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Answer all questions

1. It is well known that the integrated expressions for batch and plug flow reactors are identical when there is

no volume change. What happens to these expressions when there is volume change? A first order gasphase reaction with volume change is of interest. Derive integrated rate expressions for a batch reactor (time

to reach a certain level of conversion) and a plug flow reactor (Volume or to reach a certain level of

conversion). All of the integrals that you may need are at the back of your text. Are these expressions the

same? Explain your answer.

17 points

Batch:

N A = N A0 (1 X ); V = V0 (1 + X )

rAV = N A0

N (1 X )

dX A

N

; rA = kC A = k A = k A0

dt

V

V0 (1 + X )

k

N A0 (1 X )

dX A

V0 (1 + X ) = N A0

V0 (1 + X )

dt

Integrate

ln(1 X ) = kt

Plug Flow Reactor

FA = FA0 (1 X )

v = v0 (1 + X )

FA0 dX = ( rA )dV

FA0 dX = kC A0

X

(1 X )

(1 X )

dV

(1 + X )

C A0

(1 + X ) dX = k F

0

A0

1

X = k

(1 X )

In the batch reactor, the effect of volume change is not seen for

(1 + ) ln

the first order reaction. The difference is due to tha fact that

volumetric flow rate change gets incorporated in the PFR

equation.

2. The reversible (elementary) reaction 2A C + D is conducted in a CSTR at a feed rate of 100 liters/min

with an inlet concentration CA0=1.5 mols/lit. The specific rate in the forward direction is 10 lit/mol-min and

the equilibrium constant is 16. 80% of the equilibrium conversion is required. Find the size of a CSTR to

achieve this conversion.

17 points

At equilibrium,

C C

rA = k C A2 C D = 0; C A = CB = C A0 (1 X ); CC = CD = C A0 X / 2

KC

2

2

C A0 (1 X ) = C A2 0 X 2 / 64;

Solve; X e = 0.8888

Conversion desired: X = 0.8 0.8888 = 0.711

V

X

XA

=

= A =

FA0 C A0 rA

C C

k C A2 C D

KC

3. The conversion of an irreversible first-order, liquid-phase reaction, taking place in a PFR of 500 liter

capacity is 50%. In order to increase conversion, a 300 liter CSTR is installed upstream of (before) the

PFR. What is the exit conversion in the new system?

16 points

First order PFR

1

1

500

k = ln

= ln

=k

1 X

1 0.5

v0

k 0.6932

=

v0

500

First CSTR

X

kV

X

0.6932 300

X

k =

=

1 X

v0 1 X

500

1 X

X = 0.2938

Followed by the 500 liter PFR

V

=

FA0

X2

X1

dX

=

r

X2

kC

X1

dX

A 0 (1 X )

kV

= ln(1 X 2 ) + ln(1 X 1 ) = 0.6932

v0

X 2 = 0.65

4. The irreversible reaction A B was carried out in a constant volume batch reactor and the following

concentration-time data were obtained. Find the reaction order and the reaction rate constant. Identify the

dC A

units of the rate constant. Show the finite difference formulae that you would use to obtain

clearly.

dt

t(min)

0

CA(mol/lit) 4.0

-dCa/dt

0.38001

5

2.3256

0.28975

10

1.1025

0.1995

15

0.3306

0.10925

20

0.01

0.01899

Formulae Used:

3C A0 + 4C A1 C A 2

dC A

=

2t

dt t =0

Interior points

Plot on log-log paper and take slope;

dC A C A,i +1 C A,i 1

=

2t

dt

Last point

dC A 3C A5 4C A 4 + C A3

=

2t

dt

Order = 2 and rate constant = 0.19.

17 points

5. An elementary second order adiabatic reaction A + B C + D is taking place in a CSTR. The feed to the

reactor is equimolar A and B at concentrations of 2.4 mol/liter. The entering temperature is 300 K. The

volumetric flow rate is 15 lit/min. Following are some other data characterizing the reaction.

C p A = 20 Btu/lb.mol-0 F

C pB = 15 Btu/lb.mol-0 F

C pC = 15 Btu/lb.mol-0 F

C pd = 20 Btu/lb.mol-0 F

H Rx (300 K ) = 7000 cal/mole of A

k (300 K ) = 0.00045 l/mol-min

E = 12, 000 cal/mol

What volume of the reactor is required for 75% conversion?

16 points

Energy Balance

T=T0 +

X H Rx

iC pi

as cal/mole K.

T=300+

0.75 7000

= 450 K

(20+15)

12000 1

1

k (450) = 0.00045exp

1.987 300 450

vX

F X

C A0 vX

=

= 203.05 liters

V = A0 =

2

2

kC A0 (1 X )

kC A0 (1 X ) 2

rA

6. A first-order, gas-phase reaction A 2 B is performed in a PBR at 400 K and 10 atm. Feed rate is 5 mol/s

containing 20% A and the rest inerts. The PBR is packed with 8 mm-diameter spherical porous particles.

The intrinsic reaction rate is given as: rA' = 3.75 C A mol/kg(cat)-s . Bulk density of the catalyst is 2.3

kg/liter. The diffusivity is 0.1 cm2/s. The pressure drop parameter alpha is found to be 9.8 104 kg -1 .

a. What is the value of the internal effectiveness factor? What does it signify?

b. How much catalyst (kg) is required to obtain a conversion of 75% in the reactor?

c. Find the pressure at the exit of the reactor.

17 points

=R

k

3.75 2.3

= 0.4

= 3.714

D

0.1

3

1 = 0.5912

2

tanh

dX

(1 X ) P

FA0

= rA' = kC A = kC A0

dW

(1 + X ) P0

(1 X )

(1 W )1/ 2

(1 + X )

dX kC A0 (1 X )

(1 W )1/ 2

=

dW

FA0 (1 + X )

= kC A0

1

1+ X

k

2

dX

(1

W

)

dW

=

0 1 X

v0 0

(1 + ) ln

1

k 2

1 (1 W )3/ 2

X =

(1 X )

v0 3

k = 3.75

W = 11.22 kg

P

= (1 W )1/ 2 = 0.9944

P0

P = 9.94 atm

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