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Chapter 4: Forest Society and Colonialism

Q.1. What is Deforestation ? What are its causes?
The disappearance of forests is referred to as Deforestation.
It’s causes are:Expansion of Agriculture :
As population increased over the centuries and the demand for food went up , peasants
extended the boundaries of cultivation, clearing forests and breaking new land.
Ship Building :
By the early nineteenth century, oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a
problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy. By the 1820s, search parties were sent to
explore the forest resources of India. Within a decade, trees were being felled on a
massive
scale and vast quantities of timber were being exported from India.
Expansion of Railways :
The spread of railways from the 1850s created a new demand. Railways were essential
for
colonial trade and for the movement of imperial troops. To run locomotives, wood was
needed as fuel, and to lay railway lines sleepers were essential to hold the tracks
together.
Forests around the railway tracks fast started disappearing.
Setting up of plantations :
Large areas of natural forests were also cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber
plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities. The colonial
government took over the forests, and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap
rates.
Theseare
areas
enclosed
and cleared
of forests,
tea or coffee.
Q.2. What
thewere
causes
for expansion
of agriculture
inand
the planted
colonial with
period?
As population increased over the centuries and the demand for food went up ,
peasants extended the boundaries of cultivation, clearing forests and breaking
new
land.
The British directly encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar,
wheat and cotton.
In the early nineteenth century, the colonial state thought that forests were
unproductive. They were considered to be wilderness that had to be brought under
cultivation so that the land could yield agricultural products and revenue, and
enhance
the income of the state.
Q.3. What were the steps taken by the British government for the forest management in
India in the early period ?
i) The British decided to invite a German expert, Dietrich Brandis, for advice, and
made
him the first Inspector General of Forests in India.
ii) Brandis set up the Indian Forest Service in 1864 and helped formulate the Indian
Forest
Act of 1865.
iii) The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906. The system
they taught here was called ‘scientific forestry’.

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iv) After the Forest Act was enacted in 1865, it was amended twice, once in 1878 and
then
in 1927. The 1878 Act divided forests into three categories: reserved, protected and
village forests.
Q.4. How are forests classified according to the act of 1878?
The 1878 Act divided forests into three categories: reserved, protected and
village
forests.
Q.5. How did the villagers and foresters differ in the ideas of a good forest?
Villagers wanted forests with a mixture of species to satisfy different needs – fuel,
fodder,
leaves. etc. The forest department on the other hand wanted trees which were suitable
for
building ships or railways. They needed trees that could provide hard wood, and were
tall
Q.6.
What
are the
uses
of forest
products
? were promoted and others were
and
straight.
Sodifferent
particular
species
like teak
and sal
cut.
In forest areas, people use forest products – roots, leaves, fruits, and tubers – for
many
things. Fruits and tubers are nutritious to eat, especially during the monsoons
before
the harvest has come in.
Herbs are used for medicine, wood for agricultural implements like yokes and
ploughs,
bamboo makes excellent fences and is also used to make baskets and umbrellas.
A dried scooped-out gourd can be used as a portable water bottle.
Almost everything is available in the forest –leaves can be stitched together to
make
disposable plates and cups, the siadi (Bauhinia vahlii) creeper can be used to make
ropes,
thorny
bark affected
of the semur
tree
used to grate
Q.7. How
wereand
thethe
lives
of people
after (silk-cotton)
the Forest Act
of is
1865?
vegetables.
i) The
Forest Act meant severe hardship for villagers across the country. After the Act,
Oil for cooking and to light lamps can be pressed from the fruit of the mahua tree.
all
their everyday practices – cutting wood for their houses, grazing their cattle,
collecting fruits and roots, hunting and fishing – became illegal.
ii) People were now forced to steal wood from the forests, and if they were caught, they
were at the mercy of the forest guards who would take bribes from them.
iii) Women who collected fuel wood were especially worried. It was also common for
police constables and forest guards to harass people by demanding free food from
them.
Q.8. What was shifting cultivation or swidden agriculture ?
This was a traditional agricultural practice in many parts of Asia, Africa and South
America.
In shifting cultivation, parts of the forest are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds are sown in the
ashes after the first monsoon rains, and the crop is harvested by October-November. Such
plots
are cultivated for a couple of years and then left fallow for 12 to 18 years for the forest to
grow
back. A mixture of crops is grown on these plots. In central India and Africa it could be
millets,
in Brazil manioc, and in other parts of Latin America maize and beans.
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In Assam. NM ISB 81 . and were forced to work instead in factories. 0ver 80.000 wolves were killed for reward in the period 1875-1925. Therefore. both men and women from forest communities like Santhals and Oraons from Jharkhand. many communities were forcibly displaced from their homes in the forests. Explain how hunting became a major causeresisted for reducing the large population of animals rebellions.157 tigers and 2. The Maharaja of Sarguja alone shot 1.12. there was the added danger of the flames spreading and burning valuable timber. How did changes in the forest management in the colonial period affect Plantation Workers? New opportunities of work did not always mean improved wellbeing for the people. hunting of tigers and other animals had been part of the culture of the court and nobility for centuries.000 tigers. When a forest was burnt. 150. during the colonial period ? In India. Shifting cultivation also made it harder for the government to calculate taxes. while some through and small Q. 4. Why did the British government ban shifting cultivation? What was the result? OR How did the changes in forest management in the colonial period affect the shifting cultivators? 1. many pastoralist and nomadic communities like the Korava. under government supervision.10.11. wolves and other large animals on the grounds that they posed a threat to cultivators. How did changes in the forest management in the colonial period affect the firms trading in timber/forest produce ? With the coming of the British. Q. The British government gave many large European trading firms the sole right to trade in the forest products of particular areas. the government decided to ban shifting cultivation. Their wages were low and conditions of work were very bad. As a result. mines and plantations. Karacha and Yerukula of the Madras Presidency lost their livelihoods.9. 2. A British administrator. Grazing and hunting by local people were restricted. killed 400 tigers. They gave rewards for the killing of tigers. 3.13. They felt that land which was used for cultivation every few years could not grow trees for railway timber.000 leopards up to 1957. They could not return easily to their home villages from where they had been recruited. Q. Q. Some had to change occupations. and Gonds from Chhattisgarh were recruited to work on tea plantations. In the process.Q. the tiger came to be seen as a sporting trophy. trade was completely regulated by the government. Gradually. How did changes in the forest management in the colonial period affect Nomadic and pastoralist communities ? Grazing and hunting by local people were restricted.000 leopards and 200. Some of them began to be called ‘criminal tribes’. George Yule.

Since each village knows where its boundaries lie. 3. began circulating between villages. 1. the forest and the mountain. Every is oneofbig hunt rebel whereagainst the headmen of villages in a pargana (cluster of Q. a lump of earth. Whyyear did there the people Bastar the British? villages) 1. colonial officials. NM ISB 82 . the local people look after all the natural resources within that boundary. independence period ? In the 1970s. 3. where reservation first took place. What were the measures taken by the people of Bastar to protect forests and environment? 1. Bazaars were looted. stop shifting cultivation. in bazaars and at Thus the or colonial lawsthe disturbed their life and they protested. many people speak of Gunda Dhur. In addition to the Earth. these came to be known as ‘forest villages’.The people of Bastar believe that each village was given its land by the Earth.15. 2. festivals wherever headmen and priests of several villages were assembled. they pay a small fee called devsari. In 1910. dand or man in exchange. from village Nethanar. including forests. and in return. and grain redistributed. Then came the terrible famines. 4. Most ofan those who were attacked in some way associated the colonial state and its Q. 5. 6. the houses of officials and traders. Give example of the practicewere of keeping the people out of with the forest in the post oppressive laws. 2. in 1899-1900 and again in 1907-1908. the World Bank proposed that 4. People of other villages were displaced without any notice or compensation. they look after the earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival. Some villages also protect their forests by engaging watchmen and each household contributes Some grain to pay them. 2. For long. and meet and discuss issues of concern. The initiative was taken by the Dhurwas of the Kanger forest. villagers had been suffering from increased land rents and frequent demands for free labour and goodsHow did the people of Bastar organize the rebellion against the British? Q.14. It was only after protests by local environmentalists that the project was stopped. 3. 5. Every village contributed something to the rebellion expenses.Q. If people from a village want to take some wood from the forests of another village.600 hectares of natural sal forest should be replaced by tropical pine to provide pulp for the paper industry. schools and police stations were burnt and robbed. as an important figure in the movement. 4. Some villages were allowed to stay on in the reserved forests on the condition that they worked free for the forest department in cutting and transporting trees. These were actually messages inviting villagers to rebel against the British. and protecting the forest from fires. the people of Bastar were very worried.17. chillies and arrows. by People began to gather and discuss their issues in their village councils. hunting and collection of forest produce. Subsequently. Although there was no single leader. mango boughs. When the colonial government proposed to reserve two-thirds of the forest in 1905.16. they show respect to the spirits of the river.

Amongst those who helped organise it were Samin’s sons-in-law. Local forest communities and environmentalists today are thinking of different forms of forest management. rai. Q. it was difficult for the Indonesian forest service to get this land back. What was Blandongdiensten system ? The Dutch first imposed rents on land being cultivated in the forest and then exempted some villages from these rents if they worked collectively to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. In Java. devarakudu. By 1907. forest villagers were given small wages. Soon a widespread movement developed. devarakudu. instead of leaving it to the forest guards. 3. a teak forest village.Q. destroying sawmills. What are sarnas. began questioning state ownership of the forest. In many cases. earth and wood. the Dutch followed ‘a scorched earth’ policy. What was the Samin’s Challenge? Around 1890.20. devarakudu. Some of the Saminists protested by lying down on their land when the Dutch came to survey it. just before the Japanese occupied the region. ? Sarnas . but their right to cultivate forest land was restricted. with each household taking it in turns. The government has recognized that in order to meet this goal. He argued that the state had not created the wind.21. Some villages have been patrolling their own forests. After the war. etc. rai. Kav. instead of rent exemption. Later. across India. governments across Asia and Africa have begun to see that scientific forestry and the policy of keeping forest communities away from forests has resulted in many conflicts. and the forest department cut trees freely to meet British war needs. etc. are all sacred groves protected by communities. the people who live near the forests must be involved. This was known as the blandongdiensten system. forcing forest villagers to cut down forests. dense forests have survived only because villages protected them in sacred groves known as sarnas. The Japanese then exploited the forests recklessly for their own war industries.19. rai. kav. What are the New developments in Forestry? Since the 1980s. Q. These forests are dedicated to Gods or snakes and cutting of trees in these areas are not allowed. kav. Conservation of forests rather than collecting timber has become a more important goal. while others refused to pay taxes or fines or perform labour. Q. from Mizoram to Kerala. water. and burning huge piles of giant teak logs so that they would not fall into Japanese hands. Many villagers used this opportunity to expand cultivation in the forest. As in India. so it could not own it.000 families were following his ideas.18.Why are forest affected by wars? OR How did the First World War and the Second World War affect forests? The First World War and the Second World War had a major impact on forests. Surontiko Samin of Randublatung village. Q. In India. working plans were abandoned at this time.22. people’s need for agricultural land has brought them into conflict with the forest department’s desire to control the land and exclude people from it. etc. NM ISB 83 .

the snow melted and the mountainsides were lush green. 3) Trace the movement of pastoral nomads of India on the plateaus. forming what is known as a kafila. By April they moved north and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti. In Garhwal and Kumaon. Most of them were shepherds. The dry scrub forests here provided pasture for their herds. In winter. reaping their summer harvest and sowing their winter crop. Several households came together for this journey. The Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh had a similar cycle of seasonal movement. forming what is known as a kafila. By the end of April they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds. the Gujjar cattle herders came down to the dry forests of 2)the What is meant by kafila? in the the winter. once again. The variety of grasses that sprouted provided rich nutritious forage for the animal herds. By end September the Bakarwals were on the move again. some were blanket weavers. With the onset of summer. In bhabar winter. when highand mountains covered with snow. when the high mountains were covered with snow. The dry scrub forestsKinnauris. Here the shepherds were welcomed by Konkani peasants. Many of them migrated to this region in the nineteenth century in search of pastures for their animals. In the monsoon this tract became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks. On the way they stopped once again in the villages of Lahul and Spiti. By September they began their return movement. By October they move to Konkan. back to their winter base. This was a flourishing agricultural tract with high rainfall and rich soil.Ch 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World ( Not for ISB students) 1) Trace the movements of pastorals of India in the mountains? The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of goat and sheep. to the summer meadows. The Dhangar shepherds stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. By the end of April they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds. Then they descended with their flock to their winter grazing ground on the Siwalik hills. i) Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. Next April. and still others were buffalo herders. thebugyals pastoralists lived This pattern of cyclical movement is common to Bhotiyas. they began their march with their goats and sheep. NM ISB 84 . Several households came together for this journey. ii) Nothing but dry crops like bajra could be sown here. this time on their downward journey. Sherpas and with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. went upwere to the high meadows – the – in summer. here provided pasture for their herds. they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range.

cattle and other goods to villagers in exchange for grain and fodder. Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on the stubble. 4) Trace the movement of pastoralist nomads in the plains. Rajasthan. iv) In Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh the Gollas herded cattle. NM ISB 85 . During the monsoons. The Kurumas and Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. the Raikas stayed in their home villages. i) They had to judge how long the herds could stay in one area. One group of Raikas – known as the Maru (desert) Raikas – herded camels and another group reared sheep and goat. Punjab. ii) They needed to calculate the timing of their movements. 7) How did the ‘waste land rules’ affect the life of pastoralists in India? i) To colonial officials all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive: it produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce. Other herds had to be shifted to the dry plateau at this time. The Konkani peasants also gave supplies of rice which the shepherds took back to the plateau where grain was scarce. With the onset of the monsoon the Dhangars left the Konkan and the coastal areas with their flocks and returned to their settlements on the dry plateau. They were to be found in the villages Only of buffaloes liked the swampy. when these grazing grounds were dry and exhausted. and left when the rains came. where pasture was available. So the Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism. iv) They combined a range of different activities – cultivation. Over vast stretches no crop could be grown. i) In the deserts of Rajasthan lived the Raikas. Explain.iii) After the kharif harvest was cut at this time. i) Banjaras were well-known group of graziers. trade. and returned again during the next monsoon. The sheep could not tolerate the wet monsoon conditions. selling plough months. It was seen as ‘waste land’ that needed to be brought under cultivation. 5) Trace the movement of nomads of India in the desert. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. and herding – to make their living. 6) The life of the pastoral groups was sustained by a careful consideration of a host of factors. and ensure that they could move through different territories. iii) They had to set up a relationship with farmers on the way. it was not the cold and the snow that defined the seasonal rhythms of their movement: rather it was the alternation of the monsoon and dry season that determined their movement. wet conditions of the coastal areas during the Uttar Pradesh. vi) In the dry season they moved to the coastal tracts. the fields had to be fertilized and made ready for the rabi harvest. they moved over long distances. By October. v) Unlike the mountain pastoralists. Know where they could find water and pasture. so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manure the soil. they moved out in search of other pasture and water. In search of monsoon good pastureland for their cattle.

By these Rules uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals. and the number of days they could spend in the forest was limited. These Forest Acts changed the lives of pastoralists. iii) Those who were settled were seen as peaceable and law abiding. In most areas the lands taken over were actually grazing tracts used 8) How did forest affect the of pastoralists in India?inevitably meant the decline regularly by acts pastoralists. and pastoralists who changed their places of residence every season. Once this Act came into force. Waste Land Rules were enacted in various parts of the country. By this Act many Communities of craftsmen. In protected forests. These individuals were granted various concessions and encouraged to settle these lands. The permit specified the periods in which they could be legally within a forest. 9) How did criminal tribes act affect the life of pastoralists in India? i) British officials were suspicious of nomadic people. Other forests were classified as ‘Protected’. the colonial government in India passed the Criminal Tribes Act. If they overstayed they were liable to fines. moving in search of good pastures for their herds. traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes. Even in the areas they were allowed entry. They were not allowed to move out without a permit. their movements were regulated. They distrusted mobile craftsmen and traders who sold their goods in villages. The timing of their entry and departure was specified. iv. ii) The colonial government wanted to rule over a settled population. They were now prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle. some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted but their movements were severely restricted. The village police kept a continuous watch on them. ii. Through these Acts some forests which produced pastures and a problem for pastoralists. these communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements. Some of them were made headmen of villages in the newly cleared areas. Solife expansion of cultivation i. various Forest Acts were being enacted in the of different provinces.ii) From the mid-nineteenth century. No pastoralist was allowed access to reserved forests. NM ISB 86 . By the mid-nineteenth century. those who were nomadic were considered to be criminal. they had to move because the ‘Forest Department permits’ that had been issued to them now ruled their lives. iii. Pastoralists could no longer remain in an area even if forage was available. They needed a permit for entry. v. commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared ‘Reserved’. iv) In 1871. v) They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth. Such a population was easy to identify and control and collect taxes.

ii. they changed the direction of their movement. The new political boundaries between India and Pakistan stopped their movement. The right to collect the tax was given to contractors. After 1947. on trade goods. as they had done earlier. (5) This in turn created a further shortage of forage for animals and the deterioration of animal stock. a cattle herder had to show the pass and pay the tax. Some became settled peasants cultivating land. At times they lost their cattle and sheep and became labourers. 11) How did colonial acts affect the lives of pastoralists? (1) It led to a serious shortage of pastures. grazing lands came to be continuously used and the quality of pastures declined. iii. on canal water. (4) When restrictions were imposed on pastoral movements. Each of them was given a pass. on salt. for instance. The tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of collection was made increasingly efficient. the camel and sheep herding Raikas. v) Pastoralists not only continue to survive. some richer pastoralists began buying land and settling down. Some reduced the number of cattle in their herds. 87 . ii) Others discovered new pastures when movement to old grazing grounds became difficult. grazing tax was introduced in the midnineteenth century. others took to more extensive trading. Tax was imposed on land. When pasturelands in one place was closed to them.Pastoralists reacted to the changes in a variety of ways. cope with changing rules/colonial rules? 12) How did pastoralists i. (3) This led to continuous intensive grazing of these pastures. iii) Over the years. When grazing lands were taken over and turned into cultivated fields. the available area of pastureland declined. combined pastoral activity with other forms of income and adapted to the changes in NM ISB the modern world. since there was not enough pasture to feed large numbers. reduced the size of the herd.10) How did grazing tax affect the life of pastoralists in India? i. in many regions heir numbers have expanded over recent decades. and even on animals. The number of cattle heads he had and the amount of tax he paid was entered on the pass. So they had to find new places to go. borrowed money from moneylenders to survive. (2)The reservation of forests meant that shepherds and cattle herders could no longer freely pasture their cattle in the forests. giving up their nomadic life. In most pastoral tracts of India. could no longer move into Sindh and graze their camels on the banks of the Indus. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. To enter a grazing tract. working on fields or in small towns. on the other hand. They have been migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze on agricultural fields after the harvests are cut. iv. iv) Many poor pastoralists. By the 1880s the government began collecting taxes directly from the pastoralists.

And it was difficult to get permits without trouble and harassment. Fodder was always in short supply. Those found guilty of disobeying the rules were severely punished. Feeding the cattle became a persistent problem. and they sell milk. In many regions. NM ISB 88 . ii) They were not allowed to move out with their stock without special permits. Grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. camels. they could neither hunt animals nor graze their herds in these areas.760 km. goats. slicing up the region into different colonies. Continuous grazing within a small area inevitably meant a deterioration of the quality of pastures. iv) Maasai pastoralists had dominated their agricultural neighbours both economically and politically. 14) What were the problems faced by the Massai people during the colonial period? i) One of the problems the Maasais have faced is the continuous loss of their grazing lands. ii) The best grazing lands were gradually taken over for white settlement and the Maasai were pushed into a small area in south Kenya and north Tanzania. 15) What was the impact of colonial rule on the Massai community? i) The loss of the finest grazing lands and water resources created pressure on the small area of land that the Maasai were confined within. Earlier. still others do a variety of odd jobs to supplement their meagre and uncertain earnings from pastoralism. They raise cattle. animal skin and wool. European imperial powers scrambled for territorial possessions in Africa.13) How did the pastoral communities earn a living in Africa? i) Most of them lived in the semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts where rain-fed agriculture is difficult. iii) The British colonial government in east Africa also encouraged local peasant communities to expand cultivation. pasturelands were turned into cultivated fields. meat. for instance. iv) Closing of borders adversely affected both their pastoral and trading activities. sheep and donkeys. The boundaries of these reserves became the limits within which they could now move. As cultivation expanded. v) Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves. iii) Pastoralists were also not allowed to enter the markets in white areas. was created over 14. ii) Some also earn through trade and transport. Very often these reserves were in areas that had traditionally been regular grazing grounds for Maasai herds. White settlers and European colonists saw pastoralists as dangerous and savage. they were prohibited from participating in any form of trade. pastoralists not only looked after animal herds but traded in various products. others combine pastoral activity with agriculture. 16) How did the closing of borders affect the life of pastoralists? i) They were forced to live within the confines of special reserves. The restrictions under colonial rule did not entirely stop their trading activities. of Maasai grazing land. The Serengeti National Park.

17) What was the impact of frequent droughts in the pasture land? .

They had both pastoral and non-pastoral income. ii) The warriors consisted of younger people. 20) Why were the chiefs appointed by the British not affected by war or drought in Maasai land? The chiefs appointed by the colonial government often accumulated wealth over time. goods and land.000 donkeys. and could buy animals when their stock was depleted. iii) Young men came to be recognized as members of the warrior class when they proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participating in wars. over half the cattle in the Maasai Reserve died. They lent money to poor neighbours who needed cash to pay taxes. 19) What were thehowever. who were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe.i) Drought affected the life of pastoralists everywhere. Many of them began living in towns. cattle are likely to starve unless they can be moved to areas where forage is available. The elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes. It is through raids that the power of different pastoral groups was asserted. 1933 and 1934. In just two years of severe drought. iii) Consequently. When rains fail and pastures are dry. measureswere introduced to administer the affairs of the Maasai? i) They appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai. Raiding was important in a society where cattle was wealth. They defended the community and organised cattle raids. ii) Since they could not shift their cattle to places where pastures were available. mainly responsible for the protection of the tribe. Their wives and children stayed back in the villages to look after the animals. and became involved in trade. They. the traditional authority of both elders and warriors was adversely affected. ii) The British imposed various restrictions on raiding and warfare. 820. These chiefs managed to survive the devastations of war and drought. subjectby to the the British authority of the elders.000 cattle. NM ISB 89 . They had a regular income with which they could buy animals.000 sheep and 171. large numbers of Maasai cattle died of starvation and disease in the years of drought iii) The Maasai in Kenya possessed 720. 18) Who were the elders and the warriors in the Maasai Society? OR How was Maasai society divided in the pre-colonial period? i) In pre-colonial times Maasai society was divided into two social categories – elders and warriors.

i) In India all pastoralists were affected but in Africa elders and warriors were not affected by colonial rules ii) In India forests were taken but in Africa they were pushed to certain areas. Since they move from one place to another. press for rights to enter new areas. thus make all efforts to adjust with the environment. trade and herding to make their living. iii) Wealthy pastoralists can be seen in Africa but not in India. 24) New laws and new borders affect the patterns of the movement of the pastoralists. overgrazing by animals could be prevented which further prevented soil erosion. reduce their cattle numbers. between the elders was disturbed though it did not break down completely. subsidy and other forms of support and demand a right in the management of forests and water 23)resources.21) What are the two levels by which social changes occurred in Maasai society? First. the traditional difference based on age. Differentiate between Indian and Maasai pastoralists. Pastoral nomadism allowed time for natural restoration of vegetation growth. 22) How did pastoralists adapt to new situations? They change the paths of their annual movement. Explain. exert political pressure on the government for relief. Why? Pastoral nomadism allows such communities to survive at bad times and avoid crisis. Second. They adopted all measures to protect the environment including forests and wild life because they knew that their life is depended on the environment. They combine a range of activities like cultivation. Pick out points from answer 12 and 16 25) Environmentalists and economists have increasingly come to recognize that pastoral nomadism is a form of life that is perfectly suited to many hilly and dry regions of the world. NM ISB 90 . a new distinction between the wealthy and poor pastoralists developed.

In1788. and express our social loyalties. There were no limits on the shape or size of the bat. cricket has evolved enough to be recognized as a distinct game and it was popular enough for it’s fans to be fined for playing it on Sunday instead of going to church.it is one way in which we amuse ourselves. Who is the guardian of cricket regulations? The first written ‘Laws of Cricket’ were drawn up in 1744. It appears that 40 notches or runs was viewed as a very big score. They stated. Q2: Why did the early cricketers in England use bats with the shape of a hockey stick? Till the middle of the eighteenth century.The Story of cricket Q1: Give an example to prove that Englishman gave too much importance to cricket in the 17th century. Another curious characteristic of cricket is that the length of the pitch is specified – 22 yards – but the size or shape of the ground is not. bats were roughly the same shape as hockey sticks. Most other team sports. The ball must be between5 and 6 ounces. The world’s first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) was founded in 1787. ‘the principals shall choose from amongst the gentlemen present two umpires who shall absolutely decide all disputes. By the seventeenth century. There was a simple reason for this: the ball was bowled underarm.Chapter 7 . Q5: What reason would you give for the oddities of Cricket with that of other sport? There’s a historical reason behind the oddities of cricket. which is another way of saying that cricket gave itself rules and regulations so that it could be played in a uniform and standardized way well before team games like soccer and hockey. and the two sets of stumps 22yards apart’. Q3 Why is sports very important? Sport is a large part of contemporary life. stay fit. NM ISB 91 . probably due to the bowlers bowling quickly at shins unprotected by pads. like Chepauk in Chennai. The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches. Grounds can be oval like the Adelaide Oval or nearly circular. No other modern team sport takes even half the time to complete. such as hockey and football lay down the dimensions of the playing area: cricket does not. along the ground and the curve at the end of the bat gave the batsman the best chance of making contact. Q6: Trace the earliest rules of cricket. Q4: What are the peculiar features of cricket as a sport? Or How is cricket different from other contemporary sports? One of the peculiarities of Test cricket is that a match can go on for five days and still end in a draw. curving outwards at the bottom. Cricket was the earliest modern team sport to be codified. the MCC published its first revision of the laws and became the guardian of cricket’s regulations. compete with each other.

All of this raised the premium on skill and reduced the influence of rough ground and brute force. The size of the ‘commons’ varied from one village to another. and the handle. batsmen had to master timing and shot selection. The bat is made of wood. 92 . iii) The weight of the ball was limited to between 5½ to 5¾ ounces. twine and cork. protective equipment like pads and gloves became available. Even today both bat and ball are handmade. i) Cricket’s most important tools are all made of natural. …. and trading companies established themselves in Asia. Q8: How has cricket become a game with characteristics of both the past and the present? Cricket’s connection with a rural past can be seen in the length of a Test match. Now it consists of two pieces. as are the stumps and the bails. not industrially manufactured. Cricket was originally played on country commons. It also opened new possibilities for spin and swing. Originally. so there were no designated boundaries or boundary hits. rather than roll it along the ground. and boundaries were introduced where previously all shots had to be run and. and this year also saw the creation of the first ‘six-seam’ cricket ball. Once it was cut out of a single piece of wood. The latter ruling followed an innings by a batsman who appeared with a bat as wide as the wicket! iv) In 1774. The rhythms of village life were slower and cricket’s rules were made before the Industrial Revolution. Also around this time. most importantly. cricket’s vagueness about the size of a cricket ground is a result of its village origins. cricket matches had no time limit. which is made out of cane that became available as European colonialists. three days had become the length of a major match. the blade. ii) The ball is made with leather. the first leg-before law(LBW) was published. vi) The rule about wide balls was applied. The game went on for as long as it took to bowl out a side twice. In the same way. In response. Explain. deception through the air. a third stump became common. the exact circumference of the ball was specified. over arm bowling became legal. which is made out of the wood of the willow tree. plus increased pace. ii) One immediate result was the replacement of the curved bat with the straight one.Continue next answer Q9: Cricket both changed with changing times and yet fundamentally remained true to it’s origins. unfenced land that was public property.Q7: What were the changes introduced by the MCC in the rules of cricket in the eighteenth and nineteenth century? i) During the 1760s and 1770s it became common to pitch the ball through the air. and the width of the bat to four inches. This change gave bowlers the options of length. v) By 1780. iii) The material of the bat changed slightly over time. pre-industrial materials.

The rich who could afford to play it for pleasure were called amateurs and the poor who played it for a living were called professionals. The rich were amateurs for two reasons. Explain. the importance of hierarchy. Most professionals worked as miners or in other forms of working class employment in winter. where cricket was played not for victory or profit. to the professionals. That is partly why the laws of the game always give the ‘benefit of the doubt’ to the batsman. men like Thomas Arnold. iii) Cricket is a batsman’s game because its rules were made to favour ‘Gentlemen’. Victorian empire builders justified the conquest of other countries as an act of unselfish social service. headmaster of the famous Rugby School and founder of the modern public school system. by which backward peoples were introduced to the civilizing influence of British law and Western knowledge. hardworking aspects of the game. but for its own sake. the codes of honor and the leadership qualities that helped them build and run the British empire. The wages of professionals were paid by patronage or subscription or gate money.Q10: Distinguish between the Amateurs and Professionals. Two. the skills. whether Club teams national sides. the three great institutions of imperial England. saw team sport like cricket and rugby not just as outdoor play. To play for the pleasure of playing and not for money was an aristocratic value. in the spirit of fair play. Captains of teams. but as an organized way of teaching English boys the discipline. leaving the energetic. the skills. the importance of hierarchy. Amateurs were called Gentlemen while professionals had to content with being described as Players. Eton was the most famous of these schools. the codes of honor and the leadership qualities that helped them build and run the British empire. who did most of the batting. . iv) The social superiority of the amateur batsman was not because batsmen were naturally better captains but because they were generally Gentlemen. i) The social superiority of amateurs was built into the customs of cricket. like fast bowling. were Q12: Why is it said that ‘Theor Battle of Waterloo’ wasalways won onamateurs. they considered sport a kind of leisure. Q13: Why did Thomas Arnold introduce cricket in his school? By the beginning of the nineteenth century. but as an organized way of teaching English boys the discipline. The captain of a cricket team was traditionally a batsman. The game was seasonal and did not offer employment the year round. Amateurs tended to be batsmen. ii) They even entered the ground from different entrances. the playing fields of Eton? This means that Britain’s military success was based on the values taught to schoolboys in its public schools. there was not enough money in the game for the rich to be interested. the civil service and the church. One. The English boarding school was the institution that trained English boys for careers in the military. Q11: ‘The social superiority of amateurs was built in to the customs of cricket’. the offseason. Cricket helped to confirm this self-image of the English elite by glorifying the amateur ideal. They introduced team sport like cricket and rugby not just as outdoor play.

iv) The first non-white club in the West Indies was established towards the end of the nineteenth century. In these colonies. especially in colonial territories where the subjects of empire were mainly non-white.Q14: How was the conquest of other country justified by the Victorian empire builders? i) Victorian empire builders justified the conquest of other countries as an act of unselfish social service. built in boarding schools. which remained dominated by white plantation owners and their servants. Here. At the time of their independence many of the political leaders of Caribbean countries like Forbes Burnham and Eric Williams saw in the game a chance for self respect and international standing. white settlers (as in South Africa. Australia. It took root only in countries that the British conquered and ruled. playing cricket became a sign of superior social and racial status. but it suited the English ruling class to believe that it was the superior character of its young men. and even in this case its members were light-skinned mulattos. that helped them to come up. cricket remained a colonial game. played all over the world. as a way of demonstrating that West Indians were the equals of white Englishmen. where cricket was played not for victory or profit. Q15: What are the real factors that helped Britain to win Napoleonic wars? ( Battle of Waterloo) i) In actual fact the Napoleonic wars were won because of the economic contribution of the iron works of Scotland and Wales. Zimbabwe. it was celebrated as a national achievement. the mills of Lancashire and the financial houses of the City of London. in the spirit of fair play. and the Afro-Caribbean population was discouraged from participating in organized club cricket. Q16: Why did cricket become popular in India and the West Indies? i) While some English team games like hockey and football became international games. Q17: Why was the success in cricket considered a measure of racial equality and political progress in Caribbean countries? Despite the exclusiveness of the white cricket elite in the West Indies. but for its own sake. Success at cricket became a measure of racial equality and political progress. ii) Cricket helped to confirm this self-image of the English elite by glorifying the amateur ideal . limited to countries that had once been part of the British Empire. such as India and the West Indies. New Zealand established cricket as a popular sport either the West Indies and Kenya) or by local elites who wanted to copy the habits of their colonial masters. ii) The pre-industrial oddness of cricket made it a hard game to export. the game became hugely popular in the Caribbean. . When the West Indies won its first Test series against England in1950. as in India. they made little effort to spread the game. playing gentlemanly games like cricket. iii) While British imperial officials brought the game to the colonies. by which backward peoples were introduced to the civilizing influence of British law and Western knowledge. ii) It was the English lead in trade and industry that made Britain the world’s greatest power.

ii) When India plays Australia. the Calcutta Cricket Club. many Indian institutions and movements were organised around the idea of religious community because the colonial state encouraged these divisions and was quick to recognise communal institutions. an account of recreational cricket played by English sailors in Cambay. Q19: On what grounds do cricket fans take sides? i) Cricket fans know that watching a match involves taking sides. which comprised all the communities left over. it was celebrated as a national achievement. But they did. Parsi clubs were funded and sponsored by Parsi businessmen like the Tatas and the Wadias. Indians were considered to have no talent for the game and certainly not meant to play it. There were two ironies to this great victory. such as the Indian Christians. the Oriental Cricket Club in Bombay in 1848. The first time a black player led the West Indies Test team was in 1960 when Frank Worrell was named captain. as teams in today’s Ranji Trophy currently do. that is. the Parsis founded the first Indian cricket club. Through the eighteenth century. cricket played by Indians are to found in Bombay and the first Indian community to start playing the game was the small community of Zoroastrians. vi) In the late nineteenth century. Q20: Trace the history of cricket in India. discomfort and danger of their stay in India. the West Indies cricket team represented not one nation but several dominions that later became independent countries. Brought into close contact with the British because of their interest in trade and the first Indian community to westernize. The first record we have of cricket being played in India is from 1721. One. namely. . the spectators watching the match on television in Bhopal or Chennai feel involved as Indians – they are moved by nationalist loyalties. And two. v) By the 1890s. ii) First Indian club. cricket in India was almost wholly a sport played by British military men and civil servants in all-white clubs and gymkhanas.Q18: Why did West Indies celebrate the winning of the first test series as a national achievement ? What were the ironies in it? When the West Indies won its first Test series against England in1950. It later became the Pentangular when a fifth team was added. the Parsis. the West Indian team that won was captained by a white player. i) Cricket in colonial India was organized on the principle of race and religion. In a Ranji Trophy match when Delhi plays Mumbai. the Rest. Hindus and Muslims were busy gathering funds and support for a Hindu Gymkhana and an Islam Gymkhana. was established in 1792. but religious communities. as a way of demonstrating that West Indians were the equals of white Englishmen. vii) The teams that played India’s greatest and most famous first-class cricket tournament did not represent regions.. iii) Playing cricket in the privacy of these clubs was more than just fun: it was also an escape from the strangeness. the loyalty of spectators depends on which city they come from or support. iv) The origins of Indian cricket.

Australia and New Zealand. a racist state that practiced a policy of racial segregation which. Q22: Why did Mahatma Gandhi condemn pentagular tournament? Mahatma Gandhi .The regulation of international cricket remained the business of the Imperial Cricket Conference ICC. The ICC. . condemned the Pentangular as a communally divisive competition that was out of place in a time when nationalists were trying to unite India’s diverse population. Explain. which retained the right of veto over its proceedings. renamed the International Cricket Conference as late as 1965. A Parsi team beat the Bombay Gymkhana at cricket in 1889. a whites-only club. continued to play Test cricket with South Africa. The colonial state and its divisive conception of India was the rock on which the Pentangular was built. But in 1989 there was a demand for equal membership in ICC. After Indian independence kick-started the disappearance of the British Empire. Pakistan and the West Indies boycotted South Africa. Q23: Why was India able to play Test cricket even before Independence? India entered the world of Test cricket in 1932. Similarly. and Parsi cricketers over the use of a public park. not even a self-governing dominion.Q21: What was the quarrel between the Bombay Gymkhana and the Parsi cricket club? How did the rivalry end? There was a quarrel between the Bombay Gymkhana. among other things. Q24: ‘The name of ICC was changed from the Imperial Cricket Conference to International Cricket Conference’. The first Test was played between England and Australia when Australia was still a white settler colony. England and Australia. but they did not have the necessary power in the ICC to debar that country from Test cricket. This was possible because Test cricket from its origins in 1877 was organized as a contest between different parts of the British Empire. The supremacy of Britain on Cricket ended later. barred non-whites (who made up the majority of South Africa’s population) from representing that country in Test matches. not sovereign nations. The rivalry between the Parsis and the racist Bombay Gymkhana had a happy ending for these pioneers of Indian cricket. Test-playing nations like India. the small countries of the Caribbean that together make up the West Indies team were British colonies till well after the Second World War. The Parsis complained that the park was left unfit for cricket because the polo ponies of the Bombay Gymkhana dug up the surface. Q25: Prove by giving examples that the colonial flavour of cricket was seen during 1950 to 1960? The colonial flavour of world cricket during the 1950s and 1960s can be seen from the fact that England and the other white commonwealth countries. which was dominated by its foundation members. a decade and a half before it became an independent nation. That only came to pass when the political pressure to isolate South Africa applied by the newly decolonized nations of Asia and Africa combined with liberal feeling in Britain and forced the English cricket authorities to cancel a tour by South Africa in 1970.

Parsi clubs were funded and sponsored by Parsi businessmen like the Tatas and the Wadias. Coloured dress. This shift was symbolized by the shifting of the ICC headquarters from London to tax-free Dubai. In time. which could generate huge revenues. it came to be accepted that the laws of cricket could not continue to be framed for British or Australian conditions of play. A more important sign that the centre of gravity in cricket has shifted away from the old. Pakistan has pioneered two great advances in bowling: the doosra and the ‘reverse swing’. Hindus and Muslims were busy gathering funds and support for a Hindu Gymkhana and an Islam Gymkhana. Children who had never previously had the chance to watch international cricket because they lived outside the big cities. protective helmets. where top-level cricket was played. unresponsive wickets under clear skies. The technology of satellite television and the world wide reach of multi-national television companies created a global market for cricket. cricket under lights. the game’s centre of gravity shifted to South Asia. that is. Television channels made money by selling television spots to companies who were happy to pay large sums of money to telecast commercials for their products to cricket’s captive television audience. Both skills were developed in response to sub continental conditions: the doosra to counter aggressive batsmen with heavy modern bats who were threatening to make finger-spin obsolete and ‘reverse swing’ to move the ball in on dusty. It expanded the audience for the game by beaming cricket into small towns and villages. It also broadened cricket’s social base.Q26: How have advances especially television technology affected the development of contemporary cricket? Kerry Packer. Packer drove home the lesson that cricket was a marketable game. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. In the late nineteenth century. Anglo-Australian axis is that innovations in cricket technique in recent years have mainly come from the practice of sub continental teams in countries like India. and they became part of the technique of all bowlers. everywhere in the world. cricket played by Indians are to found in Bombay and the first Indian community to start playing the game was the small community of Zoroastrians. By the 1890s. . the Parsis. signed up fifty-one of the world’s leading cricketers. became a standard part of the post-Packer game Q27: Why was the ICC headquarters shifted from London to Dubai? Since India had the largest viewership for the game amongst the cricket-playing nations and the largest market in the cricketing world. field restrictions. Q28: Why were the Indian institutions and movements organized around the idea of religious Communities in the Nineteenth century? OR How was cricket organized on communal lines in India? The origins of Indian cricket. could now watch and learn by imitating their heroes. an Australian television tycoon who saw the moneymaking potential of cricket as a televised sport. Television coverage changed cricket. many Indian institutions and movements were organised around the idea of religious community because the colonial state encouraged these divisions and was quick to recognize communal institutions.