USA –INDIA AN ERA OF NEW FRIENDSHIP

INTRODUCTION
As every one knows USA is the world’s greatest powerful country and INDIA is the largest democratic country. In recent years INDIA and US has become a good friend. US consider their future role in the world and India represents a singularly positive opportunity to USA due to the rise of a democratic and increasingly powerful India. That is why building a close U.S.-India partnership should be one of the United States' highest priorities for the future. US share an abundance of political, economic, and military interests with India today. In an age of antiAmericanism, according to the most recent Pew Global Attitudes survey, nearly six in ten Indians view the United States favorably. In the past decade, both President Bill Clinton and President George W. Bush recognized this opportunity and acted to construct a completely new foundation for U.S. ties with India. US – INDIA relationship now is fastest-developing friendship with any major country in the world. Both countries are working together effectively to counter terrorism, drug trafficking, and nuclear proliferation. In India, both the ruling Indian National Congress and the opposition Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) have worked for over a decade to elevate India's ties with the United States. Former US President Bush called for the two countries to jump-start their relationship in four strategic areas: civil nuclear energy, civilian space programs, high-tech commerce, and missile defense. In July2005 when Prime Minister shri Manmohan singh visited Washington than former US president bush said that the United States is prepare to offer India the benefits of full civil nuclear energy cooperation and US will help INDIA to construct new power plants and will provide nuclear fuel and technology to run the nuclear plants. In New Delhi in March 2006, President Bush and Prime Minister Singh announced the realization of this vision through the U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Cooperation Initiative. The U.S.-India Friendship Council was formed in 2005 with the sole purpose of ratifying the U.S.-India civil nuclear deal. It has been advocating for passage for implementing legislation since 2006. In recent years there are a lot of agreements and partnership between INDIA and US related with nuclear energy, education, terrorism, trade, environment, health, agriculture, security, science and technology, space programs etc.

INDO-US CIVILIAN NUCLEAR AGREEMENTThe Indo-U.S. civilian nuclear agreement, known also as the Indo-U.S. nuclear deal, refers to a bilateral accord on civil nuclear cooperation between the United States of America and the Republic of India. The framework for this agreement was a July 18, 2005 joint statement by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and then U.S. President George W. Bush, under which India agreed to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities and place all its civil nuclear facilities under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards and, in exchange, the United States agreed to work toward full civil nuclear cooperation with India. The nuclear deal was widely seen as a legacy-building effort by President Bush and Prime Minister Singh. On August 1, 2008, the IAEA approved the safeguards agreement with India, after which the United States approached the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) to grant a waiver to India to commence civilian nuclear trade. On October 1, 2008 the US Senate also approved the civilian nuclear agreement allowing India to purchase nuclear fuel and technology from the United States. U.S. President, George W. Bush, signed the legislation on the Indo-US nuclear deal, approved by the U.S. Congress, into law, now called the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Non-proliferation Enhancement Act, on October 8, 2008. The agreement was signed by Indian External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee and his counterpart Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, on 10 October. HYDE ACT AND 123 AGREEMENTThe Henry J. Hyde United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2006, also known as the Hyde Act, is the U.S. domestic law that modifies the requirements of Section 123 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act to permit nuclear cooperation with India. The 123 agreement defines the terms and conditions for bilateral civilian nuclear cooperation, and requires separate approvals by the U.S. Congress and by Indian cabinet ministers. According to the Nuclear Power Corporation of India, the agreement will help India meet its goal of adding 25,000 MW of nuclear power capacity through imports of nuclear reactors and fuel by 2020.

BILATERAL AVIATION SAFETY AGREEMENT BETWEEN INDIA AND USAIndia and USA are working on a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA), which would lead to mutual acceptance of aeronautical products/parts developed in either country. Since aeronautical products are now being designed and manufactured in India, a need was felt for international acceptance of such products. The BASA process with a limited scope is expected to be completed by end of year 2010. US-INDIA AVIATION COOPERATION PROGRAMME (ACP) The US-India Aviation Cooperation Program (ACP), a public-private partnership between the U.S. Trade Development Agency (USTDA), the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and U.S. aviation companies, has been established to provide a forum for unified communication between the Government of India and U.S. public and private sector entities in India. The ACP is designed to work directly with the Indian Government to identify and support India’s civil aviation sector modernization priorities. The ACP’s specific objectives are to: (i) promote enhanced safety, operational efficiency and system capacity in the Indian aviation sector; (ii) facilitate and coordinate aviation industry training and technical ties between the U.S. and India; and (iii) strengthen overall US-India aviation cooperation. Funding for training and technical assistance programs is provided by USTDA and the in-kind support will be provided by FAA and US aviation companies. Through the mechanism of ACP, Indian and US officials has identified specific areas for technical co-operation, which include: · Air traffic flow management · Certification of aeronautical products · Certification of Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS) · Development of human resources. · Assistance in the area of helicopter operations.

UMBRELLA AGREEMENT FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COOPERATION BETWEEN US AND INDIAIndia and US signed umbrella agreement on Science and Technology to facilitate collaboration between scientists of both the countries in several areas ranging from health to space technology. This new agreement is expected to accelerate cooperation between Indian and US scientists working in government agencies, private sector and academia according to Indian diplomatic sources. The areas for collaboration covered basic sciences, space, energy, nanotechnology, and health and information technology. India and the US have had a long tradition of scientific cooperation, with the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, and the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, as highly-successful testimonials of this collaboration. An Indo-US science and technology agreement was first mooted in 1993, but it ran into trouble over differences relating to intellectual property rights provisions.

Indo-USA Trade RelationsEconomic Reforms introduced since 1991 have radically changed the course of the Indian economy and led to better growth rates, higher investment and trade flows and accelerated decline in income poverty. The effects of these reforms on trade and investment relations with the United States have been profound. Though, the trade between the United States and India is relatively small, it has risen sharply over the years. In terms of India's major trading partner, USA continues to lead. However, India's share in US trade is 24th in US export and eighteenth in US imports. The two countries have been making efforts to strengthen institutional structure of bilateral economic relations. Signing of "India-US Economic Dialogue" by Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and US President Bill Clinton in 2003 aims at deepening the IndoAmerican partnership through regular dialogue and engagement. India's sizable population and growing middle and higher income class makes India a potentially large market for U.S. goods and services. According to the figure from government sources, U.S. exports to and imports from India in 2003, totaled US $5.0 billion and US $13.1 billion, respectively. India's main exports to US are precious stones, metals (worked diamonds & gold jewellery), miscellaneous textile article, Fish and seafood (frozen shrimp), Textile floor coverings, Iron/steel products,

Organic chemicals and Machinery (taps, valves, transmission shafts, gears, pistons, etc) India imports sophisticated machinery (computers and components, gas turbines, telecom, etc), Electrical machinery (recording/sound media), Medical and surgical equipment/instruments, Aircraft, spacecraft (small aircraft), Precious stones, metals (diamonds, not mounted or set), jewellery, Organic chemicals, Plastic, Cotton and cotton waste and Wood pulp, etc. INVESTMENTOn investment front, USA covers almost every sector in India, which is open for private participants. Both government-to-government level and business-to-business level conduct regular interactions with each other to promote and strengthen the trade and economic interactions between the two countries. The US investor community is today increasingly sharing confidence in the future of the Indian economy. Several areas like infrastructure, IT, Telecom sector, energy and other knowledge industries such as pharmaceuticals and biotechnology possess immense potential for progressing economic cooperation between India and the US.Among the major multi national corporations of USA that are doing a profitable business in India are- General Electric, Whirlpool Ford (India), 3M, Tecumseh Products (India) Limited, Pepsi, Proctor and Gamble (India), Microsoft, Intel, IBM Corporation, EDS, Sun Microsystems, Adobe Systems Inc, Agilent Technologies Inc, Oracle Corporation, Texas Instruments. A very important aspect of US India economic relations comes with the emergence of Business Process Outsourcing, where in many US companies are reaping the advantages offered by India's IT sector. India offers a large pool of trained, English speaking personnel, which offers huge cost benefits to the US MNCs. In recent years India has also made progress in expanding their investment base in the United States of America. IT sector, Tata Infotech, Infosys and WIPRO have large operations based in the US. Another important aspect of India-US economic relations is the huge number of people of Indian origin residing in the US. These people according to some surveys conducted in the US, contribute a lot to US economy and are among the most highly educated class in America. Relaxations in Visa norms by the US administration are considered as a vital step to boost the existing relations between the two countries.

US INDIA AGAINST TERRORISMUSA and INDIA are working together to stop terrorism mainly after 11 Sep, 2001 attack on USA by al Qaeda because INDIA has a dominant economic and military power in South Asia. The United States and India share a particular interest in defeating the Taliban and al Qaeda in Afghanistan and in helping to support that country's fledgling democracy. India has made important contributions there. It has pledged over $750 million for reconstruction, making it the largest South Asian donor to the government of President Hamid Karzai. It has helped renovate and build hospitals, granaries, and schools; it is training Afghan parliamentary officials in governance and parliamentary processes; and it has committed to building dams, roads, power projects, and a new parliament building. India's continuing involvement in Afghanistan is essential to that country's stabilization and long-term success, and cooperation between the United States and India in Afghanistan has been close and encouraging. In Sri Lanka, the United States and India have come together to call for a political settlement with the Tamil minority through a power-sharing agreement so as to end the island's bloody conflict.

HEALTH SECTOR US INDIA RELATIONSHIPTogether, the United States and India have also made real advances in cooperation on health issues. India is an important participant in the International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza, which has helped put avian flu on the national agendas of countries around the world. India and the United States are also actively involved in fighting HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases. We are working together to eradicate polio and to promote maternal and child health.

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