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12

------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1
2 10
3
2 4
4
1 n 012100n
012100n

0 1
100n
, ,...,
,
n n
n

k = 0,1, 2, ,100n
n

S=

2 S={1011}S
3 1 0
S={00
100
0100

0101
0110
11
00

1010
1011
0111
1101
11
10
1111}
1100
4xy

S= ( x, y ) x + y 1
2

------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 ABC ABC


1A B C
2A B C
3ABC
4ABC
5ABC
6ABC
7ABC
8ABC

1 ABC

2AB C ABC
3A B C
4ABC
5 ABC
6ABC
A BC ABC ABC ABC ABC A, B, C
AB BC AC ABC
7ABC

ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC


ABC

ABC = A B C
8ABC ABC

ABC ABC ABC ABC


AB BC AC

3.16
68910

------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
1 ABC P ( A) = P ( B ) = P (C ) =

1
1
, P( AB) = P( BC ) = 0, P( AC ) = ,
4
8

ABC

P( A B C ) = P( A) + P( A) + P(C ) P( AB) P( BC ) P( AC ) + P( ABC ) =

3 1 5
=
4 8 8

P ( AB ) = P ( BC ) = 0, ABC AB P ( ABC ) = 0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 10 1 10 3

1 5
2 5

10 3 C10

3
S= C10 = 120

1 A={ 5} 5 678910 5

C5 A= C5 = 10
2

5!
C
10
1
P ( A) =
= 2!3! =
=
10! 120 12
C
3!7!
2
5
3
10

2 B={ 5} 5 1234 4

C4 B= C4
2

4!
C42 2!2!
6
1
P( B) = 3 =
=
=
C10 10! 120 20
3!7!
------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 1 500 400 1 100 200
1 90
2 2

1 A={ 90 }

P ( A) =

90
110
C400
C1100
200
C1500

2 B={ 2 } A = { i }

B = A2 A3 A200 , AiAi = (i j )

200

P ( B ) = P ( A2 A3 , A200= P ( Ai )
i=2

B ={ 0
1 } B = A0 A1
200
1
199
C1100
C400
C1100
P ( B ) = P ( A0 A1 ) = P ( A0 ) + P ( A1 ) = 200 +
200
C1500
C1500

P( B) = 1 P( B) = 1

200
1
199
C1100
C400
C1100

200
200
C1500
C1500

------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 5 4 4

A={4 } 3 PA

A A ={4 } 5 4
4

10 4 C10 S={ C10 }


4

A 5 4 C5 2

A ={ C54 2 4 }
P ( A) = 1 P ( A) = 1

C54 24
5 24 13
=
1

=
C104
210 21
4

4 A10 S={ A10


} A 10
8 A ={10864
}

P ( A) = 1 P ( A) = 1

10 8 6 4
10 8 6 4
8 13
= 1
= 1 =
4
A10
10 9 8 7
21 21

A 4
1

C5C2 C4 2 C5 C2 A={ C5C2 C4 2 + C5 C2


}

P ( A) =

C51C22C42 2 2 + C52C22 130 13


=
=
210 21
C104

1 2

P ( A) + P ( A) =1
P ( A) P ( A) 3 P ( A)

P ( A)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 11 Probability 11 7
ability
A={ ability} 1
7

7 ={ A11 }

ability b i b C2
i C2 1 A = {C2C2}
1

C21C21
4
P ( A) = 7 =
= 0 0000024
A11
11 10 9 8 7 6 5

14.

4.21
1519
1918

------------------------------------------------------------------------------142 P ( A) =

1
1
1
P ( B A) = , P ( A B ) = , P ( A B )
4
3
2

P ( A B ) = P ( A) + P ( B ) P ( AB )
P ( B )P ( AB )

1 1 1
P ( AB ) = P ( A) P ( B A) = =
4 3 12
P ( AB ) = P ( B ) P ( A B )

1
P( AB)
1
P( B) =
= 12 =
6
P( A B) 1
2

P( A B) =

1 1 1 1
+ =
4 6 12 3

P ( A) P ( B A) = P ( B ) P ( A B ) P ( AB ) P ( B )

P ( A B )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 7 1

A={ 7}B={ 1 } P ( B A)

6
2

S={ 6 } AB={ 7 1 }
7 6

A={16
2534
61
5243}
AB= {1661}

2
P( AB)
2 1
= 36 = =
P( B A) =
6
6 3
P( A)
36
A A 1661
1 B

P( B A) =

2 1
=
6 3

------------------------------------------------------------------------------18

()
Ai = { i }
i A1 A2 Ai 1 Aii=1

23
B={}
B= A1 A1 A 2 A1 A2 A3

P( B) = P( A1 A1 A 2 A1 A2 A3 )
= P( A1 ) + P( A1 A 2 ) + P ( A1 A2 A3 )
= P( A1 ) + P( A1 ) P( A2 A1 ) + P( A1 ) P( A2 A1 ) P( A3 A1 A2 )
=

1 9 1 9 8 1 3
+ + =
10 10 9 10 9 8 10

0129 10 10

10

9
9
10
1
9 1 1
1
=
n

9
10 9 10
10

C={} 1
3579 5

4 1 1
4 3 1 1
= =
5 4 5
5 4 3 5

P (C ) =

1 4 1 4 3 1 3
+ + =
5 5 4 5 4 3 5

21

2122
2235
3538

------------------------------------------------------------------------------21 5 0 0 0.25 0 0

A={} A ={}

P ( A) = P ( A) =

1
A A C={
2

P (C A) =

0.25
5
, P (C A) =
100
100

P(C ) = P( A) P(C A) + P( A) P(C A)


1 0.25 1 5
=
+
= 0.02625
2 100 2 100

P( A C ) =

P( AC )
=
P(C )

P( A) P(C A)
P(C )

1 5

2
100 = 0.9524
=
0.02625

------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 P
P p 2 1

Ai={ i }i=12

P ( A1 ) = P, P ( A1 ) = 1 P, P ( A2 A1 ) P ( A2 A1 ) =
1

P( A1 A2 ) = P( A1 ) + P( A2 ) P( A1 A2 )
= P( A1 ) + P( A2 ) P( A1 ) P( A2 A1 )

P
2

P ( A1 A2 ) = 1 P ( A1 A2 ) = 1 P ( A1 A2 )
= 1 P ( A1 ) P ( A2 A1 )
= 1 P ( A1 )[1 P ( A2 A1 )]
= 1 (1 P )(1

P
3
1
) = P P2
2
2
2

P( A2 A1 ) =

P( A1 A2 ) P( A1 ) P( A2 A1 )
=
P( A2 )
P( A2 )

P2
= 2
P + P(1 P)

=
2

2P
P +1

------------------------------------------------------------------------------35 C
C
0.96 C

0.9999 ,?

Ai ={ i } P ( A1 ) = P ( A2 ) = 0.96 B={}

B = A1 A2 A1A2

P( B) = P( A1 A2 ) = P( A1 ) + P( A2 ) P( A1 A2 )
= P( A1 ) + P( A2 ) P( A1 ) P( A2 )
= 0.96 + 0.96 (0.96)2 = 0.9984
.,.

P( B) = P( A1 A2 ) = 1 P( A1 A2 )
= 1 P( A1 A2 )
= 1 P( A1 ) P( A2 )
= 1 0.04 2 = 0.9984
n , 0.9999 Ai ={ i }
i=1
2n
C={} C = A1 A2 An P = (C )

P(C ) = P( A1 A2 An )
n

= P( Ai )
i =1

1i j n

P( Ai Aj ) +

1i j k n

P( Ai Aj AK ) + + (1)n 1 P( Ai )
i =1

n 1

= 0.96n Cn2 (0.96)2 + Cn3 (0.96)3 + + (1) (0.96) n


P (C ) = 0.9999 n
P (C )

P(C ) = 1 P( A1 A2 An ) = 1 P( A1 A2 An )
= 1 P( A1 ) P( A2 ) P( An )
= 1 (0.04) n
1 0.04 0.9999 1 0.04 0.0001 e
n

n1n (0.04) 1n (0.0001)


n

1n (0.0001) 9.2103
=
2.86
1n (0.04)
3.2189

------------------------------------------------------------------------------36 1 5,1 3,1 4

Ai ={ i }i=123 P ( A1 ) =

1
1
1
P ( A2 ) = P ( A3 ) =
5
3
4

B={} A1 , A2 A3

P( B) = P( A1 A2 A3 )
= P( A1 ) + P( A2 ) + P( A3 ) P( A1 A2 ) P ( A1 A3 ) P( A2 A3 ) + P( A1 A2 A3 )
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + = 0.6
5 3 4 5 3 5 4 3 4 5 3 4

P( B) = P( A1 A2 A3 ) = 1 P( A1 A2 A3 )
= 1 P( A1 A2 A3 ) = 1 P( A1 ) P( A2 ) P( A3 )
1
1
1 3
= 1 (1 ) (1 ) (1 ) = = 0.6
5
3
4 5
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

38 m n

A={ }, A ={ },

P ( A) =

m
n
B={ r } Bi ={
, P ( A) =
m+n
m+n

i i }i=12r

1
1
2

P( B1 ) = P( A) P( B1 A) + P( A) P( B1 A)
=

m
1
n
+
1
m+n 2 m+n

P( B2 ) = P( A) P( B2 A) + P( A) P( B2 A)
=

m
1 1
n
+
1 1
m+n 2 2 m+n

P( Bi ) =

m
1
n
i+
1i
m+n 2 m+n

m
1
n
r+
1r
m+n 2 m+n
1
m
n
=
r+
m+n 2 m+n
P( B) = P( Br ) =

P( AB) P( A) P( B A)
=
P( A)
P( B)
m
1
r
m
m+n 2
=
=
m
1
n
m + 2r n
r+
m+n 2 m+n
P( A B) =

2.
2.13
36712
1217
------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
1 5 12345 3 X 3
X

X 345

C22
1
1
=
=
3
5! 10
C5
3!2!
3!
C32 2!1! 3
P{ X = 4} = 3 =
=
5! 10
C5
3!2!
4!
2
C
3
P{ X = 5} = 43 = 2!2! =
5!
C5
5
3!2!
P{ X = 3} =

X
X

Pk

1
10

3
10

3
5

Ck21
P{ X = k} = 3
C5

(k = 3, 4,5)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 15 2 3 1
X 1 X
2

X 012
1X

13!
CC
22
P{ X = 0} =
= 3!10! =
3
15!
C15
35
3!12!
13!
2
C21C132
2!11! = 12
P{ X = 1} =
=
3
15!
35
C15
3!12!
2 1
CC
13
1
P{ X = 2} = 2 3 13 =
=
15!
C15
35
3!12!
0
2

3
13

Pk

22
35

12
35

1
35

k =1

, P{ X = 0}, P{ X = 1} P{ X = 2} = 1 P{ X = 0} P{ X = 1}

P{ X = k} =

C2k C133 k
C153

(k = 0,1, 2)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 5 t 0.1

1 2
2 3
3 3
4 1

5
X b501
X

1 X b501

P{ X = k} = Ck (0.1)k (0.9)5 k

k=012345

P{ X = 2} = C52 (0.1) 2 (0.9)5 2 = 10 0.01 0.729 = 0.0729

2
5

P{ X 3} = C5k (0.1)k (0.9)5 k


k =3

= C (0.1) (0.9)53 + C54 (0.1) 4 (0.9)5 4 + C55 (0.5)5 (0.9)55


3
5

= 10 0.001 0.81 + 5 0.0001 0.9 + 0.00001


= 0.00856
3
3

P{ X 3} = C5k (0.1)k (0.9)5 k


k =0

= C (0.1) (0.9)5 + C51 (0.1)(0.9)4 + C52 (0.1)2 (0.9)3 + C53 (0.1)3 (0.9)2
0
5

= 0.59049 + 032805 + 0.0729 + 0.0081


= 0.99954

P{ X 3} = 1 P{ X 3} = 1 P{ X 4}
5

= 1 C5k (0.1) k (0.9)5 k


k =4

= 1 [C54 (0.1)4 (0.9)5 + C55 (0.1)5 (0.9)0 ]


= 1 [5 0.14 0.9 + 0.15 ]
= 1 [0.00045 + 0.0001]
= 0.99954

4 P{ X 1} =

C
k =1

k
5

(0.1) k (0.9)5 k

P{ X 1} = 1 P{ X < 1} = 1 P{ X = 0}
= 1 C50 (0.1)0 (0.9)5 = 1 0.95
= 1 0.59049 = 0.40951
------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 A 0.3 A 3
1 5
2 7

1 A X bn0.3,

P{ X = k}Cnk (0.3) k (0.7) n k

(k=0,1,2,,n)

{ X 3} , n=5
5

P{ X 3} = C5k (0.3) k (0.7)5 k


k =3

= C (0.3) (0.7) 2 + C54 (0.3) 4 (0.7) + C55 (0.3)5


3
5

= 10 0.027 0.49 + 5 0.0081 0.7 + 0.00243


= 0.16308
2 A 7 Y b703

P{Y 3} = 1 P{Y 3} = 1 P{Y 2}


= 1 [C70 (0.3)0 (0.7)7 + C71 (0.3)(0.7)6 + C72 (0.3)2 (0.7)5 ]
= 1 [0.7 7 + 7 0.3 0.7 6 + 21 0.32 0.75 ]
= 0.353
------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 4 1
8 2 3

X (4)

P{ X = k} =

1 P{ X = 8} =

e 4 4 k
k!

k=012

e4 48 1200.33371
=
= 0.02977
8!
40320

3
e 4 4 k
e 4 4k
= 1
= 0.5665
2 P{ X > 3} = P{ X 4} =
k!
k!
k =4
k =0

------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 K

171 X 0-1 P{ X = k } = P (1 P )
k

2 1
1X

F ( x) = P{ X x} = P k (1 P)1 K
k x

0,

= 1 P
1,

x0
0 x 1
x

2 1 X
X

Pk

1
10

3
10

3
5

X F ( x ) = P{ X x}
x 3

F ( x) = P{ X x} = 0
3 x 4

F ( x) = P{ X x} = P{ X = 3} = 0.1
4 x 5

F ( x) = P{ X x} = P{ X = 3} + P{ X = 4} = 0.1 + 0.3 = 0.4


x 5

F ( x) = P{ X x} = P{ X = 3} + P{ X = 4} + P{ X = 5} = 1

, k = 0 1 X

0,
1
,
10
F ( x) = 1 3
4
10 + 10 = 10 ,

1 + 3 + 3 = 1,
10 10 5

x3
3 x 4
4 x5

x5

1921
2127
2734
3435
3536

------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 X
X

1 e 0.4 x ,
Fx( x) =
0,

x0
x0

1P{ 3 }
2P{ 4 }
3P{3 4 }
4P{ 3
4 }5P{ 2.5 }

1 P{ X 3} = Px (3) = 1 e

0.43

= 1 e1.2 = 0.6988

2 P{ X 4} = 1 P{ X 4} = 1 FX (4) = e

0.44

= 0.2019

P{3 X 4} = P{ X 4} P{ X < 3}
= FX (4) FX (3) = 1 e 0.44 (1 e 0.43 )
= 0.0993
4

P{ X 3} + P{ X 4} = 1 e 0.43 + (1 e0.44 )
= 0.6988 + 0.2019 = 0.9007
5 P{ X = 0.25} = 0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------21 X

2(1 1 x 2 ),
0,

1 f ( x) =

x,

2 f ( x) = 2 x,
0,

1 x 2

0 x <1
1 x < 2

X F ( x ) 2 f ( x ) F ( x )
1 x < 1 Fx=0 1 x < 2

F ( x) =

= 2 (1
1

= 2x +

f (t )dt = 0dt + 2(1

1
1
)dt = 2(t + )
2
t
t

1
)dt
t2

x
1

2
4
x

x 2 Fx=1

0,

F ( x) = 2 x + 4,
x

1,

x <1
1 x < 2
x2

2 x < 0 Fx=0 0 x < 1

F ( x) =

f (t )dt = 0dt + tdt =

1 x < 2

F ( x) =

1 2
x
2

f (t )dt

= 0dt + tdt + (2 t )dt

1
1
= tdt + (2 t )dt = + (2t t 2 ) 1x
0
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
= + 2 x x2 2 + = x2 + 2 x 1
2
2
2
2
1

x 2 Fx=1

0,
1
x2 ,
2
F ( x) =
1 x 2 + 2 x 1
2
1,

x<0
0 x <1
1 x < 2
x2

------------------------------------------------------------------------------27 18 mmHg N110 12 2


18 X
1 P{ X 105}, P{100 < X 120}

2 x P{ X > x} 0.05

X X N (110,12 2 )

X 110
N (0,1)
12
1

X 110 105 110

}
12
12
5
5
= ( ) = 1 ( )
12
12
= 1 (0.4167)
P{ X 105} = P{

= 1 0.6628 = 0.3372

100 110 X 110 120 110


P{100 < X 120} = P{
<

}
12
12
12
5 X 110 5
= P( <
)
6
12
6
5
5
5
= ( ) ( ) = 2 ( ) 1
6
6
6
= 2 (0.833) 1 = 2 0.7967 1 = 0.5934
2 P{ X > x} 0.05

1 P{ X x} 0.05, P{ X x} 0.95
P{

X 110 x 110

} 0.95
12
12

x 110
1.645 x 129.74 x 129.74
12

33
33
------------------------------------------------------------------------------33 X
X

-2

-1

Pk

1
5

1
6

1
5

1
15

11
30

Y = X 2

Y = X 2 0149

1
5
2
P{Y = 1} = P{ X = 1} = P{ X = 1} + P{ X = 1}
1 1
7
= + =
6 15 30
P{Y = 4} = P{ X 2 = 4} = P{ X = 2} + P{ X = 1}
1
= P{ X = 2} =
5
P{Y = 9} = P{ X 2 = 9} = P{ X = 3} + P{ X = 3}
P{Y = 0} = P{ X 2 = 0} = P{ X = 0} =

= P{ X = 3} =

11
30

Pk

1
5

7
30

1
5

11
30

Y X X -1 1 Y 1 P{Y = 1}

P{ X = 1}P{ X = 1}
Y Y
------------------------------------------------------------------------------34 X 01
1 Y = e X
2 Y = 21nX
X

1,
f X ( x)
0,

0 < x <1

Y Y
1 FY ( y ) Y FY ( y )
Y
y < 1 FY ( y ) =0 1 y < e

FY ( y ) = P{Y y} = {e X y} = P{ X 1ny} =

1ny

y e FY ( y ) =1

dx = 1ny

y <1

0,

FY ( y ) = ln y,
1,

1 y < e
ye

1
dFY ( y ) ,
fY ( y ) =
=y
dy
0,

1 y < e

2 y 0 FY ( y ) =0 y 0

FY ( y ) = P{Y y} = P{21nX y}
y

= P{ X e 2 }
1

= 2y dx = 1 e 2
e

0,
FY ( y ) =
y

2
1 e

y<0
y0

1 y
dFY ( y ) e 2 ,
fY ( y ) =
= 2
dy
0,

y>0
y0

Y FY ( y )
1 Y = e X y = e x

y = e x x = 1ny

fY ( y ) = f X (1ny )

dx 1
= 1 < y < e
dy y

dx 1
=
dy y

1
,
fY ( y ) = y
0,

1< y < e

Y X 0 < x < 1 y = e x a < y <

a = min{e0 , e} = 1, = max{e 0 , e} = e
2 Y = 21nX y = 21nx x = e

y
2

dx
1 y
= e 2
dy
2

1 y 1 1 y
e 2 ,= e 2 ,
fY ( y ) = 2
y 2

0,

y>0
y0

------------------------------------------------------------------------------35 XN01
1 Y = e X
2 Y = 2 X 2 + 1
3Y = X

X
2

1 x2
fY ( y ) =
e
2

( < x < +)

Y FY ( y ) Y fY ( y )
1 y 0 FY ( y ) = 0 y 0

FY ( y ) = P{Y y} = P{e x y}
2

= P{ X 1ny} =

1ny

1 x2
e dx
2

1
(1ny )2

dFY ( y )
fY ( y ) =
= 2 y e 2
dy
0,

y>0
y0

2 y 1 FY ( y ) =0 y 1

FY ( y ) = P{Y y} = P{2 X 2 + 1 y}
= P{ X 2
y 1
2
y 1

y 1
} = P{ X
2
2

1 x2
e dx = 2
0
2

y 1
2

y 1
}
2
2

1 x2
e dx
2

y 1

1
e 4 ,
dF ( y )
fY ( y ) = Y
= 2 ( y 1)
dy
0,

y >1
y 1

3 y 0 FY ( y ) = 0 y 0

FY ( y ) = P{Y y} = P{ X y}
2

y
1 x2
1 x2
e dx = 2
e dx
0
2
2

2 y
dFY ( y )
e 2,
fY ( y ) =
=
dy
0,

y>0
y0

Y fY ( y )
1Y = e X y = e x x = 1ny

dx 1
=
dy y

Y
(1ny )
1

e 2 ,

fY ( y ) = 2 y

0,
2

y>0
y0

2 Y = 2 X 2 + 1 y = 2 x 2 + 1 x 0
x=

y 1
y 1
x 0 x =
y > 1
2
2

fY ( y ) = [ f X (
=[
=

y 1
y 1 dx
) + fX (
)]
2
2
dy

1 y41
1 y41 1
1
e
+
e ]

2
2
2 2 y 1

y 1

1
e 4
2 ( y 1)

y 1 fY ( y ) =0
y 1

1
e 4 ,

fY ( y ) = 2 ( y 1)
0,

y >1
y 1

(3) Y = X y = x ,, x = y ,

dx
= 1 y 0 fY ( y ) = 0 y 0
dy
fY ( y ) =

2
2

y2
2

1 =

y2
2

2 y
e 2,

fY ( y ) =
0,

y>0
y0

------------------------------------------------------------------------------361 X f ( x ) x Y = X 3
2 X

e x ,
f ( x) =
0,

x>0

Y = X 2

Y FY ( y ) fY ( y )

FY ( y ) fY ( y )
1

FY ( y ) = P{Y y} = P{ X 3 y}
= P{ X
=

( < y < +)

y}

f ( x) dx

fY ( y ) =

dF ( y )
1 2
= f (3 y) y 3
dy
3

( y 0)

2 y < 0 FY ( y ) =0 y 0

FY ( y ) = P{Y y} = P{ X 2 y} = P{0 < X


=

e x dx = (e x )

y
0

= 1 e

y}

0,
FY ( y ) =

1 e

y<0
y0

1 y
e , y>0

FY ( y ) = 2 y
y0
0,

Y fY ( y )
1Y = X 3 y = x3 x =

dx 1 23
= y
dy 3

1 2
fY ( y ) = f ( 3 y ) y 3
3

( y 0)

2Y = X 3 y = x 2 x > 0 y = x 2
x y

fY ( y ) = f ( y )

dx
1
y 0 fY ( y ) =0 y > 0
=
dy 2 y
1
2 y

1
2 y

1 y
e ,

fY ( y ) = 2 y
0,

y>0
y0

12.
2.13
378910
1013
1318
1822
XY

------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 12 2

12 XY

0,
X =
1,
0,
Y =
1,

1
2 X Y

10
2
, P{ X = 1} =
12
12
10
2
Y P{Y = 0} =
, P{Y = 1} = XY
12
12
1X P{ X = 0} =

0001
1011XY

P{ X
P{ X
P{ X
P{ X

102 25
= 0, Y = 0} = 2 =
12
36
10 2 5
= 0, Y = 1} =
=
122
36
2 10 5
= 1, Y = 0} =
=
122
36
2 2 1
= 1, Y = 1} = 2 =
12
36

XY { X = 0, Y = 0}
{ X = 0} {Y = 0}
{( X = 0) (Y = 1)}
{ X = i}{Y = j}(i, j = 0,1)

P{ X = 0, Y = 0} = P{ X = 0}P{Y = 0} =

10 10 25
=
12 12 36

XY
X
Y

25
36

5
36

5
36

1
36

P{ X = 0, Y = 0} =

P102 10 9 45
=
=
P122 12 11 66

P{ X = 0, Y = 1} =

P101 P21 10 2 10
=
=
P122
12 11 66

P{ X = 1, Y = 0} =

P21 P101
2 10 10
=
=
2
12 11 66
P12

P22
2
1
P{ X = 1, Y = 1} = 2 =
=
P12 12 11 66

P{ X = 0, Y = 0} = P{ X = 0}P{Y = 0 X = 0} =

10 9 45
=
12 11 66

XY
X
Y

45
66

10
66

10
66

1
66

------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
1 3 2 2 4 X
Y X Y
XY

P{ X = i, Y = j} =

C3i C2j C24( i + j )


C74

(i = 0,1, 2,3; j = 0,1, 2; 2 i + j 4)

P{ X = 0, Y = 0} = 0
P{ X = 0, Y = 1} = 0
P{ X = 0, Y = 2} =

C30C22C22 1
=
C74
35

P{ X = 1, Y = 0} =

C31C20C23
=0
C74

C31C21C22 6
=
P{ X = 1, Y = 1} =
C74
35
P{ X = 1, Y = 2} =

C31C22C21 6
=
C74
35

P{ X = 2, Y = 0} =

C32C20C21 3
=
C74
35

P{ X = 2, Y = 1} =

C32C21C21 12
=
C74
35

C32C22C20 3
=
P{ X = 2, Y = 2} =
C74
35
P{ X = 3, Y = 0} =

C33C20C21 2
=
C74
35

P{ X = 3, Y = 1} =

C33C21C20
2
=
4
C7
35

P{ X = 3, Y = 3} = 0
XY
X
Y
0

3
35

2
35

6
35

12
35

2
35

1
35

6
35

3
35

------------------------------------------------------------------------------3XY

k (6 x y ),
fY ( x, y ) =
0,
1 k
2 P{ X < 1, Y < 3}

0 < x < 2, 2 < y < 4

3 P{ X < 1.5}
4 P{ X + Y 4}

f ( x, y ) dxdy = 1

dx k (6 x y )dy = 1
2

dx k (6 x y ) dy = k (6 y xy

2
1 2 4
y ) 2 dx = k (6 2 x) dx
0
2

1
= k (6 x 2 x 2 02 )
2
= 8k
1
8k=1 k=
8
2

1
(6 x y ) dy
8
1 1
1
1 1 7
= (6 y xy y 2 ) 32 dx = ( x) dx
8 0
2
8 0 2
1

P{ X 1, Y 3} = dx

1 7
1
1 6 3
= ( x x 2 ) 10 = =
8 2
2
8 2 8
3

1
(6 x y )dy
8
1 1.5
1
27
= (6 2 x )dx = 6.75 =
0
8
8
32
1.5

P{ X 1.5} = dx

P{ X < 1, Y 4}
2
4 x 1
= dx
(6 x y ) dy
0
2
8
1 2
1
= (6 y xy y 2 ) 24 x dx
8 0
2
1 2
1
1
1
1
= (6 4 x + x 2 )dx = (6 x 4 x 2 + x3 )
0
8
2
8
2
6
1
8
2
= (12 8 + ) =
8
6
3

2
0

------------------------------------------------------------------------------7XY

4.8 y (2 x),
f ( x, y ) =
0,

0 x 1, 0 y x

0 x 1 X
x

fY ( x) = 4.8 y (2 x)dy
0

= 4.8(2 x) ydy
0

1
= 4.8(2 x)( y 2 )
2
2
= 2.4 x (2 x)

x
0

2.4 x 2 (2 x),
f ( x, y ) =
0,

0 x 1

0 y 1 Y
1

fY ( x) = 4.8 y (2 x)dx = 4.8 y (2 x)dx


1 2 1
3
1
x ) y = 4.8 y ( 2 y + y 2 )
2
2
2
2
= 2.4 y (3 4 y + y )
= 4.8 y (2 x

2.4 y (3 4 y + y 2 ),
f ( x, y ) =
0,

0 y 1

XY XY f ( x, y ) 0

------------------------------------------------------------------------------8XY

e y ,
f ( x, y ) =
0,

0<x< y

x 0 X
+

f X ( x) = e y dx = e x
x

e x ,
f X ( x) =
0,

x>0
x0

y > 0 Y

fY ( y ) = e y dx = ye y
0

y>0
y0

ye x ,
fY ( y ) =
0,

------------------------------------------------------------------------------9XY

cx 2 y ,
f ( x, y ) =
0,

x2 y y

1 C
2

1 f ( x, y ) C

dx 2 cx 2 ydy = 1
x

1
1
1
dx 2 cx 2 ydy = c x 2 ( y 2 ) 1x2 dx =
1
x
1
2
1
c c 1 2
1 1
= ( x dx 2 x 6 dx) = c( ) =
0
2 2 0
3 7

c 1 2
x (1 x 4 ) dx

1
2
4
c
21

4
21
= 1 c =
21
4
2 1 < x < 1 X
1 21
21
f X ( x) = 2 x 2 ydy = x 2 (1 x 4 )
x 4
8

21 2
4
x (1 x ),
f X ( x) = 2
0,

1 < x < 1

0 y 1 Y

fY ( y ) =

y
21 2
21
7
x ydx =
y x 2 dx = y 5 2

y
4
4
2

7 y5 2
y ,
fY ( y ) = 2
0,

0 < y <1

------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 9 8 X Y

X Y
Y
X

51

52

51
52
53
54
55

0.06
0.07
0.05
0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05
0.10
0.05
0.06

53

54

0.05
0.01
0.10
0.02
0.05

0.01
0.01
0.05
0.01
0.01

55
0.01
0.01
0.05
0.03
0.03

(1)
(2) 8 51 ,9 .

(1) X
X

51

Pk

0.28

52
0.28

53

54

55

0.22

0.12

0.20

P{ X = 51} = 0.06 + 0.05 + 0.05 + 0.01 + 0.01 = 0.18 (),.


Y
X

51

Pk

0.28

52
0.28

53

54

55

0.22

0.09

0.13

P{Y = 51} = 0.06 + 0.07 + 0.05 + 0.05 + 0.05 = 0.28 (),


2 P{ X = k Y = 51}, k = 51,52,53,54,55

P{ X = 51, Y = 51} 0.06 6


=
=
P{Y = 51}
0.28 28
P{ X = 52, Y = 51} 0.07 7
= 51} =
=
=
P{Y = 51}
0.28 28
P{ X = 53, Y = 51} 0.05 5
= 51} =
=
=
P{Y = 51}
0.28 28
P{ X = 54, Y = 51} 0.06 6
= 51} =
=
=
P{Y = 51}
0.28 28
P{ X = 55, Y = 51} 0.05 5
= 51} =
=
=
P{Y = 51}
0.28 28

P{ X = 51 Y = 51} =
P{ X = 52 Y
P{ X = 53 Y
P{ X = 54 Y
P{ X = 55 Y

51

52

53

54

55

P{ X = k Y = 51}

6
28

7
28

5
28

5
28

5
28

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

13 9 1 f x y ( x y ) Y =

2 f y x ( y x) X =
3 P{Y

1
1
, X = Y
3
2

1
1
3
1
X = }, P{Y X = }
4
2
4
2

X Y

21 2
4
x (1 x ),
f X ( x) = 2
0,
7 5 2
y ,
fY ( y ) = 2
0,

1 < x < 1

0 < y <1

1 0 < y 1

21 2
x y 2 2 3 2
= x y ,
f ( x, y ) 4
f X Y ( x y) =
= 7 52 3
fY ( y ) 2 y
0,

y <x<

2 2 1 3 2
2
1 x ( ) = 3 2x ,
fX Y (x ) = 3
2
2
0,

1
1
<x<
2
2

2 1 x 1

21 2
x y

2y
4
=
,
f ( x, y )
fY X ( y x ) =
= 21 x 2 (1 x 4 ) 1 x 4
f X ( x) 8
0,

81
2y
=
y,
1 4 40
1
fY X ( y ) = 1 ( )
3
3
0,

1
< y <1
9

x2 y 1

1
X
2

32
2y
=
y,

1 4 15
1
fY X ( y ) = 1 ( )
2
2
0,

1
< y <1
4

P{Y

1
1
1
1
X = } = 1 fY X ( y )dy
4
2
2
4

32
32 1
ydy = ( y 2 )
15 2
4 15
1

= 1

1
1
4

16 16 1 2
( ) =1
15 15 4
1
3
1
1
P{Y X = } = 3 fY X ( y )dy
4
2
2
4

32
32 1
ydy = ( y 2 )
15 2
4 15
1

= 3
=

1
3
4

16 16 3 2 7
( ) =
15 15 4
15

------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 X Y ,X (0,1),Y

1 y 2
e ,
fY ( y ) = 2
0,

y>0
y0

(1) X Y
(2) a a 2 + 2 Xa + Y = 0 a

1,
f X ( x) =
0,

0 < x <1

1 X Y X Y

1 y 2
e ,
f ( x, y ) = f X ( x ) f Y ( y ) = 2
0,

0 < x < 1, y > 0

2 a 2 + 2 Xa + Y = 0 4 X 2 4Y 0 X 2 Y 0

P{ X 2 Y 0} = dx
0

x2

1
1 y 2
e
= ( e y 2 )
0
2

x2

x2
0

dx

= (1 e x 2 )dx = 1dx e x 2 dx
2

= 1 e

x2 2

dx

e x 2 dx = 2
2

1 x2 2
e
dx = 2 [ (1) (0)]
2

= 2 (0.8413 0.5) = 0.3413 2 = 0.8555

P{ X 2 Y 0} = 1 0.8555 = 0.1445

x2 2

dx

1 x2 2

e
2

( x) =

------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 X Y ,

1,
f X ( x) =
0,

e y ,
fY ( y ) =
0,

0 x 1

y>0

Z=X+Y
X Y X Y

0 x 1, y > 0

e y ,
f ( x, y ) =
0,

FZ ( z ) f Z ( z ) Z
Z=X+Y Z=X+Y
z < 0 FZ ( z ) = 0;0 z 1

FZ ( z ) = P{Z z} = P{ X + Y z} =

x+ y z
z

= dx
0

zx

e y dy = (e y )
0

zx
0
z

dx

= [(1 e ( z x ) )]dx = 1dx e y e x dx


0

= z e (e 1) = z 1 + e
x

e y dxdy

z 1
z

FZ ( z ) =

x+ y z

e y dxdy = dx
0

zx

e y dy

= [(1 e ( z x ) )]dx = 1 e z (e 1)
0

0,

FZ ( z ) = z 1 + e z ,
1 e z (e 1),

z<0
0 z <1
z1

Z=X+Y

1 e z ,
dF ( z ) z
= e (e 1),
fZ ( z) = Z
dz
0

0 < z <1
z 1

Z=X+Y

fZ ( z) =

f X ( x) fY ( z x)dx

0 < z < 1 0 x 1, z x > 0( y > 0) 0 x 1 x < z


0 x < z
z

f Z ( z ) = e ( z x ) dx = 1 e z
0

z 1 0 x 1 x < z 0 x 1
z

f Z ( z ) = e ( z x ) dx = e z (e 1)
0

f Z ( z ) = 0

1 e z ,

f Z ( z ) = e z (e 1),
0

0 < z <1
z 1

Z = X + Y , U = X Y = Z U , X = U

J=

x
u
y
u

x
z
y
z

1 0
1 1

=1

UZ

g (u , z ) = f (u , z u ) J
e ( z u ) ,
=
0,

0 u 1, z > 0

Z=X+Y Z

fZ ( z) =

g (u , z )du = e

( z u )

du

0 < z < 1 0 u 1 u < z 0 u < z


z

fZ ( z) = e

( z u )

du = 1 e

x 1 0 u 1 u < z 0 u < 1
1

fZ ( z) = e

( z u )

du = e (e 1)

f Z ( z ) = 0
z

1 e ,
z
f Z ( z ) = e (e 1),
0,

0 < z <1
z 1

256.
6.17
712
1213
1315
1521
2123
2329
2931
31
------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 0.1, 4 . 10 ,
1,. X , E(X)(
)

4 X b(4, p ) p

10 10 Y
b(10, 0.1)

P{Y = k} = C10K (0.1)10 k

( k = 0,1, 2, ,10)

p = P{Y > 1} = 1 P(Y = 1)


= 1 P{Y = 0} P{Y = 1}
= 1 (0.9)10 C101 (0.1) (0.9)9
= 1 (0.9)10 (0.9)9
= 1 0.736 = 0.264
X b(4, 0.264)

P{Y = i} = C4i (0.264)i (0.763) 4i

(i = 0,1, 2,3, 4)

E ( X ) = np = 4 0.264 = 1.056
------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 X

1
15002 x,

1
f ( x) =
( x 3000),
2
1500

0,

0 x 1500
1500 < x 3000

EX

3000
1
1
xdx + x[
( x 3000)]dx
2
0
1500
1500
15002
1500
3000
3000
1
1
1
=
x 2 dx
x 2 dx +
3000 xdx
2 0
2 1500
2 1500
1500
1500
1500
1
1
1
3000
3000
=
[( x3 ) 1500
( x 3 ) 1500
+ (1500 x 2 ) 1500
]
0
2
1500 3
3
1 15003 30003 15003
=
[

+ 1500 x(30002 15002 )]


2
1500
3
3
3
1 2 1500 30003
=
[

+ 1500 30002 15002 ]


2
1500
3
3
3
1500
3000
30002
=

+
3
3 15002 1500
= 500 4000 + 6000 = 1500

E( X ) =

1500

------------------------------------------------------------------------------61 X
X

-2

pk

0.4

0.3

0.3

E ( X ), E ( X 2 ), E (3 X 2 + 5)

E( X ) =

x
k =1

pk = ( 2) 0.4 + 0 0.3 + 2 0.3 = 0.2

E ( X 2 ) Y = X 2 R Y
Y Y
X

pk

0.3

0.7

E (Y ) = E ( X 2 ) = 0 0.3 + 4 0.7 = 2.8


X Y
3

E ( X 2 ) = xk2 pk = (2) 2 0.4 + 0 0.3 + 22 0.3


k =1

= 4 0.4 + 4 0.3 = 2.8


. Z = 3 X 2 + 5 ,Z
X

17

pk

0.3

0.7

E ( Z ) = E (3 X 2 + 5) = 5 0.3 + 17 0.7 = 13.4


X Z

E ( Z ) = E (3 X 2 + 5) = [3 ( 2) 2 + 5] 0.4 + (3 0 + 5) 0.3 + (3 22 + 5) 0.3 = 13.4


------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 X

e x ,
f ( x) =
0,

x>0
x0

1 Y = 2 X 2 Y = e 2 x

1 Y = 2 X Y = 2 X y = 2 x

x =

1 y 2
y 1 e ,
fY ( y ) = f ( ) = 2
2 2
0,

y
dx 1

= Y
2
dy 2
y>0
y0

E (Y ) = E (2 X ) =

= ( ye

y 2

= (2e

y 2

1
y e y 2 dy
2

+
0

+ e y 2 dy

+
0

=2

E (Y ) = E (2 X ) = 2 xe x dx = 2
0

2 Y = e

2 x

1
dx 1
Y = e 2 x Y = e 2 x x = 1ny =

2
dy 2 y
Y

1
,
1
1

fY ( y ) = f ( 1ny )
= 2 y
2
2y
0,

0 < y <1

E (Y ) = E (e 2 x ) =

1
2 y

dy =

1 1 12
y dy
2 0

1 2 32
1
= ( y ) 10 =
2 3
3
X
+

E (Y ) = E (e 2 x ) = e2 x e x dx
0

1
= e 3 x dx = ( e3 x )
0
3

+
0

1
3

------------------------------------------------------------------------------12ab
X

1
,

f ( x) = b a
0,

a< x<b

Y Y = (

x2

E (Y ) =
=
=

4(b a)

X 2 X2

) =
2
4

1
dx
ba

x 2 dx =

1
( x3 )
4(b a) 3

b
a

(b 2 + ab + a 2 )
12

------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 V X N (0, 9)
Y

X N (0, 9) X

1
f ( x) =
e 18
3 2

( < x < +)

Y E (Y )
2

1
10
E (Y ) = E (5 X ) = 5 x
e 18 dx =

3 2
3 2
2
1
x 10 +
t =
18te t 18
dt

18 3 2 0
2 t
2

90

3
2

t e dt =

90

3
1
t
2

e dt =

xe

x2
18

dx

90

3
( )
2

1 1
1
( ) =
EY
2 2
2

( ) =

E (Y ) =

1
2 t

90

1
= 45V
2

E ( X 2 ) = D( X ) + [ E ( X )]2

E (Y ) = 5 E ( X 2 ) = 5(9 + 0) = 45V
------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 n 1 n n 1 n
X E ( X )

1,
Xi =
0,
X =

ii
ii

(i = 1, 2, , n)

X
i =1

n n n n !

i n-1n-1 X i

( n 1)! 1
=
n!
n
1
P{ X i = 0} = 1
n

P{ X i = 1} =

1
1
1
+ 0 (1 ) =
n
n
n

E ( X i ) = 1
n

i =1

i =1

E ( X ) = E ( X i ) = E ( X i ) =n

1
=1
n

------------------------------------------------------------------------------21 m X U (0, 2) m 20
A
Y 20=2Y+2X 10=Y+X Y=10-X A=10-XX
X

1
,
f ( x) = 2
0,

0<x<2

2
1
E ( A) = E[(10 X ) X ] = (10 x) x dx
0
2
2

1
1 1
= 5( x 2 ) 02 ( x3 )
2
2 3
0
= 10

3 26
=
= 8.667
4 3

E ( A2 ) = E[((10 X ) X )) 2 ] = (10 x) 2 x 2
0

1
dx
2

D( A) = E ( A2 ) [ E ( A)]2 = 96.533 (8.667) 2 = 21.42


------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 kg X 1 X 2 X 3

X 4 , X 5 X 1 N (200, 225) X 2 N (240, 240), X 3 N (180, 225)


X 4 N (260, 265) X 5 N (327, 270) X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5
1
2 0.99

1 21

i =1

i =1

X i 5 X i

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

E ( X i ) = E ( X i ) =200 + 240 + 180 + 260 + 320 = 1200


D( X i ) = D( X i ) =225 + 240 + 225 + 265 + 270 = 1225
5

X
i =1

1200 1225

2 Y=

X
i =1

P{Y S } > 0.99


1 Y N (1200,1225)

Y 1200 S 1200
S 1200
P{

} > 0.99, (
) > 0.99
35
35
35
S 1200
(
) > 2.33 S > 2.33 35 + 1200 = 1281.55
35
1282kg
------------------------------------------------------------------------------29XY
X
Y

-1

1
8
1
8
1
8

1
8

-1
0
1

1
8
1
8
1
8

1
8

X Y X Y
24

X
X

P{ X = X i }

-1

3
8

2
8

3
8

-1

3
8

2
8

3
8

Y
Y

P{Y = y j }

P{ X = 0, Y = 0} = 0, P{ X = 0} =

2
2
, P{Y = 0} = ,
8
8

P{ X = 0, Y = 0} P{ X = 0}P{Y = 0} X Y
XY

3
2
3
E ( X ) = (1) + 0 + 1 = 0
8
8
8
3
2
3
E (Y ) = (1) + 0 + 1 = 0
8
8
8
3
2
3 3
D( X ) = D( X 2 ) = (1) 2 + 0 + 1 =
8
8
8 4
3
2
3 3
D(Y ) = D(Y 2 ) = (1) 2 + 0 + 1 =
8
8
8 4
XY
XY

-1

Pk

2
8

4
8

2
8

P{ XY = 1} = P{ X = 1, Y = 1} + P{ X = 1, Y = 1}
1 1 2
= + =
8 8 8
P{ XY = 1} = P{ X = 1, Y = 1} + P{ X = 1, Y = 1}
1 1 2
= + =
8 8 8
P{ XY = 0} = 1 P{ XY = 1} + P{ XY = 1}
2 2 4
= 1 =
8 8 8

2
4
2
E ( XY ) = (1) + 0 + 1 = 0
8
8
8
X Y

XY =

COV ( X , Y )
E ( XY ) E ( X ) E (Y )
=
=0
D( X ) D(Y )
D( X ) D(Y )

X Y
------------------------------------------------------------------------------31XY

1,
f ( x, y ) =
0,

y < x, 0 < x < 1

E ( X ), E (Y ), COV ( X , Y )

XY
1

E ( X ) = dx xdy = 2 x 2 dx =

2
3

E (Y ) = dx ydy = 0
x

E ( XY ) = dx xydy = xdx ydy = 0


X Y

COV ( X , Y ) = E ( XY ) E ( X ) E (Y ) = 0

------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 100 16
16 1920
X X
x
1 100
e
,

f ( x) = 100
0,

x>0
x0

16 X 1 , X 2 , , X 16
100 16 Y =

16

X
i =1

E ( X i ) = 100, D( X i ) = 1002

16

16

i =1

i =1

E (Y ) = E ( X i ) = 16 100 = 1600, D(Y ) = D( X i ) = 16 1002


Y N (1600,16 1002 )

P{Y > 1920} = 1 P{Y 1920}


Y 1600 1920 1600
= 1 P{

}
16 1002
16 1002
Y 1600
320
= 1 P{

}
2
400
16 100
1 (0.8) = 1 0.7881 = 0.2119
(i)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4 0.5kg
0.1kg, 5000 2510kg ?

. X i i (i=1,2,,5000),
5000

E ( X i ) = 0.5, D( X i ) = 0.12

Y = Xi

i =1

E (Y ) = 5000 0.5 = 2500, DY = 5000 0.12 = 50 Y


N (2500,50)

Y 2500
N01
50

Y 2500 2510 2500


P{Y > 2510} = P{
>
}
50
50
Y 2500
= P{
> 1.4142}
50
1 (1.4142)
= 1 0.9207 = 0.0793
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. N (52, 6.32 ) 36 X 50.8 53.8

X N (52, 6.32 )

P{50.8 < X < 53.8} = P{

X 52
N (0,1)
6.3 6

50.8 52 X 52
<
}
6.3 6
6.3 6

= (1.714) (1.143)
= 0.9564 (1 0.8729)
= 0.8293
(i)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. N (20,3) 1015 0.3

X 11 , X 12 , X 1 ,10 X 21 , X 22 , , X 2 ,15 N (20,3)

X1 =

1 10
1 15
X
,
X
=
X 2i X 1 X 2
1i 2 15
10 i =1
i =1

( X 1 X 2 ) N (0,
P{ X 1 X 2 > 0.3} = {P
= 1 P{

X1 X 2
12

1
3 3
+ ) X 1 X 2 N (0, )
10 15
2

X1 X 2

0.3

>

12

12

0.3 1 2}

= 2 2 (0.424)
= 2 2 0.6628 = 0.6744
------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 X b(1, p), X 1 , X 2 , , X n X
1 ( X 1 , X 2 , , X n )
n

X
i =1

3 E ( X ), D ( X ), E ( S 2 )

1 X 1 , X 2 , , X n ( X 1 , X 2 , , X n )
n

p( x1 , x2 , , xn ) = p (1 p)
xi

1 xi

xi

= p i=1 (1 p)

n
n xi
i =1

( xi = 0,1;i =1,2,, n )

i =1

2 X 1 , X 2 , , X n n

1, iA
Xi =
0, iA
n A X =

X
i =1

P{ X = x} = Cnx p x (1 p ) n 1
3

X b( n, p )

x = 0,1, 2, , n)

E( X ) = E(

1 n
1 n
1 n
X
)
=
(
X
)
=
i n
p = p,
i
n i =1
n i =1
i =1

D( X ) = D(
=

1
n2

1 n
1
Xi ) = 2

n i =1
n

p(1 p) =
i =1

D( X )
i

i =1

p (1 p )
n
2

E ( S 2 ) S

S2 =

1 n
( X i X )2

n 1 i =1

1 n
( X i2 2 X i X + ( X )2 )
n 1 i =1

n
n
1 n 2
[ X i 2 X X i + ( X ) 2 ]
n 1 i =1
i =1
i =1

1 n 2
[ X i 2 n( X ) 2 + n ( X ) 2 ]
n 1 i =1

1 n 2
[ X i n( X ) 2 ]
n 1 i =1

1 n
[ E ( X i2 )2 nE (( X ) 2 )]
n 1 i =1
1 n
p (1 p )
=
[ ( p (1 p ) + p 2 ) n(
+ p 2 )]
n 1 i =1
n
1
[np (1 p ) + np 2 p (1 p ) np 2 ]
=
n 1
1
=
(n 1) p (1 p ) = p (1 p )
n 1
E(S 2 ) =

E ( X i ) = E ( X ) = p, D( X i ) = D( X ) = p (1 p )(i = 1, 2, , n);
n

E (

X ) = E ( X ), D( X ) = D( X )
i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

E ( X ) = E ( X ), D ( X ) =

D( X )
, E ( S 2 ) = D( X )
n

------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

7 X x ( n), X 1 , X 2 , , X 10 X E ( X ), D ( X ), E ( S 2 )

X 6 X

n
x
1
1
2
2
x
e
,

n n2
f ( x) = ( )2
2
0,

x>0
x0

E( X ) =

n
x
1
1
2
2
x
x e dx
n
n 2
( )2
2

n+2
x
+
1 dx
1
2
2
x
e
n
n 2 0
( )2
2
n+ 2
n+2 2
)2
(
n+2
x
+
1
1
2
2
2
=
x
e dx
n
n+ 2
n 2 0
n+2 2
)2
( )2
(
2
2
n+2
n n 2
( )2
= 2 2 n
n
( )2 2
2

n+ 2
x
1
1
2
2
x
e
dx
n+2
n+2 2
(
)2
2

( n + 2) X 2 1

E( X 2 ) =

n
x
1
1
2
2
x
e
dx
n n2
( )2
2

n+ 4
x
+
1 dx
1
2
2
x
e
n n 0
( )2 2
2
n + 4 n +2 4
(
)2
n+4
x
+
1
1
2
2
2
=
x
e
dx
n n2 0
n + 4 n +2 4
( )2
(
)2
2
2
n + 4 n +2 4
(
)2
2
=
n n2
( )2
2
n + 2 n n n +2 4
i ( )2
2
2 2
=
= n(n + 2)
n n2
( )2
2
D( X ) = E ( X 2 ) [ E ( X )]2 = n(n + 2) n 2 = 2n

X 2 2

E( X ) = E( X ) = n
D ( X ) 2n n
=
=
n
10 5
E ( S 2 ) = D ( X ) = 2n
D( X ) =

------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 N ( , 2 ) 16 , 2
1 P{S 2

2 2.041} S 2
2

2 D S

P{

S2

(n 1) S 2

X 2 (n 1)

15S 2
2.041} = P{ 2 15 2.041}

15S
= 1 P{ 2 > 30.615}

= 1 0.01 = 0.99

15S 2

X 2 (15)

15 30.615 30.578 X 0.01.

(2)

15S 2

X2

15S 2
15S 2
D( 2 ) = 2 15 = 30, 4 D( S 2 ) = 30

30 4 2 4
D( S ) =
=
152
15
2

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

113
------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 8 mm 74.001 74.005 74.003 74.001
74.000 73.998 74.006 74.002 , S
2

X X E ( X ) =

D( X ) = 2

= x,

= B2 =

1 n
( xi x) 2

n i =1

1 8
xi = 74.002
8 i =1
1 8
B2 = ( xi x) 2 = 6 106
8 i =1
x=

= 74.002,
2

= 6 106

1 n
1 8
2
s =
( xi x) = ( xi x) 2 = 6.86 10 6

n 1 i =1
7 i =1
2

x, B2 , s

------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 X 1 , X 2 , , X n x1 , x2 , , xn

c x ( +1) ,

x>c

0,

1 f ( x) =

c > 0 > 1,

x
0,

2 f ( x ) =

0 x 1

> 1,
m

3 P{ X = x} = ( ) p (1 p )
x

m x

( x = 0,1, 2,), m, 0 < p < 1 p

E( X ) =

x c x ( +1) dx = c

x dx

1 ( +1) +
= c (
x
)c
1
c1
c
= c (
)=
1
1
x1 , x2 , , xn x

c
x
x
X
= x =
=
=

1
xc
xc
X c

X =

1 n
X i
n i =1

X c

2
1

E( X ) = x x
0

dx = x dx =
0

x1 , x2 , , xn

1+

x 2
= x = (
)
1 x
1+

X 2
)
1 X

= (

3 X b( m, p ) E ( X ) = mp x1 , x2 , , xn

mp = x p p =

x
X
p p =

m
m

------------------------------------------------------------------------------41 X
X

Pk

2 (1 )

(1 ) 2

(0 < < 1) x1 = 1, x2 = 2, x3 = 1

2 X 1 , X 2 , , X n

1 E ( X ) = 1 2 + 2 2 (1 ) + 3 (1 ) 2 = 3 2

x =

1+ 2 +1 4
5
= 3 2 =
3
3
6

L( ) = 4 2 (1 ) = 2 5 (1 )

1nL( ) = 1n2 + 51nl + 1n(1 )

d1nL( ) 5
1
=
=0
d
1

5
=
6
2 X

P{ X = x} =

e x
x = 0,1, 2,
x!

E ( X ) = = X = X

n
n
e xi
1
L ( ) =
= e n ( ) xi
xi !
i =1
i =1
i =1 xi !
n

i =1

i =1

1nL( ) = n 1nxi ! + xi 1n

d1nL( )
= n + i =1

xi

=0

1 n
xi = x = X

n i =1

16 9
6.0 5.7 5.8 6.5 7.0 6.3 5.6 6.1 5.0
N ( , ) 0.95
2

(1) = 0.6(); 2

Z =

X
N (0,1)
n

1 a = 0.95

P{

X
< z0.025 } = 0.95
n

z0.025 =0.96

P{ X

1.96 < < X +

1.96} = 0.95

0.95

(X

1.96, X +

1.96)

x = 6 = 0.6, n = 9 0.95

(6

0.6
0.6
1.96, 6 +
1.96) = (5.608, 6.392)
3
3


2 t
t =

X
t (n 1)
S n

1 a = 0.95 P{

X
< t0.025 (8)} = 0.95
S n

t t0.025 (8) = 2.3060

P{ X

S
S
2.3060 < < X +
2.3060} = 0.95
n
n

0.95

(X

S
S
2.3060, X +
2.3060)
n
n

, x = 6 , s = 0.5745 .
0.95

(6

0.5745
0.5745
2.3060, 6 +
2.3060) = (5.558, 6.442)
3
3

, t ,,

------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 9 s = 11 m s
0.95
2

X2 =

(n 1) S 2

X 2 (n 1)

1 a = 0.95
2
P{ X 0.975
(8) <

(n 1) S 2

2
< X 0.025
(8)} = 0.95

2
2
(8) = 2.180, X 0.025
(8) = 17.535
X 2 X 0.975

P{

(n 1) S 2
(n 1) S 2
< <
} = 0.95
17.535
2.180

0.95
2

(n 1) S 2 (n 1) S 2
,
)
17.535
2.180

n = 9, s = 11 0.95
2

8 112 8 112
(
,
) = (55.2, 444.0)
17.535 2.180
0.95

( 55.2, 444.0) = (7.43, 21.07)


------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 AB 10
s A2 = 0.5419, sB2 = 0.6065 A , B AB
2

A B 0.95
2

F=

S A2

A2
S 2
B

F (n1 1, n2 1)

2
B

1 a = 0.95

P = {F0.975 (9, 9) <

S A2

2
S A2
B

< F0.975 (9,9)) = 0.95

2
B

F F0.025 (9, 9) = 4.03

A2
S A2
P{ 2
<
<
= 0.95
S B F0.025 (9,9) B2 S B2 F0.975 (9, 9)
S A2

F0.975 (9, 9) =

1
2
A2 0.95
F0.975 (9, 9)
B

0.5419
0.5419 4.03
,
) = (0.222,3.601)
4.03 0.6065
0.6065

------------------------------------------------------------------------------24 100 16
0.95
X 0-1

P{ X = x} = p (1 p )1 x

( x = 0,1)
100

p 100 X 1 , X 2 , , X 100

X
i =1

X =

100
1 100

-
X
Xi
i

100 i =1
i =1
100

N (100 p,100 p (1 p )) Z =

X
i =1

100 p

100 p (1 p )

1 a = 0.95
100

P ={

X
i =1

100 p

100 p (1 p )

< z0.025 } 0.95

Xp
< z0.025 } 0.95
p (1 p ) 100

P ={

Xp
< z0.025
p (1 p ) 100

2
2
(100 + z0.025
) p 2 (2 100 X + z0.025
) p + 100( X )2 < 0

p1 =
p2 =

2
2
2
200 X + z0.025
(200 X + z0.025
) 2 400(100 + z0.025
)( X ) 2
2
2(100 + z0.025
)
2
2
2
200 X + z0.025
+ (200 X + z0.025
)2 400(100 + z0.025
)( X ) 2
2
2(100 + z0.025
)

p 0.95

( p1 , p2 )
z0.025 = 1.96 x =

16
= 0.16 p1 , p2
100

200 0.16 + 1.96 2 (200 0.16 + 1.962 ) 2 400(100 + 1.962 ) 0.162


p1 =
2 (100 + 1.962 )
= 0.102
200 0.16 + 1.962 + (200 0.16 + 1.962 )2 400(100 + 1.962 ) 0.16 2
2 (100 + 1.96 2 )
= 0.244
p2 =

p 0.95

(0.102, 0.244)
p 0.95

X (1 X )
1.96, X +
100

(X

X (1 X )
1.96)
100

x = 0.16 p 0.95

(016

0.16 0.84
0.16 0.84
1.96, 016 +
1.96) = (0.088, 0.232)
100
100

p L = 0.142 p

L = 0.144 D( X ) =

p (1 p )

p X

------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 5 %
3.25 3.27 3.24 3.26 3.24
, a = 0.01
3.25

X N ( , 2 ), , 2 t

H 0 : = 3.25

H1 : = 3.25

t=

X 3.25
t (n 1)
S n

t
2

a = 0.01

P { t t0.005 (4)} = 0.01


t t0.005 (4) = 4.6041

(, 4.6041][4.6041,+)

x =

s=

1 5
xi = 3.252
5 i =1

1 5
( xi x)2 = 0.013 t

4 i =1

t=

3.252 3.25 0.002 5


=
= 0.344
0.013
0.013 5

t = 0.344 < 4.6041 t


3.25
t
x1 , x2 , , xn , ( x1 , x2 , , xn ) n
t = 0.344 < 4.6041

x = 3.252
------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. 1000 25
950 = 100
= 0.05

H 0 : 1000, H1 : < 1000

X N ( ,100 2 )
2

H 0 : 1000, H1 : < 1000

Z=

X 1000
N (0,1)
n


Z =

X 1000
N (0,1)
n

a = 0.05
P{Z z0.05 } = 0.05

( z0.05 > 0)

z0.05 = 1.645

(, 1.645]

z=

950 1000 5 (50)


=
= 2.5
100
100 25

H 0 : 1000 H1 H1 X x
c x c

P{H 0 H 0} = P { X c}
H 0

= P 1000 {

X 1000 c 1000

}
n
n

X c 1000
P 1000 {

}
n n
1000

X 1000 c 1000
X c 1000

}{

}
n
n
n n

P{H 0 H 0} a

X c 1000

}= a
n n

P 1000 {

X
c 1000

N (0,1)
= za ( za > 0) c = 1000
za
n
n
n

x 1000

z=

za

x 1000
za
n

a = 0.05 z =

x 1000
z0.05
n

H 0 : 1000, H1 : < 1000 H 0 : 1000, H1 : < 1000

H 0 : 0 , H1 : < 0 ( 0)
H 0 : = 0 , H1 : < 0

z=

x 0
za
n

H 0 : 0 , H1 : > 0
H 0 : 0 , H1 : > 0

z=

x 0
za
n

------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 20 min
9.8,10.4,10.6,9.6,9.7,9.9,10.9,11.1,9.6,10.2,10.3,9.6,9.9,11.2,10.6,9.8,10.5,10
.1,10.5,9.7
N ( , 2 ), , 2
10 a = 0.05

X N ( , 2 ), , 2 t

H 0 : 10, H1 : > 10
3

t=

X 10
t (n 1)
S n

a = 0.05

P{t t0.05 (19)} = 0.05

t t0.05 (19) = 1.7291

[1.7291, + )
x = 10.2 s = 0.5099 t

t=

10.2 10
0.2 20
=
= 1.754
0.5099
0.5099 20

t = 1.754 > 1.7291 t


10

------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 0.005

9 s = 0.007 a = 0.05

H 0 : 0 = 0.005, H1 : 0 = 0.005
s = 0.007 X 2

X 2

X =
2

(n 1) S 2

2
0

X 2 (n 1)

a = 0.05
2
P{ X 2 X 0.05
(8)} = 0.05

X 2 X 0.05 (8) = 15.507


2

[15.507, +)
s = 0.007, n = 9 X 2

8 0.007 2
X =
= 15.68
0.0052
2

X = 15.68
2

X
H 0 : 0.005 H1 H1 S s
2

c s c
2

P{H 0 H 0} = P 0.005 {S 2 c}
= P 0.005{
P 0.005 {

(n 1) S 2

2
0

(n 1) S 2

(n 1)c

02
(n 1)c

02

}
}

P{H 0 H 0} a

P 0.005{

c=

(n 1) S 2

(n 1) S 2

(n 1)c

02

}= a

X2 X2

(n 1)c
= X a2 (n 1)
2
0.005

0.0052 X a2 (n 1)
0.0052 X a2 (n 1)
2
S

(n 1)
(n 1)
X2 =

(n 1) s 2
X a2 (n 1)
0.0052

(n 1) s 2
2
a = 0.05
X 0.05
(n 1)
2
0.005
H 0 : 0.005, H1 : > 0.005 H 0 : 0.005, H1 : > 0.005

------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 10 s = 0.037%

2 2 a = 0.05
H 0 : 0.04%, H1 : < 0.04%

H 0 : 0.04%, H1 : < 0.04%

H 0 : 0.04%, H1 : < 0.04% X 2

H 0 : 0 = 0.04%, H1 : 0 = 0.04%

X2 =

(n 1) S 2

2
0

X 2 (n 1)

a = 0.05
2
P{ X 2 X 0.95
(9)} = 0.05

X 2 X 0.95 (9) = 3.325 03.325]


2

s = 0.037% n = 10 X 2

X2 =

9 (0.037%)2
= 7.701
(0.04%) 2

X = 7.701 0.04%
2

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------