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Recent advances in Cordyceps sinensis
polysaccharides: Mycelial fermentation,
isolation, structure, and bioactivities: A review
ARTICLE in JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS · JANUARY 2013
Impact Factor: 3.57 · DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2013.11.024

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. . . Jiangsu. isolation and purification of polysaccharides . .com ScienceDirect journal homepage: www. . . . . . 3. . . . a large number of polysaccharide Production Extraction Structural elucidation Bioactivity structures have been purified and elucidated. . . . . Contents 1. . . . http://dx. .024 . . . . . . 1756-4646/$ . . . . Kowloon. . . Yan). . . Hung Hom. . . . . . . . . China. antioxidant and hypoglycaemic.*. . . . isolation.-Y.edu. . .: +86 15952819661 (J. . . . . . . . . . .wu@polyu. Address: School of Food and Biological Engineering. . . . . Nevertheless. Cordyceps sinensis Extraction and purification of the polysaccharides is a tedious process involving numerous Polysaccharide steps of liquid and solid phase separations. the Chinese caterpillar fungus. . . .hk (J. . . .doi. . Tel. As natural C. . . .elsevier. . . . . . . . . .see front matter Ó 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. . . the polysaccharides documented over the last 15– 20 years from this fungal species were mostly extracted from cultivated fungal mycelia Keywords: (intracellular polysaccharides) or from mycelial fermentation broth (exopolysaccharides). .org/10. However. . Jiangsu University. . . jian-yong. sinensis. . . . . . Tel. . . . Wu). PolyU Shenzhen Research Institute. . . relationships between the structures and activities of these polysaccharides are not well established. ..: +852 34008671 (J. . . . . . .-K. . . . . Ó 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. . . . 34 35 35 38 * Corresponding authors. . . . . . Jian-Yong Wua. . . . . . Wen-Qiang Wanga. . . . . The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. . sinensis fungi. . . . . 4.11.1016/j.b. . . . . . . . . Jiangsu. . sinensis fruiting body-caterpillar com- Available online 22 December 2013 plexes are very rare and expensive. Hong Kong b School of Food and Biological Engineering. exhibiting several activities such as immunomodulation. . . . .JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS 6 (2 0 14 ) 3 3–47 Available at www. . . . . . . structure. . . . . . . . . . and bioactivity) of the intracellular and exopolysaccharides from mycelial fermentation of C. . . . . production and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents. . . .2013. Yan). . . The contents and data will serve as useful references for further investigation. .-K. . . . . . . . . . . .* a Department of Applied Biology & Chemical Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . Physicochemical characterization . . . . extraction. . . Introduction . China A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T Article history: Cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) sinensis.com (J. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in various aspects (i. .-Y. is a unique and Received 7 July 2013 precious medicinal fungus in traditional Chinese medicine which has been used as a pres- Received in revised form tigious tonic and therapeutic herb in China for centuries. . . . . . Production of biomass and polysaccharides by mycelial fermentation Extraction. . . . . . and bioactivities: A review Jing-Kun Yana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . antitu- Accepted 27 November 2013 mour. Polysaccharides are bioactive 23 November 2013 constituents of C. 2.e. . . .com/locate/jff Recent advances in Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides: Mycelial fermentation.sciencedirect. . . . Zhenjiang 212013. . . . production.jff. Wu). . . . structure. . Zhenjiang 212013. E-mail addresses: jkyan_27@163. Jiangsu University.

. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .. . . . . . Other bioactivities . . 2004. . . . . . liver. . . . . . aging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . hyposexuality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . During the outbreak of the Severe Acute Fig. . . Acknowledgements . 1998). . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2011. . . . . . . . Introduction Cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps) sinensis (Berk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . such as respiratory. . . . . References . . . . Conformational features . . . . a stroma or fruiting body forms on the larva head.34 5. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . Li. . . & Jones. . & Marcone. . Antitumour activity . . . . . . . . . . In spring and early summer of the following year. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . & Hsu. . Peng. . 4. . . . . . . Nie. . . Lo. . . Bioactivities . . . renal. Halpern. . . Liu. . . . . . . . . 2013. . . . . Zhou. 2010. 1. . . . . . Zhu. . . . Sun. . . . . . . . . and cardiovascular diseases.. . . Hsieh. grows and emerges out of the ground like a grass (Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ming. . . . . . . . . Wang. .4. . . . . . Ji et al. Holliday. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Song. Wang. . . . . . . . Playford. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Li. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qinghai. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . & Tsim. 2009. Conclusions and future perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Li. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ye. . . . . . . Average molecular weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008. . . . . . . . . JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS 6 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 3 3 –4 7 4. . . . 2011. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . is a valuable medicinal fungus in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). . . . Ojobo. . mainly as a tonic to invigorate the lungs and to nourish the kidneys (Dong & Yao. . . . Zhu et al. . . . . . 1998). & Lin. . . sinensis is a parasitic fungus to the moth larvae (Lepidoptera) of Hepialus armoricanus (and Thitarodes). . . . Antioxidant activity. . . . . . . . . . . . 2008. . 2010. . . . . Tang. . & Cleaver. . Winkler. sinensis has been used in China for more than 700 years. . . . . . . . . . & Playford. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . Chemical structures . . . . . . Modern pharmacological studies have shown its therapeutic effects on a wide range of diseases and conditions. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . 2011). . . . . . . 2013. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zhang. . . 2013. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . Zhang. . Winkler. . 2012. . . . . . . . Immunomodulatory activity . . C. . . . . . . . . . . .) Sacc. . . . . . sinensis has been listed as an herbal drug in the official Chinese Pharmacopoeia by the Committee of Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Ministry of Health since 1964.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . & Ye. . . . . . . . . . Zhang. . . . . . . and Yunnan Provinces in China (Li et al. . . 5. . In late summer or early autumn. . . . . . . . . . Zhao. . . . . . . . . . . 1 – Cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps) sinensis fruiting body-caterpillar complexes: morphology and natural habitat (Paterson. . . . . . and turned into ‘‘stiff worms’’ in winter. . . . . . Marchbank. . . . Li. . . . . . . the larvae are infected by the fungal spores and gradually consumed by the fungal mycelia. . . 2010). . and hyperlipidaemia (Ding et al. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2013. the Chinese caterpillar fungus or DongChongXiaCao (winter worm-summer grass) in Chinese or Tochukaso in Japanese. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008). . . . . . . . . Sichuan. . . . . . . . . . . 2010. . . . . . & Xia. . . Hypoglycemic effect . 2011. . . . . Yue. . . . . & Guo. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinensis fruiting body-caterpillar 38 38 38 40 40 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 complexes are mainly distributed on the high plateaus of 3500–5000 m above sea level in Tibet. . Wang. C. . . . . . as well as tumours. . . . . . . . . 1) (Chen. . . . Lin. . . . . . . . . . . . Monosaccharide composition . . . . . . . . . . . . nervous system. .. & Liu. . Lo et al. . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . The natural C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Tsai. The biomass and EPS yields varied in a wide range from 10 to 54 g/L. Pan. 6 (2 0 14 ) 3 3–47 35 1995). Wu. & Hara. Shan. Zhong et al. 2009). chain conformations. sinensis is becoming increasingly scarce because of reckless harvesting.. Sun. Liu & Wu. such as temperature. Yamane. sinensis has increased dramatically in China. 2008. The fermentation-cultivated mycelia of some fungal strains isolated from the natural C. 2006. proteins. which are structurally diverse biomacromolecules with various physiochemical properties. Zhao.. Wang et al. temperature. Zhao. but the mycelial fermentation. 2008. Hu. 2005. 2012). culture conditions. aqueous buffers under heating (Guan. 1999. 2005. sinensis (Cs-HK1). & Wu. Leung. Sun. 1986. The application of high-power or high-intensity ultrasound or ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has been widely studied for extracting polysaccharides from different plant materials. sinensis as well as the characterization of their structural features. fatty acids. many investigators have studied the effects of various process factors on the maximal production of mycelial biomass and EPSs and to optimize the fermentation conditions. & Zhang. and trace elements. the major drawbacks of hot water extraction are the high extraction temperature. sinensis. Milenovic. 2012. Sun. Cultivation of fungal mycelia is a more reliable alternative for mass production of the fungal materials. Wang et al. 2011). 2006. Xie. Jeffrey. the fermentation broth of C. Hsu. As natural C.. sinensis with pure water. and unfavourable weather conditions for its proliferation (Yao. 2013. such as medium composition. On the other hand. Yan. & Ukai. Wu. & Sun. our group has previously demonstrated the optimization of submerged culture conditions for C. & Veljkovic. & Hirano. polysaccharides represent one of the most abundant components in the fungus and a major group of bioactive constituents which have been extracted and isolated from the fruiting bodies. Cui. sinensis and mycelia of cultured C. sinensis such as Paecilomyces sinensis. including polysaccharides. Herein. sinensis was sequentially . 2013. sinensis fungal mycelia and other useful constituents. 2008. Wu. 1998). sinensis health products. Liu & Wu. Wu. there was a notable increase in the use of C. & Wu. particularly the shear forces arising from acoustic cavitation (Velickovic. 2009. physicochemical properties and pharmacological activities of extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides (EPSs) isolated from culture broth of C. Giridhar. & Pan. Ristic. microwave and high power ultrasound (Wang.0 to >40 g/L with the fungal species and culture conditions. and culture vessel (Hsieh. Polysaccharides have been the target for the development and quality control of C.. 2005. mycelial biomass and EPS yields of C. 2013. sinensis are very limited and cannot meet the increasing demand. Kim & Yun. sinensis have been published in the last few years (Chen. Usui. Pan. the demand as well as the price for C. and purification of IPSs and EPSs from C. IPSs are extracted from the fruiting body (or worm) and mycelium of C. Zhang. initial pH. Li. 2. & Li. Qin. & Pan. Winkler. The fungal mycelia have been reported to exert similar pharmacological effects to those of wild C. Xie. 2005. Wang. and Hirsutella sinensis (Yin & Tang. sinensis.JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in China in 2003. 2009). Usui. the relationships are still not well established between the molecular structure and the bioactivity of C. Extraction in hot or boiling water is the most common and convenient method for extracting water-soluble mushroom polysaccharides. sinensis have appeared (Lo et al. Kiho. there is a need to enhance the EPS productivity through effective strategies of process intensification in the future.g. Xiao. and surfactants (Tween 80) (Leung. ergosterol. long extraction time and low extraction efficiency. Japan. Shashidhar. Wu. & Li. 2011. several reviews on these compounds and their properties and bioactivities of C. & Lo.. and fermentation broth. Wang et al. Korea and India (Au et al. sinensis polysaccharides can be classified into two types according to their locations in the fungal cells. 1998). However. 2004). Wang. Ukai. & Phillips. some reviews on extraction. structure and bioactivities of polysaccharides from C. isolation and purification of polysaccharides C. Xie. 2013. 2006). Zhu et al. 2012. Some of these species have been cultivated in large quantities of mycelial biomass by fermentation technology. 2012). Chang. sinensis which have been reported in the literature. Kiho. Paterson. nucleotides. 2013. & Wu. sinensis) is still a new area of research without much industrial application. Actually. Cephalosporium sinensis. this review summarizes and compares the recent studies on the production. Feng. The multiple pharmacological effects of C. Nie. Various methods have been used to improve the extraction efficiency such as treatment with enzymes. C. & Pan. carbon and nitrogen levels. In particular. Production of biomass and polysaccharides by mycelial fermentation Wild or natural C. Zhou. 3. In addition. EPSs). Phillips. for extraction of EPSs. More recently. Thus. Table 1 provides a summary of the strains. and <1. 2007. Ukai. Several species of fungi have been successfully isolated from the natural C. 2011. aminophenol. Ookubo.. Over the last 10 years.. & Manohar.. In particular. & Zhou. Tabata. fermentation technology has been widely exploited for largescale production of C. aqueous acidic/alkaline solutions. these reviews mainly focus on separation techniques. However. Sun. 1996. Kiho. 2007. sinensis are less involved.. and bioactivities. Extraction. 2009). respectively. isolation. structural features and bioactivities of intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs) from the fruiting body of natural C. sinensis derived polysaccharides. 2006. To improve the efficiency and productivity of mycelial fermentation processes. pH. sinensis have been shown to produce the similar pharmacological efficacy to the wild fungal materials and been widely applied to various health food products (Zhu et al. sinensis species (Dong & Yao. Zhong et al. However. 2009). Wang. sinensis can be attributed to its chemical ingredients. extraction. Sankar. The enhancement of extraction efficiency by UAE is mainly attributed to the mechanical effects of ultrasound. intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs) and extracellular polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides. geographical limitation. Hu. Ishurd. mannitol. Hui. Tolypocladium sinensis. cultured mycelium. the production of bioactive EPS by liquid fermentation of edible or medicinal fungi (e. minerals.

9 26 7. bean cake 20.0 (g/L) C. Leung and Wu (2007) Cha et al.0 vvm.0 4 24.0 18 22–25 5-L Jar fermentor: agitation speed. sinensis Sucrose 20.9 4. K2HPO4 0. and Jiang (2009) Wu. sinensis 1 Sucrose 3%.01% C. CaCl2 0. sinensis Cs-HK1 Glucose 40. MgSO4 0.0 2. peptone 2. yeast extract 0. MgSO4 0.6 (g/L) C.05%. corn steep powder 0.8 Yin. yeast extract 3 (g/L) C. 2006.2 Liu and Wu (2012) 25.0 (g/L) C. peptone 5. Jiang.NH4Cl 10 mmol/L C. Qiao. sucrose 2. yeast extract 3.1 40 7 22.5 48. Chen. Du.2 Hsu. Tang.0. Shiao. MgSO4Æ7H2O 0. Hou. MgSO4 2.3%. Fungi source Fermentation conditions Medium composition pH Culture vessel Mycelial EPS References biomass yield Period (g/L) (g/L) (days) 25 4. KH2PO4 0. vitamin B1 0. sinensis Sucrose 20.0.5 Rotary shaker at 120 rpm 7 5.78. yeast extract 15.05% (w/v) C. MgSO4Æ7H2O 0.2 Li. sinensis 383 Glucose 30. and Hao (2009) 2. vitamin B1 0.5%. K2HPO4 0. MgSO4Æ7H2O 0. agitation speed 130 rpm 5-L Jar fermenter: aeration rate 1. KH2PO4 0.5% (w/v) C. Zhu.0. peptone 10.0 28. Qin.05% Hirsutella sinensis Potato extract 20%.73 (g/L) C.5. peptone 15.5%. KH2PO4 1.4 Wang.01.9%. molasses 0. MgSO4Æ7H2O 0.2 vvm.4. and Liu (2007) 24 7. KH2PO4 1. bean cake 4%.6. sinensis CCRC36421 Sucrose 6.5%. palmitic acid 1. KH2PO4 4. 300 rpm 5-L Stirred-tank fermenter: aeration rate.4 Dong. sinensis Cs-HK1 Glucose 40.1.150 rpm Rotary shaker at 150 rpm Shaking incubator at 150 rpm 25 Rotary shaker at 150 rpm 5 3. KH2PO4 1.9 Choi et al (2010) 24 5. CSL 3%. peptone 0. 150 rpm Rotary shaker at 180 rpm Lang.. corn steep powder 25.7 7. yeast extract 5.4 54.5%. 2007 6. Hsieh et al.5 25 5. Qi.36 Table 1 – Mycelial biomass and EPS production by mycelial fermentation of Cordyceps sinensis. Hsieh.3 5–6 4 10. KH2PO4 0.0 Rotary shaker at 140 rpm 5 3. 2011 25 6 Shaking incubator at 150 rpm 7 14. Liu. yeast extract 2. agitation speed. and Chang (2002).4% (w/v) C. agitation speed. (NH4)2HPO4 0. MgSO4Æ7H2O 0. potato 200 (g/L) Temperature (°C) .CaCl2 0. Tween 80 1. sinensis CCRC36421 Rice bran 1.0. Zhao. Wang.5%.0 6 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 3 3 –4 7 22 JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS C.5%. sinensis 16 Sucrose 2%.15% (w/v) C. MgSO4Æ7H2O 1. sinensis CS001 Glucose 30. and Jia (2013) 250-mL shake flask 12.NH4Cl 10 mmol/L.17%.2 3. corn steep powder 5%.5 1000-mL shake flask: aeration rate 1 L/ min.5 (g/L). and Guan (2010) 27 6.2%. KH2PO4 3. and Yao (2005) Leung et al.1%. KH2PO4 0.5 (g/L). peptone 5.9 Quan. sinensis Glucose 30. (2005) Kim and Yun (2005) 16 20. MgSO4Æ7H2O 1.1 23. & Kuang. sinensis 762 Sucrose 50.5 250-mL shake flask at 160 rpm 7 0.4 7 20 4.

2002. Wang. and lyophilization (Li. Li. and the resultant material was precipitated by using ethanol. Wang. 2009. sinensis.JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS centrifuged and concentrated. Peng et al. & Tsim. Wang et al. and then further purified 6 (2 0 14 ) 3 3–47 37 through column chromatography. Su. Yan. Elution was conducted with an appropriate running buffer. 2 summarizes the isolation procedures of IPSs and EPSs from C. such as ion-exchange chromatography. Wang. the obtained polysaccharide precipitate was partially purified by deproteination and decoloration. . 2006.. and then centrifuged to harvest the crude EPSs. After extracting crude polysaccharides from C. Wu et al. sinensis. Dong. 2 – Schematic diagram for the extraction of intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis.. followed by collection. Wu et al. Wu et al. 2007.... 2003. Fig. & Wu. gel filtration chromatograph and affinity chromatography.. dialysis. Li et al. Fig. 2011. concentration. 2005.

.3) linkages of D-mannopyranose residues. Zhao et al... and fractionation protocols. 2005. 2009. Lafont. 2009. sinensis by gradient ethanol precipitation. Wang. Wang. 1999) isolated from C.. chemical structures. 2013. and other solvents. and bioactivities are summarized in Table 2. Yan et al.. Wang. Li et al.. 1984). Yan et al. Wu et al. 4. mannose (Man). Wu et al. periodate.. Wang. protein-containing galactomannan (CT-4N) isolated from a 5% sodium carbonate extract of C.6) linkages of mannopyranose and (1 ! 6) linkages of galactopyranose. 2009). Yan et al. Cui. 1 ! 6-mannopyranosyl (Manp). proteins and inorganic elements (Kiho et al. (1 ! 5 and/or 6)-linked b-D-galactofuranosyl residues. significant differences between CS-I and CT-4N were observed. Polysaccharides with different monosaccharide constituents and chemical structures have been isolated from wild or cultured C. Zhou et al. Zhang. Chen. respectively. 2006.2. Chemical structures IPSs from natural and cultured C. type of glycosidic linkage. Wu et al. and 1 ! 4(6)-galactopyranosyl (Galp) (Guan et al. Su. Yamane.. osmometry. molecular weight (MW). sinensis usually consist of glucose. Thus..... 2007. 2005. Wang et al. Siu.. and their complexes with different molecular sizes and for further identification of bioactive components. Different MWs ranging from 103 to 106 Da have been found in various source materials of C. Wang... 1977. 2009. Average molecular weight Various techniques such as viscometry. Recently. 2011). sinensis also represent a major class of bioactive compounds and may exert more important pharmacological effects than neutral polysaccharides. & Ukai. The sources. 2009). molecular properties. Wang.. sequence of monosaccharide. Many research groups have elucidated the chemical structures of purified IPSs and EPSs using infrared spectroscopy. Wang. 2009. sinensis and experimental conditions (Nie et al.. and galactose with 1 ! 4(6)-glucopyranosyl (Glcp). Wu et al.38 JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS 2010. 2009. and Wu (2013) recently isolated EPS fractions from a fermentation medium of C. high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) is a common method for determining the MW of polysaccharides and has also been used by many researchers for MW of IPSs and EPSs. proteins.. number and location of appended non-carbohydrate groups. Huang... sinensis. as well as (1 ! 3) and (1 ! 6) linkages of galactofuranose.3. Wu et al. Yan et al. Yan et al. 2006. configuration of glycosidic linkages. 2005.. 2011.. Wang et al. The earliest reports on IPSs by Miyazaki et al.. 2010.. Gong et al. In addition.. Peng et al. Kiho et al. high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection has been gradually developed to supplement traditional methods as it doesn’t require derivatization of monosaccharide with high resolution (Panagiotopoulos. Size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scatter detection is also an efficient method for the evaluation of the absolute MW of polysaccharides and provides greater resolution than traditional gel permeation chromatography (Boukari et al.e. 2009). sinensis mycelium had a comb-type structure composed of non-reducing terminal a-D-glucopyranosyl residues. and galactose (Gal) in various mole ratios (Cha et al.. only one study has been reported that EPS isolated from culture broth of C. 6 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 3 3 –4 7 2011. 2009.. However. Nie et al. high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nie et al. 1999.. 2010.. Oikawa. Miyazaki. the monosaccharide composition is usually glucose (Glu). solid-state NMR. (1977) and Kiho et al. Wang. but so far. Gong. & Xie. as well as (1 ! 2)-linked and branched a-D-mannopyranosyl residues. Yin. 2005). 2011. 1986. & Wang. 1996. a 1-phenyl-3-methy-5-pyrazolone pre-column derivation method has been used to determine monosaccharide composition (Chen. Hilliou et al. Monosaccharide composition Monosaccharide composition analysis usually involves cleavage of glycosidic linkages by acid hydrolysis. IPSs and EPSs may also contain uronic acid. Kiho.. and molecular chain conformation (Cui.. CS-I contains (1 ! 2. sinensis.. Siu. 2011). acid hydrolysis. i. a galactoglucomannan named CS-F10 (Kiho et al.. 2013.oxidation. & Wu. 2011). and Smith degradation (Akaki et al. liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (one and two dimensions). derivatization. & Kerherve´.. 1999. 2007). & Yamada. galactomannans from C. Hui. Nie. In addition. In addition. . Zhou. Lin. Wang et al. Both IPSs contained (1 ! 2)-linked D-mannopyranosyl main-chains and (1 ! 5)-linked D-galactofuranosyl side-chains.. 2013. Wang. 4. Kiho et al. & Wang.1. Yan et al. Wang et al. 1993. 2009). Yin et al. A wide range of bioactive polysaccharides of different structural characteristics from C. Physicochemical characterization The physicochemical and structural features of a polysaccharide mainly include monosaccharide composition. GC-mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Nie et al. mannose. 2011. In addition.. isolation protocols. 2011. Although many different IPSs and EPSs have been obtained.. sinensis was a b-glucan (Yamada et al. methylation analysis. 2007. sinensis have a core of D-mannopyranosyl residues and D-galactofuranosyl side chains. 2010).. Among them. 2011. Cheung. Recently. gas chromatography (GC). and HPLC have been used to determine the average polymer molecular weight (MW) and polydispersity index. and detection and quantification by GC. 2001). 2006. 2009. Kiho et al. Zhong et al. 4. 2011... isopropanol. However. 2013. These polysaccharide conjugates isolated from natural or cultured C. 1990. 2009. Wu et al.. Cheung. Sempe´re´. (1986) included a galactomannan designated CS-I from a hot-water extract and a water-soluble. some water-soluble IPSs isolated from . Their results suggest that the method is simple and workable for the initial fractionation of polysaccharides. sedimentation. Peng et al. sinensis have been investigated based on differences in source materials. Zhong et al. polysaccharides were simply and effectively fractionated. based on the different solubility of polysaccharides in ethanol. 2005. 2011. Wu et al.. 4. & Tang. and some differences in the linkage mode are observed. Wang. position of glycosidic linkage. Liu.. the IPSs are also found to only contain D-Glu to be composed of different polyglucans (Akaki et al. but CT-4 N has (1 ! 4. 2003.

Gal.3 82 kDa 40 kDa 36 kDa 6 kDa Cordysinocan EPS-1A AEPS-1 Poly-N-acetylhexosamine Antitumour activity Immunomodulating Immunomodulatory and antitumour Immunomodulating – Immunomodulating Antioxidant activity broth broth broth broth Wang et al.9 kDa Antitumour activity Wu et al. Hypoglycemic activity – Kiho et al. (2012) Yamada et al. (2005) Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Mycelium a-Glu 184 kDa – Wu et al. 1984 Gong et al. (2005).75 15 kDa 210 kDa CS-F10 Galactoglucomann CSP-1 Mycelium Hot water b-Glu 13. (1996) Kiho et al. (2012).0:1. Cheung et al.(1 ! 4)-b-D. Sheng et al.6 kDa Wu et al.05 M acetate buffer Hot water Neutral (1 ! 3). Zhu.4-linked-Glcp Antioxidant activity Antifibrotic effect Cordyceps ophioglossoides Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Tolypocladium sinensis Culture filtrate Culture broth Culture broth Ethanol Ethanol 95% Ethanol b-Glu Man:Gal:Glc = 10. Siu et al. (2007) Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Mycelium 0.3:3. Glu. chemical structures and bioactivities.7 kDa Mannoglucan Antitumour activity Wu et al. (2009) Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Mycelium Hot water Glc:Man:Gal = 2:1:1 460 kDa Mycelium Mycelium Mycelium Hot water Hot water Hot water Glc:Man:Gal = 2. (2011) Yan et al.1 kDa Man. nov. (2010) Yan et al. (2009) Wang et al. (2011). Zhang..9 kDa Tolypocladium sinensis Mycelium Hot water a-Glu 1180 kDa Tolypocladium sinensis Mycelium a-Glu 1150 kDa AIPS a-D-(1 ! 4)-glucan (86%). (2013) 39 .Table 2 – Polysaccharides originated from Cordyceps sinensis fungi: source. (2005) Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Mycelium Glu:Man = 9:1 7. Li et al. 2009 Yan et al. (2011) 6 (2 0 14 ) 3 3–47 Polysaccharides Extraction source medium JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS Living strains Shen et al.3:1 Glu(95%). 2011 Chen.6:1 Man:Glu: Gal = 23:1:2. Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Mycelium Mycelium Hot water Hot water Gal:Glu:Man = 43:33:24 Glu:Man:Gal = 1:0. 1990 Yang et al. 1986 Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Mycelium Hot water 5% Sodium carbonate Hot water Gal:Glc:Man = 62:28:10 45 kDa CS-F30 Hypoglycemic activity Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Cephalosporium sinensis Chen sp. Zhang. Components Molecular weight Linkages and types Bioactivities References Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Mycelium Mycelium Man:Gal = 1:1 Man:Gal = 3:5 – 23 kDa CS-I Galactomannan CT-4 N Galactomannan – – Miyazaki et al.05 M phosphate buffer 0.. 1999 Li et al..-glycan (CPS-2) WIPS a-D-(1 ! 4)-glucan Man:Glu:Gal = 3. (2011) Cheung et al. Chen et al.4:2:1 Glu:Man:Gal = 15. & Kuang. (1 ! 6) -a-D-glucose (14%) Tolypocladium sinensis Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Mycelium Mycelium 1. (2010) Wang. (2011) Nie et al. (2006). (2005) Paecilomyces sinensis(Cs-4) Mycelium Hot water b-Glu 12.glucan (1 ! 3)-b-D-glucan Cordyglucans SCI-I Hypoglycemic activity Antioxidant activity.2:3. (2003).1:0. (2009) Wang et al.8:2. Kiho et al.04% NaBH4 Hot water Hot water Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity Antioxidant activity Immunomodulating Protection of chronic renal failure Antitumour and Immuno-stimulating effects Antitumour and Immuno-stimulating effects Kim (2010) Cephalosporium sinense Chen Cephalosporium sinense Chen Cephalosporium sinense Chen CS-Pp 1.6-branched chain ! 3-a-D-Glcp-1 ! 3-b-DGlcp-1 ! 3-b-D-Galp-1 ! CPS1 Glucomannogalactan CAPS Galactoglucomanno. Gal – 260 kDa APS CBHP a-1.3:2.9:1 8.6:0. (1993). (1977) Kiho et al.6:1 Glcp:GlcUp = 8:1 ManNH2:GalNH2: Gal= 1. Liu.6 632 kDa 43 kDa 104 kDa CO-1 CS-81002 EPS Paecilomyces sinensis Tolypocladium sinensis Tolypocladium sinensis Tolypocladium sinensis Culture Culture Culture Culture Ethanol 95% Ethanol Ethanol Ethanol Glu:Man:Gal = 2. Uronic acid 27 kDa Man:Glu: Gal = 4:11:1 43. Man.25 M NaOH / 0... Li et al.3-b-D-glucan with 1. (2006) Glc:Man:Gal = 21:2:1 – Immunomodulating Akaki et al.

which make up small rings and helical structures. & Wu. 1981. sinensis have been identified as glucomannogalactans. Similarly. sinensis mycelium.. 1995). Recently.6)-D-glucose every twelve residues on average. overabundance of mucus and tears. viscosity analysis based on the theory of dilute polymer solutions. Very recently. 2007). 2013). Leung. which had a linear backbone of (1 ! 3)-linked a-D-Glcp residues with two branches. scanning electron microscopy. and computer-assisted energy minimization methods have also been used to analyze the chain conformation of polysaccharides (Brant. Ma. 1955). Wang. & Yang. (2005) found that cordyglucans obtained from C. The relationships among solution properties. sinensis polysaccharides. it can be concluded that heteropolysaccharides are the most common bioactive polysaccharides in the fruiting bodies and mycelia of C. Diluted solution theory. Siu et al. Peng et al. 2011. 1981. Meanwhile. sensitivity to cold. Wang. chronic cough and wheezing. Wu et al. Yin et al. Pe´rez. & Fujita. polysaccharides in aqueous solutions exhibit different forms of chain conformations. sinensis. Bioactivities Based on TCM theories. Some researchers have also reported that IPSs are polyglucans with different structural characteristics. & Willett. i. sinensis polysaccharides in aqueous solutions require further investigations using other technological means. and their biological activities are difficult to elucidate. Zhang. AFM.. which were characterized as a-D-glucans with a backbone of (1 ! 4) linked a-D-glucopyranosyl (Glcp) (>60%).6-branched chains. whose backbone were mainly composed of (1 ! 2) and (1 ! 4)-linkage of mannose. 1984. EPS-1A was found to be a slightly branched polysaccharide with its backbone being composed of (1 ! 6)a-D-glucose residues (77%) and (1 ! 6)-a-D-mannose residues (23%). sinensis CsHK1 have been analyzed by AFM together with the Congo red test. Zhang. Wang. of the mycelial biomass of a C. The detailed chain conformations of C. In addition to the IPSs extracted from the mycelium or fruiting bodies of C. various helical forms. & Verli. Jiang. For example. However. a novel poly-N-acetylhexosamine (polyhexNAc) of about 6 kDa was isolated from the low-MW fraction of EPS produced from the liquid fermentation of C. WIPS is found to have a short branch of (1 ! 6)-linked a-D-Glcp (14%).7%) as the side chains attached to C-6 of (1 ! 3)-linked D-Glcp residue (Wu et al. chain conformations of polysaccharides. sinensis.3-b-D-glucan with some 1. Norisuye. (2010) reported the chemical structure of a water-soluble polysaccharide (CPS-2) isolated from cultured C. the random coils or aggregated networks of EPS-1 formed in aqueous solution were transformed into the single helices after sulfation (Yan. PolFachin. 4. sinensis 6 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 3 3 –4 7 Cs-HK1. Cheung. & Engelsen. Li. The molecular structure was elucidated as a [-4-b-DManNAc-(1 ! 3)-b-D-GalNAc-(1 ! ] disaccharide repeating unit in the main chain with a Gal branch randomly occurring at the 3-position of ManNAc (Chen. (1 ! ). such as static and dynamic light scattering. Its use includes treatment of chronic lower back pain. attached to the main chain by (1 ! 6) glycosidic bonds at every seventh a-D-Glcp unit.. sinensis was a 1. and aggregate (Ding. Peng et al. circular dichroism analysis. the major effects of C. Conformational features The activities of polysaccharides depend on their MWs. Yan et al.. Gong et al. SCP-I. Fernandes. sinensis mycelium has a backbone of predominantly (1 ! 4)-linked a-D-Glcp (61. A few reports are available on the solution properties and chain conformations of C. whereas AIPS is a highly linear glucan. double helix. 2009). AFM-based single-molecule force spectroscopy. 2011.6)-linkage of glucose (Nie et al. Furthermore. Wu et al. sinensis Cs-HK1. (2011) isolated the two polysaccharides. (1 ! 3)-linkage of galactose. IPSs obtained from Cs-HK1 mycelium exhibit random coils in aqueous alkaline solutions (Wang. from hot water and dilute alkaline extracts. Furthermore. Akaki et al. Branching occurred at the O-3 position of (1 ! 6)-a-D-mannose residues of the backbone with (1 ! 6)a-D-mannose residues and (1 ! 6)-a-D-glucose residues and terminated with b-D-galactose residues. (1990) reported an EPS called CS-81002 isolated from the fermentation medium of C. & Wu. & Fujita. which was composed mostly of a a-(1 ! 4)-D-glucose and a a-(1 ! 3)-D-mannose branched with a-(1 ! 4. a novel neutral mannoglucan isolated from C. WIPS and AIPS. and chain conformations. and NMR spectroscopy (Yang. optical rotation. and Lu (1999) firstly developed a method to study the morphology of a IPS by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Norisuye. molecular modeling. Wang. For instance. single helix. such as random coil (Senti et al.. Recently. Yan et al. & Wu.0%). sinensis mycelia is mainly composed of a (1 ! 3)-b-D-glucan linked backbone with short (1 ! 6)-b-D-glucan linked branches. & Zhang. Wang. In general. EPSs isolated from the culture broth of C. is a D-glucan containing an a-(1 ! 4)-linked backbone and a branched short a-(1 ! 6)-linkage. 2009. 1998). 1996. Their results show that this IPS has a multi-branched structure and various linkages between adjacent monosaccharides. triple helix (Kashiwagi. (2009) reported that an insoluble polysaccharide (CS-Pp) purified from the cultured mycelium of C. the morphological characteristics and chain conformation of EPS isolated from a mycelial culture of C. a-D-Glcp and a-D-pyrano-glucuronic acid (GlcUp). transmission electron microscope. Results suggest that this EPS forms large interwoven networks in aqueous solution and is primarily connected with triplehelical conformation and occasionally single-helical conformation in solution. and dynamic light scattering.4.. 2009). sinensis fungus Cs-HK1.. sinensis are ‘‘to enrich the lung yin and yang’’. Mazeau. and (1 ! 3. sinensis and characterized as a branched heteropolysaccharide. sinensis have been reported.e. 2013). Sato. Kouwijzer. Strlegel. Wang et al. 5.. (2010) reported the isolation and structure of EPS-1A from a fermentation broth of C. In addition. 2010. respectively. In addition. and blood .40 JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS the cultured C. sinensis. Yan et al. fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. 2011). with single a-D-Manp units (10. Plattner. (2011) reported that on the acidic polysaccharide AEPS-1. chemical structures. 1999). (2006) also reported that the structure of a polysaccharide (SCP-I) isolated from C.3%) together with a proportion of (1 ! 3)-linked a-D-Glcp residues (28. Based on the above reports. Cai. namely.

Chen. To confirm this finding.. Yu. EPSs prepared from cultured C. 2007). & Motley. Moreover. Lin. and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in B16 melanoma-bearing mice. and studies have suggested that C.. & Ahn. Phagocyte release is an early step in the response of macrophages to pathogen invasion of the human body. B-cells.. Paterson. sinensis fungus could increase the expressions of TNF-a. 2005). nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species] (Medzhitov. Chen. which is associated with their putative role as biological response modifiers (Moradali.g.JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS in phlegm due to consumption as a result of kidney yang (shenyangqu). 2005). cFos. 2008). Choi. 2007). 2000)... 2009. This finding indicates that the immunomodulatory components of cultured C. 2008. Bauer. this EPS can markedly prevent H22 tumour growth and elevate immunocyte activity in H22 tumour-bearing mice. (2) enhancement of immunity against bearing tumours. 5. and Lewis lung 6 (2 0 14 ) 3 3–47 41 carcinoma (Wasser. EPSs can inhibit tumour growth in the lungs and liver of mice and can be a potential adjuvant in cancer therapy (Yang et al. & Han. convert M2 macrophages to M1 phenotype by activating NF-jB pathway. 2007). 2011. and Zhang (2012) reported that an acid polysaccharide fraction (APSF) from C.7 and in mouse splenocyte cells by activating the IjB-NF-jB pathway (Akaki et al. sinensis have the same immunomodulatory activity of stimulation of the release of several major cytokines in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264. and (4) prevention of the spread or migration of tumour cells in the body (Moradali et al. & Suh. IL-6. Qiu.. Li. & Wu. Chen.. 1998). Recent reports have shown that polysaccharides isolated from various natural or cultured C. 5. Wang. In addition. Song. EPSs obtained from a cultured broth of C.. Sheng. 2011). EPS may induce dendritic cell sarcoma (DCS) cells to exhibit mature characteristics. such as Sarcoma 180 solid tumour. 2002. More recently.1. CD11b expression. The multiple bioactivities and health benefits of IPSs and EPSs are summarized and compared in detail below. Polysaccharides represent a major class of bioactive constituents of C. Shiao.. EPSs can also stimulate the maturation and activation of murine and human dendritic cells by inhibiting STAT3 activation (Huang. Yin. Immunomodulatory activity Immunomodulation is the most notable biological function of natural polysaccharides. Zhang.2. Lee. Chang. sinensis are effective against sarcoma 180. the prevention of the onset of tumour by oral administration is used to evaluate the antitumour activity of polysaccharides in vivo. 2008. Yu. & Janeway. promote the apoptosis of IL-1. reduces asthma. Song. sinensis induce the production of TNF-a. Hou. 2009. 1990). & Zhang. lowers blood pressure. sinensis is found to inhibit cell proliferation. Many studies have demonstrated that both of IPSs and EPSs have strong antitumour activity through the above proposed mechanisms. 2009. The majority of studies on IPSs and EPSs immunomodulation have been evaluated by activating macrophages. Macrophages can also defend against pathogen invasion by secreting proinflammatory cytokines [e.g. and fungi.. contributing to its health effects and pharmacological activities according to a large number of animal and clinical studies.. Antitumour activity Since the first report on the antitumour activity of mushroom polysaccharides in the 1960s (Chihara. IPSs obtained from the mycelia of C. sinensis mainly reside in the culture filtrate and are similar to previously reported ones (Gong et al. & Zhang. is found to significantly enhance the neutral red uptake capacity of peritoneal macrophages and spleen lymphocyte proliferation in B16-bearing mouse.. Wang. (3) direct antitumour activity to induce the apoptosis of tumour cells. the ability to induce apoptosis has been identified and utilized in successful cancer chemotherapeutics (Chen et al. 2013). 2002. sinensis. Chen. Yang. and IL-10 dose-dependently and elevate phagocytes in monocytes and PMN. and strengthens heartbeat according to Western medicine (Zhu et al. and phagocytes at the same concentration (Cheung et al.. 1999). Shin. Wasser. This phenomenon supports the assumption that antitumour activity is related to the promoted cytokine expression of immunocytes.. 2005). with almost 90% inhibition in ICR/JCL mice (Wu et al. & Hedjaroude. and Zhang (2011) investigated the effects of EPSs on immunocytes in vitro. & Wang. and macrophage-dependent immune system responses (Koh. Zhang et al.and platelet-derived growth .. 2011). As a simple method. The metastasis of B16 melanoma cells in lungs and liver is also significantly inhibited. The currently accepted mechanism by which mushroom polysaccharides exert antitumour effects can be summarized as follows: (1) prevention of oncogenesis by oral administration of polysaccharides isolated from medicinal mushrooms. Ehrlich solid tumour. tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-1] and releasing cytotoxic and inflammatory molecules [e. animals. Mostafavi. sinensis significantly lowers c-Myc. & Weis. Zhang et al. Yuan. Yoon et al. and results indicate that EPS treatment significantly promotes the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-a and IFN-c. Zhang. Osmundson. Zhong et al. IPSs can also activate many immune cells to modulate the release of cell signal messengers such as cytokines. T-cells. Mushroom polysaccharides exert inhibitory effects toward many kinds of tumours. Suh. and reduce the expression of IL-10 of Ana-1 cells. 2009). Cheng. and the mechanism involved is probably related to the inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway and promotion of the NF-jB signal pathway (Song et al. Sarcoma 37. Furthermore. Li. Yang. Yoshida sarcoma. researchers have isolated structurally diverse polysaccharides with strong antitumour activity from plants. Ghods. but IPSs only moderately induce TNF-a release. 2008).. 2007. Song. 1969). C. Chen. sinensis can induce apoptosis (Buenz. indicating that EPSs inhibit tumour cells mainly by activating the host’s immune system (Zhang. & Zheng. Yuan. IL-12 and iNOS. Thus. A 410 kDa polysaccharide fraction (IPS) isolated from C. The immuno–stimulating and immunosuppressive properties of IPSs and EPSs have been assessed on natural killer cells. 1997. On the other hand.. and increased cytokine production in immune cells has been studied in mice and humans (Chen. An EPS isolated from one of the anamorph strains of C. 2010. sinensis also has antibacterial activity. Peng et al. Yoon. EPSs exert their antitumour effect mainly through the enhancement and activation of the immune response of the host organism. sinensis belonging to Tolypocladium spp. Shen. Zhou et al. & Wang. Finally. 2005. 1997. Kuo. 2007).

. no studies revealed that EPSs isolated from culture broth of C.. up to now. 1994). Yang. including fungal polysaccharides using the Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced and alloxan-induced animal models (Hwang. structural characterization. 5. 1996. Xu. including glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in cells. and the bioactivities of polysaccharides from . Cheung.. and 9. & Bitsch. sinensis fungus by ethanol precipitation in vitro. & Lin. enhancing TPL-induced apoptosis and inhibiting the expression of NF-jB and caspases 3. crude polysaccharides obtained from mycelium of C. Yan et al. 2012. Wang. Song. Huang. natural antioxidants isolated from plants. Ni. and serum. sinensis could induce apoptosis. arteriosclerosis. 2002). & Lin. isolation. Shen. haemolysis induction. Schlesier. and cultured Cordyceps mycelia have antioxidative activity as strong as that of natural C. 1999). such as diabetes mellitus. protecting against H2O2-induced cell damage. Further testing suggests that several forms of IPSs prepared by ethanol precipitation and DEAE column chromatography have great antioxidative activities. Zhang. and hypoglycemic effects. sinensis is a well-known and precious medicinal fungus in China for its ability to treat a broad spectrum of human diseases. Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are probably among these proteins as revealed by results of immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting (Yang. 2005. Wu et al. 5. 6. Antioxidant activity has become one of the focuses of studies on mechanisms of the nutraceutical and therapeutical effects of TCM using various assay methods and activity indices (Dong & Yao. catalase. an APS has been isolated from Tolypocladium sinensis. Polysaccharides have been identified as the major active components of C. Conclusions and future perspectives C. 1999. 2009). Results demonstrate that Cs-HK1 shows moderate antioxidative activities. recently studied the antioxidant action of an EPS (named CsHK1) isolated from the mycelial liquid culture of C. Coatrieux.. and acidic degradation can improve its antioxidative activities and radical-scavenging capacities (Leung. Similarly. 2008.. 2008). Zhao.. 2003). sinensis that possesses strong oxidative activity. Wong. antitumour. Li. sinensis and mycelial biomass of the Cordyceps anamorph fungus Cephalosporium sinensis of various sources using xanthine oxidase. Kuo.4. However. Kiho et al. A polysaccharide named CSP-1 is then obtained using activity-guided fractionation. Yin et al. fungi. nephritis. & Yun. 6.42 JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS 6 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 3 3 –4 7 factor-BB-activated human mesangial cells in vitro. Ingueneau. & Halliwell. another anamorph strain of C. Zhong et al. 2012. Fermentation production..5. and for its ability to enhance the quality of life and physical performance. In addition. Li et al. EPS fractions were isolated from the fermentation broth of Cs-HK1 by gradient precipitation with ethanol at different volume ratios to the liquid medium exhibited moderate antioxidant activities and their activities showed a significant dependence on the protein content (Huang et al. 2013. and by reducing the MDA level in the liver and brain of tumour-bearing mice (Chen et al. and prevent the tyrosine phosphorylation of human mesangial proteins. & Wang. CSP-1 with a MW of 210 kDa is found to have strong antioxidative activity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells.. sinensis. Dong. and cancer (Negre-Salvayre. and Tsim (2001) studied the antioxidative activity of water extracts of natural C. This APS is found to markedly protect PC12 cells from H2O2-induced cell injury by increasing glutathione peroxidase.. 2014. 2009). & Salvayre. Yamac et al. and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Kiho et al. Li.. 2009. 2013). sinensis. Wu.. lipid peroxidation. Very recently. in tumour-bearing mice. Antioxidant activity Oxidation phenomena have been implicated in many illnesses. increasing plasma testosterone levels. Yan. 7. and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. sinensis with a wide range of bioactivities including immunomodulation.3. 1993. Zhang. Kiho et al. IPSs extracted with hot water and alkalis have significant hypoglycemic effects on normal and alloxandiabetic mice and STZ-diabetic rats in vivo by reducing the plasma glucose level in both STZ-induced diabetic rats and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Chen. Yao et al. Therefore. Phillips. 2006). 2008). Wu. kidney protection. 2011). & Zhang. Al-Assaf. and Tong (2009) reported the effects of the polysaccharide fraction of C. Wang. as well as other important bioactivities. Their results show that Cordyceps generally possesses strong antioxidative activity in all assays. 2009).. 2009. sinensis also affect the induction of apoptosis and expression of p53 gene in SP2/0 cells in vitro (Liu et al. and hypoglycemic effects. Harwat. thereby increasing the serum insulin levels in diabetic animals (Li et al.. antitumour. 5. and activation of major antioxidant enzymes. 2006. A few studies have reported on the antioxidative activities of EPSs isolated from culture broths of C. Shao. IPSs also affect the antioxidative activity of H22-bearing mice by enhancing the SOD activity of the liver. Zhang et al. IPSs also significantly lowered the levels of plasma triglyceride and cholesterol in mice and increase the activities of hepatic glucokinase. including anti-fibrosis. and lipid peroxidation. Other bioactivities As aforementioned. the immune system. Very recently. & Phillips. especially those related to the functions of the lung and kidney. anti-fatigue. and marine algae represent most useful nutraceuticals and functional foods for health protection and disease prevention (Gutteridge. Bo¨hm. and radiation protection (Nie et al. antioxidation. Ho. Alzheimer’s disease. sinensis demonstrate immunoregulation. IPSs and EPSs obtained from wild or cultured C. 2010.. Hwang et al. sinensis (PSCS) on triptolide (TPL)-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells and the molecular events and signaling pathway. & Shiao. brain. & Benzie. antioxidation. 2010. hexokinase. as well as the GSH-Px activity of the liver and brain Hypoglycemic effect Many research groups have evaluated the hypoglycaemic effects of natural products. 2006). 2000. (2003) used column chromatography to purify a polysaccharide-enriched fraction isolated from cultured C. sinensis. 2011.. as well as by reducing lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (Shen. & Wu. Hsieh.

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