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The initial moisture content of a food product is 77% (wet basis), and the
critical moisture content is 30%(wet basis). If the constant drying rate is
0.1 kg H2O / m2.s, compute the time required for the product to begin the
falling rate drying period. The product has a cube shape with 5- cm sides,
and the initial product density is 950 kg/m3.
23.4 s
b. 34.6 s
c. 48.5 s
d. 53.2




A cabinet dryer is being used to dry a feed product from 68% moisture
content (wet basis) to 5.5% moisture content (wet basis). The drying air
enters the system at 54 degrees C and 10% RH. The product temperature
is 25degreesC throughout drying. Compute the quantity of air required for
drying on the basis of 1 kg of product solid.
224.65 kg dry air/kg solids
b. 268.4 kg dry air/kg solids
c. 302.27 kg dry air/kg solids
d. 412.36 kg dry air/kg solids




A concentrated dairy product is being spray dried to a final moisture

content of 4% using 120 degrees Heated air with 7% RH. The density of
the concentrated liquid is 1000 kg/m3 and the density of the dry product
is 1250 kg/m3. Separate measurements have indicated that the critical
moisture content for the product is 0.45 kg water/kg product and the
particle diameter at the critical moisture content is 45 um. The latent heat
of vaporization during the constant rate period of the drying is 2130 kJ/kg
and it is 2375 kJ/kg during the falling rate period. Estimate the drying time
for the product based on the largest droplet diameter of 120um.
2.31 s
b. 3.25 s
c. 4.08 s
d. 4.65 s

A tunnel dryer is being designed for drying apple halves from an initial
moisture content of 79% (wet basis) to a final moisture content of 5%(wet
basis). An experimental drying curve for the product indicates that the
critical moisture content is 25% (wet basis) and the time for constant rate
drying is 5 minutes. Based on information provided, estimate the total
drying time for the product. Assume 1 kg of product is the basis.
4.25 min
b. 5.81 min c. 6.54 min d. 6.89 min


fluidizeD -bed dryer is being used to dry diced carrots. The product enters
the dryer with 80% moisture content (wet basis) at 25*C. The air used for
drying enters the dryer at 120 *C after being heated from ambient air with
60% RH at 20*C. Estimate the production rate when air is entering the
dryer at 700 kg dry air/hr and product leaving the dryer is 10% moisture
content( wet basis). Assume product leaves the dryer at the wet bulb
temperature of air and the specific heat of product solid is 2.0 kJ/kg .*C.
Air leaves the dryer 10*C above the product temperature.
11.25 kg solids/hr
b. 16.12 kg solids/Hr
c. 18.69 kg solids/hr
d. 20.15 kg solids/hr

7. A tray is to be used for drying a solid material . Each tray is 3 ft. wide by 4 ft.
long and the wet material has depth of 2 in. The density of the wet material is
50 lb/ft3. The wet material contains 3 lb of water per pound of dry solid. How
many trays are necessary to obtain 3,000 lb of a product containing 1 lb of
water per pound of dry solids.
a. 55 trays b. 60 trays c. 50 tray d. 65 trays

6. A granular material of density 5000 kg/m3 is to be dried in a fluidised bed

dryer using directly heated air at 811 K. The particle size is 0.5 mm and 1.26
kg/s of water is to be removed from 12.6 kg/s of solid feed at 293 K. What
diameter of bed should be specified?
a. 3.20 m
b. 4.60 m
c. 5.30 m
d. 5.80 m


9. A 100 kg batch of granular solids containing 30 per cent moisture is to be

dried in a tray drier to 15.5 per cent of moisture by passing a current of air at
350 K tangentially across its surface at a velocity of 1.8 m/s. If the constant rate
of drying under these conditions is 0.0007 kg/s m2 and the critical moisture
content is 15 per cent, calculate the approximate drying time. Assume the
drying surface to be 0.03 m2/kg dry mass.
a. 2.25 h
b. 3.25 h
c. 4.25 h
d. 5.25 h

8. A porous solid is dried in a batch dryer under constant drying conditions. Five
hours were required to reduce the moisture content from 30 to 12 lb water/lb
dry solid. The critical moisture content is 18 lb water/lb dry solid and the
equilibrium moisture is 5 lb water / lb dry solid. If the drying rate during the FRP
is a straight line through the origin, calculate the time required to dry the solid
from 30 to 8 lb water/lb dry solid.
a. 4.75 h
b. 7.74 h
c. 10.15 h
d. 15.2 h

10. An adiabatic tunnel dryer handles 100kg of banana chips per batch reducing
the moisture content from 50%and 12% wet basis. Drying takes10 hours to


complete by flowing air at

C and 5% R.H. The air leaves the dryer
saturated. Assuming that the rate of drying constant, the volume of air blown in
a. 7840m3/hr
b. 222m3/hr
c. 250 m3/hr
d. 7000ft3/hr