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INTRODUCTION

T
h
e
ro
le
o
fm
ic
ro
g
a
n
ism
ism
p
o
rta
n
ith
e
tra
tm
e
n
to
fw
a
ste
w
a
te
r.In
b
o
th
n
a
tu
ra
ln
d
e
n
g
ie
rd
tre
a
tm
e
n
tsy
te
m
sic
ro
g
a
n
ism
su
c
h
a
sb
a
c
te
ria
,fu
n
g
i,p
ro
tzo
a
,n
d
c
ru
sta
c
e
n
sp
la
y
n
e
sn
tia
lro
e
in
th
e
c
o
n
v
e
rsio
n
fo
rg
a
n
ic
w
a
ste
o
m
o
re
sta
b
le
sp
o
lu
tin
g
su
b
ta
n
c
e
s.T
h
e
y
fo
rm
w
h
a
tise
rm
e
d
a
fo
d
c
h
a
in
.M
ic
ro
g
a
n
ism
p
la
ym
a
jo
rle
in
d
e
c
o
m
p
o
sin
g
w
a
ste
o
rg
a
n
ic
m
a
te
r,e
m
o
v
in
g
c
a
rb
o
n
a
c
e
o
u
sB
O
D
,c
o
a
g
u
la
tin
g
o
n
se
tla
b
e
c
o
lid
a
lso
id
s,a
n
d
sta
b
ilzn
g
o
rg
a
n
ic
m
a
te
r.M
ic
ro
g
a
n
ism
a
re
sig
n
fi
c
a
n
tiw
a
te
ra
n
d
w
a
ste
w
a
te
rb
e
c
a
u
se
o
fth
e
iro
le
sin
d
ise
atra
n
sm
iso
n
a
d
in
b
o
lg
ic
a
ltre
a
tm
e
n
tp
ro
c
e
s.

B
a
c
te
ria
re
c
a
te
g
o
rize
d
b
y
th
e
w
a
y
th
a
th
e
y
o
b
ta
in
o
x
y
g
e
n
.Iw
a
ste
w
a
te
re
a
tm
e
n
t,h
e
ra
re
th
re
ty
p
e
so
fb
a
c
te
ria
u
se
d
to
re
a
th
e
w
a
ste
h
a
tc
o
m
e
sin
to
h
e
tra
tm
e
n
tp
la
n
t.T
h
e
ra
re
a
ro
b
ic
,a
n
e
ro
b
ic
a
n
d
fa
c
u
lta
iv
e
.A
e
ro
b
icb
a
c
te
ria
re
u
se
d
in
m
o
stn
e
w
tre
a
tm
e
n
tp
la
n
tsin
ae
ra
te
d
n
v
iro
n
m
e
n
t.T
h
ism
e
a
n
sth
a
th
e
risd
so
lv
e
d
o
x
y
g
e
n
a
v
ila
b
e
fo
rth
e
rsp
ira
to
n
fth
e
b
a
c
te
ria
.A
n
a
e
ro
b
ica
c
te
ria
re
n
o
rm
a
ly
u
se
d
in
an
a
e
ro
b
icd
g
e
stro
re
d
u
c
e
th
e
v
o
lu
m
e
o
fslu
d
g
e
to
b
e
d
isp
o
e
d
o
fa
n
d
to
p
ro
d
u
c
e
m
e
th
a
n
e
g
a
s.T
h
isp
ro
c
e
sic
o
m
p
le
td
in
a
e
ro
b
ico
n
d
ito
n
s,w
ith
o
u
ta
n
y
d
iso
lv
e
d
o
x
y
g
e
n
ith
e
w
a
te
r.T
h
e
a
n
e
ro
b
ica
c
te
ria
n
o
rm
a
ly
g
e
th
e
o
x
y
g
e
n
e
d
e
fo
rth
e
ire
sp
ira
to
n
fro
m
th
e
irfo
d
so
u
rc
e
.T
h
isp
ro
c
e
sia
lso
c
a
le
d
fe
rm
e
n
ta
io
n
.T
h
ird
ly
,isfa
c
u
lta
iv
e
b
a
c
te
ria
.T
h
e
y
a
re
a
b
le
to
c
h
a
n
g
e
th
e
irm
o
d
e
o
fre
sp
ira
to
n
fro
m
a
e
ro
b
ic
to
a
n
e
ro
b
ic
a
n
d
b
a
c
k
a
g
in
.T
h
e
sb
a
c
te
ria
re
a
b
le
to
a
d
p
to
e
ith
e
rc
o
n
d
ito
n
,a
lth
o
u
g
h
te
y
p
re
frth
e
a
ro
b
ico
n
d
ito
n
.
Nitrobacter

Nitrosomonas

In
a
w
ste
w
a
te
re
a
tm
e
n
tsy
te
m
,th
e
n
x
th
ig
e
rlife
o
rm
a
b
o
v
e
b
a
c
te
ria
sp
ro
tzo
a
n
s.T
h
e
sin
g
le
-cle
d
a
n
im
a
lsp
e
rfo
m
th
re
sig
n
fi
c
a
n
tro
le
sin
th
e
a
c
tiv
a
te
d
slu
d
g
e
p
ro
c
e
s.T
h
e
sin
c
lu
d
e
fl
o
c
frm
a
tio
n
,c
ro
p
in
g
o
fb
a
c
te
ria
n
d
th
e
rm
o
v
a
lo
fsu
p
e
n
d
e
m
a
te
ria
l.P
ro
tzo
a
n
sa
re
a
lso
in
d
c
a
to
rso
fb
io
m
a
sh
e
a
lth
a
n
d
e
ffl
u
e
n
tq
u
a
lity
.B
e
c
a
u
se
p
ro
tzo
a
n
sa
re
m
u
c
h
la
rg
e
in
sze
th
a
n
id
v
id
u
a
lb
c
te
ria
,d
e
n
tifi
c
a
tio
n
a
d
c
h
a
rc
te
riza
to
n
isre
a
d
ily
p
e
rfo
m
e
d
.M
e
ta
zo
n
sa
re
v
ry
sim
la
rto
p
ro
tzo
a
n
se
x
cp
th
a
th
e
y
a
re
u
sa
ly
m
u
lti-c
e
ld
a
n
im
a
ls.M
a
c
ro
in
v
e
rtb
ra
te
su
c
h
a
sn
e
m
a
to
d
e
sa
n
d
ro
tife
rsa
re
ty
p
ic
a
ly
fo
u
n
d
o
n
ly
in
a
w
e
ld
e
v
lo
p
e
d
b
io
m
a
s.In
a
e
ro
b
icm
ic
ro
b
ia
lp
ro
c
e
s,m
e
b
e
rso
fth
e
N
itro
sm
o
n
a
sg
e
n
u
sia
g
ra
m
n
e
g
a
tiv
e
b
a
c
te
riu
m
re
sp
o
n
sib
le
fo
rth
e
fi
rsta
g
e
o
fn
itrfi
c
a
tio
n
se
w
a
g
e
.T
h
e
y
o
x
id
ze
a
m
o
n
iu
m
in
to
n
itre
.T
h
isb
a
c
te
riu
m
p
re
frsa
p
H
a
ro
u
n
d
6
-9
a
n
d
itrfy
o
p
tim
a
ly
a
t2
0
-3
C
.In
a
e
ro
b
icm
ic
ro
b
ia
lp
ro
c
e
sm
e
b
e
rso
fP
se
u
d
o
m
n
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sg
e
n
u
sia
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ra
m
n
e
g
a
tiv
e
d
n
itrfy
in
g
b
a
c
te
ria
th
a
u
se
th
e
c
h
e
m
ic
a
le
n
rg
y
in
o
rg
a
n
ic
m
a
te
rto
re
d
u
c
e
n
itra
e
in
to
d
in
tro
g
e
n
g
a
s.

FA ane croa ue lbrot iac btiivc e


AFD iclstia pmv e aersten etodd uSG sl urod wg the

SIOG NDFICMAPN ET O F MU SICNRGO M ICGRAON ISMG N WI AMSTIENW ATESR W EATRM EN TA M EN T


CONCLUSION

In conclusion, biological wastewater treatment is among the most important


biotechnological application and as drivers of the key processes,
microorganisms are central to its success. Modern molecular techniques,
including environmental genomics have identified unexpected microbial key
players for nutrient removal and sludge bulking and/or foaming, and
provided many exciting insights into the diversity, functions and niche
differentiations of these predominantly uncultivated microorganisms and now
it is the time for wastewater microbiology to be recognized as a mature and

dynamic discipline in its own right, offering much toward a deeper


understanding of life in complex microbial communities.