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management?

A. Financial management is an integral part of overall management. It is concerned

with the duties of the financial managers in the business firm. The term financial

management has been defined by Solomon, It is concerned with the efficient use of

an important economic resource namely, capital funds

Scope :

Howard and Upton : Financial management as an application of general

managerial principles to the area of financial decision-making.

nature and scope of financial management:

The main objective of financial management is to arrange sufficient finances for

meeting short term and long term needs. A financial manager will have to

concentrate on the following areas of finance function:

1.

Estimating Financial Requirements: The first task of financial manager is to estimate short term and longterm financial requirements of his business. For this purpose, he will prepare a

financial plan for present as well as for future. The amount required for purchasing

fixed assets as well as for working capital will have to be ascertained.

2.

Deciding Capital Structure: The capital structure refers to the kind and proportion of different

securities for raising funds. After deciding about the quantum of funds required, it

should be decided which type of securities should be raised. It may be wise to

finance fixed assets through long-term debts and current assets through short-term

debts.

3.

Selecting a Source of Finance: After preparing capital structure, an appropriate source of finance is

selected. Various sources from which finance may be raised include: share capital,

debentures, financial institutions, commercial banks, public deposits etc. If finance is

needed for short period then banks, public deposits and financial institutions may be

appropriate. On the other hand, if long-term finance is required then, share capital,

and debentures may be useful.

4.

Selecting a pattern of Investment: When funds have been procured then a decision about investment

pattern is to be taken. The selection of an investment pattern is related to the use of

funds. A decision will have to be taken as to which asset is to be purchased. The

funds will have to be spent first on fixed assets and then an appropriate portion will

be retained for working capital. The decision-making techniques such as capital

budgeting, opportunity cost analysis etc. may be applied in making decisions about

capital expenditures.

5.

Proper cash Management: Cash management is an important task of finance manager. He has to

assess various cash needs at different times and then make arrangements for

arranging cash. The cash management should be such that neither there is a shortage

of it and nor it is idle. Any shortage of cash will damage the credit worthiness of the

enterprise. The idle cash with the business will mean that it is not properly used.

Cash flow statements are used to find out various sources and application of cash.

6.

Implementing Financial Controls:An efficient system of financial management necessitates the use of

various control devises. Financial control devises generally used are budgetary

control, break even analysis; cost control, ratio analysis etc. The use of various

techniques by the finance manager will help him in evaluating the performance in

various areas and take corrective measures whenever needed.

7.

Proper use of Surplus: The utilization of profit or surplus is also an important factor in financial

management. A judicious use of surpluses is essential for expansion and

diversification plan and also in protecting the interest of shareholders. The finance

manager should consider the following factors before declaring the dividend;

a. Trend of earnings of the enterprise

b. Expected earnings in future.

c. Market value of shares.

d. Shareholders interest.

e. Needs of fund for expansion etc.

Nature of Financial Management

Financial management is applicable to every type of organization, irrespective

of the size, kind or nature. Every organization aims to utilize its resources in a

best possible and profitable way.

i) Financial Management is an integral part of overall management.

Financial considerations are involved in all business decisions. Acquisition,

maintenance, removal or replacement of assets, employee compensation, sources

and costs of different capital, production, marketing, finance and personnel decision,

almost all decisions for that matter have financial implications. Therefore, financial

management is pervasive throughout the organisation.

ii) The central focus of financial management is valuation of the firm. Financial

decisions are directed at increasing/maximization/ optimizing the value of the

institution.

iii) Financial management essentially involves risk-return trade-off. Decisions on

investment involve choosing of types of assets which generate returns accompanied

by risks. Generally higher the risk returns might be higher and vice versa. So, the

financial manager has to decide the level of risk the firm can assume and satisfy with

the accompanying return. Similarly, cheaper sources of capital have other

disadvantages. So to avail the benefit of the low cost funds, the

firm has to put up with certain risks, so, risk-return trade-off is there

throughout.

iv) Financial management affects the survival, growth and vitality of the institution.

Finance is said to be the life blood of institutions. The amount, type, sources,

conditions and cost of finance squarely influence the functioning of the institution.

v) Finance functions, i.e., investment, raising of capital, distribution of profit, are

performed in all firms - business or non-business, big or small, proprietary or

corporate undertakings. Yes, financial management is a concern of every concern

including educational institutions.

vi) Financial management is a sub-system of the institutional system which has other

subsystems like academic activities, research wing, etc., In systems arrangement

financial sub-system is to be well coordinated with others and other sub-systems

well matched with the financial sub-system.

2. Discuss about the cost of capital in briefly.?

A. Cost of capital plays an important role in the capital budgeting decisions. It

determines the acceptability of all investment opportunities regardless of the

techniques employed to judge the financial viability of a project. Cost of capital

serves as capitalization rate used to determine capitalization of a new concern. Cost

of capital is one rate of return the capital funds used should produce to justify their

use within the firm.

In the words of Haley and Schall, in a general sense, cost of capital is

any discount rate used to value cash streams.

(i) Capital budgeting decisions. In capital budgeting decisions, the cost of capital is

often used as a discount rate on the basis of which the firm's future cash flows are

discounted to find out their present values. Thus, the cost of capital is the very basis

for financial appraisal of new capital expenditure proposals. The decision of the

finance manager will be irrational and wrong in case the cost of capital is not

correctly determined. This is because the business must earn least at a rate which

equals to its cost capital in order to make at least a break-even.

(ii) Capital structure decisions: The cost of capital is also an important

consideration in capital structure decisions. The finance manager must raise capital

from different sources in a way that it optimises the risk and cost factors. The

sources of funds which have less cost involve high risk. Raising of loans may,

therefore, be cheaper on account of income tax benefits, but it involves heavy risk

because a slight fall in the earning capacity of the company may bring the firm

near to cash insolvency. It is, therefore, absolutely necessary that cost of each source

of funds is carefully considered and compared with the risk involved with it.

In order to compute the overall cost of capital, the manager of funds has to take the

following steps:

1) To determine the type of funds to be raised and their share in the total

capitalization of the firm.

2) To ascertain the cost of each type of funds.

3) To calculate the combined cost of capital if the firm by assigning weight to each

type of funds in terms of quantum of funds so raised.

Determination Of Cost Of Capital Problems Involved

It is not an early task to determine the cost of capital of a firm. While determining

the cost of capital of a firm, the funds manager is confronted with a large number of

problems both conceptual and practical.

i) Computation of cost of equity : The cost of equity capital is the minimum rate of

return that a company must earn on that portion of its capital employed, which is

financed by equity capital so that the market price of the shares of the company

remains unchanged. This implies that to find out the cost of equity capital one has to

quantity the expectations of the shareholders from the particular equity shares. As it

is a difficult task, a precise measure of cost of equity capital is also an arduous task.

ii) Computation of cost of retained earnings and depreciation funds : The

cost of capital raised through these sources will depend on the approach adopted

for computing the cost of capital. As there are different views, the funds manager has

to face a difficult task in subscribing and selecting an appropriate

approach.

iii) Marginal Vs average cost of capital : For decision making purposes, it is the

future cost of capital and not historical cost of capital which is relevant. If therefore

creates another problem whether to consider marginal cost of capital, i.e., cost of

additional funds or the average cost of capital.

iv) Problem of weights: The assignment of weights of each type of funds is a

complex issue. If a financial executive wants to ascertain the average cost of capital

than the problem of weights also arises. The finance manger has to make a choice

between the book value of each source of funds and the market value of each source

of funds. Both have their any merits as well as weaknesses.

Measurement of The Cost Of Capital:

The cost of the different sources of financing represents the components of

continued cost. Each firm has ideal capital mix of various sources of funds; external

sources (debt, preferred stock and equity stock) and internal sources (reserves and

surplus). Determining of cost of capital involves relating the expected outcome of

the specific source of capital to the market or book value of

that source. Expected income in thin context comprises interest, discount on debt,

dividends, EPS or similar other variables most suitable to the particular case. The

computation of the cost of capital involves two steps.

i) The computation of the different elements of the cost in terms of the cost of the

different source of finance, and

ii) the calculation of the overall cost by combining the specific cost into a composite

cost.

3. What is time value of money. Explain the techniques of time value of money?

A. A time value of money calculation is a calculation that solves for one of several

variables in a financial problem.

Required rate of return= risk free rate of return+ risk premium

In a typical case, the variables might be: a balance (the real or nominal value of a

debt or a financial asset in terms of monetary units), a periodic rate of interest, the

number of periods, and a series of cash flows. (In the case of a debt, cash flows are

payments against principal and interest; in the case of a financial asset, these are

contributions to or withdrawals from the balance.) More generally, the cash flows

may not be periodic but may be specified individually. Any of the variables may be

the independent variable (the sought-for answer) in a given problem. For example,

one may know that: the interest is 0.5% per period (per month, say); the number of

periods is 60 (months); the initial balance (of the debt, in this case) is 25,000 units;

and the final balance is 0 units. The unknown variable may be the monthly payment

that the borrower must pay.

It is the process of determining the future value of a lump sum amount at one

point of time

We calculate the future value of a single cash flow compounded annually by

PV=FV/1+R

FV=future value, PV= intial cash flow, i=interest rate per annum, n= no.of

compounding periods.

If compounding I done for shorter compounding period, then:

FV = PV (1+ i/m ) m x n

Future value of multiple flows:

Instead of investing lump sum at one time if money is invested in multiple

flows then how value of money will be affected?

Ex: Suppose Mr Paw Invests ` 1,000rs now (at the beginning of one year), `

2,000rs at the beginning of year 2 and ` 3,000rs at the beginning of year 3, how

much these flows accumulate to at the end of year 3 at a rate of 12% pa?

FV3 = 1000 x FVIF(12,3) + 2000 x FVIF(12,2) + 3000 x FVIF(12,1)

=[(1000x1.405)+(2000x1.254)+(3000x1.120)]

= Rs7273

Future Value of Annuity:

Annuity is the term used to describe a series of periodic flows of equal amounts.

The example of payment of Life insurance premium (` 2000 per annum) for next 20

years can be classified as an annuity.

(1 i ) n 1)

FVA A[

]

i

rate of interest i is given by the formula:

FVA AxCVFA(i ,n )

With this approach, we can determine the present value of a future cash flow or a

stream of future cash flows

This is mostly used for evaluating the financial viability of projects.

Suppose if we invest `1000 today at 10% pa for a period of 5 years, we know that we

will get ` 1000 x FVIF(10,5) =`1000x1.611 =`1,611 at the end of 5 years

single flow is:

Present value of an annuity

(1 i ) n 1

PVA A[

]

i (1 i ) n

every year for a period of n years at a rate of interest i is equal to:

Perpetuity is an annuity that occurs indefinitely.

It tells that how much shall we invest today so that we can get equal amount every

year for indefinite time

Present Value of Perpetuity = Perpetuity Interest rate

Values of an Annuity due

When annuity is calculated from the beginning of the year it is called annuity due

In the case of annuity due or when payment is made at the beginning of the

year, which means last payment has completed one year at the time of calculation

Future value of annuity due

Suppose that you deposit ` 1000 in saving account at the beginning of each year for

5 years to earn 4% interest rate

Future value of an annuity due= future value of an annuity x (1+i)

FVA A[

(1 i ) n 1)

](1 i )

i

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