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com/ APUSH

Chapter Twenty-Three: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
Idea” “Ohio Idea” At the Democratic convention, wealthy eastern Democrats wanted federal war bonds to be redeemed in gold, even though many of the bonds had been purchased with badly depreciated paper greenbacks. Poorer Midwestern Democrats called for redemption in greenbacks, hoping to keep more money in circulation and thus, keep interest rates lower so that their debts could be more easily paid. Shirt” “Waving the Bloody Shirt” Republicans promoted Ulysses Grant as president by “waving the bloody shirt.” In other words, reminding the voters of the Civil War and Grant’s heroic action. “Vote as You Shot” became a Republican slogan aimed at Union army veterans. isk and Gould Gold Scandal In 1869, “Jubilee Jim” isk and Jay Gould came up with a plan to corner the gold market. It would only work, however, if the federal Treasury did not buy gold. They gave Grant’s brother-in-law $25,000 to keep quiet and also directly worked on President Grant. On “Black riday.” On September 2, they bid the price of gold skyward, driving honest businesspeople to the wall. The bubble broke only when the Treasury was compelled to release gold. A congressional probe determined that Grant had done nothing wrong, only acting foolishly. Tweed Ring (Boss Tweed) In New York City, Boss Tweed used bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections to illegally obtain as much as $200 million from citizens. In 1871, the New York Times secured damning evidence and published it. Thomas Nast, even though bribed to desist, published many political cartoons about Tweed. Attorney Samuel J. Tilden headed the prosecution, which later led to his presidential nomination. Thomas Nast Considered to be the “ ather of the American Cartoon,” his drawings were a main factor in the downfall of Boss Tweed of Tammany Hall. He popularized the use of the elephant to represent the Republican Party and the donkey to represent the Democrats.

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Chapter Twenty-Three: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
ish St Hamilton ish (Secretary of St ate) ish served both of Grant’s terms as Secretary of State and was extremely capable. He brought about the Treaty of Washington with Britain and was instrumental in reaching a peaceful settlement with Spain after the Virginius Affair. Credit Mobilier 1872: Union Pacific Railroad insiders formed the Credit Mobilier construction company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad line, earning dividends as high as 348 percent. The company distributed shares of its valuable stock to key congressmen until a newspaper exposé and congressional investigation led to the formal censure of two congressmen and the revelation that the vice president had also accepted payments from Credit Mobilier. Whiskey Ring 1874-1875: Treasury robbed of millions in excise tax revenues. While Grant initially declared “Let no guilty man escape,” he was instrumental in the exoneration of his own personal secretary. Belknap Scandal 1876: Secretary of War William Belknap was forced to resign after it was discovered that he was pocketing bribes from suppliers to the Indian reservations. Grant, ever loyal to his corrupt colleagues, accepted Belknap’s resignation “with great regret.” Liberal Rep. Party The Liberal Republicans were reform-minded citizens disgusted with the corruption of Grantism. They were interested in cleansing the Washington administration and ending military Reconstruction. As their candidate in the 1872 elections, they chose Horace Greeley, the dogmatic and emotional editor of the New York Tribune. Despite Greeley’s history of heavy criticism of Democrats, many office-seeking Democrats supported Greeley. However, Greeley’s call for peace was appealing to Democrats in both the North and South.

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Chapter Twenty-Three: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
General Amnesty Act (1872) Restored political rights, such as voting, to all but five hundred former Confederate leaders. 1873 Panic of 1873 As a result of overspeculation by financiers and overbuilding by industry and railroads, profits failed to materialize, resulting in unpaid loans and the collapse of the economy. More than fifteen thousand businesses went bankrupt. African-Americans were also hard hit, as the reedman’s Savings and Trust Corporation had made unsecred loans to several companies that went under. Debtors continued demanding inflationary policies, raising the issue of printing greenbacks. Hard-Money” “Hard-Money” Stable money backed by gold. Proponents of “hard-money” were able to convince Grant in 1874 to veto a bill to print more paper money. Soft-Money” Cheap-Money” “ Soft -Money ”/”Cheap-Money ” Greenback money not supported by gold. Agrarian and debtor groups, which supported “cheap-money”: they reasoned that more money meant cheaper money, and hence, rising prices and easier-to-pay debts. Resumption Act (1875) “Hard-money” advocates won another victory in the Resumption Act, which pledged the government to the further withdrawal of greenbacks from circulation Beginning in 1879, the government would also redeem of all paper currency in gold at face value. 73” “Crime of ‘ 73 ” In the early 1870s, the Treasury maintained that an ounce of silver was only worth onesixteenth as much as an ounce of gold, even though open-market prices for silver were higher. Silver miners thus stopped offering their product for sale to federal mints. In 1873, Congress formally dropped the coinage of silver dollars. Westerners from silver-minter states joined with debtors to denounce this “crime” and demand a return to the “Dollar of Our Daddies.”

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Chapter Twenty-Three: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
Bland(1878) Bland-Allison Act (1878) This act of Congress would require the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. Rutherford B. Hayes, swayed by industrial and banking interests, vetoed the measure. Congress immediately overrode the veto. The act represented a staggered return to bimetallism. However, since gold continued to be a much larger feature of the monetary system, the term “limping bimetallism” came into use. While “cheap-money” advocates argued that this act did not go far enough and encouraged the free and unlimited coinage of silver, “hard-money advocates” campaigned for the repeal of the bill and strict adherence to the gold standard. Greenback Labor Party In 1878, the Greenback Labor party formed and polled over a million votes, electing fourteen members of Congress. Members were primarily farmers financially hurt by the Panic of 1873—they believed in a return to paper money in order to prevent privately owned banks and corporations from gaining too much power. GARGAR-GOP A bloc of Republican ballots came from members of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), a fraternal organization of several hundred thousand Union veterans of the Civil War. It was during this time period that “Grand Old Party” became a nickname for the Republican Party. Patronage Both parties relied on patronage—rewarding loyal party followers. Parties would grant positions in return for votes, kickbacks, and party service. Stalwarts Roscoe Conkling, U.S. Senator from New York, led the “Stalwart” faction of the Republican Party. Stalwarts adhered to the tradition of exchanging civil-service jobs for votes.

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Chapter Twenty-Three: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
HalfHalf -Breeds Half-Breeds were somewhat interested in enacting civil-service reform. However, their real dispute with the Stalwarts was over who should have control of the party. They were lead by James Blaine of Maine. Lion’ Tail” “ Twisting the Lion’s Tail ” An idiom meaning to test the patience of Great Britain by means of insult. During the 1870s, the ourth of July became the most important secular holiday in America. Even remote communities would celebrate the holiday—twisting the lion’s tail was a main feature of the celebrations. Compromise of 1877 In order to address the contested election returns Louisiana, South Carolina, and lorida, the Electoral Count Act was passed in 1877. It provided for an electoral commission consisting of fifteen men selected from the Senate, the House, and the Supreme Court. The Senate and House met together a month before Inauguration Day to settle the dispute. When the electoral commission chose to accept the Republican returns of lorida, Democrats planned to launch a filibuster. In the Compromise, Democrats agreed that Hayes could take office in return for his withdrawing federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina. The Republicans also assured the Democrats patronage and support for a bill subsidizing a southern transcontinental railroad.

Civil Rights Cases (1883)
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was the last move of the congressional radical Republicans. The Act supposedly guaranteed equal accommodations in public places and prevented racial discrimination in jury selections. Much of the act was pronounced unconstitutional in the Civil Rights Cases. The Court declared that the ourteenth Amendment prohibited only government violations of civil rights, not the denial of civil rights by individuals.

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Chapter Twenty-Three: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
Jim Crow Laws With the arrival of Redeemer governments, discrimination against blacks became more oppressive. By the 1890s, informal segregation had developed into systematic legal codes, with Southern states enacting literacy requirements, voter-registration laws, and poll taxes to ensure that the black population was disenfranchised.

Plessy v. erguson (1896) Plessy
The Supreme Court upheld the South’s segregationist policies, ruling that “separate but equal” facilities were Constitutional under the ourteenth Amendment. In reality, blacks were segregated in inferior schools and separated from whites in virtually all public facilities. This decision would later be overruled in the 1954 case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Railroad Strike of 1877 After the deflation caused by the Panic of 1873, presidents of the nation’s four largest railroads collectively decided to cut workers’ wages by 10%. Workers struck back, and President Hayes’ decision to call in federal troops to quell the unrest brought the striking laborers support from the working-class. Work stoppages spread in cities from Baltimore to St. Louis. After several weeks of battling, over one hundred people were dead. The failure of the strike illustrated the weakness of the labor movement. Kearne Denis Kearney – Kearne yites In San rancisco, Irish-born Denis Kearney encouraged his followers to violently abuse the Chinese. His followers, many of whom were recent immigrants from Europe, resented the competition of cheap labor from the Chinese. Gangs of Kearneyites would terrorize the Chinese by cutting off their pigtails and even murdering some. Through violence, they wanted to prevent the possibility of even more Chinese immigrants coming to the States. Workingman’ Workingman’s Party Denis Kearney led this labor organization, which was based in San rancisco. It was against Chinese immigrant labor and employed open racism.

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Chapter Twenty-Three: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) With this act, Congress banned all further immigration from China. Renewed each decade, it was not until 1943 that the door to America reopened. Many of the Chinese bachelors in America died or returned home. However, the men and few women that remained raised families. While the second generation of Chinese-Americans also faced discrimination, some Chinese managed to open small businesses. S poilsmen One who advocates the spoils system—aiding a political party then expecting a civil office if the party won. President Garfield’s assassinator, Charles Guiteau, believed that now those who supported Vice President Chester A. Arthur would be rewarded with jobs. Pendleton Act (1833) Garfield’s death lead to reform of the spoils system. Chester Arthur, rather than staying true to his Stalwart beginnings, actually prosecuted several fraud cases and resisted the advances of his former Stalwart associates. The Pendleton Act was the so-called Magna Carta of civil-service reform and made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal. It also established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examinations rather than political jockeying. Civil Service Commission Established by the Pendleton Act, its purpose was to appoint people to federal jobs on the basis of their qualifications (passing a civil service exam), rather than their connections. Mugwumps Republicans disgusted by the corrupt nature of James G. Blaine, the Republican candidate of 1884, went to the Democrat side. They were then dubbed Mugwumps, a word of NativeAmerican origins meant to suggest “sanctimonious” or “holier-than-thou.”

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Chapter Twenty-Three: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
LaissezLaissez- aire The principle stating that the less government intervention in business, the better. Literally translated as “Let do.” Cleveland strictly adhered to this principle, making him popular with businessmen and bankers. Pork-Barrel “ Pork-Barrel ” Bills In 1881, the Treasury had a surplus of $145 million, which they could either squander on pensions and “pork-barrel” bills or to lower the tariff. “Pork-barrel” bills involve spending that would benefit constituents in order to obtain support for the party through votes. Dawes Act (1887) Sponsored by Henry Dawes, Senator from Massachusetts, it provided for the division of tribally held lands into individually owned parcels. Any “surplus” land would be given to nonIndians and to the railroad industry. Dawes believed in the civilizing power of private property—legislators hoped that splitting land into parcels would speed assimilation. Interstate Commerce Act (1887) This act created the first true federal regulatory government agency, the Interstate Commerce Commission, which had the purposes of addressing the issues of railroad abuse and discrimination. Railroads were required to have “reasonable and just” shipping rates and publish their rates. Secret rebates were outlawed and price discrimination against small markets was made illegal. While the agency was allowed to investigate and prosecute railroads alleged to have violated the act, it was limited to companies crossing state lines. It lacked the resources to truly enact reform, with its authority being undermined by the pro-railroad Supreme Court and by presidents that appointed pro-railroad commissioners.

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