to' correct'
himself'
7.' Appellate' court' is' in' the' 7.'Higher' court' exercises' its' original'
exercise' of' its' appellate' jurisdiction'and'power'of'control'and'
jurisdiction'and'power'of'review' supervision'over'lower'court.'
'
Rule'45'–'about'an'appeal'
Rule'65'–'special'civil'action'
'
B.'Time'to'file'petition:'

Within'15'days'from'receipt'of'the'judgment'appealed'from'or'
from'denial'of'motion'for'recon'or'new'trial'

Motion'for'extension'may'be'granted'only'for'30'days'
'
C.'Payment'of'docket'fee'and'cost'

With'the'Supreme'Court'and'with'proof'of'service'to'the'other'
party'and'the'court'whose'decision'you'appealed.'
'
D.'Contents'of'the'Petition'

Full'name'of'the'parties'

Indicate'material'dates'

Set'forth'concisely'a'statement'of'the'matters'involved,'and'the'
arguments'in'support'of'the'petition'

Accompanied'by'original'or'CTC'of'the'judgment'

Certification'of'nonEforum'shopping'
'
*Rule'45'is'a'MATTER'OF'DISCRETION'
E.'Grounds'for'Dismissal:'

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!

!



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

!

Failure' to' comply' with' the' requirement' regarding' payment' of'
docket'and'other'lawful'fees,'and'deposit'for'cost'
Failure'to'show'proof'of'service'
Failure'to'observe'contents'of'petition'and'the'documents'that'
must'accompany'it'
o
Certification'of'nonEforum'shopping'

'
F.'Additional'Grounds'

Appeal'is'without'merit'

Prosecuted'manifestly'for'delay'

Question'is'too'unsubstantial'
'
G.'Review'is'discretionary'–'Reasons'for'the'Court'to'grant'the'petition'

When'the'court'a'quo'has'decided'a'question'of'substance,'not'
theretofore'determined'by'the'Supreme'Court,'or'has'decided'it'
in'a'way'not'in'accord'with'law'

When' the' court' a' quo' has' so' far' departed' from' the' accepted'
and'usual'course'of'judicial'proceedings'as'to'call'for'an'exercise'
of'the'power'of'supervision.'
'
H.'Pleadings'and'other'documents'or'papers'that'the'Supreme'Court'may'
require'–'SACTION:'

DISMISSAL'

Usually,'pleadings'and'documents'are'NOT' required'but' when'
there'are'things'that'needs'to'be'clarified,'SC'may'require'it'
o
If'the'SC'requires'it,'YOU'MUST'MAKE'THOSE'SHIT!''
'
I.'Due'Course'and'elevation'of'records:'S'skipped'
'
J.'Rule'45'is'applicable'to'both'civil'and'criminal'cases.'Except'in'criminal'
cases' where' the' penalty' imposed' is' death,' reclusion' perpetua' and' life'
imprisonment'
'
March'15,'2014'
Rule'46'
ORIGINAL'CASES'IN'THE'COURT'OF'APPEALS'
'
This' applies' to' cases' filed' originally' in' the' CA.' This' is' not' an'
appealed'case'–'this'is'filed'directly'to'the'CA.''
'
A.'Title'of'the'Case:'

Parties'are'called'Petitioners'and'Respondent'
'
B.'Original'actions:'
Under'Rule'65:'

Certiorari''

Prohibition'

Mandamus'

Quo'Warranto'
*Habeas' Corpus' –' governed' by' the' rules' on' special' civil' actions' already,'
not'here'
Under'Rule'47'

Annulment'of'the'judgment'of'the'RTC'
'
C.'Contents'of'the'Petition:'

Full'names'of'the'parties'

Statement'of'the'matters'involved'

Discuss'the'grounds'relied'upon'

How'many'copies?'
o
CA'–'7'copies'
o
SC'–'18'copies'

Accompanied'by'copy'of'the'decision'of'the'court'you'want'to'
appeal'
o
It'must'be'an'original'copy'or'certified'true'copy'
*Failure'to'comply:'Ground'for'DISMISSAL'
'
*When'is'jurisdiction'of'the'Petitioner'deemed'acquired?'

9!

Civil%Procedures%SY%2013%42014!

!


From'the'moment'the'petition'is'filed'
*How'about'the'Respondent?'
'
D.'How'jurisdiction'over'the'person'of'respondent'acquired:'

From'the'moment'respondent'receives'the'initial'action'of'the'
court'
o
WHY?' Unlike' in' cases' that' are' filed' in' the' RTC' or'
MTC,' when' you' file' complaint' the' court' will' issue'
summons' with' copy' of' the' complaint.' The' moment'
the' defendant' receives' the' summons,' the' court'
acquires'jurisdiction.'
!
IN'HERE,'THERE'IS'NO'SUMMONS.'WHEN'
YOU' FILE' CASE' UNDER' RULE' 46,' YOU'
MUST'FIRST'GIVE'COPY'OF'THE'PETITION'
TO'THE'OTHER'PARTY'–'NOT'THE'COURT.'
S'IMPORTANT'
!
If' you' will' not' furnish' copy' to' the'
respondent,' the' petition' shall' be'
dismissed.''
*So' if' you' are' the' RESPONDENT' –' DON’T' FILE' YOUR' ANSWER' RIGHT'
AWAY.'
!
You'must'wait'for'the'action'of'the'court.'
'
E.'Action'by'the'Court'

Dismiss'the'case'outright'

Require'respondent'to'comment'within'10'days'from'receipt'of'
notice.'
'
F.'Determination'of'factual'issues:'
!
Usually'CA'does'not'call'for'a'hearing.'
!
The'calling'of'hearing'is'just'discretionary'in'the'CA.''
o
What' is' the' purpose' of' hearing?' For'determination'
of'fact'
o
So'the'court'will'just'conduct'a'hearing'if'there'are'
factual'issues'that'need'to'be'determined.''
*How'will'CA'conduct'a'hearing?'
!
Either'the'CA'justices'will'hear'the'case'for'themselves.'
!
A' justice' may' receive' evidence' or' he' may' delegate' that' job' to'
the'RTC'judge'
o
The'RTC'judge'will'receive'in'his'behalf'and'will'just'
notify'the'CA'that'evidence'is'submitted.''
'
*The'CA'may'require'for'the'other'party'to'comment.'
G.'Effect'of'failure'to'file'comment:'

Court'may'decide'on'the'basis'of'the'records'

Without' prejudice' to' the' imposition' of' disciplinary' action' on'
the'disobeying'party'
o
Because'here,'there'is'no'trial'in'default.'
'
Rule'47'
ANNULMENT'OF'JUDGMENT'OF'THE'RTC'
'
You'will'file'this'in'the'CA.'This'is'not'an'appealed'case,'BUT'AN'
ORIGINAL'ACTION.''
S'Of'all'the'Remedies,'this'rule'is'also'called'the'Last'Recourse'of'the'losing'
party'in'a'civil'action.''
'
We'have'already'learned'so'many'remedies:'
!
If' you' want' to' appeal' from' judgment' of' the' RTC' in' its' original'
jurisdiction'–'Appeal'to'the'CA'under'Rule'41'
!
If'the'case'originated'at'MTC'–'appealed'to'the'RTC'–'Appeal'to'
the'CA'under'Rule'42'
!
Within' that' 15' days' to' make' your' appeal' –' you' still' have' a'
remedy'–'Motion'for'Reconsideration'or'New'Trial'
o
Ground'of'FAME'
!
If'you'were'not'able'to'file'the'Motion'for'Reconsideration'and''

10! !

!

!!!!!

!

New' trial' and' the' case' has' became' final' –' Motion' for' Relief'
from'Judgment'under'Rule'38'
o
Ground' of' FAME' within' 60' days' from' receipt' of' the'
decision' but' not' more' that' 6' month' from' the' entry'
of'judgment'
*If' you' were' not' able' to' avail' of' these' remedies,' now' you' will' file'
ANNULMENT'OF'JUDGMENT.''
'
A.'Coverage'
'
The'Court'of'Appeals'may'annul'the'judgment'of'the'RTC'if'the'
remedies' of' new' trial,' appeal,' petition' for' relief' from' judgment' or' other'
remedies'are'no'longer'available'through'no'fault'of'the'petitioner.'
'
B.'Grounds:'

Extrinsic'Fraud'

Lack'of'Jurisdiction'
'
Extrinsic'VS'Intrinsic'
!
EXTRINSIC'–'a'fraud'employed'by'one'party'in'order'to'prevent'
the'other'from'appealing.'
o
He' used' this' fraud' to' deny' the' other' party’s' day' in'
court.'
!
INTRINSIC' –' a'fraud'employed'by'one'party'during' the' trial' of'
the'case.'
o
Using'false'documents,'manufactured'evidence,'etc.'
o
But'these'are'used'during'the'trial'–'that'could'have'
been'discovered'by'the'other'party’s'lawyer'if'only'
he'is'diligent'enough.''
*only'EXTRINSIC'FRAUD'can'be'used'as'a'ground''
'
NB.' If' the' ground' is' extrinsic' fraud,' the' petitioner' must' allege' that' he'
failed'to'avail'of'new'trial,'appeal,'or'petition'for'relief'through'no'fault'of'
his'own.'However,'if'the'ground'of'lack'of'jurisdiction'is'also'included,'then'
there'is'no'need'to'allege'said'condition'precedent.'(Ancheta'vs'Ancheta)'
'
The'Ancheta'Case'
'
This'is'a'case'of'declaration'of'nullity'of'marriage'on'the'ground'
of' Psychological' Incapacity.' Tiguwang' na' kaau' ni' sla.' The' wife'
nakusemisyon'kay'babaero'kaau'ang'husband'–'dirty'old'man.''
'
But' tiguwang' na' man' jd' sla,' the' wife' said' that' they' will' just'
separate'their'properties.'They'decided'that'she'would'own'the' ancestral'
house'and'a'beach'resort.'Gikapuy'na'guro'sya,'she'decided'to'stay'na'jd'
sa'BEACH'RESORT.''
'
Now'the'husband'found'another'woman'and'decided'to'marry'
her.'He'filed'the'nullity'of'marriage'–'gisabot'nya'ang'iyang'anak'and'the'
sheriff.'–'TO'SEND'THE'SUMMONS'TO'THE'ANCESTRAL'HOUSE'–'SO'WALA'
KADAWAT'SI'WIFE.'But'according'to'the'record'of'the'court,'nadawat'na'
daw.'In'result,'she'did'not'participated'in'the'hearing.''
'
The'judge'–'utro'pd'bogo'kaau'–'decided'in'default.'Remember'
that' it' is' not' allowed' because' in' annulment' or' nullity' of' marriage,' you'
cannot'declare'a'party'in'default.'Ingon'pd'ni'si'Sr.'Huwis'“GRANTED!”'
'
'
*NOW'–'the'wife'knew'of'the'decision'–'she'went'to'a'lawyer'–'
they'filed'ANNULMENT'OF'JUDGMENT.'The'petition'contained'2'grounds'–'
BUT'IN'EXTRINSIC'FRAUD'S'THEY'DID'NOT'ALLEGE'that'they'failed'to'avail'
of'the'remedy'through'no'fault'of'her'own.''

Because'of'this,'the'lawyer'of'the'husband'said'that'the'petition'
must' be' dismissed' because' it' failed' to' comply' with' the'
requirement.'–'Ground'for'Dismissal'daw.''
'
SC' HELD:' When' you' look' at' her' petition,' there' are' actually' 2' grounds'
alleged.' Extrinsic' fraud' and' Lack' of' Jurisdiction' –' that' the' court' did' not'
acquired'jurisdiction'of'the'person'of'the'defendant'because'she'received'
no'summons.''SO'THEY'NEED'NOT'ALLEGE'THAT'they'did'not'avail'of'the'
remedy'due'to'no'fault'of'her'own.'S'IMPORTANT'
'

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!

'
'
SIMPLIFY:'

If' Extrinsic' Fraud' ONLY' –' you' must' allege' that' you' failed' to'
appeal'through'no'fault'of'your'own'

If'it'is'with'Lack'of'Jurisdiction'–'you'need'not'allege'
*So' if' you' will' include' the' 2' grounds' –' Ancheta' Case' tells' you' that' you'
need'not'allege.'–'IMPORTANT''
'
C.'When'to'file'action:'

Extrinsic'Fraud'–'4'years'from'discovery'

Lack'of'Jurisdiction'–'until'barred'by'laches'
o
LACHES'–'when?'It'depends'upon'the'court'
!
Usually,'the'court'can'use'this'if'the'other'
party'is'PREJUDICED'by'your'inaction.'
EX:'the'lot'has'already'been'sold'to'other'
party' –' then' you' filed' the' petition' –' you'
will'prejudice'his'right'already.'
*Even'if'you'have'this'principle'of'prescription'–'10'years'if'good'faith,'30'
year' if' bad' faith.' Even' if' you' still' have' that' prescriptive' period,' if' other'
party’s' right' is' already' involved,' THE' COURT' MAY' USE' LACHES.' –'
IMPORTANT' –' you' are' actually' sleeping' on' your' right' –' “Natug# kas#
pansitan!”'
'
D.'Contents:'

Verified'petition'in'7'copies'

Affidavit'of'witnesses'or'documents'
o
This'affidavit'is'not'required'in'Rule'46'E'difference'

Certification'of'nonSforum'shopping'
'
E.'Action'by'the'court:'

Dismiss'outrightly'

Give'due'course'and'summons'is'served'on'the'defendant'
o
DIFFERENCE' IN' RULE' 46' –' rule' 46' did' not' require'
summons.''
!
Remember' that' it' is' the' party' who' will'
give' them' copy' of' the' petition,' not' the'
court.'
o
Here'you'need'not'furnish'a'copy'to'the'other'party.'
File'directly'to'the'court'and'it'is'now'the'job'of'the'
court'to'give'copy'to'the'adverse'party.''
*So' here,' the' court' acquires' jurisdiction' over' the' respondent' upon'
receipt'of'the'summons.'S'IMPORTANT'
'
F.'Procedure:'S'the'same'as'ordinary'civil'action'before'the'RTC'

You'file'

Summons'will'be'sent'

Court'will'required'you'within'15'days'to'comment'
'
When' the' CA' grants' the' Annulment' of' Judgment,' what' is' the' effect?'
Judgment'of'the'RTC'will'be'setEaside'or'no'judgment'at'all.'
G.'Effect:'It'depends'on'the'ground'

Lack' of' Jurisdiction' –' Judgment' is' setSaside' without' prejudice'
to'reEfiling.''

Extrinsic'Fraud'–'Trial'de'novo,'as'if'timely'motion'for'new'trial'
is'filed'
'
LIBOG'NI'NGA'PART,'BASAHA'SA'TANAN!''
Sir:(“H.(Suspension'of'prescriptive'period'to'reSfile'the'case(–#suspension#
starts# from( the( time( original( action( was( filed( in( the( RTC.# –# not# from# the#
moment#you#filed#in#the#CA#–#sa(RTC(jd!(

EXCEPTION:(If#the#extrinsic(fraud#is#attributable(to(the(plaintiff(
in(the(original(action(–(NO#SUSPENSION,#PRESCRIPTIVE#PERIOD#
STILL#RUNS(
Q:(Can(plaintiff(re4file(the(case?(YES(4(as#long#as#prescriptive#period#has#not#
yet#expired”.'E'IMPORTANT'

JKB!Rm!405!
!

!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

!

'
Q:'Unsa'nga'prescription?'Unsa'nga'filing?'Unsa'ni'nga'kaso?''
SIMPLIFY:'S'own#interpretation#ra#nako#ni#ha'
FACTS:'

Let’s' say' you' filed' a' case' with' prescriptive' period' of' 4' years'
(Example' ra' ang' 4' years' –' JUST' IMAGINE' A' CASE' –' WITH' 4'
YEARS'PRESCRIPTION)'
nd

You'filed'in'RTC'on'the'2 'year'–'(4'S'2'='2'years'left)'

RTC'decided'the'case'in'your'favor'–'Respondent'filed'in'the'CA'
rd
Annulment'of'Judgment'on'the'3 'year'

CA'granted'the'Annulment'of'Judgment'
'
*Can'the'You'–'the'Petitioner'S'reSfile?'YES'
*How'many'more'years'left?'2'years'
*WHY?' Because' prescriptive' period' to' file' your' case' was' suspended' the'
moment'you'filed'the'case'in'the'RTC.'E'IMPORTANT'
'
*Now'what'if'the'ground'relied'upon'by'the'Respondent'is'Extrinsic'Fraud'
–' AND' YOU' –' THE' PLAINTIFF' –' IS' RESPONSIBLE' FOR' THAT' EXTRINSIC'
FRAUD?'The'prescriptive'period'did'not'suspend.''
*Can'you'reSfile'the'case?'YES'–'provided'that'the'prescriptive'period'has'
not'yet'expired.'E'IMPORTANT'–'now'you'can'relax.''
'
Just'like'in'Ancheta'Case:'

It'is'the'plaintiff'that'caused'the'extrinsic'fraud'

*Can'he'still'reEfile'the'case?'
o
It' would' depend' if' the' prescriptive' period' did' not'
expire'
o
The'prescriptive'period'is'not'suspended'in'that'case'
because'he'was'responsible'for'the'fraud'
'
I.'Relief:'

Judgment'may'include'award'of'damages,'attorney’s'fees'and'
other'relief'

Order'of'Restitution'
o
Only'if'the'decision'is'executed'
o
If' a' property' is' executed,' you' can' still' get' it' back' –'
ebalik'ang'nakuha'
'
J.'Annulment'of'judgment'of'MTC'

Also'applicable'in'MTC'

You'will'just'file'the'Annulment'of'Judgment'with'the'RTC'

But'with'the'same'process.'
'
Rule'48'
PRELIMINARY'CONFERENCE'
'
The'court'may'require'conference.'This'is'like'preEtrial'in'RTC.''
'
Preliminary'Conference'VS'PreStrial'

Preliminary' conference' –' may' be' conducted' by' CA' –'
DISCRETIONARY'–''
o
on' cases' originally' filed' with' it' or' on' appealed'
cases.''
o
Usually'they'will'conduct'if'it'is'an'original'action'

PreEtrial'–'this'is'MANDATORY.'
'
A.'Purpose:'

Consider'possibility'of'settlement'

Define'&'simplify'issue'

Stipulation'of'Facts'

Such'other'matter'for'prompt'disposition'of'case'
'
B.'Record'of'Conference:'

Everything'must'be'recorded'
'
'

11!

Civil%Procedures%SY%2013%42014!

!

C.'Binding'effect'of'the'result'of'conference:'

Binding'to'both'parties'
*Whatever'is'agreed'upon'shall'be'binding'to'both'parties.'
'
Rule'49'
ORAL'ARGUMENT'
'
This'is'not'mandatory'in'CA.'Only'Discretional.''
*This' rarely' happens' –' CA' will' only' resort' to' Oral' Argument' if' there' are'
factual'issues,'decrees'and'legal'issues'involved,'and'they'want'to'hear'the'
sides'of'the'lawyers.'
'
A.'When'allowed:'

Upon'motion'of'a'party'

Upon'court’s'own'volition'
'
B.'Conduct'of'oral'argument'

Only'1'lawyer'can'present'his'argument'
o
Even'if'a'party'is'represented'of'battery'of'lawyers'–'
1'ra'jd.'

The'order'of'the'argument'will'be'determined'by'the'CA.'
'
C.'No'hearing'or'oral'argument'for'motions'

There'is'no'need'to'put'a'date'or'set'it'to'hearing'

Unlike' in' the' RTC' –' that' if' no' date' –' it' will' be' treated' as' Pro'
Forma'Motion'

HERE,'YOU'NEED'NOT'PUT'A'DATE'
'
March'18,'2014'
Rule'50'
DISMISSAL'OF'APPEAL'
Here,'we'are'still'talking'about'appealed'cases'in'Court'of'Appeals.''
'
A.'Ground'for'dismissal'

Failure'of'the'record'on'appeal'to'show'on' its' face' that' it' was'
taken'on'time;'
o
That'is'why'you'must'comply'with'the'material'data'
rule.''

Failure'to'file'notice'of'appeal'or'the'record'on'appeal'on'time;'
o
Notice'of'appeal'–'15'days'
!
Not'Extendible'
o
Record'on'Appeal'–'30'days'
!
You'can'file'for'extension' for' another' 30'
days'
!
But'you'must'pay'docket'and'other'lawful'
fees'first.'

Failure'to'pay'docket'and'other'lawful'fees;'
o
Ordinary'Appeal'E'Pay'to'the'RTC'
o
Petition'for'Review'–'Pay'to'the'CA'

Unauthorized' alterations,' omissions' or' additions' in' the'
approved'record'on'appeal;'
o
Here,' it' refers' to' a' special' proceeding' or' multiple'
appeal'
*How'will'you'do'this?'Let’s'go'back'
Sfile'your'record'on'appeal'first'in'the'RTC'–'subject'to'the'approval'of'RTC'
E'once'RTC'approves'the'record'–'wait'for'the'CA'to'order'you'to'forward'
the'Approved'Record'within'10'days.'
*That'record'must'have'no'alteration'–'WAY'PINAPASAN!'S'IMPORTANT'
'

Failure' of' appellant' to' serve' and' file' the' required' number' of'
copies'of'his'brief;'
o
How'many'copies?'
!
CA'–'7'copies'

2'copies'to'the'Respondents'

If' 2' parties' represented' by' 2'
lawyers'–'only'1'per'lawyer.''
'

12! !

!

!!!!!

!

Absence' of' specific' assignment' of' errors' in' the' appellant’s'
brief;'
o
You'must'point'out'the'specific'error'

Failure'to'provide'page'reference'of'the'record.'
o
To' make' it' easier' for' the' reviewing' judge' to' review'
the'case.'
o
*this' is' not' really' mandatory' –' discretionary' on' the'
CA'–'he'may'or'may'not'dismiss'it'

Failure' of' the' appellant' to' take' the' necessary' steps' for' the'
correction'or'completion'of'the'record'within'time;'

Failure'of'appellant'to'appear'at'the'preliminary'conference'or'
to'comply'with'the'orders'of'the'court;'
o
Once' the' court' requires' you' for' preliminary'
conference'–'you'must'comply'

The'fact'that'the'order'is'not'appealable'
*What'are'the'orders'NOT'APPEALABLE?'
S'Order'denying'motion'for'Reconsideration'or'New'Trial'
E'Interlocutory'Order'
E'Order'denying'to'setEaside'compromise'agreement'
E'Order'denying'writ'of'execution'
'
*What'will'happen'if'your'appeal'to'the'CA'is'a'wrong'mode'of'appeal?'IT'
WILL'BE'DISMISSED.'
B.'Dismissal'of'improper'appeal:'

Appeal'from'RTC'to'CA'on'pure'question'of'law'
o
Rule' 41' –' if' RTC' decide' in' its' original' jurisdiction' –'
GO'TO'THE'SC'DIRECTLY'

Appeal'by'notice'of'appeal'instead'of'petition'for'review'under'
rule'42'from'RTC'to'CA'
o
Rule'42'–'it'must'be'by'Records'
'
*Can'you'still'withdraw'an'appeal?'YES'
C.'Withdrawal'of'appeal'

Matter'of'Right'–'before'appellee’s'brief'is'filed'
o
As'long'as'there'is'still'no'answer,'you'can'withdraw'
anytime'

Discretionary'–'after'filing'of'brief'
o
So' you' have' to' file' a' motion' to' withdraw' your'
appeal'
'
Rule'51'
JUDGMENT'
'
A.'Submitted'for'judgment'

In'ordinary'appeal''
When'is'the'case'deemed'submitted'for'decision?'
'
In'an'appealed'cases,'the'appellant'is'required'to'file'appellant’s'
brief'within'45'days.'The'appellee'may'also'file'his'appellee’s'brief'within'
45'days.''
'
The'appellant'may'still'file'REPLY'BRIEF'–'UPON'THE'FILING'OF'
THAT' REPLY,' THAT' IS' SUPPOSED' TO' BE' THE' TIME' THAT' THE' CASE' IS'
DEEMED'SUBMITTED'FOR'DECISION.'
'
*If' the' CA' requires' the' filing' of' some' memorandum,' then' the' case' is'
deemed'submitted'UPON'THE'FILING'OF'THOSE'MEMORANDUM.''

OR'the'lapse'of'the'time'to'file'that'memorandum.'
EX:' If' the' court' requires' you' to' file' memorandum' within' 30' days,' WHEN'
THAT' 30' DAYS' EXPIRE,' THAT' IS' THE' TIME' THE' CASE' IS' DEEMED'
SUBMITTED.''
'

In' original' actions' –' certiorari,' mandamus,' quo' warranto,'
annulment'of'judgment'
o
CA' may' hear' the' case' –' to' clarify' certain' factual'
issues.'
!
The'case'is'deemed'submitted'after'that'
hearing'is'terminated.''

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!JKB!Rm!405!

Civil%Procedures%SY%201342014
o
o

!

!

after'the'submissions'of'the'memorandums'
or'after'the'lapse'of'time'given'to'submit'the'memo'

'
B.'Who'will'decide:'

CA'is'a'colligate'court'–'decide'a'case'en'bank'or'in'division'
o
EN'BANK'–'all'will'participate'in'the'decision'
!
This'does'not'apply'in'cases'
!
They' usually' have' an' en' banc' decision'
only'in' deciding' internal' matters' –' Rules'
and'Procedure'in'the'CA'
o
IN'DIVISION'–'only'the'division'will'decide'
!
How' many' justices' are' there' in' CA?' 69'
(that’s(a(very(lucky(number)'
!
How'many'divisions?'23'divisions'

3'members'each'
'
C.'Quorum'and'voting:'
*How'shall'it'be'decided'when'it'is'given'to'a'division?'It'must'be'decided'
UNANIMOUSLY.'''
'
*What'if'one'justice'will'have'difference'decision?''
'
They'will'create'another'a'special'division'of'5.'They' will' get' 2'
justices'in'another'division'to'join'their'division'for'VERIFICATION.''

THIS'TIME'THEY'WILL'DECIDE'IT'BY'MAJORITY.'S'IMPORTANT'
'
D.'Disposition'of'a'case:'S''

Here,'the'CA'may'reverse,'revise'or'amend'the'decision'of'the'
lower'court'or'remand'the'case'.'
'
E.'Form'and'contents'of'decision'S'comply'with'the'Constitutional'mandate'

State'the'facts'clearly'and'conclusions'of'law'

Explain'how'they'arrived'with'that'conclusion'
*CA' cannot' just' decide' it' in' 1' sentence/' A' MINUTE' RESOUTIONS.' They'
must' explain' everything.' Only' the' SC' can' dismiss' a' case' in' just' 1'
sentence.''
(WHY?'BECAUSE'IT’S'THE'SUPREME'COURT!'THAT’S'WHY!)'
'
F.'If'several'Judgment'parties'(Partial'Judgment)'

They' may' decide' in' favor' of' 1/some' defendant/' plaintiff' and'
against'1/some'defendant/'plaintiff.'
'
G.'Questions'that'may'be'decided:'

1.'ONLY'those'errors'stated'in'the'assignment'of'errors'

2.'Not'mentioned'but'those'closely'related'to'or'dependent'on'
an'assigned'error'

3.'Plain'errors'and'clerical'errors'
o
Plain' error' –' to' pass' upon' issue' which' are' not'
mentioned'in'the'assignment'of'errors'but'which'are'
VERY' APPARENT' that' a' clear' error' is' committed.'
(Santos'Case)'
*Santos'Case'
'
Lot'owner'leased'his'land'to'a'tenant.'Latter'did'not'pay'rentals'
for'28'years.'Landlord'decided'to'file'ejectment'case.'He'filed'it'in'the'MTC,'
tenant' appealed' in' the' RTC.' RTC' affirmed' the' decision' of' MTC.' RTC' said'
that'he'does'not'have'right'to'stay,'however'the'landlord'must'reimburse'
the'tenant'for'the'improvements'introduced.''
'
If'you'remember'in'Property,'a'tenant'who'builds'a'house'in'a'
land' of' another' is' not' a' builder' in' good' faith.' It' is' the' option' of' the'
landowner'to'pay'½'of'the'value'of'the'improvement'OR'to'remove'that'
improvement.'THE'OPTION'IS'GIVEN'TO'THE'LANDOWNER.''
'
Now'when'the'tenant'went'to'the'CA,'the'ejectment'is'granted'
and'removed'the'reimbursement'because'of'the'rule'in'Property.''
'
The'tenant'then'appealed'to'the'SC'(WTF'bagag'nawng!'NEVER'
SAY' DIE!).' That' the' CA' committed' error' in' deciding' to' remove' the'
reimbursement.'According'to'him,'it'was'not'assigned'as'an'error,'it'was'
never'mentioned.''

JKB!Rm!405!
!

!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

!

SC' HELD:' The' error' is' PLAIN' ERROR.' Even' if' the' issue' of' reimbursement'
was'not'mentioned'in'the'assignment'of'error,'IT'WAS'CLEARLY'APPARENT'
AND'PLAIN.'THE'CA'IS'CORRECT.'
'

4.' Error' affecting' jurisdiction' over' the' subject' matter' or' the'
validity'of'judgment'
'
H.'Harmless'errors'of'Lower'Court:'

Will'not'be'disturbed'by'the'appellate'court.'
'
I.'Promulgation'and'Notice'of'Judgment'

Promulgation'–'refers'to'the'date'when'the'clerk'of'court'of'the'
division'received'the'decision'of'the'justices'of'that'division'
o
When' a' case' is' decided' by' the' decision' –' it' will' be'
given' to' 1' justice' (iya2' na' sla' para' sa' mga' decision'
kay'daghan'man'kaau)'
o
Ponente'–'the'one'who'will'write'the'decision.'
o
When'the'ponente'finish'the'decision,'other'justices'
will' sign' and' they' will' give' it' to' the' clerk' of' that'
division'
o
The' Clerk' will' then' put' on' the' upper' right' of' the'
paper'“Date'of'Promulgation”''

Notice'–'clerk'will'record'that'decision'in'the'book'of'judgment'
o
He'will'send'copies'of'the'decision'to'the'parties.'
o
Parties'will'have'15'days'–'to'appeal'that'decision'in'
a'Petition'for'Certiorari'to'the'SC'
'
*If'no'appeal'is'filed'within'15'days,'the'judgment'becomes'final'
J.'Execution'of'Judgment'in'the'CA'

In'appealed'cases'it'shall'executed'by'the'court'a'quo'
o
File'the'motion'for'execution'to'the'RTC'
o
You'need'not'wait'for'the'transfer'for'record'from'CA'
to'RTC'
o
Just' get' a' certified' true' copy' of' the' decision' and'
submit'it'to'the'RTC'–'then'go'to'Rule'39'

In' original' action' the' CA' will' issue' the' writ' with' the' entry' of'
judgment'
o
CA'can'assign'sheriff'to'implement'the'decision'

In'execution'pending'appeal'–'APPEALED'CASE'NI'HA'
o
DISCRETIONARY'APPEAL'–'file'this'in'the'RTC.''
'
*In'what'case'will'the'execution'be'filed'in'the'CA?'

If'the'RTC'is'delaying'the'issuance'of'motion'for'execution.'

CA'will'NOT'issue'the'Writ'for'Execution'

CA'will'just'issue'and'order'directing'the'RTC'to'issue'the'Writ'
of'Execution.'S'IMPORTANT'
'
Rule'52'
MOTION'FOR'RECONSIDERATION'
A.'When'to'File''

15'days'
'
B.'No'second'motion'for'reconsideration'

ONLY'1'is'allowed'
o
But'in'SC'–'NO'LIMIT'–'YOU'CAN'FILE'AS'MANY'AS'
YOU'WANT'
'
C.'Resolution'of'motion:''

Resolve'it'within'90'days'
'
EFFECT'of'motion'for'reconsideration:'
D.'Stay'of'execution'

Pendency' of' motion' for' recon' shall' stay' the' execution' of' the'
judgment''
o
unless' the' court,' for' good' reasons' shall' otherwise'
direct.'

13!

Civil%Procedures%SY%2013%42014!

!

!

'

o
o

Rule'53'
NEW'TRIAL'
You'can'also'file'motion'for'New'Trial'IN'THE'CA.'

'
'
A.'When'to'file:'
'
At' anytime' AFTER' the' appeal' from' the' lower' court' has' been'
perfected'and'before'the'Court'of'Appeals'loses'jurisdiction'over'the'case'
'
B.'Grounds'

Newly'discovered'evidence'ONLY'
'
C.'Hearing'and'orders'

There'must'be'a'hearing'
'
D.'Resolution'of'motion''

MUST'decide'the'case'within'90'days'
'
E.'Procedure'in'new'trial'

Same'as'in'the'RTC'
'
Rule'54'
INTERNAL'BUSINESS'
A.'How'cases'are'distributed:'

By'raffle'to'the'different'divisions'

Decide'en'banc'or'in'division'
'
B.'Quorum'of'the'Court'

Majority'if'en'banc'

Unanimous'if'in'division'
*99%'they'usually'decide'in'division.''
'
Rule'55'
PUBLICATION'OF'JUDGMENTS'
A.'Where'be'published:'

Official'Gazette'

Court'of'Appeals'Report'

Philippine'Reports'
*SCRA'is'not'an'official'publication'–'it'is'a'private'publication'
*Philippine'Reports'Annotated'–'the'official'publication'
'
PROCEDURES'IN'THE'SUPREME'COURT'
Rule'56'
ORGINAL'CASES'
A.'Original'cases'cognizable:'

Certiorari,' Prohibition,' Mandamus,' Quo' Warranto' &' Habeas'
Corpus;'

Disciplinary'proceedings'against'Judges'and'lawyers;'

Cases' affecting' ambassadors,' other' public' ministers' and'
consuls'
'
B.'Rules'applicable:'

Original' actions'for'certiorari,' prohibition,' mandamus'shall'be'
governed'by'Rule'65'

Rule'46,'48,'49,'50,'51'&'52'on'the'Court'of'Appeals'shall'also'
apply'in'the'Supreme'Court'
o
46'–'Original'actions'filed'before'the'CA'
o
48'–'Preliminary'Conference'
o
49'–'Oral'Argument'
o
50'–'Appeal'
o
51'–'Judgment'
o
52'–'Motion'for'Reconsideration'
!
New'Trial'is'not'applicable'here'

18'copies'of'the'petition'shall'be'filed'in'the'Supreme'Court'

Proceedings'for'disciplinary'action'against'Judges'and'Lawyers'
shall'be'governed'by'the'Code'of'Judicial'Conduct'&'Rule'139SB'

14! !

'

!!!!!

!

Against'a'Judge'–'file'to'the'SC'
Against'a'Lawyer'–'file'to'the'SC'
!
OR'to'the'IBP'–'it'will'just'recommend'to'
the'SC'
!
SC'always'has'the'final'say'

APPEALED'CASES'
C.'Modes'of'Appeal'

Only'by'Petition'for'Review'on'Certiorari'under'Rule'45'

EXCEPTION:'Criminal'cases'where'the'penalty'imposed'is'Death,'
Reclusion'Perpetual'and'Life'Imprisonment'
o
Death'–'Automatic'Appeal'
o
Reclusion' Perpetual' –' Ordinary' Appeal' –' notice' of'
appeal'only'
'
D.'Procedure'

Same'as'the'Court'of'Appeals'with'some'exceptions'
'
E.'Grounds'for'dismissal'of'appeal:'

Failure'to'take'appeal'within'the'reglementary'period'

Lack'of'merit'in'the'petition'

Failure'to'pay'docket'fees'etc'

Failure' to' comply' with' requirements' on' proof' of' service,'
contents'and'documents'to'accompany'the'petition;'
o
Proof'of'Service'–'personal'service'is'most'preferred'
!
If' not' made' –' you' must' make' an'
explanation'why'

Failure'to'comply'with'circular,'directives'or'order'of'the'court'
without'justifiable'reason;'
o
TRUE'COPY''

Error'in'the'choice'or'modes'of'appeal'

The'fact'that'the'cases'is'not'appealable'to'the'Supreme'Court'
'
F.'Disposition'of'improper'appeal'

Appeal'by'notice'of'appeal'from'RTC'to'SC'shall'be'dismissed'
o
EXCEPT'in'criminal'cases'

Appeal' by' certiorari' to' the' SC' from' decision' of' the' RTC' raising'
issues'of'fact'MAY'be'referred'by'the'SC'to'the'Court'of'Appeals'
for'decisions'or'appropriate'action'
'
G.'Procedure'if'opinion'is'equally'divided'
EX:'When'the'SC'decides'the'case'EN'BANC,'it'does'not'mean'that'all'must'
attend.' They' only' decide' by' majority' of' those' who' are' present.' ' –'
IMPORTANT'
S'let’s'say'14'only'appear,'and'the'vote'is'7E7,'what'will'they'do?'

Redeliberation'–'to'decide'the'case'for'the'second'time.''

If'still'no'decision'is'reached'then'the'following'rules'will'apply:'
o
Original'Action'filed'is'deemed'dismissed'
o
Appealed' cases' –' the' appealed' decision' is' deemed'
affirmed'
!
Decision'of'CA'is'affirmed.'
o
All' incidental' matter' –' the' petition' or' motion' is'
deemed'denied.'
'
'
'
I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of
my soul.

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!JKB!Rm!405!