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APPENDIX II: A COMPUTATIONAL CHRONOLOGY FOR PI

The next two tables provide a reasonably complete accounting of conputations from 2000
BCE to 1996 AD.1

Tables taken from: David H. Bailey, Jonathan M. Borwein, Peter B. Borwein, and Simon Ploue,
\The Quest for Pi," (June, 1996) to appear in The Mathematical Intelligencer.
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15555 ( 142 45 ) Liu Hui 263 5 3.14166 Chung Hing 250? 1 3.141818 Al-Kashi 1429 14 Otho 1573 6 3.1416 Fibonacci 1220 3 3.14156 Brahmagupta 640? 1 3.14159 Siddhanta 380 3 3.1415926 Aryabhata 499 4 3.1416 Tsu Ch'ung Chi 480? 7 3.125 (3 18 ) Egyptians 2000? BCE 1 3.) Romanus 1593 15 Van Ceulen 1596 20 Van Ceulen 1615 35 Newton 1665 16 Sharp 1699 71 Seki 1700? 10 Kamata 1730? 25 Machin 1706 100 De Lagny 1719 127 (112 correct) Takebe 1723 41 Matsunaga 1739 50 Vega 1794 140 Rutherford 1824 208 (152 correct) Strassnitzky and Dase 1844 200 Clausen 1847 248 Lehmann 1853 261 Rutherford 1853 440 Shanks 1874 707 (527 correct) Table 1: History of Calculations (Pre 20th Century) p p p 2 .16227 ( 10) Wang Fau 250? 1 3.16045 (4( 98 )2 ) China 1200? BCE 1 3 Bible (1 Kings 7:23) 550? BCE 1 3 Archimedes 250? BCE 3 3.1622 (= 10 ?) Ptolemy 150 3 3.1418 (ave.1415926536 (ave.1415929 Viete 1593 9 3.) Hon Han Shu 130 AD 1 3.162277 (= 10) Al-Khowarizmi 800 4 3.Babylonians 2000? BCE 1 3.

870. Kubo.000.000 Chudnovskys May 1994 4. 1989 1. 1983 10.206 Ushiro and Kanada Oct.167 Shanks and Wrench 1961 100.000.000.000. 1986 29.554.073.037 Nicholson and Jeenel 1954 3.097.000 Guilloud and Bouyer 1973 1. 1995 3. 1995 6.200 Bailey Jan.480 Genuys Jan.050 Tamura 1982 2.013.360. 1986 67. 1989 1.839 Kanada. et.286 Kanada Oct.000 Felton May 1958 10.799 Chudnovskys Aug.Ferguson 1946 620 Ferguson Jan.108.260.938 Table 2: History of Calculations (20th Century) 3 .777.898 Kanada and Tamura Nov.044. 1988 201. 1987 134.000 Guilloud and Dichampt 1967 500.092 Felton 1957 7.526. 1989 525. Yoshino and Tamura 1982 16. al Jan.691 Chudnovskys Aug. 1958 10.270 Kanada and Tamura Jul. 1991 2.225.011.217.000 Chudnovskys Jun.326.450.229.001.144 Tamura and Kanada 1982 8.967.395 Gosper 1985 17.021 Guilloud 1959 16.196.551 Chudnovskys May 1989 480.741.442.036 Guilloud 1982 2.250 Miyoshi and Kanada 1981 2. Tamura.000 Takahashi and Kanada Jun. 1947 710 Ferguson and Wrench Sep. 1989 536.388.414 Kanada and Tamura Oct. 1986 33. 1995 4.576 Kanada.120 Reitwiesner et al.700 Kanada and Tamura Jan.221.265 Guilloud and Filliatre 1966 250. (ENIAC) 1949 2. 1947 808 Smith and Wrench 1949 1.000.466 Kanada Aug.111 Kanada and Tamura Sep.294.

APPENDIX III . = 3:1415926535897932384626433832795028841971693993751::: Archimedes 3.n).13.14] =1 1+1 4 3 5 . One hundred thousand digits may be found in 38].) p (ca 250 BC) Francois Viete 9] v v u s v s s u u u u u 2 = 1t1 + 1 1t1 + 1u t1 + 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (ca 1579) John Wallis 10. . 1 28 27 4 .4] Let a0 := 2 3. James Gregory. (ca 1666) . Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz 7.SELECTED FORMULAE FOR PI Fifty decimal digits of . 1 5 25 . 1+ 7 (1450{1671) Isaac Newton 16] p = 3 3 + 24 2 3 4 3 2 . 1 72 29  .11] =2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 2 1 3 3 5 5 7 7 9 (ca 1650) William Brouncker = 4 1 + 2+ 1 9 25 2+ 2+ (ca 1650) Madhava. b0 := 3 and q an+1 := a2a+nbbn and bn+1 := an+1bn: n n Then an and bn converge linearly to (with an error O(4.

64] 1  2n !3 42n + 5 1=X 212n+4 : n=0 n 1= 1 (4n)! 1103 + 26390n] 8 X : 9801 n=0 (n!)4 3964n p Each additional term of the latter series adds roughly 8 digits. 4 (1706{1776) Leonard Euler 17] = 1 + 12 + 12 + 12 + 12 + 6 2 3 4 5 4 = 1 + 14 + 14 + 14 + 14 + 90 2 3 4 5 2 1 X 12m = 3 2 6 m=1 m m 2 (ca 1748) Srinivasa Ramanujan 29.37] = 4 arctan( 1 ) arctan( 1 ) 5 239 = arctan( 21 ) + arctan( 13 ) = 2 arctan( 12 ) arctan( 17 ) = 2 arctan( 13 ) + arctan( 71 ) 4 . Louis Comtet (1914) 1 X 1   = 36 90 17 m=1 m4 2mm 4 (1974) 5 .Machin Type Formulae 31.32. 4 4 .

1 +2 bk. Jonathan Borwein and Peter Borwein 1 ( 1)n(6n)! (A + nB ) 1 = 12 X (n!)3 (3n)! C n+1=2 . . . Richard Brent 47] Set a0 = 1 b0 = 1= 2 and s0 = 1=2. .1 q bk = ak. .1bk. . For k = 1 2 3 ak = ak. (1991) . . . n=0 6 (1989) .Eugene Salamin 46]. . . Jonathan Borwein and Peter Borwein 64] Set a0 = 1=3 and s0 = ( 3 1)=2.1 ck = a2k b2k sk = sk. Set a0 = 6 4 2 and y0 = 2 1. Each additional term of the series adds roughly 15 digits. Iterate rk+1 = 1 + 2(13 s3 )1=3 k r 1 sk+1 = k+12 ak+1 = rk2+1ak 3k (rk2+1 1) Then 1=ak converges cubically to . David Chudnovsky and Gregory Chudnovsky 63] (1985) 1 1 =12X ( 1)n (63n)! 13591409+ n3545140134 : (n!) (3n)! (640320 )n+1=2 n=0 . k Then pk converges quadratically to . Iterate (1 yk4)1=4 yk+1 = 11 + (1 yk4 )1=4 ak+1 = ak (1 + yk+1)4 22k+3yk+1(1 + yk+1 + yk2+1) Then ak converges quartically to 1= . p p . (1976) p .1 2k ck 2 pk = 2sak p compute .

. David Bailey.000 terms gives to forty places 4 X ( 1)k. @ 5 1010 A = : e 10 n= 1 . Peter Borwein and Simon Ploue 70] = (1989) 1 1 X 2 1 1 ) ( 4 i i=0 16 8i + 1 8i + 4 8i + 5 8i + 6 (1996) . 7 . .1 k=1 2k 1 500000 .1 (1985) Roy North 65] Gregory's series for . . = 3:141590653589793240462643383269502884197: Then only the underlined digits are incorrect. truncated at 500. (1989) The following is not an identity but is correct to over 42 billion digits 0 12 X n2 1 : .where p A := 212175710912 61 + 1657145277365 B := 13773980892672 61 + 107578229802750 C := 5280(236674 + 30303 61)]3 : p p Each additional term of the series adds roughly 31 digits.