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Experimental simulations of the electric and magnetic field

induced into human body


Paul Cristian ANDREI
Abstract
The action of the electromagnetic field on the human body, is an important problem at the moment because it
manifests through the disturbance of the mechanisms of the nervous system. It is of utmost importance to
achieve an exact measurement of the sources of electromagnetic waves and consequently impose acceptable
limits for human operators. Software tools offer effective techniques for simulating the induced electromagnetic
field into human body. The present work studies the electric and magnetic fields produced by power lines and
PV systems. The main field quantities are compared with those derived from the limits imposed by standards.
Keywords: electromagnetic field, PV system, power lines, Comsol, FEM, simulation results

1. Introduction
A special category of environmental
pollution
is
represented
by
the
electromagnetic pollution, which has an
impact on both electrical/electronic machines
and equipment and on plants and living
organisms [14]-[16]. For several years, it has
increased the concern of scientists and
researchers about the possible negative
effects of electric and magnetic fields of low
frequency and strength, regarding the health
of both operators and of people living near
the sources of these fields. In principle, one
considers electric and magnetic fields with
frequencies between 0 and 30 kHz and
intensities of 20 kV/m and 50 mT. The
ambient electric field strength at industrial
frequency is 10...50 V/m and magnetic flux
density varies between 0.1 and 0.3 T. In
these conditions, one generates in bodies
induced fields and electric currents of
extremely low values. Electric fields induced
in the body by electric fields present in the
environment have strengths lower than 5
V/m, which represent values of about
10,000 times smaller than the endogenous
electric fields (electric fields induced in the
body by brain or heart activity). The study of
the interaction between electromagnetic
fields and living organisms involves, first, the
determination of the sizes values which
characterize the field, in different parts of the
body. In the same time, through statistical
studies or, especially by laboratory studies in

Paul Cristian ANDREI, ing., paul.andrei@icpe.ro =Icpe, Bd.


Unirii 313, RO-030138 Bucureti

controlled electromagnetic field, one follows


the evolution of cellular structure in the
presence of electromagnetic field. Solving
electromagnetic field problems is therefore
indispensable.
For
low
frequency
(0300 Hz), we will pay attention to eddy
currents problems. Living tissues are
conductive domains with a much higher
resistivity than metals studied in technical
problems, so the depth of penetration is
high. Unfortunately, the complexity of the
problem is due to the fact that the E-J
constitutive relationship may depend much
on both the nature of the tissue, and its
condition. It is even possible that this
relationship is nonlinear. Experimental
research will give the answer to this problem.
2. Methods to solve the
electromagnetic field problems
Researchers give more and more
attention to the effects of low frequency
magnetic fields on living organisms. A
frequent reported example is the influence of
fields produced by electric networks on the
surrounding environment. This part of the
paper is devoted to the analysis of eddy
currents produced in living tissues. The most
important peculiarities of the interaction
between electromagnetic fields and living
organisms are the relatively small sizes of
the area occupied by living tissue compared
with the distances from the field sources and
high resistivity of living tissue, which
increases the penetration depth. A special
situation can occur when, near the living

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 2

organism, is a highly conductive metal


object, such as metal rods used in
orthopedic surgery.
If the penetration depth is much greater
than the sizes of the living body, which can
result from very high resistivity values, we
can neglect eddy currents reaction (weak
skin effect). Magnetic field equations are
those from stationary regime, except that
use complex images, the sources being
sinusoidal [4]-[6], [17]. We determine the
magnetic field and vector magnetic potential
produced by the sources. Then, from the
electromagnetic induction law, we obtain for
the domain occupied by living tissue:

E = j A0

(1)

From Amperes theorem results:

J = 0

(2)

and from the law of conduction

J =E

(3)

(4)

=0

The eddy currents induced in the living


tissue are obtained by resolving the system
(1), (2), (3), with boundary condition (4). If
we want to use the scalar potential, then,
multiplying relation (1) with conductivity
and using (2), (3) results:

( ) = 0

(5)

with the boundary condition which results


from (4);

= j A 0 n

(6)

We mention that complex images only


appear formally; in fact one solves two
elliptic differential equations for the real and
imaginary parts of the potential , with the
numerical advantages which result for the
system matrix. Unfortunately Neuman
boundary condition greatly reduces the
system matrix conditioning.
A more stable procedure results by
replacing (3) in (1)

J = j A 0

J = T

(7)

From relation (2) results that we can use

(8)

with the boundary condition:

( T ) n = 0

(9)

For the numerical solving of equation (9),


one can adopt a Galerkin technique. Thus,
can write
n

T=

k N k

(10)

k =1

and one projects the equation (6) on vectors

Nk
From (9) results:

( N k ) dv = 0

(11)

and, consequently, equation (6) leads to the


next numerical form:

R =

The boundary condition on is

Jn

the electric vector potential T:

(12)

where
is the vector of k unknowns.
R is the real matrix with coefficients:
Rik =

( N i ) ( N k )dv

(13)

and is the vector of free terms with the


elements:

= ( N k ) A0 dv

(14)

The use of images in complex for vectors


and is formal. The coefficients matrix
R is real and one determines separately the
real and imaginary parts of the unknowns
vector.
Based on these theoretical results, some
numerical procedures are developed in order
to create models and simulate the action of
the electromagnetic field on the human body.
3. Experimental results
3.1. Simulation results for electric and
magnetic field induced by power lines
One considered 3 conductors placed at
10 meters above the ground, each conductor
having a diameter of 2 cm. Among
conductors there is a distance of 1 meter.

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 2

The human body has a height of 2 meters.


The simulation models are carried out by
FEMM software [25].
3.1.1. Simulation model of electric field
The following regions have been defined:
Human-relative permittivity r=700; Airrelative permittivity r =1; Phase 1-electric
potential 110 kV, phases 2 and 3-electric
potential 55 kV; Boundary conditions: earthDirichlet-electric potential = 0. A symmetrical
three phase voltage system has been
defined, and the simulation was made for
two cases:
Case 1. Phase 1: 110 kV, phases 2
and 3: 0 kV.
The spectrum of electric field strength and
the spectrum of electric field strength with
human detail are shown in Figure 1 and
Figure 2.

Figure 1. The spectrum of electric field strength and


electric field lines - range 0:1.916e6 V/m

Figure 3. Electric field strength variation on a median


line

The variation of electric potential has a


similar shape as that of the electric field
strength.
Inside the human body, on a point placed
on a median line, the following values were
obtained:
Point: x=14.98, y=1.05;
electric potential V = 1381.16 V;
electric
flux
absolute
value
|D| = 8.23362e-006 C/m2;
electric flux horizontal component
Dx = 1.12302e-009 C/m2;
electric
flux vertical component
Dy =8.23362e-006 C/m2;
electric field strength absolute value
|E| = 1328.45 V/m;
electric
field strength horizontal
component Ex = 0.181193 V/m;
electric
field strength vertical
component Ey = 1328.45 V/m;
3
energy density nrg = 0.00546896 J/m .
Case 2. Phase 1: 110 kV, phases 2
and 3: 55 kV
The spectrum of electric field strength and
the spectrum of electric field strength with
human detail are shown in Figure 4 and
Figure 5.

Figure 2. The spectrum of electric field strength and


electric field lines, human detail - range
0:2000 V/m

The spectrum of electric potential was in the


range of 0:1.1e5 V. The equipotential lines
have the same shape as the electric field
lines.
The variation of the electric field strength
on a median line is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 4. The spectrum of electric field strength and


electric field lines range 0:2.458e6 V/m

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 2

energy density nrg = 9.84913e-005 J/m3.


3.1.2.Simulation model of magnetic field

Figure 5. The spectrum of electric field strength and


electric field lines, human detail range 0:300
V/m

The spectrum of electric potential was in the


range of 5.5e4:1.1e5 V. The equipotential
lines have the same shape as the electric
field lines.
The variation of the electric field strength
on a median line is shown in Figure 6.

The following regions have been defined:


Human:
electrical
conductivity
= 0,1 MS/m;
Air: magnetic relative permeability
=1, electrical conductivity
= 0 MS/m;
Phase 1: current density J = 5 MA/m2,
electrical conductivity
= 5,5910e7 MS/m (cooper);
Phase 2: current density J=-2,5 MA/m2,
electrical conductivity
= 5,5910e7 MS/m (cooper);
Phase
3:
current
density
J = 2,5 MA/m2, electrical conductivity
= 5,5910e7 MS/m (cooper);
Boundary conditions: earth-Dirichletmagnetic vector potential A = 0.
A symmetrical three phase current system
has been defined, and the simulation was
made for the case with frequency f = 50 Hz.
The spectrum of magnetic flux density
and the spectrum of magnetic flux density
with human detail are shown in Figure 7 and
Figure 8.

Figure 6. Electric field strength variation on a median


line

The variation of electric potential has a


similar shape as that of the electric field
strength.
Inside the human body, on a point placed
on a median line, the following values were
obtained:
Point: x=14.93, y=1.23;
electric potential V = 219.389 V
potential;
electric
flux
absolute
value
|D| = 1.10494e-006 C/m2;
electric flux horizontal component
Dx = 7.53681e-010 C/m2;
electric flux vertical component
Dy = 1.10494e-006 C/m2;
electric field strength absolute value
|E| = 178.275 V/m;
electric field strength horizontal
component Ex = 0.121602 V/m;
electric
field strength vertical
component Ey = 178.275 V/m;

Figure 7. The spectrum of magnetic flux density and


magnetic field lines range 0:6,02e-8 T

Figure 8. The spectrum of magnetic flux density and


magnetic field lines, human detail range
0:10e-12

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 2

The variation of magnetic flux density on


a median line is shown in Figure 9.

for various applications in physics and


engineering,
especially
for
coupled
problems.
One simulated the electric field around a
photovoltaic panel with a tilt angle of 350
from the vertical, in conditions of static
regime and conductive materials.
Two situations were considered: a single
panel with the potential of 60 V, and two
rows of panels, the first row with a potential
of 60 V and the second row with a potential
of 120 V.
3.2.1. Simulation model for a PV panel

Figure 9. Magnetic flux density variation on a median


line

Inside the human body, on a point placed


on a median line, the following values were
obtained:
Point: x=14.95, y=1.18;
magnetic
vector
potential
A=1.98341e-016+I*5.34127e-014 Wb/m;
magnetic flux density absolute value
|B|=4.52486e-012 T;
magnetic
flux density horizontal
component
Bx=1.99027e-014+I*4.52482e-012 T;
magnetic
flux
density
vertical
component
By=5.38435e-016-I*6.28255e-016;
magnetic field strength absolute value
|H|=3.60077e-006 A/m;
magnetic field strength horizontal
component
Hx=1.58381e-008+I*3.60074e-006 A/m;
magnetic
field strength vertical
component
Hy=4.28473e-010-I*4.9995e-010 A/m;
current
density
J=1.67801e-012+I*6.23106e-015 MA/m2.
3.2. Simulation results for electric field
induced by PV systems
The installation of the 30 kWp PV plant, at
the University Politehnica of Bucharest, on
the roof of the Electrical Engineering Faculty,
and its commissioning to demonstrate the
viability of the technology represents a
reference moment in the propagation of this
clean technology for electrical energy
generation from renewable energy sources
[1], [2], [6].
The simulation models are carried out by
Comsol [24]. Comsol Multiphisics is a
software package for simulations which uses
the finite element method (FEM). It is used

The electric field lines are oriented from


the PV panel to the roof, which has a ground
potential.
The electric field strength spectrum is
shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10. The electric field spectrum for a single


panel with a tilt angle of 350

The maximum field strength is obtained at


the bottom of the panel, which is closest to
the roof. Maximum electric field strength for
the 35 angle is 434,785 V/m.
The electric potential spectrum is more
intense in the vicinity of the panel and
diminishes with distance.
The maximum electric potential value of
60 V is obtained near the panel and the
equipotential lines close around this value.
3.2.2. Simulation model for two PV panels
Unlike the previous case, the field lines
for two panels with a tilt angle of 35 are
oriented both from the 120 V potential panel
to the 60 V potential panel and from the two
panels to the roof.
The electric field lines spectrum between
the panels do not undergo substantial
changes, instead the end effects of the field
lines are more pronounced.
In figure 12, the electric field strength
spectrum is shown.

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, 60 (2012), nr. 2

Table 1. Maximum values of electric field strength


Tilt angle [0]
Electric field strength One PV panel
maximum value [V/m] Two PV panels

Figure 11. The electric field spectrum for two panels


with a tilt angle of 35

The maximum field strength is obtained at


the bottom of 120 V potential panel, which is
the nearest to the roof. The maximum
electric field strength is 868,589 V/m, for the
35 angle.
The electric potential spectrum is more
intense around the 120 V panel and
diminishes with distance.
The 120 V potential is observed near the
right panel and the equipotential lines which
close around the panel. On the 60 V panel
on the left, the equipotential lines do not
close, because there isnt a constant
potential area around the panel.
4. Conclusions
Simulations performed with FEMM
showed that electric and magnetic field
values are more intense in the upper area of
the body, which is closer to the conductors.
At the frequency of 50 Hz, in
quasistationar state, from the performed
simulations, it appears that there is a current
density inside the human body, which is a
conducting medium, as a consequence of
the electromagnetic induction law produced
by the power line conductors.
At the frequency of 0 Hz, in steady state,
the current density inside the human body is
null, the electromotive force induced by the
conductor being null.
There are national standards (CIS, Czech
Republic and Slovakia, Poland, Japan)
which refer to limit values (strength, duration
of exposure or combination of both) of the
characteristic parameters for body exposure
to electric field produced at ground level by
high voltage electrical installations. CIS
normative data reveal that for values below 5
kV/m, the human body is not affected.
The simulation of the electric field,
produced by the PV system, and their
maximum values of electric field strength are
shown in Table 1

35
434,785
824,519

The limits aimed to determine the fitting of


the electric field strength are imposed by the
European Parliament Directive 2004/40/EC
[23] on the minimum health and safety
requirements regarding the exposure of
workers to the risks arising from physical
agents
(electromagnetic
fields)
(see
Table 2).
Table 2. Limit values
Electric field
Magnetic
Magnetic
strength E field strength flux density
[V/m]
H [A/m]
B [T]
0-1 Hz

1,63 x 105
2x105
5
1-8 Hz
20 000
1,63x 10 /f2
2x105/f2
8-25 Hz
20 000
2x 104/f
2,5x104/f
0,025-0,82 kHz
500/f
20/f
25/f
0,82-2,5 kHz
610
24
30
2,5-65 kHz
610
24
30
65-100 kHz
610
1 600/f
2 000/f
0,1-1 MHz
610
1,6/f
2/f
1-10 MHz
610/f
1,6/f
2/f
10-110 MHz
61
0
0
110-400 MHz
61
0
0
400-2 000 MHz
3f1/2
0,008f1/2
0,01 f1/2
2-300 GHz
137
0
0
Frequency
range

From the simulation results, one observes


that the values of electric field strength
produced by the PV panels do not affect
human personnel located in their vicinity.
Simulations performed with FEMM
showed that electric and magnetic field
values are more intense in the upper area of
the body, which is closer to the conductors.
At the frequency of 50 Hz, in
quasistationar state, from the performed
simulations, it appears that there is a current
density inside the human body, which is a
conducting medium, as a consequence of
the electromagnetic induction law produced
by the power line conductors.
At the frequency of 0 Hz, in steady state,
the current density inside the human body is
null, the electromotive force induced by the
conductor being null.
5. Acknowledgment
This work was financially supported by IcpeBucureti, under the scientific Programme
Dezvoltarea infrastructurii centrului de excelen
Icpe-NESL n domeniul surselor solare de
energie INFRASOLAR, No. 4253/78/2010.

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[24][http://www.comsol.com/
[25]http://www.femm.info/

Biography
Paul C.ristian ANDREI is born in
Bucharest (Romania), on May 30,
1988. He received the degree in
Applied Informatics in Electrical
Engineering
from
University
Politehnica Bucharest (Romania),
in 2010. Currently, he is junior
researcher at the ENERGY
Department of the Research
Institute on Electrical Engineering,
Bucharest
(Romania).
His
research
interests
include
renewable
energy
sources,
applied informatics in electrical
engineering and circuit analysis.