482 views

Uploaded by Bjørn Ursin Karlsen

This book is an attempt to figure out what space and matter has got to be like in order that all known phenomena shall fit in. It turns out that an elastic spatial continuum with certain simple properties has the capacity to explain all electromagnetic properties in empty space as well as the nature of Special Relativity. Standing waves between singularities along a string of nodes in the spatial continuum may serve as a foundation to see how luminous energy and matter is built up, basically as disturbance energy in the elastic continuum. Material particles and photons will manifest themselves as evacuated "bubbles" moving from node to node along the string with the propagating speed of transversal waves. Confined disturbance energy will displace some of the elastic continuum from where it is located, and the pressure gradient that it creates will act as a wall around the energy concentration and constitute the strong forces needed to keep it at bay. A huge implosion, similar to what we see when a gas bubble implodes to emit light in an experiment with \index{sonoluminecence}sonoluminecence, may have compressed space to an extent where the symmetry was broken and brought space itself to the boiling point when all matter was created in the Big Bang. From then on space would have been expanding, and all confined energy in such an expanding space, will create around itself an extremely weak pressure gradient that can be compared with the gravitational potential. The varying density thus created around heavy bodies will influence the speed of longitudinal and transversal waves in the continuum causing rays of radiation to bend towards such bodies. Since material particles are bubbles that always move along strings with the speed of light along some curled up paths in the spatial continuum, they will always be drawn towards a gravitating body. It turns out that any measuring system that we possibly can manage to define, will render the speed of light unaffected of position. Therefore it will be necessary to calculate wave movement in space with time and length units that varies throughout space, which will lead to defining space as being curved. Hence matter and light will move along geodesics in space-time according to General Relativity.

save

You are on page 1of 216

**The giant nebula NGC 3603
**

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope

The Great Puzzle

A test to see if matter can fit into a

mechanical model of nature

Bjørn Ursin Karlsen

June 1, 2009

To Elizabeth

3

Preface

**This book is an attempt to figure out what space and matter
**

has got to be like in order that all known phenomena shall fit

in. It turns out that an elastic spatial continuum with certain

simple properties has the capacity to explain all electromagnetic

properties in empty space as well as the nature of Special Rel-

ativity. Standing waves between singularities along a string of

nodes in the spatial continuum may serve as a foundation to

see how luminous energy and matter is built up, basically as

disturbance energy in the elastic continuum. Material particles

and photons will manifest themselves as evacuated ”bubbles”

moving from node to node along the string with the propagat-

ing speed of transversal waves. Confined disturbance energy

will displace some of the elastic continuum from where it is lo-

cated, and the pressure gradient that it creates will act as a

wall around the energy concentration and constitute the strong

forces needed to keep it at bay. A huge implosion, similar to

what we see when a gas bubble implodes to emit light in an ex-

periment with sonoluminecence, may have compressed space to

an extent where the symmetry was broken and brought space

itself to the boiling point when all matter was created in the

Big Bang. From then on space would have been expanding,

and all confined energy in such an expanding space, will create

around itself an extremely weak pressure gradient that can be

compared with the gravitational potential. The varying density

thus created around heavy bodies will influence the speed of lon-

gitudinal and transversal waves in the continuum causing rays

4

**of radiation to bend towards such bodies. Since material parti-
**

cles are bubbles that always move along strings with the speed

of light along some curled up paths in the spatial continuum,

they will always be drawn towards a gravitating body. It turns

out that any measuring system that we possibly can manage

to define, will render the speed of light unaffected of position.

Therefore it will be necessary to calculate wave movement in

space with time and length units that varies throughout space,

which will lead to defining space as being curved. Hence matter

and light will move along geodesics in space-time according to

General Relativity.

Contents

1 Basic Ideas 9

1.1 The nature of space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.2 Electromagnetism compared with elastodynamics 13

1.3 Maxwell’s and The Navier-Cauchy Equations . . 19

1.4 Confined waves in the Spatial continuum . . . . . 24

1.5 The Big Bang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

1.6 Waves in the spatial continuum . . . . . . . . . . 41

1.7 The photon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

1.8 The electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

1.9 Systems of many particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

1.10 Atomic nuclei and the strong forces . . . . . . . . 62

1.11 Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

6 CONTENTS

1.12 The General Theory of Relativity . . . . . . . . . 72

**2 The Linear Theory of Elasticity 79
**

2.1 Displacement fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

2.2 System of forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

2.3 The stress-strain relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

2.4 The Navier-Cauchy equation . . . . . . . . . . . 86

2.5 Field energy and energy transport . . . . . . . . 89

2.6 Solenoidal deformations and Electrodynamics . . 95

2.7 Reformulation of the Navier-Cauchy’s Equation . 96

2.8 The stress energy tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

2.9 The vector potential in the elastic continuum . . 106

2.10 Energy flow and momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

2.11 Summing up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

**3 Standing Waves between Singularities 115
**

3.1 The Navier-Cauchy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . 116

3.2 Scalar longitudinal waves in the spatial continuum 120

3.3 Irrotational standing waves . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

3.4 Solenoidal standing waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

3.5 Standing waves between singularities . . . . . . . 143

CONTENTS 7

**3.6 Chains of irrotational and solenoidal oscillating
**

nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

3.7 The Navier-Stokes equation and Coupled oscilla-

tions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

**4 Spatial Continuum Mechanics 159
**

4.1 Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

4.2 Stress-strain relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

4.3 Velocity and acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

4.4 The strain-stress relation for small deformations 175

4.5 Inertia and the speed of waves as a function of

the compression of space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

**5 Confined Energy and Gravity 187
**

5.1 Confined energy in the spatial continuum . . . . 188

5.2 The expanding spatial continuum . . . . . . . . . 192

5.3 Confined energy in expanding space . . . . . . . 195

5.4 Movements of energy packets in a space with

varying wave speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

5.5 Newton’s Gravitational law . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

5.6 A numerical comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

8 CONTENTS

Chapter 1

Basic Ideas

**In the nineteenth century the scientific community of that time
**

had discovered that light was waves and, since it was thought

that waves have to travel through a medium of some kind, it

seemed obvious that space was something that could mediate

those waves. Since it also is obvious that the earth, as well as

all other bodies, has got to move around in this space, it would

be only a matter of creating the right apparatus to measure the

speed with which the earth actually travels through space. Such

an apparatus was created by Michelson and Moreley in the

1880th, and the world kept its breath when the apparatus was

set to work. Even the traffic in Chicago was halted - at least

so I have been told - to make the conditions perfect for the

measurements. It came as a complete shock to all who saw the

10 Basic Ideas

**significance of the experiment, that no such movements through
**

space could be detected. Since then the experiment has been

carried out so many times and in so many ways that it would be

foolish to believe that the negative result should be caused by

some errors in the setup, so either is there no ether out there,

or else there is an underlying principle that it cannot be felt by

our apparatuses. In either case an obvious conclusion lay near

at hand: Why bother? If it is impossible to detect an ether,

then it cannot disturb our observations, so just let us forget all

about it. On this grounds the twentieth century’s scientists have

created a mathematical tool to describe almost all observable

physical phenomenon to an almost unbelievable accuracy, but

it has come at a price, namely that the human mind has had

serious problems in keeping pace. So, is there any future in

supposing that space has mechanical properties, and above all,

is there any point in searching for such a space even if it should

exist? It is questions like these I would like to find an answer

to in this booklet, and - as I see it - the only way to sort it out,

is to go ahead and try it out. I am quite prepared to stumble

along and almost certainly make mistakes, and I have no belief

that I will find all the answers, but as long as I honestly can’t

see that the road is blocked, I’ll keep on trying.

1.1 The nature of space

**I will take up the thread from the nineteenth century that space
**

has got to have mechanical properties, but it is almost cer-

The nature of space 11

**tain that it cannot be like earthly materials like steel or water.
**

These materials consist of atoms and molecules bound together

by forces that on an atomic scale can be linked back to elec-

tromagnetic properties. What I have in mind is a true spatial

continuum with some elastic properties. As a first approach it

turns out that The Linear Theory of Elasticity is general enough

to describe deformations and movements in such a continuum,

and in a later chapter I will use this theory to explain how all

the properties in the classical theory of electrodynamics can be

described in such a space if we make one distinct assumption

about the nature of electric charges. Moreover this description

will fit into and explain virtually all aspects of the Special The-

ory of Relativity. The topic is discussed in some more detail in

Chapter 2, Section 2.6 ff.

**Since The Linear Theory of Elasticity is developed in order to
**

describe only very small deformations – in fact only infinitesimal

deformations – I will suggest some more fundamental proper-

ties of space that might describe also the greatest deformations.

This I have done to some depth in Chapter 4, but here I will

only outline the basic ideas. First and foremost space is a true

continuum with no inner structure. The continuum, however,

will exert resistance against being deformed and compressed,

and as a result of such enforcements, the continuum will be able

to contain huge amounts of deformation energy, for example if

it is compressed to a fraction of its initial volume. Furthermore

all deformations are reversible so that no strain can bring about

any permanent deformations in the continuum, and all the en-

ergy that goes into a deformation will be recovered when the

12 Basic Ideas

**strain subsides, i.e. there are no hysteresis involved in the de-
**

formations. It shows up that such a continuum will obey all the

static rules encountered in The Linear Theory of Elasticity (see

e.g. section 4.4) so everything one can deduce form that theory

apply equally well to the spatial continuum.

**However, the equations are not complete until it also can deal
**

with motion. Thus space has got to have some inertial prop-

erties, and a crucial question will be to figure out how inertia

enters the picture. This is not an entirely trivial question. In

Chapter 4 I have looked into two possibilities. First what I have

called the classical approach; that space has an intrinsic iner-

tia in its undeformed state that only changes as space is being

compressed or inflated; and second the spatial approach that

space initially has no inertia at all and only gets its inertia from

the deformation energy by being compressed or perhaps even

inflated. Note that the spatial approach actually is more in line

with how ordinary matter gets its inertia (m = e/c2 ).

**This completes the preliminary definition of space, and on this
**

grounds I will try to show that all known properties of matter

and space just might be explained without bringing in any ad-

ditional assumption about the nature of space. I must stress

that I don’t pretend to be able to prove that it has to be so –

that would require me to rewrite the whole of physics – so I will

just take some of the pieces of the Great Puzzle that mother

Nature presents to us and try to see how they might fit into the

outlined picture of space.

Electromagnetism compared with elastodynamics 13

**1.2 Electromagnetism compared with
**

elastodynamics

**This section is a short historical review of the development of
**

a couple of the most significant equations that were developed

in the nineteenth century, and a couple of interpretations that

were launched at the dawn of the twentieth century. A major

breakthrough came in the 1860’s when Maxwell presented his

electromagnetic equations which have been valid in describing

literally all non-quantum electromagnetic properties to this day.

They led directly to Heinrik Hertz’ demonstration of the electro-

magnetic radiation followed by threadless communication, and

opened for a deeper understanding of the building blocks of

matter through Quantum Electro Dynamics (QED).

**Maxwell presented his finding as eight equations in 1861, but
**

they have later been reformulated into a modern form of four

equations by Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925). The two first equa-

tions (see Figure 1.1), are Gauss’s law for magnetism and elec-

tric charge. The next one is Faraday’s law of induction, and

the final equation is Ampère’s circuital law. The first equa-

tion tells us that the magnetic field is solenoidal, i.e. the field

lines do not have any beginning or end (there are no magnetic

monopoles). The next two equations states that electric fields

have their sources in electric charges (ii), or may be generated

by a change in the magnetic field vector (iii). The last equa-

tion, (iv), shows us that the sum of the electric current and

a change in the electric field vector (Maxwell’s correction to

14 Basic Ideas

**The Heaviside version of Maxwell’s equations are a set of four equations
**

to describe all electromagnetic phenomena of nature. In SI units they

take the form:

i) div B = 0,

ρ

ii) div E = ,

ε0

∂B

iii) curl E = − ,

∂t

∂E

iv) curl B = µ0 ε0 + µ0 j.

∂t

**We can add the field energy equation that follows naturally from the
**

above equations

ε0 2 1

v) u= E + B2 .

2 2µ0

Figure 1.1: The Maxwell equations.

**Ampère’s law) make up a solenoidal field that create a mag-
**

netic field around the field lines.

The equations were published in approximately this form by

James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) in 1861 when he was profes-

sor in London. Fundamental to the thoughts of the time was

the discussion between several scientists around the properties

of the ether, which then was believed to fill all space. The dis-

cussion went on especially between Maxwell and William Thom-

son (Lord Kelvin) (1824–1907) about the nature of electricity

and magnetism. Thomson attributed as early as 1847 a linear

character to electric force and electric current, and a rotatory

Electromagnetism compared with elastodynamics 15

**character to magnetism, while Maxwell at first in 1855 regarded
**

magnetic force as a linear, and electric current as a rotatory

phenomenon, but he later adopted Thomson’s view: “The trans-

ference of electrolytes in fixed directions by the electric current,

and the rotation of polarized light in fixed directions by mag-

netic force” he wrote in a couple of memoirs in 1861-62, “are

the facts the consideration of which has induced me to regard

magnetism as a phenomenon of rotation, and electric current

as phenomena of translation.” [10, page 247]. Kelvin fulfilled

his view in his Math. and Phys. Papers, iii (1890), p. 436,

where he showed that in his model a linear current could be “

. . . represented by a piece of endless cord, of the same quality as

the solid and embedded in it, if a tangential force were applied

to the cord uniformly all round the circuit. The force so applied

tangentially produce a tangential drag on the surrounding solid;

and the rotary displacement thus caused is everywhere propor-

tional to the magnetic vector ” (see [10, page 279-280] and Figure

1.2).

Maxwell’s equations are not invariant by transformations be-

tween Cartesian coordinate systems in rectilinear movement rel-

ative to each other, e.g. a stationary charge density pattern in

one coordinate system will represent a current when viewed from

within a moving frame. The equations can, however, be rewrit-

ten in such a form that they are invariant by transformations

between different Lorentz1 coordinate systems. In this rather

modern nomenclature the electric and magnetic field vectors

are merged together into a single tensor F, and the charge den-

1 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853–1928)

16 Basic Ideas

The Navier-Cauchy equation for an elastic continuum takes the form

(λs + 2µs ) grad div u − µs curl curl u − ρs ü = −b.

**In a continuum of infinite extension Kelvin’s theorem states that the
**

energy density is given by

λs + 2µs µs ρs 2

e= ( div u)2 + ( curl u)2 + u̇ .

2 2 2

**According to Helmhotz’ decompositions theorem the N-C equation can
**

be split into two literally independent equations

**(λs + 2µs ) grad div u1 − ρs ü1 = −b1 ,
**

−µs curl curl u2 − ρs ü2 = −b2 ,

where u = u1 + u2 = grad Ψ + curl A, and div A = 0.

Figure 1.3: The Navier-Cauchy equation.

**sity and current into a vector J in a four-dimensional manifold.
**

Maxwell’s equations can then be written in a very compact form,

and Hermann Minkowski (1864–1909) showed in 1908 that elec-

tromagnetic forces, the energy density, the energy transport and

momentum can be expressed by the 16 components of a single

stress energy tensor T. Written in this nomenclature the equa-

tions are invariant by transformation between different Lorentz

frames that are in uniform, rectilinear movement relative to each

other. On the other hand, if our measuring devises are exclu-

sively based on electromagnetic properties, then all our reference

frames would be strictly Lorentzian and it would be impossible

to distinguish one Lorentzian frame from another, i.e it would

Electromagnetism compared with elastodynamics 17

**be impossible to see any movements through space by consid-
**

ering electromagnetic phenomena. This is not a far-fetched as-

sumption since we know that all forces, except the extremely

weak gravitational forces and the extremely short ranged strong

forces, are of electromagnetic origin. On this grounds it would

be quite legible to launch the principle of relativity to all move-

ments in space. Einstein, however, in 1905 elevated the principle

of relativity to be a fundamental law of nature, and in the time

that has elapsed since then, it is his view that has gained more

and more momentum, even if it still is a controversial question.

In a memoir of 1821

published in 1827,

Claude Louis-Marie-

Henry Navier (1875–

1836) presented an

equation for an elastic

solid. The equation

was later developed

further - mainly by

Sir George Gabriel

Stokes (1819–1903) -

to also include fluids,

Figure 1.2: Lord Kelvin’s cord. but in this paper I

will mostly consider

the Linear Theory of Elasticity, which is a discipline in its

own right. For a homogeneous and isotropic continuum the

Navier-Cauchy2 equation takes the form shown in Figure 1.3.

2 Augustin Louis Cauchy(1789-1857)

18 Basic Ideas

**The vector field, u, represents the displacement of any points
**

of the continuum from their original positions, b represents a

(hypothetical) body force presumably from the outside word

(but it can be shown to have other implications), ρs is the mass

density, and λs and µs are Lamé’s elastic constants3 .

The energy in a deformation field is given by Kelvin’s theorem

which implies that in a body with such a great extension that

there are no surface forces acting, the energy density can be ex-

pressed solely by the properties u̇, div u, and curl u squared; i.e.

Kelvin’s theorem is valid in a continuum of infinite extension:

In this paper I will only consider a spatial continuum of infinite

extension (or nearly so), so Kelvin’s theorem will be valid.

Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–94) has shown that a vector field

can be divided into an irrotational (curl-free) and an solenoidal

(divergence-free) field. These two fields give rise to different

wave equations describing longitudinal and transversal waves

respectively, the former moving with about the double speed

of the latter. These two waveforms are literally independent of

each other, and even if they are initiated at the same point (as

they might be for instance by an earthquake) they live their own

lives and spread independently (e.g. as P- and S-waves). Thus

in all dynamic connections the Navier-Cauchy equation can be

divided into one irrotational and one solenoidal part.

So much for history. In the next section I will try to compare the

N-C equation and some mathematical identities in an isotropic

and homogeneous elastic continuum of (nearly) infinite exten-

sion with Maxwell’s equations. I will do a more comprehensive

3 Note that ρ is the spatial mass density while ρ will be used to express

s

the sink-source density. Similarly the Lamé constants λs and µs are used

with indices to avoid confusion with electrodynamic constants.

Maxwell’s and The Navier-Cauchy Equations 19

**comparison in Chapter 2 where also the relativistic properties
**

will be discussed.

**1.3 Maxwell’s and The Navier-
**

Cauchy Equations

In this section I will make a comparison between Maxwell’s

equations and the solenoidal part of the Navier-Cauchy equation

for an elastic continuum of infinite extension. By redefining the

terms in the N-C equation slightly, we get a new set of equations

that formally are like Maxwell’s equations except from equation

ii) that needs a closer examination (see Figure 1.4). In the dis-

cipline of hydrodynamics it is common to use hypothetical sinks

and sources as means to mathematically describe real moving

bodies of different shapes in a perfect fluid. Here, however, I will

assume that there may be free sinks and sources as real point-like

entities in the spatial continuum. How such entities can be real-

ized will be discussed elsewhere, but here it is only necessary to

state that a source will be seen as a negative sink, and that they

can only be created in pairs, one equally strong source for every

sink. Let the strength of a sink be defined as the inflow of spa-

tial mass per time unit, and let a number of sinks be smoothly

distributed in space. We can then define a sink density, ρ, as

the sum of all sinks in a small volume element – that still is

great enough to contain many sinks – divided by the volume of

the volume element. We can then put up the last equation that

completes the comparison between the Navier-Cauchy equation

20 Basic Ideas

By reformulating the terms in the N-C equation

1

b = j, u̇ = −E, curl u = B, ρs = ε0 , µs = ,

µ0

it transforms into

∂E

iv) curl B = ε0 µ0 + µ0 j.

∂t

Generally we have that the divergence of a curl is zero, so

i) div B = 0,

∂( curl u)

and by the identity ∂t

= curl ( ∂u

∂t

) we have

∂B

iii) = − curl E.

∂t

By Kelvin’s theorem the field energy density becomes

ε0 2 1

v) e= E + B2 .

2 2µ0

Figure 1.4: Reformulating the N-C equation

**and Maxwell’s equations (see Figure 1.4). We also find that
**

there is a hidden dependency between the properties ρ and j.

If our initial condition holds that there may be freely movable

sinks and sources in the spatial continuum, and that they can

only be created by pair production, then Equation vi) can only

Maxwell’s and The Navier-Cauchy Equations 21

**Let qτ be the sum of all sinks (sources are negative sinks) inside a
**

volume element τ , and let τ shrink towards a little volume ǫ that still

contains many sources. Then we can define a sink density given by

qτ 1

I

ρ = lim = −ε0 lim u̇ndf = −ε0 div u̇,

τ →ǫ τ τ →ǫ τ τ

ii) ρ = ε0 div E.

**There is a dependency between ρ and j.
**

Take the divergence of Equation iv):

**div curl B = ε0 µ0 div Ė + µ0 div j,
**

ε0 div Ė = − div j,

and take the partial derivative of Equation ii) with respect on t:

ε0 div Ė = ρ̇.

**By subtracting the two equations from each other we obtain the conti-
**

nuity equation

vi) ρ̇ + div j = 0.

Figure 1.5: Density of sinks

**be interpreted as a continuity equation, meaning that a change
**

of sink density in an area can only be accomplished by an in-

or outflow of sinks. Hence j has got to represent a flow of sinks,

and further, since j originally was set like the body force b, that

a flow of sinks will create a drag in the spatial continuum just

as lord Kelvin’s proposed in 1890 (see Figure 1.2).

22 Basic Ideas

**The assumption that div u̇ 6= 0 while div u ≡ 0 can only be re-
**

alized by assuming that the equivalents to positive and negative

electric charges are point-like entities. Thus everywhere in be-

tween the sinks and sources, and hence all over space since the

singularities themselves do not contribute to the mean density of

the spatial continuum, we have that div u = 0 as required. We

know from Quantum Electro Dynamics (QED) that it is pos-

sible to explain forces between electric charges by an exchange

of photons between them, so a further discussion about how

sinks and sources can be formed in a continuum, has got to be

discussed in connection with the nature of electric charges, but

once sinks and sources are realized as viable entities, they will

behave exactly like electric charges and exert the drag on the

spatial continuum that lord Kelvin predicted.

The above equations were all developed in a Euclidian coordi-

nate system, and they are not invariant by transformation be-

tween such coordinate systems in relative motion to each other.

For example can a static pattern of sinks and sources in one

frame be seen as a flow of the entities in another. It is, how-

ever, possible to go a step further and show that the fields may

be developed in frame independent form, which make them in-

variant by transformations between different Lorentz coordinate

systems. Hence, even if the initial comparison between elasto-

dynamic and electromagnetic fields were performed in a fixed

frame, the result would be equally valid in any Lorenz frame in

uniform rectilinear motion.

Naturally the question of which frame the observer measures

the phenomena in, will immediately arise. The observer has

Maxwell’s and The Navier-Cauchy Equations 23

**got to rely on measuring rods and clocks that he brings with
**

him, and if they are subject to changes when they move along

with him as he performs his observations, the result will be

affected. Moreover, if the devices for measuring length and time

is changed in agreement with the Lorenz contraction and time

dilatation as G.F. FitzGerald (1851-1901) has proposed, then

the observer’s frame would be strictly Lorentzian and he would

have no means whatsoever to find out how he is moving through

the spatial continuum.4

This leads us to a philosophical question. If we cannot detect

any motion through space with any of our means even if there

really is a fixed reference frame, then why bother about it?

We should use Occam’s razor and dispose of the whole con-

cept: There is no ether out there! This is what was done at

the passage from the 19th to the 20th century, and the result

was Special Relativity. Since then there has never been dis-

covered any phenomenon that enables us to measure a speed

through space so SR has proved very well fitted to describe

all kinds of movements explicitly in relation to other bodies,

because a discrepancy would mean that an Ether would be de-

tectable. The principle, which has been ascribed to William

of Occam (c. 1295−1349), is usually translated from Latin to

4 From Larmor, Joseph (1900), Aether and matter, Cambridge, [Eng-

**land]: Cambridge University Press : n.p. I quote: ”... if the internal forces
**

of a material system arise wholly from electromagnetic actions between the

system of electrons which constitute the atoms, then the effect of imparting

to a steady material system a uniform velocity of translation is to produce

a

puniform contraction of the system in the direction of motion, of amount

1 − v2 /c2 .”

24 Basic Ideas

**mean that entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity. It
**

states that one should not take into account more than is neces-

sary to describe a phenomenon, hence exit of the Ether. Strong

forces, however, cannot be described by electromagnetic laws

of physic, so no wonder it has proved very difficult to wrestle

the laws of the smallest entities under the law of SR. It should

be sufficient to mention the phenomenon of non locality; two

particles may be entangled and influence each other instantly

no matter how great the distance between them is. We can de-

scribe gravity with General Relativity, but we cannot (as yet)

describe the forces of gravity along the same line as the force of

electromagnetism and the Standard Model. Finally the Cosmic

Background radiation seems to be a fixed reference frame that

we can determine our speed in relation to, but for all practical

use, SR will always be a handy tool even if we should come

to accepting that there is a spatial continuum, which at least

locally could represent a fixed reference frame.

**1.4 Confined waves in the Spatial con-
**

tinuum

We know from Einstein’s5 famous equation, e = mc2 , that en-

ergy and mass are equivalent properties, a view that fits per-

fectly well into this model. In the defined spatial continuum

there are only two basic forms of energy, namely potential and

5 Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

Confined waves in the Spatial continuum 25

**kinetic energy, so matter simply has got to be confined energy of
**

this kind. There are two known waveforms in a spatial contin-

uum that both may be described by the Navier-Cauchy equation

of motion, namely irrotational and solenoidal waves. Both kinds

of waves will carry energy and momentum and it is natural first

to try to identify matter as confined wave energy of this type.

Say that one of these waveforms, or a mixture of them, is con-

fined in a certain area of space from where they are not allowed

to escape. If that is so, it has got to be a property of space

itself that keeps them at bay and reflects them back to the area

in which they are confined. Since the waves also have momen-

tum, this reflection will mean that an outward directed force is

involved, and accordingly a certain amount of spatial mass will

be displaced from the area in question. The radiation pressure

in isotropic radiation is one third of the energy density in the

radiation [7, page 670], so to maintain a variable energy den-

sity the radiation itself has got to introduce a body forces into

the space in which the radiation exists. This body force can be

inserted into the Navier-Cauchy equation and it can be shown

that a total amount of radiation energy confined in this way will

displace a certain amount of spatial mass that is completely in-

dependent of how the energy is distributed in space Equation

(5.10).

**A pattern of would meet some of the properties of matter. It
**

could move in space and would possess momentum. To acceler-

ate it we would have to add energy and thus increase the total

amount of energy and accordingly the mass. Great or small

masses, like the planets in the sky, or smaller bodies on the

26 Basic Ideas

d(mv) ds

Newton’s second law: F = , where v= .

dt dt

Einstein’s energy equation: E = mc .2

From these equations we have:

d(mv) d E 1

dE = ds = v ds = 2 v · dE + E · dv dv,

dt dt c2 c

dE 1 v · dv

= 2 ,

E c 1 − v2 /c2

1 C

ln E = ln p + ln C = ln p ,

1 − v2 /c2 1 − v2 /c2

E0

E= p ,

1 − v2 /c2

m0

m= p .

1 − v2 /c2

**NEWTON’S SECOND LAW is relativistic if we combine it with the
**

knowledge of the 20th century that matter and energy are equivalent

properties (E = mc2 ). The change in energy is like the force times the

distance over which the force is acting so that the resulting energy of

the system is the rest energy plus the energy added by the accelerating

force.

Figure 1.6: Newton’s second law.

**earth, can with a high degree of accuracy be described by New-
**

ton’s6 laws of motion, but at great velocities compared to the

speed of light, his laws seems to be insufficient because mass

increases with speed. Newton, however, formulated his second

law of motion by stating that the change of motion (not the

**6 Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
**

Confined waves in the Spatial continuum 27

**change of velocity as we tend to formulate it) is proportional
**

to the force that acts upon a body. It is impressive that he in-

tentional or unintentional formulated his law this way, because

if we interpret motion as momentum, and combine it with the

knowledge of the 20th century that matter and energy are equiv-

alent properties so that the energy that accelerates a body goes

as an addition to the bodies rest energy, Newton’s second law

of motion would in fact be relativistic in this sense of the word

(see Figure 1.6).

However, even if the idea that matter entirely consists of con-

fined wave energy meets some of the properties of matter, it

immediately encounters several serious objections. How can

wave energy be confined inside small volumes? That is forbid-

den by Huygen’s principle, which states that every point on a

wave front may be considered to be a new source of disturbance

from which spherical wavelets issue. Thus ordinary waves in a

continuum will always spread in space and die out. Elementary

particles like electrons are known to be point-like, or very nearly

so. How then can a wave packet be point-like? An even more

basic difficulty arises. Waves in an elastic continuum is as we

have seen either solenoidal or irrotational the former propagat-

ing with approximately the double of the speed of the latter.

These waves are literally independent of each other, but both

effects are needed to create a model of matter.

By first taking the divergence and then the curl of Navier-

Cauchy equation, we get two wave equation that represent lon-

gitudinal and transversal waves in the spatial continuum (see

Figure 1.7), the first propagating with a speed that is about the

28 Basic Ideas

**By first taking the divergence and then the curl of the Navier-Cauchy
**

equation we derive

ρs ∂ 2 ( div u)

∇2 ( div u) = ,

λs + 2µs ∂t2

ρs ∂ 2 ( curl u)

∇2 ( curl u) = .

µs ∂t2

**Next by defining two new properties, Ψ = div u, and, B = curl u, they
**

transform into the wave equations

1 ∂2Ψ

− + ∇2 Ψ = 0,

c12 ∂t2

1 ∂2B

− + ∇2 B = 0.

c02 ∂t2

**The compression/rarefication scalar, Ψ,prepresents a longitudinal wave
**

that propagates with the speed c1 = ρs /(λs + 2µs ), and the rota-

tionalpvector, B, a transversal wave that propagates with the speed

c0 = ρs /µs .

Figure 1.7: Wave equations.

**double of the latter. Such waves would spread in space accord-
**

ing to Huygens principle 7 and inevitably die out. Besides they

could in no way be able to represent material particles that is

known to be very small and perhaps even point-like. It is there-

for necessary to seek other waveforms than these waves, which

in connection with earthquakes also are termed P- and S-waves

**7 Christiaan Huygens (1629-95)
**

Confined waves in the Spatial continuum 29

respectively.

**Standing longitudinal waves bouncing back and forth between a center
**

node and a hypothetical rigid shell embedded in the spatial continuum.

div u

u

A>0

A=0

0

A<0

r

0 h sin(pr) cos(pr) i R1

u(r, t) = A cos(c1 pt) · − r̂,

p3 r 2 p2 r

A

div u = cos(c1 pt) sin(pr)

pr

A

= sin(pr + c1 pt) + sin(pr − c1 pt) ,

2pr

**Here p is a constant, c1 the propagating speed for longitudinal waves, A
**

the amplitude (A in the figure is an integration constant), r the radius

and R1 the radius from the center to the first possible rigid shell.

Figure 1.8: Standing waves.

**In Chapter 3 I have considered a central symmetrical longitu-
**

dinal waves bouncing back and forth between the center and

the inner surface of a hypothetical rigid sphere. The setting

30 Basic Ideas

**is strictly mathematical, but it opens for a study of a possible
**

pattern of standing waves in the spatial continuum. By solving

the Navier-Cauchy equation for a spherical symmetric case, we

find that such standing waves really are possible. One solution

is shown in Figure 1.8. When the integration constant, A, is

set to zero, the required border condition, u(0, t) = 0, at the

center is fulfilled. The crucial point in this thought experiment,

is that a singularity in the center of the shell can be a node in a

standing wave given the right initial conditions. By increasing

the frequency we can get several harmonic oscillations inside the

sphere, and the sphere itself can be enlarged ad infinitum with

the same oscillatory frequency if the other border condition,

u(Rn , t) = 0, at the surface of the shell is fulfilled.

**It can be shown that standing waves can be decomposed into
**

two progressive shell-waves, one moving outwards and the other

converging inwards towards the center. Since progressive waves

will move literally independent of each other, it is possible to

describe even complex systems of oscillating nodes just by su-

perposing the amplitudes from all the nodes in the system. First

let us see if a single oscillating node is feasible. One necessary

condition has got to be that the energy in the system is finite.

It turns out that the total energy will be infinite even by the

smallest amplitudes, so one single oscillating node is not feasible.

Another pattern it could be worth to consider is an oscillating

dipole. So let two nodes in the vicinity of each other be oscillat-

ing in opposite phase with the same frequency and let us treat

the field between them by superposing the progressive waves

from each of the nodes. We get a dipole-like oscillation, but

Confined waves in the Spatial continuum 31

**then the energy needed would still approach infinity, so even a
**

single oscillating dipole is not feasible. If we, however, organize

a long chain of identical oscillating nodes at a suitable distance

from each other, such that every node in the chain is oscillating

in opposite phase with its two neighbors, the field in the trans-

verse direction to the chain tends to cancel out with distance,

and we get a finite field energy per unit length. Hence if space at

all should be filled with oscillating nodes of the type indicated

above, they will tend to organize along strings.

Along the same guidelines it is possible to show that even

solenoidal standing waves are feasible. As with irrotational

waves they can be seen as a superposition of progressive waves

moving in opposite direction. The propagating speed is, how-

ever, only about half of of the speed of the other, namely c0 . In

this connection an interesting question arises. If solenoidal and

irrotational standing waves exist side by side in the spatial con-

tinuum, would it then be any coupling between them? Based

on the Navier-Cauchy the answer is no. The two waveforms are

literally independent of each other and cannot interact. The N-

C equation, however, is not complete because it only deals with

small (in fact only infinitesimal) deformations. This proves to

be sufficient for all large scale considerations, but in the area

around the singularities the deformation becomes significant.

Here we have to take into account that the acceleration of a vol-

ume element is given by Du̇/Dt = ∂ u̇/∂t + (u̇∇)u̇, that leads

to the Navier-Stokes equation which also is valid for a fluid.

It can be shown that in the area near the center node, there can

be a transfer of energy from the irrotational to the solenoidal

32 Basic Ideas

**field and back again, so at least one necessary condition for
**

a coupling is fulfilled. Hence in a hypothetical setup with the

rigid sphere in the first node, there might be a standard mode of

coupled oscillation where the two waveforms oscillate with the

same frequency. The drain of energy from the irrotational field

could slow down the reflection from the center node so much

that it falls in step with the oscillation in the solenoidal field.

Finally the transfer of energy from displacement to rotation oc-

cur when the displacement is building up to a maximum and is

reversed when the displacement is returning to neutral. Hence

the rotation has got to be in phase with the displacement.

**I have not been able to prove that this may be a feasible situ-
**

ation, but all coupled oscillations seem to have such standard

modes where they oscillate in step with each other with the same

frequency. I assume that this is a possible situation. Now let us

try to expand the oscillation to higher harmonics with several

wavelength between the center node and the rigid sphere. First

I think the coupling outside the first node will be to feeble to

accomplish any exchange of energy. Therefore the next node in

the solenoidal field will not coincide with any node in the irro-

tational field, but perhaps that might be so in the third node.

We know that the wave speed in the irrotational field is about

the double of that in the solenoidal field, and the possibility is

surely present that the relation is exactly 2 to 1. If that is so,

the third node in the solenoidal field will exactly coincide with

the second node in the irrotational field, and a new pattern of

standing wave is realized. In this way we could expand the sys-

tem ad infinitum. I will stretch my imagination one step further

The Big Bang 33

**and assume that a string of such nodes is possible. The mecha-
**

nism might well be different from what I have anticipated above,

but much of what is needed to build a viable model of matter in

the spatial continuum depends on the assumption that strings

of coupled oscillating nodes are real entities.

**1.5 The Big Bang
**

According to the standard cosmological theory of today, our

entire universe was created in the Big Bang. The theory tells

us nothing about what preceded the Big Bang, but it is very

well suited to describing what happened afterwards; even back

to the first fraction of a second. The theory not only predicts

how matter was created, but it also implies that space itself was

created in the same gigantic explosion. Naturally we have got

to try to explain what might have brought about an event of

this dimension in an elastic space.

The two familiar waveforms in an elastic continuum are longitu-

dinal and transversal waves, the former moving with about the

double speed of the latter. Consider longitudinal waves spread-

ing out from an imaginary pulsating sphere in the spatial contin-

uum. Such shell formed waves can be described by solving the

Navier-Cauchy equation, and there are always two solutions to

this problem; one for waves that spread out from the disturbance

and another for waves that travel inwards towards a focal point

in the middle of the sphere. By making the sphere sufficiently

large we could at the same time create a compression pulse mov-

34 Basic Ideas

**ing outwards from the sphere by suddenly enlarging the radius
**

of the imaginary sphere by a certain amount, for instance ∆r,

and a depression pulse moving inwards towards the center of the

sphere. If we on the other hand shrink the radius by a similar

amount, the compression pulse will be moving inwards and the

depression pulse outwards (see Figure 1.9). Exactly what will

happen when the compression or depression pulse reaches the

center of the sphere cannot be read out of the N-C equation be-

cause the amplitudes, i.e. compression or depression, increase

proportional to 1/r and hence reaches a singularity at the focal

point. Certainly, however, the surplus amount of the spatial

continuum in the compression pulse, or the displaced amount

of the spatial continuum from the depression pulse have got in-

crease or decrease the density in a very little volume around

the center for a short time before the pulse eventually might be

reflected back into space.

**A phenomenon that involves inward moving compression pulses
**

can be studied in a phenomenon called sonoluminescence. By

introducing a strong sound wave into a liquid containing small

cavitation bubbles, the liquid pressure will oscillate in step with

the pressure in the sound waves. When pressure in this way

falls, the bubbles will grow to a maximum, but when the pres-

sure again builds up, the bubbles will undergo a dramatic vol-

ume reduction. The radii will be reduced to a hundredth and the

volumes to a millionth of their normal value. This violent implo-

sion will continue until the pressure inside each bubble becomes

100,000 times the atmospheric pressure, and a temperature high

enough for light, with frequencies up to the ultraviolet part of

The Big Bang 35

the specter, to be emitted [9].

Spherical pulses in the spatial continuum.

f (c1 t − r) f (c1 t + r)

div u = + .

r r

**A sudden reduction, ∆r, in the radius of an imaginary sphere with
**

radius r in the spatial continuum leads to an imploding compression

wave traveling towards the center of the sphere.

Figure 1.9: Imploding shock wave.

**The implosion goes on in two steps: First the bubble shrinks
**

to a minimum size when it slams into the confined air in the

bubble at a speed more than four times the speed of sound

(Physics News 307, February 12, 1997). Then the sudden stop

of inward movement creates a shock wave in the trapped air that

36 Basic Ideas

**converges towards a focal point in the middle of the bubble. How
**

light is being emitted is still a disputed question, but one of the

best propositions is that the high temperature results in the

production of relatively cold plasma that emits light by thermal

Bremsstrahlung, a process in which collisions between electrons,

and the accelerating charges associated with these collisions,

emits a broad spectrum. In this connection, however, I am

more interested in the fact that while the implosion is dramatic

the release of the pressure takes quite a while, approximately

half a sound cycle, and one can ask which forces can keep the

pressure at bay for such a long time, almost an eternity, in the

extremely small volume we are dealing with (see Figure 1.5).

Let us try to figure out what might happen if an imploding

shock wave containing a huge amount of energy, for some reason

or other, should occur in the spatial continuum. The imploding

shock wave would increase in amplitude as it approaches the

focal point of the implosion. At the same time the increased

density would lead to an increased inertial density and conse-

quently slowing down of the wave-speed. Just like a tsunami

slows down and raises to an immense tidal wave as it approaches

shallower waters near a shore, the backwards part of the com-

pression wave will catch up with the foremost part and utterly

increase the pressure. Only our imagination can possibly tell us

anything about what happens when the wave eventually slams

into the focal point where the mathematics just will collapse

into a singularity.

If the imploding wave is extremely perfect shell-formed it might

perhaps be reversed and disappear back into the depth of space

The Big Bang 37

**leaving the area around the focal point as quiet as it was before,
**

but it is more probable that small irregularities will break down

the symmetry such that the implosion would end up not only in

one singularity, but in a plethora of singularities each of which

releasing their energy in tiny explosions. An ordinary earthly

explosion, especially that of an atomic bomb, sends particles

and gas molecules outwards with so great a speed that the site

of the explosion is evacuated. The same could happen to the

singularities resulting in evacuated bubbles in the spatial con-

tinuum. The bubbles, however, would not be stable, but would

immediately collapse and be filled up with the spatial mass from

a nearby still exploding singularity. In this way spatial mass can

come to oscillate between the nodes in a such way that the out-

flow from one node is taken up as an inflow to a couple of nearby

nodes leaving a residual of bubbles moving from one of the oscil-

lating nodes to the next. A ”bubble” in this context is taken to

mean a partly evacuated area with a singularity at its core. The

general idea is that a bubble that collapses can borrow spatial

mass from the next node in a long chain of oscillating nodes and

hence move over to this node and further to the next node and

so on in a never ending repetition. The energy that goes into

this combined oscillation and displacement makes up the total

amount of matter in the Universe, and the Universe itself will be

taken to mean the compressed space left over by the Big Bang.

**Now the energy in the original imploding wave is divided in
**

three distinctly different energy forms: Vacuum bubbles that

displace a corresponding amount of spatial mass, the kinetic

and potential energy in the oscillating nodes, and a raised pres-

38 Basic Ideas

**sure in the spatial continuum itself. The bubbles can probably
**

disintegrate into smaller bubbles or join with other bubbles into

bigger bubbles, but the sum of the displacement from the evacu-

ated bubbles might well be conserved when seen in a short time

span compared to the age of the universe. Likewise the number

of oscillating nodes may be a conserved property. The pressure

in the spatial continuum is raised because it, like a yeast dough,

requires more space than it did before it became populated with

evacuated bubbles. In addition the spatial continuum is com-

pressed by the residue of the original shock wave. Naturally

this compressed area of space will expand at the expense of the

surrounding not compressed area and the expanding universe is

established.

**One question con-
**

cerning the structure

of space remains to

be answered: How

does the Universe

behave at its border?

It might perhaps

be comparable to

what can happen in

some funnel-shaped

estuaries when the

tide initiates a bore.

Figure 1.10: Sonoluminescence cycle. A tidal bore is a

wave that can travel

upstream in certain rivers with, the most famous of which is

The Big Bang 39

**the Black (or Silver) Dragon of the Qiantang River in China,
**

but also several estuaries in England (e.g. Severn) among

others around the world. The bore itself has a very limited

extension in the direction of movement - almost like a single

wavelength with a marked increase in water level (up to 7.5

meter in the Black Dragon) - and it travels upstream with a

rather slow speed. In front the river is flowing downward in

a natural and undisturbed manner, but when the bore has

passed, the current is reversed into a rather smooth upstream

motion. Similar phenomena can occur in connection with

all kinds of wave movement when dispersive and nonlinear

effects are balanced causing a wave pulse to propagate without

distortion. Moreover since such wave pulses also can travel

through each other and regain their original waveform and else

behave more like particles than waves, Zabusky and Kruskal

at Princeton University named them solitons. At the border

of the Universe there will be a strong nonlinearity in the

spatial density as it ultimately falls down to zero and below,

and the initial wave, or from the Big Bang might well form a

solitary wave (or ”hydraulic jump”) that moves outwards with

more or less constant speed that might be several orders of

magnitude slower than the speed of transversal waves in the

continuum. Behind this wave-front the spatial continuum is

flowing outwards just like the current behind a tidal bore, but

inside the whole sphere I suppose that the pressure can be quite

uniform expanding uniformly throughout the whole Universe.

**If space gets its inertia from the compression energy as I have
**

suggested in Chapter 4, then the mass density of space out-

40 Basic Ideas

**side the compressed area approaches zero and the speed of any
**

wave movements will approach infinity. No waves can ever move

from an area with finite wave speed and into an area with infinite

wave speed, but will be reflected, so whatever waves there might

have been created by the explosion, are confined to the area and

have got to expand together with the expanding space. Matter

in the form of energetic bubbles may, however, move freely from

node to node within the space of the compressed volume, and

would probably distribute evenly throughout the allowed area

that henceforth will constitute the entire universe. I suspect

that this uniformity also will apply to the spatial mass itself,

and so we have a volume in space with relatively evenly dis-

tributed pressure surrounded by a zone of zero pressure, which

expands in all directions as the pressure makes space itself to ex-

pand. Along with this expansion all kinds of matter also expand

and loose energy, until matter in the form of leptons and hadrons

combine to form atoms, mainly hydrogen, helium and lithium.

At approximately the same time the universe gets transparent

to light, and the radiation takes form of thermal radiation at

about 3000 K. The universe, however, continue to expand, and

the temperature in the cosmic background radiation drops along

with the expansion until it today has reached a temperature of

ca 2.7 K, as was first observed by A. A. Penzias and R. W. Wil-

son in 1964. The dipole oscillations will also represent energy,

and like the microwave background they will also loose energy

as space expands. If they don’t decline in number, they will

have to decline in amplitude, so we must expect that all space

is filled with very faint oscillating dipoles or strings of oscillating

nodes.

Waves in the spatial continuum 41

**If this picture is correct, we must assume that all matter and
**

thereby the stars and galaxies roughly will follow along with the

expansion of space, but that does not imply that matter, as we

now know it, is completely at rest in space. The earth moves

around the sun, the sun moves in the galaxy, and The Milky Way

itself moves in space. Recent studies of the background radiation

have revealed that the waves are coming in with remarkably

equal strength from all directions of the sky, but that is only

when one has corrected for a Doppler shift of about 380 km/s

relative to the radiation8. This feature is consistent with the

Earth moving at some 380 km/s towards the constellation Virgo.

By taking into account the relative movement of the sun in

the galaxy, one can deduce that The Milky Way as a whole

moves with a speed of approximately 600 km/s in relation to

the background radiation. If we assume that the background

radiation is isotropic in relation to the spatial continuum, it

would mean that The Milky Way moves with an absolute speed

through space that amounts to approximately 0.2% of the speed

of light.

**1.6 Waves in the spatial continuum
**

After the Big Bang the spatial continuum is compressed behind

the hydraulic jump that brings the pressure down to a much

lower or perhaps even negative level on the outside. The wave-

8 Dipole anisotropy discovered by Conclin in 1969 and confirmed by the

**COBE Project Team.
**

42 Basic Ideas

**front moves outwards like a solitary wave with some speed, but
**

any objects on the inside cannot feel this velocity because they

follow the outwards movement like drifting log in a river. If an

observer on one drifting object observes other drifting objects,

he will find that they move away from him and faster the longer

away they are. From his point of view he lives in an expanding

space.

**In the boiling inferno inside the expanding area there is a huge
**

amount of disturbance energy in all possible forms. The en-

ergy is trapped in this environment because the strong pressure

and density gradient at the border will reflect all waves that try

to escape. Among the occurring waveforms there will presum-

ably be a fraction of oscillating nodes, some of them will be in

the form of coupled solenoidal and irrotational standing waves.

They will all tend to organize along strings in the spatial contin-

uum in such a way that the spatial mass that goes into one node

is taken from the adjacent nodes in the chain. The net displace-

ment from such a chain should be zero. Next the implosion is

supposed to end up in a plethora of tiny explosions that result in

small evacuated areas around singularities. It should be all right

to term them evacuated bubbles as long as we keep in mind what

we mean by the term. Such evacuated bubbles cannot be stable,

but will immediately implode again taking spatial mass from a

nearby expanding node. We now have two elements from which

we can construct a model of matter. First evacuated bubbles

that can be interpreted as naked material particles, and next a

chain of oscillating nodes that is paving the way for the bubble.

These two elements are closely connected to each other and can-

Waves in the spatial continuum 43

**not be separated. Now let us assume that one of the nodes at
**

the outset is inflated to a bubble. The bubble is of course not

stable, but will immediately be filled up by an inwards stream

of spatial mass taken from a nearby expanding node. When the

bubble is exactly filled up, the inwards stream of spatial mass

has its maximum speed and will continue for a while until com-

pression stops the movement and reverse the stream. In this

way nodes which are left behind the bubble has got to oscillate

with decreasing amplitudes until the oscillation eventually fades

down to the background noise. On the other hand a very faint

oscillating node at the bubbles new position cannot suddenly

deliver all the spatial mass needed to fill up the bubble, but has

got to start oscillating with increasing amplitude in good time

before the bubble arrives. In this way the bubble has got to be

preceded by a chain of nodes oscillating with increasing ampli-

tudes in the preamble, and followed by a chain of nodes with

decreasing amplitudes in what we could call the postamble 9 . In

this model absolutely every elementary particle including pho-

tons will be represented by an evacuated bubble preceded by a

preamble and followed by a postamble as sketched above. They

can err around in a cloud of oscillating nodes in a more or less

irregular way to make up a material particle, or move along in

a straight line as would be the case for the model of a photon.

In both cases the bubble will move along a chain of nodes that

either will be a straight line to make up a photon, or a more or

less interwoven line to make up a material particle.

9 Postamble is not a valid English word, but it suits the purpose, and I

**have seen it used in other contexts.
**

44 Basic Ideas

Displacement

Flow

sin(ω(t − nπ/ω)

Dn (n, t) = h ,

t − nπ/ω

hω h sin(ωt − nπ) i

Fn (n, t) = cos(ωt − nπ) − .

t − nπ/ω ωt − nπ

X

Dn = hω.

n

**5 successive steps in the progressive movement of a photon. Dn is the
**

displacement and Fn the flow from node #n at the time t. The sum of

the displacement from all the nodes in the chain taken together is hω.

Figure 1.11: Model of a photon.

**A delta function of the type sin(ωt)/t seems to cover this sit-
**

uation well for the oscillation of each node along the string of

nodes when t varies between −∞ and +∞. This is a calculated

Waves in the spatial continuum 45

**guess and I cannot prove it, but I will try to see what implica-
**

tions it will have. The δ-function above is mathematically well

documented, and it shows out that the limit of the function as

t approaches zero, is like the angular velocity ω, or 2πf where

f is the frequency of the oscillation. A period, T = 1/f , is

taken to be the time it takes for a single node in the chain to

pass from neutral to fully compressed state, back to neutral and

further to fully inflated state, and back to neutral again. In

the course of that time the bubble has been fully inflated two

times. The positive and negative amplitude of the oscillation

multiplied with a suitable constant is then measures of respec-

tively displacement from the nodes and compression in them.

The displacement from all the nodes taken together will at any

time be proportional with the frequency, and if the energy in the

particle model is proportional with the displaced spatial mass,

the energy too will be proportional with the frequency. If we

call the proportionality constant h, we arrive at the equation

E = hf , and we notice that if h happens to be like Planck’s

constant of action, this formula is identical with the well known

formula for the energy of a photon. We notice, however, that

the electromagnetic property and the speed by which the bubble

is moving along the string cannot be read out of these formu-

las, but I will address those questions along with an attempt to

understand polarization and spin in the next section.

**We now turn back to the amplitudes of the oscillation by each
**

node. Between maximum compression and dilatation there has

got to be a phase of inward and outward flow of spatial mass to

and from the nodes. The rate of change of the displacement from

46 Basic Ideas

**each node will naturally be a measure of the flow to and from
**

the nodes, so by taking the time derivative of the displacement

we will get an expression for the flow. It turns out that the flow

may be represented by a function of the type ωt [cos(ωt)− sin(ωt)

ωt ].

**We can now draw a graph of the displacement to and from
**

each node along the y-axis and the flow to and from the nodes

along the z-axis. Just think of the nodes as not moving entities

and the graph moving forward along the x-axis just showing

the displacement and flow to and from each of the nodes as a

function of time. Figure 1.11 shows the movement of the bubble

along the cain of nodes in 5 successive steps. The foremost graph

shows the situation when the displacement (blue graph) is from

just one of the nodes while the displacement from all of the other

nodes are all zero and the flow to and from the other nodes are at

their maxima (red graph). The bubble is gradually moving over

to the next node where it will be located at the next eighth of

a period, while the other nodes alternate between compression

and depression. The next 4 graphs show the situation 1/8, 2/8,

3/8, and 1/2 of a period later. At any time, however, the sum

of the displacement from all of the nodes has got to be exactly

the same and like the displacement from the bubble itself when

it is fully located in one of the nodes (see Figure 1.12). This

also confirms that the sum of the flow to and from all the nodes

taken together is zero at any time.

We notice that the bubble reaches its maximum value two times

in the course of one cycle of oscillation; so counting in cycles the

bubble hits its maximum at 0, π, 2π, 3π, and so forth. If we

consider a node in front of the approaching bubble, it alternates

Waves in the spatial continuum 47

The net displacement from all the nodes taken together is

∞

X sin(ωt − nπ)

D(t) = hω , ωt − πn 6= 0.

n=−∞

ωt − nπ

**First we notice that sin(ωt − nπ) = sin(ωt) · (−1)n for any n ∈
**

{0, 1, 2, 3, · · · }, and that (−1)−n = (−1)n . Hence

∞

X (−1)n

D(t) = hω sin(ωt) . (1.1)

n=−∞

ωt − nπ

From http://functions.wolfram.com/01.10.09.0001.01 we have

n

X (−1)k z

csc(z) == lim /; ∈

/ Z,

n→∞

k=−n

z − πk π

where csc z = 1/ sin z. Hence

1

D(t) = hω sin(ωt) = hω. (1.2)

sin(ωt)

Figure 1.12: Displacement from all the nodes.

**between compression and evacuation with half a cycle’s inter-
**

vals, but when the bubble itself arrives, the outward stream goes

on for three quarters of a cycle to empty the node to its max-

imum level whereupon the node, now containing the bubble, is

filled up during the next three quarters of a cycle and then goes

back to alternating with half cycles intervals until it fades away

as the bubble recedes. Thus the oscillation in the trailing nodes

48 Basic Ideas

**are displaced with half a period as compared with the oscillation
**

of the nodes in front.

**This idealized model can possibly explain parts of the nature of
**

both material particles and photons. To serve as a model of a

material particle, the chain of nodes has got to curl up in some

way or other to form a simple helix or a more or less complicated

stretched out knot-formed line in space. The tighter the helix or

the knot is wound, the slower the bubble will advance in space,

and if the chain on the other hand is stretched out towards a

straight line the bubble will move with a speed that approaches

the characteristic speed for the movement of the bubble along

the chain, a velocity a material particle can never achieve with-

out giving up its general shape becoming a straight line and

loosing its material properties. The bubbles might even move

in a more or less random manner within a cloud of oscillating

nodes obscuring the more orderly knot-like movement. If the

chain on the other hand is a straight line from the beginning,

the bubble will always move with this characteristic speed and

thus serve as a model of a photon moving with the speed of

light. So far the model can explain properties like wavelength,

frequency and energy of a photon, and both the point-like and

wave-like properties of matter, but to serve as a complete model

it will be necessary to also include electromagnetic properties

like polarization and spin.

The photon 49

1.7 The photon

**In order to bring in electromagnetic properties and spin, it is
**

necessary to consider coupled oscillations between irrotational

and solenoidal oscillating nodes. In Section 1.4 I discussed dif-

ferent waveforms that may occur in the spatial continuum, and

I found that a coupling between between solenoidal and irrota-

tional oscillations only can occur in the near vicinity of a dis-

continuity. I also found that the coupling has got to be in such a

phase that the maximum rotational velocity has got to coincide

with the maximum displacement such that the rotation will fol-

low a similar delta function as the displacement, i.e. ∼ sin ωt/t,

(see page 44). Hence a string of oscillation nodes will bring

with it, not only a net displacement, but also a certain amount

of intrinsic angular momentum, or spin.

Spin also has a direction in space, and since the rotation in each

node has got to alternate between two opposite directions and

such that the spin component in one node is opposite to the spin

components in its two adjacent nodes, it seems reasonable to in-

fer that the directions are traverse to the direction of the chain

of nodes, say to the right and left. In the model of a bubble

moving along a string of nodes there is hitherto no indication as

to what speed the bubble is advancing with, but it will be deter-

mined by the oscillatory frequency and the distance between the

nodes, hence v = 2f d. Let us therefore suppose that the bub-

ble is advancing with the speed of transversal waves, c. Then

the alternating left and right rotation and twist in the preamble

might well trigger a progressive transversal wave which accord-

50 Basic Ideas

**ing to to this model would be identical with an electromagnetic
**

wave, and which – at least along the chain of nodes – would

approximate a plane wave. As the bubble itself builds up in the

course of three quarter of a cycle and decline again in the same

amount of time, the oscillations in the postamble come half a

period out of phase measured against whatever pseudo-plane

progressive wave that might have been triggered in the pream-

ble. Seemingly no progressive waves can be created under such

conditions, but let us all the same assume that there really is

created a progressive transversal wave in the preamble. It grows

stronger and stronger as the bubble approaches and reaches its

strongest level around the bubble itself. So when the spin in and

around the bubble builds up, it comes increasingly out of phase

with the progressive wave and is bound to get a precession to-

wards the chain axis and reaches its greatest value strictly along

this axis before it precesses further on until it fades out opposite

of its start-up direction. This pirouette will bring the oscillation

in the postamble in line with the traveling progressive wave and

will keep it up until it fades away towards zero as the bubble re-

cedes. Notice that the resulting spin of the entire chain of nodes

will be directed along the chain axis in the forward or backward

direction. In Figure 1.13 I have made some considerations as to

the magnitude of the spin, and it indicates that it may very well

have a fixed value of ~.

**If a system like this really can occur in the spatial continuum,
**

it will have almost all the properties of a photon. There will

be some phenomena that needs to be investigated further, for

instance circular polarization, but the model covers every tan-

The photon 51

A strange coincident?

The energy in a rotational system is given by

E = 1/2 · Iω 2 ,

**where I is the moment of inertia and ω the angular velocity of the
**

rotation. The spin angular momentum is given by:

L = Iω.

**Say that the energy in the rotation by the principle of equipartition
**

is half of the total energy, ~ω, in the system, and that the angular

momentums are the same ωrot = ωtrans in both systems. Then we can

put up the relation:

2

1/2 · Iωrot = 1/2 · ~ωtrans ,

Iωrot = ~,

L = ~.

**This is the correct value for the spin of a photon, but it is of course
**

no proof. At best it tells us that the spin is of the correct order of

magnitude.

Figure 1.13: Spin angular momentum.

**gible property of the photon. It has got to move with the speed
**

of light to keep up with the associated electromagnetic wave,

it is polarized, it has spin directed along the movement axis,

it carries energy and momentum proportional to the displaced

spatial mass, and it has at the same time both particle and

wave nature. A single photon in this model is surrounded by a

transversal wave of considerable extension which will be subject

to ordinary interference laws, and since there is a mutual inter-

52 Basic Ideas

**action between this wave and the components generated in each
**

node, the pilot wave will take the most favorable direction under

these circumstances and pave the way that the bubble has got

to follow. In this way the photon - even if it is a particle and can

be traced as such - will behave like a wave. If one, however, try

to trace the particle, the associated solenoidal wave will be dis-

rupted and the interference will vanish. Since the upcoming and

trailing nodes all oscillates in exact step with each other there is

a certain non-locality involved, what happens in the front may

immediately influence the nodes father back. If a lot of particles

like this move in the same direction and in step with each other,

they will produce a truly plane polarized coherent wave, i.e. a

laser beam. There is even a possibility that a photon like this

may be able to split up to make two electric charges, which will

be the topic of the next section.

1.8 The electron

**In Section 1.3 I made a comparison between Maxwell’s electro-
**

dynamic equations and Navier-Caucy’s elastodynamic equation.

I found that electric charges can be associated with sinks and

sources in the spatial continuum. That seems at first to be an

impossible assumption, but there is a possibility. I have already

suggested that an elementary material particle in this model

might consist of a curled up string of nodes along which a bub-

ble is moving. It therefore has a preamble and a postamble that

in principle stretch far out both in the forward and backward

The electron 53

**direction of the particle’s movements. The oscillations in the
**

nodes in the preamble build up to a displacement, which I have

dubbed a bubble, that moves one step forwards for each oscilla-

tion cycle, while the oscillations in the trailing nodes diminish

down towards nil. Say that the oscillations in the preamble of

one chain of nodes build up to a higher displacement than is

built down in the postamble, and that the situation in another

nearby chain of nodes is the opposite. The excess void in the

first chain has got to be filled up with spatial mass from the

insufficient displacement in the second chain, and we get a flow

of spatial mass between the doublets that corresponds to the

electric field between two charges. From there on it is straight-

forward to see that the farther the two entities are separated

from each other, the more energy goes into the velocity field

between them, and therefore it will be required a force like the

Coulomb force to increase the distance.

**In Chapter 3 I discuss how coupled oscillations between irro-
**

tational and solenoidal waves could occur and which standard

modes of oscillation one could expect. I found that in the near

vicinity of a singularity there may be a transfer of energy be-

tween the two fields. Depending on the initial condition I pro-

posed that three standard modes of oscillations could be possi-

ble. If energy in the first half cycle is transferred from displace-

ment to rotation and back again in the next half cycle, then the

displacement is dampened and the rotation is enhanced. If on

the other hand the energy in the first half cycle is transferred

from rotation to displacement, then it is the rotation that is

dampened and the displacement that is enhanced. I also saw

54 Basic Ideas

**the possibility that the shift between the direction of energy
**

transfer could happen to be in the middle of the two possibili-

ties such that no net transfer of energy would occur. We could

dub the two forms of asymmetric oscillation rotation enhanced

mode and displacement enhanced mode respectively, and the

symmetric oscillation we could dub neutral mode.

**Model of two opposite charges moving in the right direction. Blue, thick
**

lines represent the displacements from each node, and red thick lines

represent rotation. Thin lines suggest the displacement and rotation at

the nodes in a photon. Black arrows illustrate the sink and a source

respectively.

Figure 1.14: Sink and source

**If these assumptions are correct, the pre- and postamble of any
**

elementary particle or photon will be in one of these modes, so

let us try it out. The pre- and postamble of a photon should

be in neutral mode. The displacement builds up to the bub-

ble in the preamble and down to nil again in the postamble.

The electron 55

**But say that the preamble of the first of two particles is in dis-
**

placement enhanced mode that shifts over to rotation enhanced

mode in the postamble, and the preamble of the second particle

is in rotation enhanced mode that shifts over to displacement

enhanced mode in the postamble. Then the displacement in the

first particle is built up to a higher displacement in the preamble

than is built down in the postamble, and the displacement in

the preamble of the second particle is built up to a lower level

than is built down in the postamble. This discrepancy can only

be equalized by a constant flow of spatial mass from the second

to the first entity like the velocity field around a source-sink

pair (see Figure 1.14). We could call the first entity e+ and the

second e− and notice that e− acts like a source and e+ as a

sink (the choice of the signs is somewhat arbitrary). We also

notice that if the distance between the two entities is increased,

then more energy will go into the velocity field between them,

and hence it requires an application of force to bring them far-

ther apart like the force between two opposite electrical charges.

What actually happens in the bubble itself is in the first case

that the inflow to the bubble boosts the rotation up from its

dampened mode to enhanced mode, and in the second case that

rotation veritably blows spatial mass away from the node on ac-

count of its own rotation. Note that this shift corresponds with

the delay in phase caused by the building up and down of the

bubble in the course of two half cycles.

**From fluid dynamics we know that the spin in a perfect fluid
**

without viscosity is a conserved property. The spatial contin-

uum is supposed to be perfect in the sense that any deformation

56 Basic Ideas

**is recovered without any loss when the stress is removed, but
**

unlike in a fluid or a gas, spin cannot be conserved as such.

But a spin will build up a torque that in turn is delivered back

to a spin in the opposite direction. Hence the combined effect

of spin and torque is conserved. So when a photon splits up

into two new entities, both of them can only acquire half the

integral spin each, and can therefore not be two new photons

moving along in a straight line in space. The alternative is that

the two bubbles move along two curled up strings, but still with

the speed c along the strings. Depending on how tight each of

the strings are wound up, they may move along with any group

speed v < c.

Sources and sinks according to this model can only be created

by pair production and disappear by being annihilated back to

what a photon model is like, just as is the case for electrical

charges. A surplus of sources or sinks in a volume can therefore

be changed only by a flow of sources or sinks into or out of

the volume. Thus it is possible to form a law quite similar to

the law of conservation of charge. The coulomb force between

two charges can be computed by computing the increase in the

field energy between the charges as the distance between them

is increased. It can readily be shown that the velocity field

between the source and the sink has got a kinetic energy that

exactly matches the field energy in an electric field, provided

that the amount of matter flowing between the two entities per

unit time is unchanged by distance, and hence the forces will

obey the same law, i.e. Coulomb’s law.

As we have already seen in Section Maxwell’s and The Navier-

The electron 57

**Cauchy Equations on page 19: the only option for describing
**

electrical charges in this model is by the means of sinks and

sources in the spatial continuum. At first it seemed like an

impossible demand, but the above model shows us a way out

of the conundrum. The photon and indeed any possible parti-

cles in this model have got to have a preamble and postamble

with quite distinct properties. First and foremost the pream-

ble builds up to a displacement of spatial mass that also is a

measure of the energy of the particle. It resolves the appar-

ent paradox that a particle is more energetic the smaller it is.

Next the spin component is being built up in the preamble and

manifest itself by a resultant spin angular momentum of the

spatial mass itself, or possibly by a combination of that and a

real rotary motion of the bubble along a corkscrew-like string of

oscillating nodes. At the same time as the spin is being built up,

it triggers a transversal wave which perhaps can be fitted into

the Schrödinger equation; and the transversal solenoidal wave

redirects the spin from the transverse direction to a direction

along the movement axis of a photon. Finally an asymmetry

of the oscillation may put the preamble and postamble in three

different modes of oscillation that may describe the electrical

properties of matter. It also gives us a possible solution to what

a neutrino is like. It might be a particle where both the pre-

and postamble are in the neutral mode of oscillation.

**One more question needs to be answered. If a photon splits
**

up into two new half spin particles oscillating with about half

the frequency of the photon, and the two particles starts to

circle around a common point in space because they do not

58 Basic Ideas

**have energy enough to separate completely, they would together
**

make up a composite particle that is known as a positronium.

However, they cannot shear the same pre- and postamble, but

have got to make their own string of nodes to move along. These

two strings would not be allowed to interfere with each other,

so the only possible way is that the nodes, which exist in the

same environment, shall put their individual nodes in between

those of the other ones like the teeth of a zipper, and oscillate

a quarter of a period out of phase with each other. Then the

resulting oscillatory frequency of the system will be about the

same as the original photon, disregarding the energy that has

gone into the system in order to separate them.

1.9 Systems of many particles

**In the previous section I assumed that the nodes of the two parti-
**

cles oscillate with half the frequency of the original photon, but

the frequencies are interlocked like the teeth of a zipper such

that the net frequency of the system is the double of the indi-

vidual particles, like the density of teethes in a locked zipper is

the double of the density in each parts of the open zipper. I will

follow up this thought and assume that in a composite system

of many half spin particles like the quarks and electrons in an

atom, a similar mechanism is at work. Each particle creates its

own set of nodes in such a way that the oscillation of the nodes’

peaks are in between each other. In this way the entangled set

of nodes are interlocked like the teeth of a ”multidimensional”

Systems of many particles 59

**The simplest imaginable material particle is a string of nodes wound
**

up like the threads of a screw along which a bubble is moving with

velocity c. Its forwards advancing speed, v, however, is depending on

the pitch of the windings. Along the string of nodes there is generated

a progressive transversal wave, and the oscillation in adjacent nodes

has got to be in phase with each other. The progressive wave gen-

erates another wave, a so called phase wave, and simple geometrical

considerations show that this fictive wave, also called matter wave, is

moving with a great velocity, vp = c2 /v, through the wave packet.

Figure 1.15: Illustration of a material particle

**zipper, and the frequency of the system as a whole is like the
**

sum of the frequencies of all the nodes. Each of the particle has

an energy given by its oscillatory frequency fn (En = hfn ), so

the system’s oscillatory frequency has got to increase propor-

tional with the energy, E, of all the half spin particles in the

system, f = E/h = E/2π~.

60 Basic Ideas

**To get an impression of what the waves in connection with an
**

elementary particle might be like, I will consider a simple ideal-

ized case when the bubble follows a path like the threads on a

screw. The bubble itself moves along with the speed of c, but it

advances in space with a far lower group velocity vg depending

of the pitch of the windings. I think that the movement of the

bubble in a real elementary particle will be far more compli-

cated than this thought experiment should indicate, but in this

special ”particle” the bubble will move along on the surface of a

cylinder with speed c while the particle itself moves along with

the speed vg . I have tried to visualized this situation by cut-

ting open and unfolding the cylinder in Figure 1.15. The grey

lines represent the pilot wave. It has got to be in phase from

thread to thread. The bubble has got to follow the threads -

the slanted line in the figure - and the speed is dictated by the

pilot wave moving with the speed of transversal waves, c, while

the whole packet moves with the speed v. The horizontal wave

is the phase wave through the packet, and a simple geometri-

cal considerations shows that it moves with a speed far greater

than the transversal waves, namely vp = c2 /v. This oversimpli-

fied case serves only to illustrate what is going on, so in Figure

1.16 and 1.17 I have tried to investigate a more general case

that leads to the formula for the Louis de Broglie’s (1892–1987)

electron wave, and the Erwin Schrödinger’s (1887–1961) wave

equation that were discovered in the nineteen twenties and laid

the foundation for the introduction of quantum mechanics.

**Once we have found the amplitude of the wave function through-
**

out space we know that the particle has got to be located some-

Systems of many particles 61

**where in the cloud of nodes and hence we know where the parti-
**

cle might be. Max Born interpreted this amplitude as the prob-

ability amplitude for the particle, which squared value gives the

probability where to find the particle in space at any time. Since

the particle has got to be somewhere in space, we can normalize

this property by setting the integral of the probability all over

space to unity. According to the Copenhagen interpretation the

only fact that can be said about the position of a particle is the

probability amplitude. There is no hidden variable that could

possibly tell where the particle is situated at a given time. In

this model, however, there surely has got to be a hidden variable

where the naked particle in the form of an evacuated bubble is

located. This view was discussed by David Böhm who found

that a hidden variable could give meaning to the abstract for-

mulas of physics, but John Stewart Bell showed that then one

has to accept the principle of nonlocality10 . This is of course

**10 From Wikipedia I cite: The Bohm interpretation of quantum mechan-
**

ics, sometimes called Bohmian mechanics, the ontological interpretation,

or the causal interpretation, is an interpretation postulated by David Bohm

(1917-92) in 1952 as an extension of Louis de Broglie’s pilot-wave theory

of 1927 . Consequently it is sometimes called the de Broglie-Bohm theory.

Bohm’s interpretation is an example of a hidden variables theory. It is

hoped that the hidden variables would provide a local deterministic objec-

tive description that would resolve or eliminate many of the paradoxes of

quantum mechanics, such as Schrödinger’s cat, the measurement problem,

the collapse of the wavefunction, and similar concerns. However, Bell’s

inequality complicates this hope, as it demonstrates that there is no local

hidden variable theory that is compatible with quantum mechanics. Thus,

one is left with choosing between the lesser of two evils: discarding local-

ity, or discarding realism. The Bohmian interpretation opts for keeping

realism and accepting nonlocality.

62 Basic Ideas

**no problem in this model of matter since nonelocality is part
**

of the assumptions that has got to be made. The nodes in the

pre- and postamble has got to oscillate in step with each other

even if they are far apart, even in principle if they are indefi-

nitely distant from each other. With that fact established, this

interpretation fits well into the proposed model of matter. If

a particle can reach a target along two (or more) paths as in

a double slit experiment with light, the pilot wave fills up all

the possible pathways and rejoin at the target where they inter-

fere with each other making an interference pattern of weak and

strong spots, while the particle itself can follow only one of the

routes and most probably hit the target where the amplitude of

the nodes is greatest. But if we try to spot the particle in one of

the paths, we inevitably have got to disturb the pilot wave such

that the interference is lost. Indeed we have got to recalculate

the wave function with the disturbance point as a new origin

from which the particle starts anew, and now it can reach the

target only by one route and there is no interference.

**1.10 Atomic nuclei and the strong
**

forces

The energy concentration in a nuclear particle is extremely high.

It amounts to the mass density we would have if we could

squeeze together the entire earth to the size of an orange. Keep-

ing this amount of energy in place demands an immense force,

and conversely, such an energy concentration would create a

Atomic nuclei and the strong forces 63

**First consider a composite particle moving alon with speed v in a
**

primed coordinate system following the particle

E

f= ,

h

**where E is the energy of all particles in the system, and f is the fre-
**

quency of the oscillations in the entire cloud of nodes. The oscillation

can be described by

′ ′

t

Ψ(x′ , y ′ , z ′ , t′ ) =A(x′ , y ′ , z ′ ) · e−i2πf

E′ ′

=A(x′ , y ′ , z ′ ) · e−i ~ t .

**Next transform the movement over to the coordinate system of the
**

observer. It is only in Lorenz frames that the properties are invariant

by transformation, so we apply Lorenz transformations

x − vx t y − vy t z − vz t

x′ = p , y′ = p , z′ = p ,

1 − v2 /c2 1 − v2 /c2 1 − v2 /c2

t − (vx x + vy y + vz z)/c2

t′ = p .

1 − v2 /c2

From the observer’s point of view the oscillation takes the form

y−vy t

Ψ(x, y, z, t) =A √x−v2x t ,√ , √ z−v2z t

1−v /c2 1−v /c2

2 1−v /c2

√ −iE [t−(vx x+vy y+vz z)/c2 ]

1−v2 /c2

· e~ ,

**i.e. it represents two waves. A group wave vg = v and a phase wave
**

vp = c2 /v.

**Figure 1.16: Oscillation of a moving composite particle
**

64 Basic Ideas

We take the second derivative of Ψ with respect on t and get

∂2Ψ −i √ E [t−(vx x+vy y+vz z)/c2 ] −iE 2

~ 1−v2 /c2

=Ae ,

∂t2

p

2

~ 1 − v /c 2

1 ∂2Ψ −E 2

2 2

=Ψ 2 2 .

c ∂t c ~ (1 − v2 /c2 )

Accordingly

**∂2Ψ ∂2Ψ ∂2Ψ −E 2
**

+ + =Ψ 4 2 (vx 2 + vy 2 + vz 2 ),

∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 c ~ (1 − v2 /c2 )

−v2 E 2

∇2 Ψ = Ψ .

c4 ~2 (1 − v2 /c2 )

The two equations can be drawn together to

1 ∂2Ψ E 2 v2 E2

∇2 Ψ − =− 2 4 Ψ+ 2 2 Ψ

c2 ∂t2 ~ c (1 − v2 /c2 ) ~ c (1 − v2 /c2 )

E2

= Ψ.

~2 c2

**Finally we define a new property m given by E = mc2 and the
**

equation above takes the form

1 ∂2Ψ m2 c2

∇2 Ψ − 2 2

= Ψ,

c ∂t ~2

**which we recognize as de Broglie’s equation for the electron wave,
**

sometimes also called The Matter wave.

**Figure 1.17: The Matter wave.
**

Atomic nuclei and the strong forces 65

**colossal outward pressure that would partly evacuate the vol-
**

ume where the energy is confined. A nucleon would then consist

of a shell with a great radially directed grad div u-field inside

which there might be a fairly homogenous inflated area where

the elementary particles of the nucleus bounce around. It is in

an environment like that we find the quarks, and I suspects that

the difference between leptons like electrons and quarks are more

due to the differences in environment than to the nature of the

particles themselves. They are both fermions with half-integral

spin, and they are basically bubbles surrounded by clouds of

oscillating nodes, which the bubbles themselves move between.

Why the quarks do not break out of their confinement is not

easy to tell, but say that they cannot exist in any other envi-

ronment than the partly evacuated area in the nucleon. Then

their only option is to bounce back and forth inside the shell

making the shell exactly big enough to keeping up the right en-

vironment where they can exist. If their movements are mainly

along circular orbits, then there would be needed at least three

particles orbiting around three orthogonal axes to keep up a uni-

form pressure in all three spatial directions. That may be the

reason why three quarks are needed to create a stable nucleon.

**Quarks come in pairs, a quark and an anti-quark, and such pairs
**

of quarks are the building blocks of a group of short-lived par-

ticles called meson. They disintegrate by various routs down to

photons, and thus in our picture we can say that they are sym-

metrical with a photon as their symmetry-axis, just as electrons

and a positrons. In much the same way as a positron and an

electron can form a short-lived positronium atom, a quark and

66 Basic Ideas

**an anti-quark can make up a meson. Thus, according to what
**

I already have proposed, the two quarks have got to be out of

phase with each other existing in a cloud of oscillating nodes

with a frequency the double of what they have by themselves.

Fluctuations may, however, soon bring the converging points in

the two clouds to coincide, and then the two particles will in-

evitable annihilate each other and form a cascade of different

particles eventually ending up as photons. As the electric field

keeps the electron and positron together in a positronium, the

strong nuclear force keeps the quark and anti-quark together in

a meson. The electric field has as its counterpart a velocity field,

but such fields would be far too weak to prevent the two quarks

from flying apart. A huge energy density like that in a nucleon,

however, will displace some of the spatial continuum and create

an inflated area in which the quarks will reside. At the border

of this area, there has got to be a strong pressure gradient which

links the lower pressure in the partly evacuated area with the

normal pressure in the surroundings. It is this kind of fields

that have got to represent the strong nuclear forces, i.e. the

counterpart to the strong nuclear force is a comparable strong

grad div u-field.

**A nucleon is composed of three quarks, the proton of two up
**

quarks and one down quark whereas a neutron has two down

quarks and one up quark. A baryon may even be built up of

three similar quarks, and this fact seems to disagree with the

Pauli exclusion principle, which states that no two particles in

an atom may be in the same quantum state. Therefore the

quarks in a baryon are ascribed different colors, which of course

Atomic nuclei and the strong forces 67

Figure 1.18: Three quarks forming a group.

**are no real colors, but a kind of charge called color charge, which
**

distinguish them from each other. In a nucleon the quarks have

the colors red, blue, and green, which make the nucleon itself

white. The color of the quarks in a meson is always one of these

colors and its anti-color, also making the meson white. In fact,

to my knowledge, no one has ever seen a quark in isolation nor

a colored particle, which probably amounts to the same.

Consider a set of three strings, dubbed red, green, and blue, con-

fined in a closed area of the spatial continuum oscillating with

the same frequency and one sixth of a period out of phase with

each other. The net oscillating frequency of the entire group

68 Basic Ideas

**is now three times that of the individual strings. Furthermore
**

say that the peak rotational directions in each string are suc-

cessively in the up and down direction. Since there are exactly

three different sets of nodes in the group, the net result is that

the entire group will also oscillate between the up and down

direction successively. When inflation peaks in the bubble, the

direction of the spin component gets a precession that rotates it

through the forward or backward direction in the course of one

half cycle, giving each of the entities a net spin angular momen-

tum, and flips the rotation components such that the oscillation

in the preamble and the postamble come in phase with each

other. See Figure 1.18.

The picture of these idealized particles is hardly the whole truth.

Probably will the internal life of a composite particle be more

chaotic than this model suggests, with virtual particles popping

up and disappearing all the time governed by some inherent or-

derliness that is not easy to spot. Any multiple of three single

particles, however, will add up to a smooth right/left oscilla-

tion mode, so by the same argument as above, any composite

group of such three-groups may be entangled to form a complete

atomic nucleus. If this picture is correct, it becomes a little more

understandable that particles are entangled in strange ways be-

cause they are all linked to the same orchestra of oscillating

nodes. Since bubbles always have got to move along some paths

in space it seems that some kind of string theory may be applied

to get a better understanding of nature.

Gravitation 69

1.11 Gravitation

**Newton discovered the law that two heavenly bodies attract each
**

other with a force proportional to the product of their masses

divided by the distance between them squared. This is a force

that acts at a distance. A more modern view is to consider

gravitation as an effect of a gravitational potential, the gradi-

ent of which gives the gravitational acceleration at any point in

space. The potential is determined by an equation discovered by

the French mathematician Siméon-Denis Poisson (1781-1840):

∇2 Φ = −4πGρ where G is the gravitation constant and ρ the

mass density. Poisson’s equation can be solved under rather

general conditions yielding the gravitational potential all over

space. The tremendous advantage of this approach is that grav-

itation can be determined from any distribution of mass, and

not only from spherical bodies. A still more modern view is to

apply the General Theory of Relativity, GR, where bodies move

along geodesics in curved space-time.

It is almost obvious that the gravitational potential in this model

has got to be linked to a grad div u-field, i.e. a space with

varying density. However, from the Navier-Cauchy equation we

can immediately see that a static density gradient cannot exist

in the open spatial continuum, so we have got to seek a dynamic

solution. The key lies in the expansion of space in which a

body is represented by confined energy. Which effect it is that

keeps the energy confined is irrelevant in this connection, but it

is essential that the force needed to keep the energy at bay is

absorbed by the spatial continuum itself. Hence confined energy

70 Basic Ideas

**exerts an outward directed force that displaces a certain amount
**

of spatial mass and is surrounded by a steep uphill pressure

gradient that keeps it at bay. The pressure in confined energy

of this kind is like one third of the energy density11 , and it can

be shown that it displaces the same amount of spatial mass

regardless of how it is distributed (see the paper chap:Confined

Energy and Gravity).

In Section 1.5 I found that the spatial continuum has got to

expand continuously, and if we place energy packets in such an

environment, they will loose energy all the time. The outwards

pressure against a receding wall exerts a work that is given by

the force times the receding speed, and the energy has got to

be taken from the confined energy. The lost energy has got

to be transported away as a wave, and the obvious choice is a

longitudinal wave. Think of a chunk of energy as a compres-

sion pulse that moves outwards with velocity c1 . By solving the

Navier-Cauchy equation we find that the amplitude of a shell-

formed compression wave will decline as a function of 1/r as it

moves outwards from the confined energy. The whole energy

transport will be in the form of an anharmonic wave, or a static

fall in pressure outwards from the area. The gravitational po-

11 This is by the way a general principle in physics. From

http://www.answers.com/topic/radiation-pressure-1 I cite: ”It may be shown

by electromagnetic theory, by quantum theory, or by thermodynamics, mak-

ing no assumptions as to the nature of the radiation, that the pressure

against a surface exposed in a space traversed by radiation uniformly in all

directions is equal to 1/3 the total radiant energy per unit volume within

that space”, so there is no reason that it should not apply to any disturbance

energy confined in an elastic continuum.

Gravitation 71

**tential behaves in exactly the same way around a gravitating
**

body in space, thus there is a one to one correlation between

the pressure around a confined energy in an elastic continuum

and the gravitational potential around an energy concentration

in the form of mass in space. The pressure gradient is extremely

small, but then gravitational forces are only one part in 1036 of

electromagnetic forces.

An increase in pressure will lead to an increase in the mass den-

sity, ρs , in the spatial continuum and slow down the propagating

speed of all kinds of wave movement, so also the intern move-

ment of energy inside all energy packets. The speed of these

waves are assumed to be c under all conditions, so matter in the

form of wave packets will reside in a space with varying wave

speed. The waves will constantly be deflected towards areas

with lower wave speeds, and the whole energy packet will get

an acceleration towards these areas, i.e. towards another assem-

bly of energy packets, for example towards the earth. Since the

intern energy movements are the same in all bodies, heavy or

light, they will all get the same acceleration, namely the acceler-

ation of gravity. In Chapter 5 I have considered these properties

in more detail, and I found that the conformity with gravitation

is excellent.

72 Basic Ideas

**1.12 The General Theory of Relativ-
**

ity

**The assumption that an energy concentration should create
**

around itself a simple scalar Φ-field cannot be general enough. It

doesn’t include any dynamic properties of the confined energy.

A better approach would be that confined energy should intro-

duce a system of forces into space. A better candidate for intro-

ducing such a system of forces into space would be Minkowsy’s

symmetric stress energy tensor, T, in a four-dimensional space-

time. The trace of that tensor would give us the pressure that

displace spatial mass from the energy concentrations. T has 16

components whereof only 10 are different. The so-called Bianchi

identity reduces this 10 components to a minimum of six, and

that is the minimum of components the stress energy tensor can

be brought down to. That is still two more than the scalar field

Φ represents, even if it is expressed in the same four-dimensional

manifold as T is expressed in, and we can conclude that Φ can

only give us an approximate description of the true properties

of space.

The classic law for the conservation of energy states that the

divergence of the stress energy tensor has got to be zero (see

e.g. [8, page 132]), but that is not the case in this model when

viewed in an universal frame12 . Confined energy always has

got to loose energy due to the expansion of the universe, and

12 In a local frame, however, the divergence of the stress energy tensor

**may well be like zero as I will try to verify below.
**

The General Theory of Relativity 73

**therefore ∇ · T is different from zero, which represents the loss
**

of energy into deep space from the confined energy. It is the

energy flow that is supposed to generate the system of forces

that in turn results in a varying density throughout space. If

all kinds of matter surround itself with a gradually decreasing

density with distance, as indicated above, this property will in-

fluence the speed of transversal waves such that the speed of

light decreases when a photon gets into a gravitational field. In

1911 Einstein himself suggested that the velocity of light must

depend on the gravitational field, a view that he later aban-

doned, but let us investigate this possibility a little further. A

ray of light passing from point A to point B in a space with

varying c would follow an optical path from A to B that makes

the time shortest possible in accordance with Fermat’s principle

RB

of least time, δ A dsc = 0. It will pay off for the ray of light

to take a small detour through areas with greater light speed

to gain time on its way from A to B, and hence get deflected

towards areas with lower light speeds.

**To execute the above calculation it is necessary to have at hand a
**

universal measuring system for time, distance and mass. When

we, who are living in this space, however, shall create our own

measuring devices, we have got to rely on the properties of mat-

ter. We could choose to use the simplest material particle readily

available, i.e. the hydrogen atom, as a reference to do that. The

mass of the hydrogen atom could be chosen as the unit of mass.

The wavelength of the photon that is emitted when the atom is

exited to its first energy level could be made the unit of length,

and finally we could define the time unit as the time the photon

74 Basic Ideas

**uses to travel that distance. In this local frame the speed of
**

light would always be unity per definition. This would of course

not be the most effective way to define our basic units, but it

will serve as an example. Let us also define a universal frame

based on the same principle, but with a single hydrogen atom at

rest far away from any heavenly bodies, and let a modified kind

of Maxwell’s demon be able to see this frame from anywhere in

the universe in order to be able to compare it with the local

frame.

**Now, let our demon calculate the time a ray of light takes to
**

pass from point A to point B past a heavy object in space where

the speed of light is known to be slower. He moves one universal

length unit for every tick of his universal clock and finds that the

shortest time has passed when he chooses a path a little farther

out from the body than the straight line. Next, let us do the

same calculation with our local length and time units. Say first

that our length unit is unaffected by the position. Then, in

order to keep the measured speed of light constant, our clock

has got to go a bit slower near the object than farther out, and

we too will find that the time is shortest when we move along

the same path as the demon found. If on the other hand the

time unit is unaffected by the position, then, for the same reason

as above, the length unit has got to be a bit shorter near the

heavy object than farther out, and again we get a bit faster past

the object by choosing the same route because of the slightly

longer length unit covered by each tick of the clock along this

route than along a path closer to the heavy object. The route

we found in this way, by applying the calculus of variation, is

The General Theory of Relativity 75

**called a geodesic; in this case – since it is a ray of light that is
**

considered – it is called a null geodesic. Finally a more probable

choice of units would be that the time runs a bit slower and the

meter becomes a bit shorter than the universal units, and the

space-time in the area around the great mass could be said to

be curved. To mess around i such a space is no simple task, but

luckily for Albert Einstein (1879-1955) had Bernhard Riemann

(1826-1866) and others already developed a geometry that could

be used in a space-time like that. So when he – assisted by

Marcel Grossmann (1878-1936) – in 1916 developed his Special

Relativity (SR) the geometry was already in place. According to

the Riemannian geometry the measuring units at every point in

space are given by the ten different components13 of the metric

tensor, g.

How then will a material particle or a body like a feather or

even the earth move in space-time? In this model matter is

composed of elementary particles which all consist of bubbles

moving along strings of nodes with the same speed, namely the

speed of light. They will all be deviated by the geometry of

space-time and in a complicated way follow geodesics just like

a single ray of light. The resulting movement will therefore also

be geodesics though considerably more deviated ones, because

each of the intrinsic particles moves a far longer way than the

body itself, as the material body moves between two positions

in space.

In Figure 1.19 I have tried to illustrate what is going on. The

13 Strictly speaking, it is only six because of the Bianchi identity.

76 Basic Ideas

**The stress energy tensor in a universal frame has got to be given a
**

correction in order to produce the stress energy tensor measured in

a local frame:

T[universal] − T[loss] = T[local] .

If we first define a new tensor

8πG

R=− T[universal] ,

c4

and make the construct

1 8πG

R · g = − 4 T[loss] ,

2 c

where R = Rγ γ , and finally put these results in the above equation

1 8πG

R− R · g = − 4 T,

2 c

we arrive at an equation that is similar to the Einstein field equation.

Figure 1.19: The Einstein field equation

**universal measurement of the stress energy tensor has got to
**

be given a correction in order to find the local measurement.

By defining a couple of new properties, this relation is brought

over to a form that formally is identical with the Einstein field

equation. This may give us a clue to interpret the terms in the

The General Theory of Relativity 77

**Einstein field equation. First we see that the Ricci tensor might
**

be associated with the real stress energy tensor measured in a

universal frame. The trace of that tensor produces the Ricci

scalar, which when corrected by the metric tensor should be a

measure of the loss of energy from the system.

According to my definition of the spatial continuum, there has

got to be a residual pressure leftover from the Big Bang. This

pressure is uniform throughout space – or perhaps only nearly

so – and will contribute to the stress energy tensor. Due to the

expansion of space, it will also loose energy and cause an effect,

Λ · gαβ , that may be significant over great distances in space. It

is of course an open question if the gαβ found here is the same

as the Riemannian metric cited above, but I will leave it at that.

In 1917 Willem de Sitter and Abbé George Lemaitre showed

on the basis of GR that the universe is expanding all the time.

The expansion, however, is by some believed to be on a cosmic

scale and does not apply to distances in the solar system or at

an atomic level. It has been likened with a balloon with coins

glued to it. If the balloon is inflated, the distances between the

coins increase, but the coins themselves are not changed (See

GRAVITATION by Misner, Thorn, and Wheeler (1973) p. 719)

[8]. In this model, however, all distances are increasing as the

universe expands. Without this expansion, however small and

undetectable on a local scale, there would be no gravitation, and

hence the expansion of the universe is not caused by gravitation,

but is the first principle from which gravitation has got to be

deduced. The most direct proof of the energy loss can be seen

in the background radiation discovered by A. A. Penzias and R.

78 Basic Ideas

**W. Wilson in 1964. When the temperature in the Big Bang had
**

cooled down to about 3000◦ K, the space got transparent to the

pure temperature radiation, and it is this radiation we now can

observe as a background radiation with a temperature of about

2.7◦ K. So the cooling has got to be caused by the expansion

of the space itself because the photons are irrevocably loosing

energy as they move through the expanding space. In this model

the red shift is not caused by the Doppler effect alone, but rather

partly on the cooling effect of the expanding universe.

Chapter 2

**The Linear Theory of
**

Elasticity

**The Linear Theory of Elasticity is a discipline in its own right,
**

and this paper is only meant as an introduction to the topic.

The theory was probably originally intended to describe ordi-

nary elastic bodies consisting of particles bound together by

molecular forces, but it is through the centuries refined to be a

theory that can describe deformations in a true elastic contin-

uum. Here, I will focus on the part of the theory that describes

deformations of an elastic continuum of infinite extension or

nearly so. In its undeformed state it is supposed to be homoge-

neous and isotropic if anything else isn’t stated explicitly. For

80 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**a more thorough investigation I refer to [3]. Only a couple of
**

the equations, namely (3.1), (3.10), and (2.18) are used in later

developments so if those equations are familiar, this section may

be skipped.

2.1 Displacement fields

The space B under consideration, also called a Kelvin space, is

all filled up with an elastic continuum which in its undeformed

state is homogeneous and isotropic with mass density ρs that

obeys the deformation laws of The Linear Theory of Elasticity.

Notice that I already now put the index s on the mass density

in order to distinguish it from the charge density ρ of electro-

dynamics.

The displacement in this space is described by the displacement

field ; its value u(x) at a point x is the infinitesimal displacement

of x. The symmetric part

ǫ = 12 ∇u + ∇uT ,

(2.1)

1

ǫij = 2 (u i, j + uj, i ),

of the displacement gradient, ∇u, is the infinitesimal strain field,

and the above equation, relating ǫ to u, is called the strain-

displacement relation. In this context the (local) space is to

be understood as the whole of the deformed area, or at least

an area through which border no significant forces due to the

inside deformation are conveyed. In addition u has got to be

continuous and sufficiently smooth.

Displacement fields 81

We call

div u = tr ǫ,

**the dilatation. The infinitesimal volume change δv(P ) of a part
**

P of space due to a continuous displacement of the field u is

defined by

I

δv (P ) = u · n da,

P

**where n is the unit vector normal to the surface element da of
**

the surface of P , and we say that u is solenoidal if δv(P ) = 0

for every P . By the divergence theorem we have

Z Z

δv (P ) = div u dv = tr ǫ dv.

P P

Thus u is solenoidal if and only if

tr ǫ ≡ 0, or equivalently, div u ≡ 0,

all over space. Then there exist a vector field Ψ such that

u = curl Ψ.

**A deformation field is said to be irrotational if it satisfies the
**

condition

curl u ≡ 0,

82 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**all over the field. Then there exist a scalar field φ in space such
**

that

u = ∇φ.

**Let u be a vector field where [u]∞ = 0, then Helmholtz’s theorem
**

states that there exist a smooth scalar field φ and a vector field

Ψ on B such that

u = ∇φ + curl Ψ, where div Ψ = 0,

**(see e.g. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HelmholtzsTheorem.html).
**

In plain words this theorem states that an arbitrary deforma-

tion field, u, can be decomposed into two fields; an irrotational

field u1 = ∇φ and an solenoidal field u2 = curl Ψ, such that

u1 = grad φ, curl u1 = 0

u = u1 + u2 , where

u2 = curl Ψ, div u2 = 0.

(2.2)

**which implies that the superposition of u1 and u2 gives a com-
**

plete description of any local deformation field in the spatial

continuum.

2.2 System of forces

In an elastic continuum there may be a system of forces acting

on a part, S, of space basically consisting of a surface force sn

System of forces 83

**and a body force b. By the same right as u can be divided in an
**

irrotational and an solenoidal component, so can also the body

force b, making b = b1 + b2 with b1 and b2 belonging to the

irrotational and solenoidal field respectively.

b1 = grad ϕ

b = b1 + b2 (2.3)

b2 = curl A, div A = 0.

**Since ϕ initially can be set to any level, it might as well be
**

associated with a possible uniform pressure in the continuum,

so an initial uniform pressure will not alter the equations in the

least.

We assume that there all over space is a strictly positive function

ρs called the density such that the mass of any part P of space

is given by

Z

ρs dv

P

**The motion of the body is described by the (infinitesimal) dis-
**

placement field u(x, t) such that

∂u ∂2u

u̇ = and ü =

∂t ∂2t

are the velocity and acceleration respectively. The linear mo-

mentum l of P is

Z

l(P ) = ρs u̇ dv,

P

84 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**and the body counterforce b′ caused by acceleration is
**

Z

b′ (P ) = −l̇(P ) = − ρs ü dv.

P

**In addition to this initial body force, I will keep the possibil-
**

ity open that there might be another hypothetical body force b

caused by the external world, just in order to see how such a

force would change the spatial continuum. The total force f (P )

on a part P of space is the total surface force from the stress

vector sn exerted across the surface ∂P plus the total body force

exerted on P by the external world

Z Z

f (P ) = sn da + b dv.

∂P P

**The Cauchy-Poisson theorem [3, page 44] states that if u is an
**

admissible motion and f is a system of forces, then [u, f ] is a

dynamic process if and only if the following two conditions are

satisfied:

**1. there exists a symmetric tensor field σ called the stress
**

field, such that for each unit vector n,

σn = σ n;

**2. u, σ, and b satisfy the equation of motion
**

div σ + b = ρs ü. (2.4)

**This theorem is one of the major results of continuum mechan-
**

ics.

The stress-strain relation 85

2.3 The stress-strain relation

**In a linearly elastic continuum there exists a relation between
**

strain and the stress it causes, which can be expressed by the

relation

σ(x) = C ǫ(x) ,

**where C is a fourth-order symmetric tensor that maps the space
**

of strain onto the space of stress according to

σij = Cijkl ǫkl .

**C is called the elasticity tensor, and since the continuum un-
**

der consideration is assumed to be homogeneous over the actual

space, the 36 components of C is independent of the position

vector x. Since ǫ is the symmetric part of the deformation gra-

dient, ∇u, it may look like this relation rules out the possibility

that there might be a residual pressure in the continuum, but

that is not so if ǫ is interpreted as the actual stress minus the

residual stress, provided that we interpret the corresponding

surface trajectory accordingly [1, footnote 1 on page 68].

The spatial continuum under consideration is not only homo-

geneous, but also isotropic. This property immediately reduces

the 36 components of C such that C may be described by only

two different scalar constants. The stress-strain relation in a

homogeneous and isotropic continuum thus takes the relatively

86 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

simple form

σ = 2µs ǫ + λs (trǫ)I, (2.5)

σij = 2µs ǫij + λs ǫkk δij

= µs (u i, j + uj, i ) + λs uk, k δij ,

where µs and λs are Lamé’s elastic moduli 1 , which are constants

in a homogeneous elastic continuum, and δij is the Kronecker

delta

1 if i = j ,

δij =

0 if i 6= j .

**2.4 The Navier-Cauchy equation
**

From the strain field (2.1), the Stress-strain relation (2.5) and

the Equation of motion (2.4) one can derive the Navier-Cauchy

equation [3, page 213]

µs ui, jj + µs uj,ij + (λs uk,k δij ), j + bi = ρs üi

µs ui, jj + µs uj, ji + λs uk,ki + bi = ρs üi ,

µs ∇2 u + (λs + µs )∇divu + b = ρs ü, (2.6)

or equivalently by the mathematical identity curl curl u =

∇ div u − ∇2 u

(λs + 2µs )∇divu − µs curl curl u + b = ρs ü. (2.7)

1 Note that I have put on the indices s to avoid mixing them up with

**other properties in electrodynamics.
**

The Navier-Cauchy equation 87

**At this point it may be appropriate to stress the point that the
**

Navier-Cauchy equation only treats the limit where deforma-

tions can be considered infinitesimal, and it must not be mixed

up with Navier-Stokes equation, which also incorporates viscos-

ity and takes into account the hydrodynamic property that v̇

may be different from ∂v/∂t [i.e. v̇ = ∂v/∂t + (v · ∇)v].

According to Helmholtz’s Theorem any vector field satisfying

[∇ · v]∞ = 0,

[∇ × v]∞ = 0,

**(no velocities at infinite distance from considered area) may be
**

written as the sum of an irrotational part and a solenoidal part,

v = −∇φ + ∇ × A,

where

∇·v

Z

φ=− d3 r′ ,

V 4π|r − r|

′

∇×v 3 ′

Z

A= d r,

V 4π|r − r|

′

**(see http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HelmholtzsTheorem.html).
**

As the spatial continuum is of infinite extension, or nearly so,

any deformations have to be confined to a finite part of space,

so this theorem will be applicable on all deformations. Hence

the displacement field can be decomposed into two properties

u = u1 + u2 ,

88 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

where

u1 = −∇φ = − grad φ,

u2 = ∇ × Ψ = curl Ψ.

Since curl grad φ ≡ 0, and div curl Ψ ≡ 0, the Navier-Cauchy

equation (3.1) can be divided into two independent equations,

one for an irrotational field

ρs b1

∇divu1 = ü1 − , (2.8)

(λs + 2µs ) λs + 2µs

and the other for a solenoidal field

ρs b2

−curl curl u2 = ü2 − . (2.9)

µs µs

**By defining two new constants
**

s

λs + 2µs µs

r

c1 = , c2 = , (2.10)

ρs ρs

**the N-C equation takes the form
**

b

c12 ∇divu − c22 curl curl u + = ü. (2.11)

ρs

**Operating on Equation (3.1) with the div operator and on Equa-
**

tion (3.2) with the curl operator yields respectively

1 ∂ 2 (div u) div b

∇2 (div u) − 2 2

=− (2.12)

c1 ∂t λs + 2µs

Field energy and energy transport 89

1 ∂ 2 (curl u) curl b

∇2 (curl u) − 2 2

=− (2.13)

c2 ∂t µs

**With b = 0 we have two wave equations where the dilatation,
**

divu, satisfies a wave moving with the speed c1 , while the rota-

tional component curlu, satisfies a wave moving with the speed

c2 . In fact the Propagation theorem for isotropic bodies states

that if a body is isotropic, then a wave is either longitudinal, in

which case c = c1 , or transversal, in which case c = c2 [3, page

256]. This diversion of the Navier-Cauchy equation into one ir-

rotational and one solenoidal part, allows us to examine these

two parts separately and thereby simplifies the strain-stress re-

lation immensely by reducing the elastic constants to only one

single constant (the wave speed) in each equation (c1 6= c2 ).

We see from Equation (3.5) that the two wave speeds are re-

lated pto each other with a fixed constant given by the relation

c1 = 2 + λs /µs · c2 . We notice that c1 is about the double of

c2 .

Finally we notice that all information of curlu is lost in (3.7)

and all information of divu in (3.8).

**2.5 Field energy and energy transport
**

From the Navier-Cauchy equation one can find the internal field

energy in an admissible field in B by performing the following

thought experiment: Introduce a hypothetical body force, −b

(negative because b is a breaking force), from the outside world

90 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**such that it eradicates the entire field in B; i.e. u and all func-
**

tions of u become constant like zero all over B. In addition I

will assume that the entire field is confined inside B such that

u is zero on the surface of B and beyond. The energy released

by this operation, E, would then be like the total field energy

in B.

Z Z0

E=− dv bdu

B f (u)

Z f (u)

h Z i

= dv ρs ü − (λs + 2µ)grad divu + µcurl curlu du

B 0

**E can be separated into three integrals, i.e. E = E1 + E2 + E3 .
**

The first of these integrals is simply the kinetic energy of the

system

Zu̇

du̇

Z

E1 = dv ρs du

dt

B 0

Z Zu̇

= dv ρs du̇ · u̇ ,

B 0

Z

1 2

E1 = 2 ρs u̇ dv.

B

Field energy and energy transport 91

**The next part can be integrated by using the mathematical iden-
**

tity (2.17) and inserting φ = div u and A = du

Z div

Z u h i

E2 = (λs + 2µ) dv div u · div(du) − div(du · div u)

B 0

Z div

Z u

= (λs + 2µ) dv div u · d(divu) −

B 0

Z div

Z u

(λs + 2µ) dv · div du · divu .

B 0

**The first part of the integral can readily be integrated, and the
**

last part can be transformed into a surface integral over ∂B by

the Divergence theorem2 and disappear because u is constant

like zero on the border of B and beyond. Thus

Z

1 2

E2 = 2 (λs + 2µ)(div u) dv.

B

We can find E3 in much the same way by using the identity

**div (A × B) = curl A · B − curl B · A, (2.14)
**

2

H R

(A · n) df = div A dv

∂B B

92 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**and inserting B = curl u and A = du
**

Z curl

Z u h i

E3 = −µ dv div(du × curl u) − curl u · curl(du)

B 0

Z curl

Z u

=µ dv curl u · d(curl u)−

B 0

Z curl

Z u

µ dv · div du × curl u .

B 0

**Again the first part can be integrated and the last part disappear
**

by the same reason as above, and we get

Z

1 2

E3 = 2 µ(curl u) dv.

B

**Finally we can write the total energy in the deformed area
**

Z h i

1 2 1 2 1 2

E= 2 ρ s u̇ + 2 (λs + 2µ)(div u) + 2 µ(curl u) dv.

B

(2.15)

**The development may be a bit unorthodox, but the result is
**

already known as Kelvin’s theorem [3, page 208], and is a proven

theorem in the Linear Theory of Elasticity. The result can be

interpreted as the local energy density even if this development

Field energy and energy transport 93

**does not prove where in the field the energy is to be found; only
**

that there to a curl u and a div u always corresponds an energy

given by the equation above, and no other energy is present as

long as we deal with infinitesimal deformations restricted to a

limited area of a homogeneous and isotropic continuum covered

by the Linear Theory of Elasticity.3 With this restriction in

mind the local energy density, e, in the spatial continuum is

given by

e= 1

2 ρs u̇2 + 1

2 (λs + 2µs )( div u)2 + 1

2 µs ( curl u)2 (2.16)

**leaving the possibility open that there may be a residual pressure
**

and a corresponding homogeneous residual energy density in

addition to this field energy. It is noteworthy that the energy

density in any field of strain and motion is nonnegative even

if the space itself should happen to contain a huge amount of

uniformly distributed energy due to an initial pressure.

**The energy transport in the deformation field can be found by
**

deriving the equation above with respect on time. We acquire

∂e

= ρs u̇ü + (λs + 2µs ) div u div u̇ + µs curl u curl u̇.

∂t

3 The corresponding expression for the energy density in an electromag-

**netic field has the same limitation, but nonetheless it is usually interpreted
**

as the local energy density.

94 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

We substitute ρs ü from Equation (3.1) and get

∂e

=u̇ (λs + 2µs ) grad div u − µs curl curl u + b

∂t

+ (λs + 2µs ) div u div u̇ + µs curl u curl u̇,

∂e

bu̇ = + µs curl ( curl u) · u̇ − curl u̇( curl u)

∂t

− (λs + 2µs ) ( div u) div u̇ + u̇ grad ( div u) .

By the mathematical identity (2.14) and the identity

div (φA) = φ div A + A grad φ, (2.17)

**this equation develops into
**

∂e

+ div (µs curl u × u̇) − div (λs + 2µs ) div u · u̇ = bu̇.

∂t

We define a new vector

S = µs curl u × u̇ − (λs + 2µs ) div u · u̇, (2.18)

**and in the absence of external forces we acquire the compact
**

equation:

∂e

+ div S = 0.

∂t

Since the increase in energy density has got to be equal to the

inflow of energy per unit volume, S can be interpreted as the

energy flow vector.

Solenoidal deformations and Electrodynamics 95

**2.6 Solenoidal deformations and Elec-
**

trodynamics

**In this section I will redefine some of the terms used in elasto-
**

dynamics to terms that can be directly compared to those in

electrodynamics. I will stress that these redefinitions only are

intended to make the comparison simpler and will not change

the physics behind the original terms in any way. With the ad-

ditional assumption that there might be true and in the elastic

continuum, I will also show that they will influence the elas-

todynamic fields in exactly the same way as electric charges

influence the electromagnetic fields. How sinks and sources can

be more than pure mathematical entities will be discussed in

another paper4 . Some terms are used quite differently in me-

chanics and electrodynamics. For example the Greek letter ρ

is used for mass density in mechanics, but as charge density in

electrodynamics. To avoid confusion I will use an index s on the

mechanical terms whenever necessary. Hence ρs means spatial

mass density while ρ means the density of sinks – the spatial

counterpart to charge density.

**4 See a proposition on how it might work in
**

http://www.scribd.com/doc/3014850/The-Great-Puzzle.

96 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**2.7 Reformulation of the Navier-
**

Cauchy’s Equation

First we define some new properties

def 1

µ0 = , [L2 F −1 ] = [LT 2 M −1 ], (2.19)

µs

def

ε 0 = ρs , [F T 2 L−4 ] = [M L−3 ], (2.20)

def ∂u2

E = − , [LT −1 ], (2.21)

∂t

def

B = curl u2 , [ ], (2.22)

def

j = b, [F L−3 ] = [M L−2 T −2 ], (2.23)

1

c2 = , [L2 T −2 ]. (2.24)

ε0 µ0

**Note that in this section all the defined properties refer exclu-
**

sively to elastic properties. The notations inside the square

brackets are the dimensions of the properties in front, but in

this context I have found it convenient to alternatively replace

mass with force as a fundamental unit. Hence the mass unit is

converted to the force unit by the relation

[F ] = [M LT −2].

**By the identities curl (∂(·)/∂t) = ∂ curl (·)/∂t and div curl (·) =
**

0 we immediately get the relation between B and E

curl E + Ḃ = 0, (2.25)

Reformulation of the Navier-Cauchy’s Equation 97

and

div B = 0. (2.26)

Navier’s Equation (3.4) takes the form

1

curl B − Ė = µ0 j. (2.27)

c2

**Now I will make the assumption that there may be real sinks
**

and sources in the spatial continuum. How this is possible will

be discussed elsewhere, but here I take entities like that for

granted. I will take sinks as positive entities and sources as

negative sinks, and assume that they can only be created by

pair production; one sink for for one equally strong source. If

there are more sinks than sources in an area, the sink density

is positive, and if there are more sources than sinks, then the

sink density is negative. The strength of a spatial sink, Qs , can

be defined as the inflow of spatial mass through a closed surface

around the sink

I

def

Q = −ρs u̇ndf, [F T L−1] = [M T −1 ],

V

where n is an outwards pointing unit vector normal to df .

**Now let sinks and sources with strength Q1 , Q2 , Q3 , · · · , Qn be
**

sufficiently smoothly distributed in space. Then the density of

98 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

sinks is given by

m

def 1 X

ρ = lim Qn

V →ǫ V

n=1

1

I

= −ρs lim u̇ndf

V →ǫ V V

= −ρs div u̇,

or with the new terms incerted

**ρ = ε0 div E, [F T L−4 ] = [M L−3 T −1 ],
**

(2.28)

**where m is the number of sinks in a volume V of space, and ǫ
**

is a small volume, but still great enough to contain many sinks.

(Note the difference between the spatial mass density ρs and the

density of sinks ρ.)

There is a hidden dependency between the sink density ρ and

and the volume force j. By taking the divergence of Equation

(2.27):

Ė

div curl B − div = div µ0 j,

c2

1

− div Ė = div j, (I)

ε0

**and the partial derivative with respect on time of Equation
**

The stress energy tensor 99

(2.28):

∂ 1 ∂ρ

div E =

∂t ε0 ∂t

1 ∂ρ

div Ė = , (II)

ε0 ∂t

and evaluating the combination I + II, we acquire

ρ̇ + div j = 0. (2.29)

**Since sinks and sources by definition can only be created or
**

disappear in pairs, the only way the density can change in a

volume is by out- or inflow, hence the vector j can be interpreted

as a flow of sinks or sources, i.e. a flow of sinks or sources will

create a force field (a drag) in the spatial continuum.

**2.8 The stress energy tensor
**

According to (3.10) and the newly defined properties the elas-

todynamic field energy in a divergence-free field is

ε0 2 1 2

e= E + B , [F L−2 ] = [M L−1 T −2 ]. (2.30)

2 2µ0

**Since this field may contain energy, we must also expect that it
**

can move around in space as the field changes. To examine this

property we can start by deriving the field energy (2.30) with

100 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**respect on time and get
**

∂e 1

= ε0 E · Ė + B · Ḃ.

∂t µ0

From this expression we can eliminate the time derivatives of E

and B by applying (2.27) and (2.25)

∂e 1 1

= ε0 E · c2 curl B − j − B · curl E,

∂t ε0 µ0

∂e 1

= curl B · E − curl E · B − j · E,

∂t µ0

and further by the mathematical identity (2.14) it develops into

∂e 1

+ div E × B = −j · E, {= u̇ · b}. (2.31)

∂t µ0

The right side of this equation is the rate of work done by exter-

nal forces per unit volume on the continuum, and the left side

can be interpreted as the rate of increase in energy density plus

the rate at which the energy is leaving per unit volume. Thus

the energy flow vector is

def 1

S = (E × B), [F L−1 T −1 ] = [M T −3 ]. (2.32)

µ0

With this property inserted, Equation (2.31) takes the form

1 ∂e 1 1

+ div S = − j · E. (2.33)

c ∂t c c

The stress energy tensor 101

**To examine the forces involved by a change of momentum, we
**

can derive the momentum vector with respect on t and again

eliminate the time derivatives of E and B by applying (2.27)

and (2.25)

Ṡ 1

2

= 2 E × Ḃ + Ė × B ,

c c µ0

Ṡ

= ε0 E × (− curl E) + (c2 curl B − c2 µ0 j) × B ,

c 2

Ṡ 1

2

= −ε0 E × curl E + curl B × B + B × j.

c µ0

By applying the mathematical identity

grad (A · A) = 2[A × curl A + (A · ∇)A], (2.34)

we obtain

Ṡ ε0 1

2

+ grad E · E − ε0 (E · ∇)E + grad B·B

c 2 2µ0

1

− (B · ∇)B = (B × j).

µ0

(2.35)

We then write out the above equation in component form5 :

Ṡi ε0 1 1

+( E·E+ B · B),i − ε0 Ej Ei, j − Bj Bi, j

c2 2 2µ0 µ0

= ǫijk Bj jk ,

5 Note that Latin indices go from 1 to 3 while Greek indices go from 0

to 3.

102 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

and expand it by adding ±ε0 Ej,j Ei and ± µ10 Bj,j Bi

Ṡi ε0 2 1 2

+ E + B , i − ε0 Ej Ei, j − ε0 Ej, j Ei + ε0 Ej, j Ei

c2 2 2µ0

1 1 1

− Bj Bi, j − Bj, j Bi + Bj, j Bi = ǫijk Bj jk .

µ0 µ0 µ0

**The term Bj, j is like zero by (2.26), Ej,j = ρ/ε0 by Equation
**

(2.28), and the rest can be manipulated into

∂Si

− + σij,j = ρEi − ǫijk Bj jk . (2.36)

c2 ∂t

where the new tensor σij is given by

def 1 1 1 2

σij = ε0 Ei Ej + Bi Bj − ε 0 E2 + B δij . (2.37)

µ0 2 µ0

**Now we write out (2.33) and (2.36) in component form and
**

obtain the set of equations (the zeroes are inserted for clarity)

**∂e ∂Sx ∂Sy ∂Sz Ex jx Ey jy Ez jz
**

+ + + =0 − − − ,

c∂t c∂x c∂y c∂z c c c

∂Sx ∂σxx ∂σxy ∂σxz

− − − = − Ex ρ + 0 − Bz jy + By jz ,

c2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂Sy ∂σyx ∂σyy ∂σyz

− − − = − Ey ρ + Bz jx + 0 − Bx jz ,

c2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂Sz ∂σzx ∂σxy ∂σzz

− − − = − Ez ρ − By jx + Bx jy + 0.

c2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

The stress energy tensor 103

**The four differential equations can be written as one matrix
**

equation (note that BT · AT = A · B)

∂

c∂t e Sx /c Sy /c Sz /c

∂ Sx /c −σxx −σxy −σxz

∂x ·

∂

Sy /c −σyx −σyy −σyz

∂y

∂ Sz /c −σzx −σzy −σzz

∂z

0 Ex /c Ey /c Ez /c

−Ex /c 0 Bz −By

= −Ey /c −Bz

· [−cρ jx jy jz ]

0 Bx

−Ez /c By −Bx 0

(2.38)

which formally can be written

Tαβ ,β = Fαβ Jβ ,

or in frame independent notation

∇ · T = F · J.

**Here the second order tensor T, the stress energy tensor, is given
**

by

e Sx /c Sy /c Sz /c

def S /c −σxx −σxy −σxz

Tαβ = x

, (2.39)

Sy /c −σyx −σyy −σyz

Sz /c −σzx −σzy −σzz

104 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**the second order tensor F by
**

0 Ex /c Ey /c Ez /c

def −E x /c 0 Bz −By

Fαβ =

, (2.40)

−Ey /c −Bz 0 Bx

−Ez /c By −Bx 0

and finally J by

Jα = (−cρ, jx , jy , jz ). (2.41)

**In four-space we need some definitions. First the Minkowski
**

metric:

−1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

ηαβ = η αβ =

.

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

We can use the metric tensor to raise or lower the indices. For

example

Jβ = Jα η αβ ,

hence

Jα = (cρ, jx , jy , jz ).

Coordinates in 4-space:

xα =(x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (ct, x, y, z),

xβ =xα ηαβ = (−ct, x, y, z),

The stress energy tensor 105

and the orthogonal base vectors are

{e0 , e1 , e2 , e3 }.

The del operator in four-space:

∂ 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

∇α =, α = ∂α = α

= , , , ,

∂x c ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

∇α =, α = ∂ α = = − , , , ,

∂xα c ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂2 1 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2

∇2 =, α, α = ∂ α ∂α = = − , , , .

∂xα ∂xα c2 ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

**From the above definitions we get that the 4-spatial distance
**

between two points (events) A and B in four-space is given by

∆s = −c(t2 − t1 )e0 + (x2 − x1 )e1 + (y2 − y1 )e2 + (z2 − z1 )e3 ,

and

(∆s)2 = (∆sα ) · (∆sα ) = −c2 (∆t)2 + (∆x)2 + (∆y)2 + (∆z)2 .

**By this extremely short introduction I have transformed some
**

elastodynamic formulas into the formalism of flat Minkowski’s

space. The advantage of this formalism is that all formulas

remain invariant by transformations between different Lorenz

frames.

106 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**2.9 The vector potential in the elastic
**

continuum

Equation (2.26) means that the field B can be derived from

some vector potential A

B = curl A, (2.42)

**where div A is temporarily arbitrary, but can be given a fixed
**

meaning later without changing the term curl A.

By inserting (2.42) into (2.25) we get

curl (E + A,t ) = 0.

Therefore E + A,t may be represented as some gradient

E + A,t = −c grad φ,

hence

E = −(c grad φ + A,t ). (2.43)

**Thus both E and B can be represented by some potentials A
**

and φ. For the choice of A and φ the Equations (2.25) and

(2.26) are fulfilled.

By adding and subtracting the same term c grad ψ,t into (2.43),

we acquire

E = −[c grad (φ − ψ,t ) + (A + c grad ψ),t ].

The vector potential in the elastic continuum 107

**We also have that adding c grad ψ to A leaves B unchanged.
**

Hence the substitutions

φ → φ′ = φ + ψ,t , A → A′ = A + c grad ψ (2.44)

leave the properties E, B, j, and ρ unchanged for ar-

bitrary functions ψ. The substitutions (2.44) are called

Gauge transformations (see http://www.mathematik.tu-

darmstadt.de/ bruhn/Maxwell-Theory.html).

The most obvious gauge is to set div A = div u which means to

infer that the spatial continuum is uncompressed. It would work

equally well to set div u = const. This picture is complicated by

the assumption that there are true point-like sinks and sources

around, hence − div u̇ = ρ/ε0 (see Equation (2.28)), so we can

introduce a potential φ such that

ρ

−∇2 φ = .

ε0

This leads to the Coulomb gauge which works well if we consider

a fixed frame in the spatial continuum. What we need, however,

is a gauge that works equally well in a moving frame. This

requirement leads to the Lorenz gauge after the Danish physicist

Ludvig Valentin Lorenz (1829-1891):

1

div A + φ, t = 0. (2.45)

c

Inserting (2.42) and (2.43) into (2.27) yields

1

curl curl A + (A,tt + c grad φ,t ) = µ0 j,

c2

108 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

and by applying the mathematical identity

curl curl A = grad div A − ∇2 A, (2.46)

we obtain

1 1

A,tt − ∇2 A + grad ( div A + φ, t ) = µ0 j.

c2 c

Analogously by inserting the same properties into (2.28) we ob-

tain

ρ

−(c∇2 φ + div A,t ) = ,

ε0

or by adding and subtracting 1/cφ,tt we acquire

1 1 ρ

φ,tt − c∇2 φ − ( div A + φ, t ),t = ,

c c ε0

1 1 1 cρ

φ,tt − ∇2 φ − ( div A + φ, t ),t = µ0 · 2 .

c2 c c c ε0 µ0

By the Lorenz gauge and (2.24) the two potentials reduce to

1

− φ,tt + ∇2 φ = −µ0 · cρ, (2.47)

c2

1

− 2 A,tt + ∇2 A = −µ0 · j. (2.48)

c

**These two equations can be expressed as one vector potential in
**

four-space

∂ν ∂ ν Aα = −µ0 · Jα ,

Energy flow and momentum 109

where

Aα = (φ, Ax , Ay , Az ),

Jα = (cρ, jx , jy , jz ),

or in frame independent notation

∇2 A = −µ0 · J. (2.49)

**2.10 Energy flow and momentum
**

Think of disturbance energy as a substance that flows through

space with velocity c. Then the energy flow vector alternatively

can be expressed as

S = e · c,

and the energy density as

|S|

e= .

c

Next if we only consider disturbance energy without the pres-

ence of any sinks or sources, Equation (2.36) reduces to

∂Si

= σij,j ,

c2 ∂t

∂ S

= ∇ · σ.

∂t c2

110 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**Now, if σ is a stress tensor, then the divergence of it represents
**

a force, hence

∂ S

= f,

∂t c2

and we can define a new vector

def

p = S/c2 , (2.50)

to obtain

∂p

= f.

∂t

**Let us imagine some elastodynamic radiation trapped inside an
**

imaginary box with reflecting walls, and let the box be subdi-

vided into m small cells containing small parts of the radiation

energy En . At a given time the sum of the energy flow is given

by

m

X

E·v = Sn , (2.51)

n=1

**hence the box is moving with some velocity v in the direction
**

of S and it contains an amount of energy given by

m

X

E= En .

n=1

Energy flow and momentum 111

**We divide Equation (2.51) by c2 and take the time derivative of
**

it. We obtain

m

∂ Ev X ∂ Sn

= ,

∂t c2 n=1

∂t c2

m

∂ Ev X

= fn ,

∂t c2 n=1

∂ Ev

= f.

∂t c2

Finally we define a new property m given by

def E

m = ,

c2

or

E = mc2 , (2.52)

and acquire

∂

(mv) = f . (2.53)

∂t

**We can interpret this equation such that if we have a box con-
**

taining a disturbance energy similar to m, then a force f is

needed to give it an acceleration a = v̇, provided that the prop-

erty m, which we could call the mass of radiation, is kept con-

stant.

112 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**When the box is accelerated from zero velocity6 , however, we
**

have got to add energy to it given by

dE = f · ds,

= f ds,

**if ds is in the direction of f . By the equations above we can
**

develop this equation further into

d(mv)

dE = ds

dt

d E

= v ds

dt c2

1

= 2 v · dE + E · dv dv,

c

dE 1 v · dv

= 2 ,

E c 1 − v 2 /c2

6 The situation is considerably more complicated if the box and the ob-

**server have an initial velocity, say v0 . To address that question, one first
**

has got to assume that the phenomenon is observed in a Lorentz frame

that makes the equations above invariant for the change of the observer’s

coordinate system, as Lorentz showed already in the fall of the nineteenth

century. That would make the observation fully relativistic, and v0 could

be set to zero from where the deduction could proceed as shown.

Summing up 113

**which can be solved
**

1

ln E = ln p + ln C

1 − v 2 /c2

C

= ln p ,

1 − v 2 /c2

E0

E= p ,

1 − v 2 /c2

m0

m= p . (2.54)

1 − v 2 /c2

Equations (2.53) and (2.54) bring the dynamics of confined dis-

turbance energy in line with Newton’s second law of motion and

the relativistic mass increases with velocity. Equation (2.52) is

of course like the famous Einstein energy/mass relation.

2.11 Summing up

In this paper we have seen that the four equations (2.25) through

(2.28) correspond to James Clerk Maxwell’s (1831–1879) elec-

trodynamic equations. Provided that there are free moving sinks

and sources in the spatial continuum, Equation (2.29) demon-

strates that they will generate a ”drag” just like Lord Kelvin

postulated for moving electrons in 1890 [10, page 247]. The en-

ergy flow vector in Equation (2.32) is formally like Poynting’s

vector after John Henry Poynting (1852-1914). In a notation

introduced by Hermann Minkowski (1864–1909), the field ten-

sor Fαβ in Equation (2.40) is like the Electromagnetic tensor,

114 The Linear Theory of Elasticity

**and the Elastodynamic stress-energy tensor, Tαβ , corresponds
**

exactly to the Electromagnetic stress-energy tensor. Note also

that the spatial stresses, σxy , correspond exactly to Maxwell’s

stress tensor that represent the mechanical stresses caused by

electromagnetic fields in space. Finally it is possible to describe

deformation fields as a vector potential in the spatial contin-

uum. In this notation the fields, like electromagnetic fields, are

invariant by transformations between different Lorentz frames,

after Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853–1928), in rectilinear mo-

tion relative to each other. A moving weightless box containing

an amount of disturbance energy will have a momentum corre-

sponding to the energy in a material body with the same energy

content. The force needed to change its velocity corresponds

to Newton’s second Law of motion, and moreover, to increase

the velocity of such a box towards the propagating speed c of

transversal waves will increase the trapped energy towards in-

finity.

Chapter 3

Standing Waves

between Singularities

**Waves in an elastic continuum are mainly of two different types,
**

longitudinal and transversal waves, which are well documented

in various textbooks. In this paper I will look into the possibility

that there might be a third alternative, namely standing waves

between oscillating nodes in the form of singularities in an elastic

continuum of infinite extension. First I will show that a standing

wave can form between a hypothetical rigid sphere embedded

in the spatial continuum and the center node, thus establishing

that a singularity may form the one endpoint in such oscillations.

Next I will show that if the spatial continuum initially is agitated

116 Standing Waves between Singularities

**to an extent that it contains a plethora of such oscillating nodes,
**

they will tend to organize along endless strings. Finally I will

try to look into the possibility that there might be a coupling

between the two field components in question, irrotational and

solenoidal fields.

**3.1 The Navier-Cauchy Equation
**

In order to find how scalar waves propagate in the spatial con-

tinuum we start with recalling the Navier-Cauchy equation

(λs + 2µs )∇ div u − µs curl curl u + b = ρs ü. (3.1)

**or equivalently by the mathematical identity curl curl u =
**

∇ div u − ∇2 u

µs ∇2 u + (λs + µs )∇ div u + b = ρs ü, (3.2)

**At this point it may be appropriate to stress the point that the
**

Navier-Cauchy equation only treats the limit where deforma-

tions can be considered infinitesimal, and it must not be mixed

up with Navier-Stokes equation, which also incorporates viscos-

ity and takes into account the hydrodynamic property that v̇

may be different from ∂v/∂t [i.e. v̇ = ∂v/∂t + (v · ∇)v].

According to Helmholtz’s Theorem any vector field satisfying

[∇ · v]∞ = 0,

[∇ × v]∞ = 0,

The Navier-Cauchy Equation 117

**(no velocities at infinite distance from considered area) may be
**

written as the sum of an irrotational part and a solenoidal part,

v = −∇φ + ∇ × A,

where

∇·v

Z

φ=− d3 r′ ,

V 4π|r′ − r|

∇×v 3 ′

Z

A= d r,

V 4π|r′ − r|

**(see http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HelmholtzsTheorem.html).
**

As the spatial continuum is of infinite extension, or nearly so,

any deformations have to be confined to a finite part of space,

so this theorem will be applicable on all deformations. Hence

the displacement field can be decomposed into two properties

u = u1 + u2 ,

where

u1 = −∇φ = − grad φ,

u2 = ∇ × Ψ = curl Ψ, div Ψ = 0.

**Since curl grad φ ≡ 0, and div curl Ψ ≡ 0, the Navier-Cauchy
**

equation (3.1) can be divided into two independent equations,

one for an irrotational field

ρs b1

∇ div u1 = ü1 − , (3.3)

(λs + 2µs ) λs + 2µs

118 Standing Waves between Singularities

**and the other for a solenoidal field
**

ρs b2

− curl curl u2 = ü2 − . (3.4)

µs µs

**By defining two new constants
**

s

λs + 2µs µs

r

c1 = , c2 = , (3.5)

ρs ρs

**the N-C equation takes the form
**

b

c12 ∇ div u − c22 curl curl u + = ü. (3.6)

ρs

**Operating on Equation (3.1) with the div operator and on Equa-
**

tion (3.2) with the curl operator yields respectively

1 ∂ 2 ( div u) div b

∇2 ( div u) − =− , (3.7)

c12 ∂t2 λs + 2µs

1 ∂ 2 ( curl u) curl b

∇2 ( curl u) − =− . (3.8)

c22 ∂t2 µs

**With the outer force, b, set to zero we have two wave equations
**

where the dilatation, div u, satisfies a wave moving with the

speed c1 , while the rotational component curl u, satisfies a wave

moving with the speed c2 . In fact the Propagation theorem for

isotropic bodies states that if a body is isotropic, then a wave

The Navier-Cauchy Equation 119

**is either longitudinal, in which case c = c1 , or transversal, in
**

which case c = c2 [3, page 256]. This splitting of the Navier-

Cauchy equation into one irrotational and one solenoidal part,

allows us to examine these two parts separately and thereby

simplifies the strain-stress relation immensely by reducing the

elastic constants to only one single constant (the wave speed) in

each equation (c1 6= c2 ). We see from Equation (3.5) that the

two wave speeds are relatedp to each other with a fixed constant

given by the relation c1 = 2 + λs /µs · c2 , where c1 might be

about the double of c2 (also dubbed c without the index in the

text to follow). Notice also that all information of curl u is lost

in Equation (3.7) and all information of div u in Equation (3.8).

The energy in a deformation field with no surface trajectories is

given by Kelvin’s theorem [3, page 208]:

Z h i

1 2 1 2 1 2

E= 2 ρ s u̇ + 2 (λs + 2µ)(div u) + 2 µ(curl u) dv.

B

(3.9)

The theorem states that to a curl u, a div u, and a velocity field

u̇ there always corresponds an energy equal to E, but it does not

tell exactly where in the field the energy is to be found. With

this restriction in mind, the local energy density, e, in a spatial

continuum of infinite extension can all the same be define as1

e= 1

2 ρs u̇2 + 1

2 (λs + 2µs )( div u)2 + 1

2 µs ( curl u)2 . (3.10)

1 The corresponding expression for the energy density in an electromag-

**netic field has the same limitation, but nonetheless it is usually interpreted
**

as the local energy density.

120 Standing Waves between Singularities

**3.2 Scalar longitudinal waves in the
**

spatial continuum

By setting φ = div u in Equation (3.7) and consider a field

without any outer forces, we get the wave equation

1 ∂ 2φ

∇2 φ = , (3.11)

c12 ∂t2

or the even simpler wave equation for plane, longitudinal waves

∂2φ 1 ∂2φ

= . (3.12)

∂x2 c12 ∂t2

It can be solved in several ways, but here I will apply

d’Alembert’s solution. Let

ξ ≡ c1 t − x

η ≡ c1 t + x.

Since x = f1 (ξ, η) and t = f2 (ξ, η) we have by the chain rule

∂ ∂ ∂ξ ∂ ∂η ∂ ∂

= · + · =− + ,

∂x ∂ξ ∂x ∂η ∂x ∂ξ ∂η

∂ ∂ ∂ξ ∂ ∂η ∂ ∂

= · + · = c1 + c1 .

∂t ∂ξ ∂t ∂η ∂t ∂ξ ∂η

By applying these operators on Equation (3.12) it reduces to

∂2φ

= 0.

∂ξ∂η

Scalar longitudinal waves in the spatial continuum 121

**This partial differential equation can be integrated in two steps,
**

and the general solution is

φ = f (ξ) + g(η) or φ = f (c1 t − x) + g(c1 t + x).

The two functions f (c1 t−x) and g(c1 t+x) represent by a certain

time t = t0 a disturbance, or wave-formation, which when it first

is started, propagates with velocity c1 in the x-axis’s positive or

negative direction respectively.

In order to find how spherical waves propagate from a distur-

bance center, I will write Equation (3.11) in polar coordinates

φ = φ(r, v, w):

1 ∂ 2 ∂φ 1 ∂2φ 1 ∂ ∂φ

r + + sin w

r2 ∂r ∂r r2 sin2 w ∂v 2 r2 sin w ∂w ∂w

2

1 ∂ φ

= 2 2.

c1 ∂t

In this connection I will only consider the spherical symmetric

case so ∂φ/∂v = ∂φ/∂w = 0, and we acquire

1 ∂ 2 ∂φ 1 ∂2φ

2

r = 2 2,

r ∂r ∂r c1 ∂t

which by the substitution φ = ψ/r goes over in the simpler

∂2ψ 1 ∂2ψ

2

= 2 2.

∂r c1 ∂t

This equation is formally equivalent to Equation (3.12) and has

a solution corresponding to what is the case for plane waves:

ψ = f (c1 t − r) + g(c1 t + r).

122 Standing Waves between Singularities

**Hence the general expression for a spherical wave spreading from
**

a given wave-center is given by

f (c1 t − r)

div u = . (3.13)

r

The other solution is for a spherical wave converging towards a

focal point in space:

g(c1 t + r)

div u = . (3.14)

r

**3.3 Irrotational standing waves
**

In this section I will investigate if standing waves can occur be-

tween hypothetical concentric rigid shells embedded in the spa-

tial continuum, especially in order to see if standing waves can

form between the inside of a spherical shell and the center node.

I perform the thought experiment that imbedded in the spatial

continuum is a hypothetical rigid, undeformable sphere inside

which there might be a standing compression wave bouncing

back and forth between the center and the firm shell. In or-

der to see if such a standing wave is possible, I will set up the

Navier-Cauchy equation and try to solve it with these border

conditions. I must, however emphasis that the N-C equation

only is valid for small deformations, in fact only when the de-

formations are infinitesimal. When the deformations are signifi-

cant, we have got to bring in the full power of the Navier-Stokes

equation. The main difference from the N-C equation is that

Irrotational standing waves 123

the time derivative has got to be modified to2

d ∂

(·) = (·) + (v · ∇)(·), (3.15)

dt ∂t

e.g. ü = ∂ u̇/∂t + (u̇∇)u̇. Hence the result may at best be

suggestive.

First we write the Navier-Cauchy equation for an irrotational

field with no external forces (Eq. 3.3):

1

grad div u = ü,

c21

**where c1 is the speed of longitudinal waves, and then let us con-
**

sider a central symmetric deformation where u = f (r)r̂. From

the identities

f

div (f r̂) = 2 + f ′, (3.16)

r

and

grad f = f ′ r̂, (3.17)

we obtain the identity

2f ′ 2f

grad div f = f ′′ + − 2 r̂. (3.18)

r r

2 The N-S equation a also incorporates viscosity, which is not present in

**the spatial continuum.
**

124 Standing Waves between Singularities

**With these properties inserted, the N-C equation takes the form
**

u′ u ü

u′′ + 2 − 2 2 r̂ = 2 r̂. (3.19)

r r c1

By the product method, u(r, t) = F (r) · G(t) · r̂, we have

2 2 1

F ′′ G + F ′ G − 2 F G = 2 F G̈,

r r c1

F ′′ 2 F′ 2 1 G̈

+ − 2 = 2 .

F r F r c1 G

Since the left and right side of this expression only depend on

the arguments r and t respectively, they can both be set to the

same constant −p2 , and hence they can be separated into the

two equations:

2 (−2 + p2 r2 )

F ′′ + F ′ + F =0 (3.20)

r r2

G̈ + c21 p2 G = 0 (3.21)

Equation (3.21) has the general solution

G(t) = C1 sin(c1 pt) − C1 cos(c1 pt). (3.22)

**Equation (3.20) may be solved by the Frobenius method (see
**

e.g. [5, Sec. 4.4]):

Any differential equation of the form

b(x) ′ c(x)

y ′′ + y + 2 y=0

x x

Irrotational standing waves 125

**where the functions b(x) and c(x) are analytic at x=0, has at
**

least one solution that can be represented in the form

y(x) = xr (a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + · · · ) (3.23)

**where the exponent r may be any (real or complex) number (and
**

r is chosen so that a0 6= 0).

The equation also has a second solution (such that these two

solutions are linearly independent) that may be similar to (3.23)

(with a different r and different coefficients) or may contain a

logarithmic term.

Temporary replacing r with x and F with y in Equation (3.20)

yields

2 ′ −2 + p2 x2

y ′′ + y + y = 0. (3.24)

x x2

This equation has at least one solution of the form

∞

X ∞

X

y(x) = xr am xm = am rm+r .

m=0 m=0

**The first and second derivative becomes
**

∞

X

′

y (x) = am (m + r)xm+r−1 ,

m=0

∞

X

y ′′ (x) = am (m + r)(m + r − 1)xm+r−2 .

m=0

126 Standing Waves between Singularities

We expand b(x) and c(x) in power series with coefficients

b0 = 2, b1,2,··· = 0, c0 = −2, c1 = 0, c2 = p2 , c3,4,··· = 0.

The indicial equation r(r − 1) + b0 r + c0 = 0 takes the form

r(r − 1) + 2r − 2 = 0

r1 = 1, r2 = −2. (3.25)

**Here we have a case 3 situation (roots differing by an integer,
**

r1 − r2 = 3). We also note that r1 − r2 > 0 so we have the two

solutions

y1 (x) = xr1 (a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + · · · ), (3.26)

r2 2

y2 (x) = ky1 (x) ln x + x (A0 + A1 x + A2 x + · · · ),

(3.27)

**where k may or may not be equal to zero.
**

The solution and derivatives inserted into the original equation

∞

X

x2 am (m + r)(m + r − 1)xm+r−2

m=0

∞

X

+ 2x am (m + r)xm+r−1

m=0

∞

X ∞

X

−2 am xm+r + p2 x2 am xm+r = 0.

m=0 m=0

Irrotational standing waves 127

**From the indicial equation (3.25) we choose r = 1 and collect
**

the parts with the same power of x

**as (s + 1)sxs+1 + 2as (s + 1)xs+1 − 2as xs+1
**

+ p2 as−2 xs+1 = 0,

as (s2 + s + 2s + 2 − 2) + as−2 p2 = 0,

as · s(s + 3) = −as−2 p2 ,

−p2

as = as−2 ,

s(s + 3)

128 Standing Waves between Singularities

and develop the even coefficients of an

a0 · 0(0 + 3) = 0,

a0 = a,

(−p2 ) (−p2 )

a2 = a0 =a ,

2·5 2·5

(−p2 ) (−p2 )2

a4 = a2 =a ,

4·7 2·5·4·7

2 2 3

(−p ) (−p )

a6 = a4 =a ,

6·9 2·5·4·7·6·9

·····················

m 3 · (m + 2)

am = a(−1) 2 · pm ,

(m + 3)!

m

h 3 3 i

= a(−1) 2 · pm − , m = 0, 2, 4, 6, · · · ,

(m + 2)! (m + 3)!

h 3 3 i

a2n = a(−1)n p2n − , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, · · · .

(2n + 2)! (2n + 3)!

(3.28)

The odd coefficients of an are all zero:

a1 · 1(1 + 3) = 0,

a1 = 0,

(−p2 )

a3 = a1 = 0,

3·6

a5 = a7 = a9 = · · · = 0.

Irrotational standing waves 129

According to (3.26) the first solution is:

∞

X

y1 =xr1 a2n x2n

n=0

∞

X h 3 3 i

=x a0 (−1)n p2n − x2n

n=0

(2n + 2)! (2n + 3)!

x p2 x3 p4 x5 x p2 x3 p4 x5

=3a0 − + − ··· − + − + ···

2! 4! 6! 3! 5! 7!

3a0 h (px)2 (px)4 (px)6 i

= 2 1− 1− + − + ···

p x 2! 4! 6!

3a0 h (px)3 (px)5 (px)7 i

3 2

− px + px − + − + ··· ,

p x 3! 5! 7!

3a0 3a0

y1 = 3 2 sin (px) − 2 cos (px). (3.29)

p x p x

There may be another solution (3.27) of the form

y2 = ky1 ln(x) + (A0 + A1 x + A2 x2 + · · · ),

**where k might or might not be zero. First I try the solution
**

where k is set to zero. From the indicial Equation (3.25) we

130 Standing Waves between Singularities

choose r2 = −2 and collect the parts with the same power of x.

**Am (m − 2)(m − 3)xm−2 + 2Am (m − 2)xm−2
**

− 2Am xm−2 + p2 Am xm = 0,

As [(s − 2)(s − 3) + 2(s − 2) − 2] = −p2 As−2 ,

As (s − 3)s = −p2 As−2 , (3.30)

2

−p

As = As−2 , (s 6= 0, 3),

s(s − 3)

and develop the coefficients of An

A0 (0 − 3)0 = 0,

A0 = A0 ,

(−p2 )

A2 = −A0 ,

2·1

−p2 (−p2 )2

A4 = −A2 = A0 ,

4·1 1·2·4

−p2 (−p2 )3

A6 = −A4 = A0 ,

3·6 1·2·3·4·6

······

n

n p (n − 1)

An = −A0 (−1) 2 , n = 0, 2, 4, · · · ,

n!

n n

n

h p p i

An = A0 (−1) 2 − , n = 2, 4, 6, · · · ,

n! (n − 1)!

h p2s p2s i

A2s = A0 (−1)s − , s = 1, 2, 3, · · · .

(2s)! (2s − 1)!

Irrotational standing waves 131

**We see from (3.30) that A1 = 0, but that A3 may still be 6= 0.
**

We get the odd coefficients of An :

A1 (1 − 3)1 = 0,

A1 = 0,

A3 (3 − 3)3 = A1 (−p2 ) = 0,

A3 = A3 ,

(−p2 )

A5 = A3 ,

5·2

(−p2 ) (−p2 )2

A7 = A5 = A3 ,

7·4 2·4·5·7

······

n−3 pn−3 · 3 · (n − 1)

An = A3 (−1) 2 · , n = 3, 5, 7, · · · ,

n!

h p2s p2s i

A2s+3 = 3A3 (−1)s − , s = 0, 1, 2, · · · .

(2s + 2)! (2s + 3)!

**We first seek the partial solution of (3.27) with the odd coeffi-
**

132 Standing Waves between Singularities

cients of An set to zero:

∞ p2s

h X p2s 2s i

y21 = x−2 A0 + A0 (−1)s − x

s=1

(2s)! (2s − 1)!

(px)2 (px)4 (px)6

= A0 x−2 1 − + − + ···

2! 4! 6!

(px)1 (px) 3

(px) 5

+ A0 px−1 − + − ··· ,

1! 3! 5!

A0 p A0

y21 = sin(px) + 2 cos(px).

x x

**Next we seek the partial solution of (3.27) with the even coeffi-
**

Irrotational standing waves 133

cients of An set to zero:

∞

X

y22 =x−2 A2s+3 x2s+3

s=0

∞

X h 1 1 i

=x−2 3A3 (−1)s p2s − x2s+3

s=0

(2s + 2)! (2s + 3)!

x p2 x3 p4 x5

=3A3 − + − ···

2! 4! 6!

x p2 x3 p4 x5

···− + − + ···

3! 5! 7!

3A3 h (px)2 (px)4 (px)6 i

= 2 1− 1− + − + ···

p x 2! 4! 6!

3A3 h (px)3 (px)5 (px)7 i

− px + px − + − + · · · ,

p3 x2 3! 5! 7!

3A3 3A3

y22 = 3 2 sin (px) − 2 cos (px).

p x p x

**We notice that the partial solution y22 is identical to the partial
**

solution y1 , hence the complete solution has got to be of the

form

**y = ky1 ln x + y21 + y22 .
**

134 Standing Waves between Singularities

We can test this equation in order to see if k 6= 0.

y = [y1 ] · k ln x + [y21 + y22 ]

1

y ′ = [y1′ ] · k ln x + y1 + [y2′ 1 + y2′ 2 ]

x

2y ′ 1

y ′′ = [y1′′ ] · k ln x + 1 − y1 2 + [y2′′1 + y2′′2 ].

x x

**We already know that the expressions in square brackets are
**

partial solutions to Equation (3.20) and zeroes out, hence it

only remains to see if the rest of the terms may be another

partial solution with k 6= 0 or if k has got to be zero. We have

2 1 1

x2 (y1′ − y1 2 ) + 2x(y1 )

x x x

=2xy1′ − y1 + 2y1

=2xy1′ + y1

2a 2a ap

=2x[− 3 sin(px) + 2 cos(px) + sin(px)]

px x x

a a

+ 2 sin(px) − cos(px)

px x

3a 3a

= cos(px) − 2 sin (px) + 2ap sin(px).

x px

**This expression cannot be zero for any range of r, so k has got
**

to be zero, and the solution of the differential equation is given

Irrotational standing waves 135

by

1h 3A3 i

y= A0 p sin(px) − 2 cos(px)

x p

1 h 3A3 i

+ 2 sin(px) + A0 cos(px) ,

x p3

and by reentering F = y and r = x we finally acquire the

solution of Equation (3.20):

1h 3A3 i

F = A0 p sin(pr) − 2 cos(pr) (3.31)

r p

1 h 3A3 i

+ 2 sin(pr) + A0 cos(pr) .

r p3

By (3.22) and (3.31) the displacement vector, u(r, t) = F G · r̂,

becomes

u(r, t) =[C1 sin(c1 pt) − C2 cos(c1 pt)] (3.32)

n1h 3A3 i

· A0 p sin(pr) − 2 cos(pr)

r p

1 h 3A3 io

+ 2 sin(pr) + A 0 cos(pr) r̂.

r p3

Equation (3.32) is the complete solution for concentric waves in

the spatial continuum. By a suitable choice of constants we can

investigate how standing waves may occur between imaginary

fixed spheres in the spatial continuum, but more important, we

can see if a standing wave may occur between the inside of a

fixed sphere and the center node. There might be a possibility

136 Standing Waves between Singularities

div u

u

A>0

A=0

0

A<0

r

0 R1

**Figure 3.1: Standing wave between the inside of a rigid shell
**

with radius R1 and the center node.

Irrotational standing waves 137

**as we can see from the graph in Figure 3.1. A0 has got to be
**

zero (else |u| would raise beyond any limits when r approaches

zero), the radius of the sphere is given by the choice of p, and

A3 dictates the amplitude of the standing wave. Under these

conditions there might be established a standing wave between

r → 0 and r = R1 , which is oscillating with a frequency, f ,

given by c1 p = 2πf hence

c1 p 2πf

f= , and p = . (3.33)

2π c1

**The displacement function u(r) approaches zero as r → 0 and
**

r = Rn , which is the necessary condition that there might be

a standing wave between these two borders. This situation is

covered by the expression

h sin(pr) cos(pr) i

u(r, t) = A cos(c1 pt) · − r̂ (3.34)

p3 r 2 p2 r

**when C1 and A0 are set to zero, and A = −3A3 C2 .
**

In order to find the radii of the possible spheres, we set u(r, t) =

0 which gives

tan(pRn ) = pRn , (3.35)

**where Rn are possible radii of the firm shell. There is a solution
**

for every tan(pRn ) = pRn , and we also notice that the first

radius to be considered is when pR1 ≈ 4.49341 radians.

By deriving Equation (3.34) one and two times with respect on

138 Standing Waves between Singularities

**t we acquire the velocity and acceleration fields
**

h sin(pr) cos(pr) i

u̇(r, t) = −Ac1 sin(c1 pt) · − r̂, (3.36)

p2 r 2 pr

and

h sin(pr) cos(pr) i

ü(r, t) = −Ac1 2 cos(c1 pt) · − r̂. (3.37)

pr2 r

**In order to see that u, u̇, and ü really approach zero when
**

r → 0, we can apply l’Hôpital’s rule:

**sin(pr) − pr cos(pr) [sin(pr) − pr cos(pr)]′
**

lim = lim

r→0 (pr)2 r→0 [(pr)2 ]′

1

= lim sin(pr) = 0. (3.38)

r→0 2

**By applying the identity, div (f (r)r̂) = 2f (r)/r + f ′ (r), on
**

Equation (3.34), we acquire

2u ∂u

div u = +

r ∂r

h 2 sin(pr) 2 cos(pr)

= A cos(c1 pt) −

p3 r 3 p2 r 2

2 sin(pr) cos(pr) cos(pr) p sin(pr) i

− + 2 2 + 2 2 +

p3 r 3 p r p r p2 r

sin(pr)

div u = A cos(c1 pt) , (3.39)

pr

Irrotational standing waves 139

and by the identity, grad (f (r)) = f ′ (r)r̂

h sin(pr) cos(pr) i

grad div u = −A cos(c1 pt) − r̂. (3.40)

pr2 r

**It is noteworthy that even if the node itself is a mathematical
**

singularity such that r 6= 0, the limit of both the displacement u

and the divergence of u have finite limits when r is approaching

zero3 .

We easily verify from Equation (3.40) and (3.37) that the N-C

equation for a solenoidal field (3.3) is satisfied.

The amplitude of the displacement from inside a sphere of radius

r = π/p where div u is positive is given by

π/p

sin(pr)

Z

D= A 4πr2 dr

0 pr

4πA h sin(pr) r cos(pr) iπ/p

= −

p p2 p 0

4π 2 A

= . (3.41)

p3

**This thought experiment shows that standing waves may be es-
**

tablished between a single node and a fixed concentric shell, but

it also suggests that individual points in space may be nodes in

a more complicated system of standing waves.

3 Note sin(x)

that limx→0 x

= 1.

140 Standing Waves between Singularities

3.4 Solenoidal standing waves

The Navier-Cauchy equation for solenoidal deformations is

1

curl curl u = − ü. (3.42)

c2

**Solving this equation for a deformation around a singularity may
**

be a bit tricky, so first I will try to guess a solution of the form:

u(r, t) = g(r, t)(m̂ × r̂), (3.43)

**where m̂ is a fixed direction in space.
**

By the identities curl (φA) = φ curl A + grad φ × A, curl (c ×

r) = 2c, curl r = 0, grad (cr) = c, and A × (B × C) =

(AC)B − (AB)C where c is a constant vector, r a radius vector,

and φ a scalar field, we develop

g

curl [g(m̂ × r̂)] = curl [ (m̂ × r)]

r

g g

= curl (m̂ × r) + grad × (m̂ × r)

r r

2g g′ g

= m̂ + ( − 2 )r̂ × (m̂ × r)

r r r

2g ′ g

= m̂ + (g − )[(r̂ · r̂)m̂ − (r̂ · m̂)r̂

r r

g g′ g

= + g ′ m̂ − − 2 (r · m̂)r̂,

r r r

Solenoidal standing waves 141

and further

g g

curl curl [g(m̂ × r̂)] =( + g ′ ) curl m̂ + grad ( + g ′ ) × m̂

r r

g′ g g′ g

− − 2 (r · m̂) curl r̂ − grad [ − 2 (r · m̂)] × r̂

r r r r

g′ g ′′ g′ g ′

=( − 2 + g )(r̂ × m̂) − − 2 r̂(r · m̂)] × r̂

r r r r

g′ g

− − 2 grad (r · m̂) × r̂

r r

′

g g g′ g

=( − 2 + g ′′ )(r̂ × m̂) − − 2 (m̂ × r̂)

r r r r

2g ′ 2g

=(g ′′ + − 2 )(r̂ × m̂).

r r

With these terms inserted into Equation (3.42) we acquire

2g ′ 2g 1

(g ′′ + − 2 )(r̂ × m̂) = 2 g̈(r̂ × m̂), (3.44)

r r c

or the scalar differential equation

2g ′ 2g 1

g ′′ + − 2 = 2 g̈, (3.45)

r r c

which is exactly like Equation (3.19) except for the value of c,

and it gives the same solution, hence

h sin(qr) cos(qr) i

u = M cos(cqt) − (r̂ × m̂), (3.46)

q 3 r2 q2 r

142 Standing Waves between Singularities

**By deriving Equation (3.46) one and two times with respect on
**

t we acquire the velocity and acceleration fields

h sin(qr) cos(qr) i

u̇ = −M c sin(cqt) · − (m̂ × r̂), , (3.47)

q 2 r2 qr

and

h sin(qr) cos(qr) i

ü = −M c2 cos(cpt) · − (m̂ × r̂).. (3.48)

qr2 r

**It follows from the above equations and some straightforward
**

work that

h sin(qr) cos(qr) i

curl curl u =M cos(cqt) − (m̂ × r̂),

qr2 r

(3.49)

which together with Equation (3.48) inserted into the Navier-

Cauchy equation confirms that Equation (3.46) is a solution.

We notice that the irrotational and solenoidal components of u

are orthogonal to each other as expected.

It might be of interest to see how curl u behave when r ap-

proaches zero. By applying l’Hôpital’s rule we find in a straight

forward way that

lim curl u = 23 M cos(cqt)m̂. (3.50)

r→0

**This interesting result confirms that curl u - and hence also
**

curl u̇ - has a finite value in the vicinity of an oscillating singu-

larity.

Standing waves between singularities 143

**3.5 Standing waves between singular-
**

ities

In the preceding section I discussed the possibility that there

might be a standing wave between a node and a concentric firm

shell. The most important result was that a singularity may

form the one endpoint in a standing wave. An imaginary firm

shell is of course not realizable in a spatial continuum of infinite

extension, but singularities are indeed possible entities. The

question therefore naturally arises if standing waves can still be

formed in the spatial continuum without the participation of

any firm shells.

By the identity

sin x cos y = 12 [sin(x + y) + sin(x − y)], (3.51)

**Equation (3.39) can be rewritten into:
**

A

div u = cos(c1 pt) sin(pr)

pr

A

= sin(pr + c1 pt) + sin(pr − c1 pt) , (3.52)

2pr

which can be interpreted as the sum of two spherical waves

bouncing back and forth in opposite directions between the firm

shell and the center node. The two waves can be said to be

reflected successively from the firm shell and the singularity at

the center. We realize that standing waves can be treated as the

superposition of two or more progressive free waves. This makes

144 Standing Waves between Singularities

**the mathematics simpler, and we can investigate more complex
**

systems of standing waves. In this case the waves move with

the speed, c1 . The frequency is f = c1 p/2π, and the wavelength

is λ = 2π/p.

Next let us have a look at the energy which is involved in the

standing wave between the center node and the shell. At the

time t = 0 the whole energy is in the div u-field because the

u̇-field equals zero all over the considered volume. By Equation

(3.10) the energy inside a thin shell at the distance r from the

center is

λ + 2µ

de = ( div u)2 · 4πr2 dr,

2

and inside a shell with radius Rn

2π(λ + 2µ)A2 Rn 2

Z

ERn = sin (pr)dr

p2 0

2π(λ + 2µ)A2 h Rn sin(2pRn ) i

= 2

− .

p 2 4p

**We notice that the total energy inside the sphere approaches
**

infinity when Rn grows without any limit. Hence a single oscil-

lating node cannot exist in the spatial continuum.

Let us, however, make a new thought experiment. Inside a

sphere with a great radius and many wavelengths of standing

waves, there are two oscillating nodes oppositely placed at a

short distance, z1 = +d and z2 = −d, from the center, and let

the the two nodes oscillate in opposite phase with each other

Standing waves between singularities 145

Figure 3.2: Considering a point in spherical coordinates

**(see Figure 3.2). Then by adjusting Rn a little, it should be
**

possible to let two progressive waves move from one node via

the firm shell and encounter the other node in tune with the

oscillation of that node, where it is reflected. We then would

have a system of two separate waves bouncing back and forth

between the two nodes via the firm shell. The superposition of

the free waves would form a standing wave, and the problem is

now to find the total energy in the new system. If it is finite

and the energy is kept in the surrounding of the singularities,

it may indicate that we could get rid of the reflecting shell and

end up with a pure oscillating dipole.

**First I will only consider the energy in a volume element dV at
**

146 Standing Waves between Singularities

**a distance r from the center that is great in comparison with
**

the distance 2d between the nodes. Then the angle between

the axis through the two nodes and the direction towards the

volume element can be considered to be the same, namely φ,

from both nodes and the center point. The divergence in the

volume element at P is the superposition of the divergence from

the two nodes at the time t = 0

h sin p(r + d cos φ) sin p(r − d cos φ) i

div u = A −

p(r + d cos φ) p(r − d cos φ)

A

≈ sin(pr + pd cos φ) − sin(pr − pd cos φ)

pr

A

= cos(pr) · sin(pd cos φ).

pr

**The energy in a zone between Rm ≫ d and Rn when n ≫ m in
**

the two half spheres is

λs + 2µs

ZZZ

E= ( div u)2 dV

2

λs + 2µs Rn π π A2 n

Z Z Z

=2 2 r2

cos2 (pr) · sin2 (pd cos φ)r2 sin φ dφ dθ

2 Rm 0 0 p

(λs + 2µs )A2 Rn

Z Z π Z π

2 2

= cos (pr)dr · sin (pd cos φ) sin φ dφ dθ

p2 Rm 0 0

**(λs + 2µs )A2 Rn cos φ sin(pd cos φ) cos(pd cos φ)
**

Z

2

= cos (pr)dr − +

p2 Rm 2 2pd

2h Z Rn

π(λs + 2µs )A sin(2pd) i

E= 1− cos2 (pr)dr.

p2 2pd Rm

Standing waves between singularities 147

**The property sin(2pd)/2pd has a maximum value of unity when
**

2dp approaches zero, hence the total energy has no upper bounds

except when either d or p approaches zero. Hence we can con-

clude that a single isolated dipole cannot exist because it would

take an unlimited amount of energy to keep it up. Notice by

the way that E is vanishing in the equatorial direction from the

origin and increases when φ shrinks towards zero (i.e. it has its

maximum value in the z-direction).

The next possibility I will examine is whether a chain of os-

cillating nodes may exist. So let an infinite chain of oscillating

nodes with the same strength be organized along a straight line

separated with a distance d and organized such that one node

always oscillate in opposite phase with its two adjacent nodes.

Hence the next node that oscillates in the same phase is at a

distance λ1 = 2d. The divergence in a point P at a distance r

from the chain and an offset z along the chain from node #0,

is given by the superposition of the effects from all the nodes in

the chain

∞ p

2 2

n sin p r + (nd − z)

X

div u = A cos(c1 pt) (−1) .

p

p r 2 + (nd − z)2

n=−∞

**Let pd = π, and 0 < z < d, then we acquire
**

c1

div u =A cos(2π t)

2d

p πr

( d )2 + (πn − πz

∞ 2

n sin d )

X

· (−1) p πr 2 .

πz 2

n=−∞

( d ) + (πn − d )

148 Standing Waves between Singularities

**This formula should be valid for all of space, but let us see what
**

div u amounts to strictly along the chain axis where r = 0.

∞

sin(πn − πz

d )

c1 X

(−1)n

div u = A cos(2π t) πz

2d n=−∞ πn − d

∞ πz n

n sin(− d )(−1)

c1 X

= A cos(2π t) (−1)

2d n=−∞ πn − πzd

∞

c1 πz X (−1)n

= A cos(2π t) sin ,

d d n=−∞ |nπ − zπ

d |

**which is a alternating harmonic series that can be shown to be
**

convergent.

As stated above, the result is only valid strictly along the chain

axis, but a simple consideration shows that the result is valid

also when P is outside the axis. First take the sum when −m <

n < m. It is of course finite. Then let m be so great that

md ≫ r. Then we can set r = 0 for the rest of the series, and

the reminder will also be finite making the whole series finite.

Even when r grows beyond all limits, the effect from one node

will be canceled out by the effect from its neighbor nodes.

This proves that a string of oscillating nodes may have a finite

energy per unit length. Say that an extreme situation in the

spatial continuum, with release of an enormous amount of en-

ergy, initiated a boiling phase where nodes of the type described

above where formed. Then the nodes would have got to orga-

nize in a way that required the least amount of energy, i.e. along

Chains of irrotational and solenoidal oscillating nodes 149

**strings. Hence if oscillating nodes at all can be present in the
**

spatial continuum, they will tend to organize along strings.

The important result, that standing waves may form between

nodes in long strings, opens for the possibility that space can

be filled with a plethora of faint oscillating nodes that organize

and reorganize along strings - not necessarily formed as straight

lines - in an ever changing pattern.

**3.6 Chains of irrotational and
**

solenoidal oscillating nodes

Since div u has a finite value at every point in space, we could

express it as a function of type

c1 πz

div u = A(r, z) cos(2π t) sin( ),

2d d

where A(r, z) is the amplitude at the point P . The oscillatory

frequency is

c1

f1 = . (3.53)

2d

By the identity, cos a sin b = 1/2 sin(a + b) − 1/2 sin(a − b), we

can decompose the function above into

1 n π π o

div u = A(r, z) sin (c1 t + z) − sin (c1 t − z) ,

2 d d

150 Standing Waves between Singularities

**which can be interpreted as the superposition of two waves mov-
**

ing in opposite directions along the chain of nodes with velocity

c1 .

**In much the same way as considered above, it should even be
**

possible to assume a solenoidal standing wave in another chain

of nodes that is given by a function of the type

1 n 2π 2π o

curl u = A(r, θ, z) sin (ct + z) − sin (ct − z) .

2 d d

**The main difference between these two set of waves, is that the
**

latter moves with the velocity c, which is probably about half

of the velocity c1 , and the frequency

c

f2 = . (3.54)

2d

**Both sets of deformation fields can, however, be expressed as two
**

progressive waves moving in opposite directions in space, and

the resultant of these waves are standing waves along separate

strings in space.

**So far all the deductions are done on the basis of the Navier-
**

Cauchy equation, but in the N-C representation there is no cou-

pling between the two types of oscillations. Hence a chain with

both types of oscillation represented in the same set of nodes is

not feasible in the N-C representation, but that doesn’t mean

that a more thorough examination rules out this possibility.

The Navier-Stokes equation and Coupled oscillations 151

**3.7 The Navier-Stokes equation and
**

Coupled oscillations

In this section I will discuss the possibility that the two basic

types of oscillation can occur in the same set of nodes. In the

Navier-Cauchy representation the two wave equations are inde-

pendent of each other and cannot interact, but not so in the

Navier-Stokes representation of a continuous medium. Disre-

garding viscosity and the influence of any outer forces, the N-S

equation takes the form

h ∂ u̇ i

(λs + 2µs ) grad div u − µs curl curl u = ρs + (u̇ · ∇)u̇ ,

∂t

**or by the identity, grad (A · A) = 2[A × curl A + (A · ∇)A]:
**

h ∂ u̇ 1 i

(λs + 2µs ) grad div u − µs curl curl u = ρs + grad u̇2 − u̇ × curl u̇

∂t 2

where the additional term is the directional derivative of u̇ with

respect on t along the tangent vector to the velocity field. We

now turn back to the central case with standing waves bouncing

back and forth between a center node and an imaginary firm

concentric sphere. The displacement vector u can as seen earlier

be split into a radial component u1 = f (r, t)r̂ and a tangential

component u2 = g(r, t)(m̂ × r̂), which are orthogonal to each

other. We see that the equation no longer can be split into

two independent equations. We have at our hands two different

oscillation systems which have a mutual coupling between them.

152 Standing Waves between Singularities

**I think that the Navier-Stokes equation is too complicated to
**

be solved by conventional methods, so instead of solving the

equation, I will try to figure out what the new terms will do to

the partial solutions of the Navier-Cauchy equation.

Let us first single out the term ρ(u̇ × curl u̇) and see what im-

pact it may have on the oscillatory system. The effect is only

significant with relatively great deformations in the near vicinity

of the node. Here the N-S equation takes the form (note that

u̇1 ⊥ u̇2 , div u2 = 0, curl u1 = 0):

(λ + 2µ) grad div u1 − µ curl curl u2

∂ u̇1 ∂ u̇2 1 1

=ρ + + grad u̇12 + grad u̇22 − u̇1 × curl u̇2 − u̇2 × curl u

∂t ∂t 2 2

The terms in this formula are representing different components

of force. If we multiply them with the velocity at a site, we get

the power, or energy transfer per units of time and volume,

that are transferred between the different fields. For example

the formula

∂ u̇1

u̇1 · (λ + 2µ) grad div u1 = u̇1 · ρ ,

∂t

represent the energy transferred between the local potential and

kinetic energies in an irrotational oscillation per time unit at a

given moment. If both sides are negative, the energy transfer

is from potential to kinetic energy, and if they are positive, the

energy transfer is from kinetic to potential energy. By the way,

this component of the oscillation is between compression and

rarefaction and will not result in any net displacement of spatial

mass.

The Navier-Stokes equation and Coupled oscillations 153

**Now let us multiply the N-S equation with the velocity u̇ =
**

u̇1 + u̇2 , and neglect all terms that are orthogonal to each other

(note that the vector product of two vectors is orthogonal to

both of them). We obtain

∂ u̇1 ∂ u̇2

c12 u̇1 · grad div u1 − c22 u̇2 · curl curl u2 = u̇1 · + u̇2 ·

∂t ∂t

1

+ u̇ · grad u̇2 − u̇2 · (u̇1 × curl u̇2 ) − u̇1 · (u̇2 × curl u̇2 ).

2

The two last terms representing components of the power ex-

erted by the two fields can be set like

**w1 = u̇1 · (u̇2 × curl u̇2 ),
**

w2 = u̇2 · (u̇1 × curl u̇2 ).

**We see by the sequence in which the three terms occur that
**

when one of the properties is positive, then the other is nega-

tive and vice versa. Clearly this shows that there may be an

energy transfer back and forth between the irrotational and the

solenoidal field in the vicinity of an oscillating node. Hence the

two fields are coupled and there might be some normal modes

of oscillation where the two fields can oscillate within the same

firm shell with a common frequency. The three vectors u̇1 , u̇2 ,

and curl u̇2 make up a parallelepiped with volume w1 = w2 .

Hence the energy that is given up from one field is exactly like

the energy received by the other field. It is also implicit that

the two velocity fields has got to be a quarter out of phase with

each other such that the maximum displacement coincides with

the maximum rotation. By (3.36) and (3.47) we could end up

154 Standing Waves between Singularities

with two equations of the form

**u̇1 = A1 sin 2πνf (r)r̂
**

(3.55)

u̇2 = A2 sin (2πν + ψ)f (r)(r̂ × m̂),

**where ψ is the phase shift between the two fields. According to
**

the above assumption it might be like π/4.

In Figure (3.3) I have tried to visualize some possible standard

modes of oscillation which could occur depending of the initial

condition. In the left columns the energy is shifted from dis-

placement to rotation, and in the right columns the energy is

shifted from rotation to displacement. In the upper row the

oscillation remains symmetric, while in the lower row the os-

cillation becomes asymmetric, meaning that the inflation (or

rarefaction) phase is stronger than the rarefaction (or inflation)

phase, or the right/left orientation is stronger than the cor-

responding left/right orientation. I also suspect that if these

modes of oscillation (or something like them) at all can occur in

a string of nodes, the lower ones would curl up along an inter-

wound line while the two upper ones could occur along a straight

line. Well, so much for speculations.

Finally I will try to estimate what effect the term grad ( 12 ρ u̇2 )

can have on the displacement of spatial mass. The gradient of

the kinetic energy density, 12 ρ u̇2 , can be taken up by the force

(λs + 2µs ) grad div u1 , hence we can set up the equation

ρs

(λs + 2µs ) grad div u = grad u̇2 ,

2

The Navier-Stokes equation and Coupled oscillations 155

and because u = u1 + u2 , u1 ⊥ u2 , and div u2 = 0 we get

ρs

(λs + 2µs ) grad div u = grad (u̇12 + u̇22 ),

2

and further, since the deformation is zero at infinity, we obtain

ρs

div u = (u̇ 2 + u̇22 ).

2(λs + 2µs ) 1

**The displacement D from a volume V is given by
**

Z

D= div u dV.

V

**By Equation (3.55) we acquire the displacement from inside a
**

sphere with radius R

ρs nZ R 2

D= A1 sin(2πνt)f (r) 4πr2 dr

2(λ + 2µ) 0

Z RZ π o

2

+ A2 sin(2πνt + ψ)f (r) sin φ 2πr sin φ r dφ dr

0 0

R

ρs

Z

2 2

A sin (2πνt) + 23 A22 sin2 (2πνt + ψ) · f (r)2 4πr2 dr.

=

2(λ + 2µ) 1 0

**If we set ψ = ±π/2, the two oscillations are shifted one quarter
**

of a period in relation to each other, and moreover if

A12 = 2/3A22 (3.56)

156 Standing Waves between Singularities

**the displacement is independent of time and we get
**

Z R

ρs

Z

2

( div u′1 )dV = A f (r)2 4πr2 dr,

V 2(λ + 2µ) 1 0

1 ρs 2

Z

= u̇ dV,

(λ + 2µ) V 2 1

or

E′

D= ,

λ + 2µ

**where E ′ is the kinetic energy inside the sphere.
**

In the Navier-Cauchy representation of a string of oscillating

node there is no net displacement of spatial mass from the sys-

tem - the compression into one node is like the displacement

from another node - but the above equation shows that the pres-

ence of kinetic energy will inevitably lead to a net displacement

of spatial mass from the entire string. The energy component

E1 is only a part of the total energy, E, in the system, so if

it should happen to be like one third of the total energy, the

displacement amounts to

E

D= ,

3(λ + 2µ)

**which corresponds to the energy-displacement relation that I
**

found in the paper Elastodynamics in a continuum of infinite

extension.

The Navier-Stokes equation and Coupled oscillations 157

Rotation enhanced mode Displacement enhanced mode

Asymmetric rotation enhanced mode Asymmetric displacement enhanced mode

**Figure 3.3: Coupled oscillations. The blue solid lines repre-
**

sent the div u-field and the red solid lines the curl u̇-lines. The

smaller graphs in the middle represent the transfer of movement

between the two main oscillations, and the thick solid lines are

the resulting amplitudes.

158 Standing Waves between Singularities

Chapter 4

Spatial Continuum

Mechanics

**A traditional elastic medium like steel consists of material par-
**

ticles bound together by electromagnetic forces. The medium

gets its inertial properties from the masses of these particles,

and if it is compressed, its mass density increases because more

particles are squeezed into a smaller volume. On the other hand

mass is proportional with energy according to Einstein’s rela-

tion, E = M c2 . In this paper I will discuss a couple of ways a

true spatial continuum can acquire inertia and how mass den-

sity changes by being compressed. Finally I will discuss how the

wave speed is affected.

160 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

4.1 Strain

In this section I will introduce some necessary tensors in order

to describe the deformation of an initially homogeneous spatial

continuum.

In a true spatial continuum it will be possible to displace spa-

tial points away from their original positions. We consider the

configuration of spatial points B0 at time t0 in a 3D Euclidian

space E3. In B0 , space is undeformed and unstressed. The po-

sition vector of a point P0 of B0 relative to the origin O of an

orthogonal Cartesian coordinate system is denoted by

X = X i ii , where X i : X 1 , X 2 , X 3

**are Lagrangian or material coordinates and ii = ii are unit
**

vectors along the X i -axes. We now suppose the spatial con-

tinuum to take at a certain time t a new configuration B in

E3. Thus, the point P0 is moved into the position P which will

be determined with respect to the same origin by the position

vector

x = xi ii , where xi : x1 , x2 , x3

**are called Euler or spatial coordinates.
**

We now assume the mapping of B0 into B such that the cor-

respondence of the point P0 and P is one to one and may be

described by the transformation

xi = xi (X 1 , X 2 , X 3 , t) → x = x(X, t),

Strain 161

which is reversible

X i = X i (x1 , x2 , x3 , t) → X = X(x, t).

**This condition is satisfied if the functions xi and X i are single
**

valued and at least once continuously differentiable with respect

to their arguments. In addition the Jacobian must be positive:

∂xi

J = > 0.

∂X j

**We now imbed a convective coordinate system into the spa-
**

tial continuum, i.e. the coordinate system undergo the same

deformations as the spatial continuum itself. In such a coor-

dinate system any point will maintain the same coordinates,

Θi : (Θ1 , Θ2 , Θ3 ), within the course of the deformation. It fol-

lows that

X i = X i (Θ1 , Θ2 , Θ3 ) → X = X(Θ1 , Θ2 , Θ3 ), (4.1)

and

xi = xi (Θ1 , Θ2 , Θ3 ) → x = x(Θ1 , Θ2 , Θ3 ). (4.2)

**The coordinate system will in general be curvilinear, but it will
**

always be possible to select it as Cartesian coordinates for ex-

ample Θi = xi in B at a given time t, which would make the

corresponding coordinate lines in B0 curvilinear. I will keep

this possibility in mind for later use. For now we suppose the

mapping of B0 into B to be described by curvilinear coordinates

Θi .

162 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

**The line elements in the undeformed state can be derived from
**

(4.1)

∂Θi ∂X i j

dΘi = dX j , dX i = dΘ ,

∂X j ∂Θj

and, similarly in the deformed state, from (4.2) at a fixed time

t

∂Θi j ∂xi

dΘi = dx , dxi = dΘj .

∂xj ∂Θj

From (4.1) we also derive the base vectors related to P0

∂X ∂X k

Gi = X,i = = ik ,

∂Θi ∂Θi

∂Θi k

Gi = i ,

∂X k

and accordingly from (4.2) the base vectors related to P

∂x ∂xk

gi = x,i = i

= ik ,

∂Θ ∂Θi

∂Θi k

gi = i ,

∂xk

The position of point P relative to P0 is called the displacement

vector and denoted u. We introduce for u two sets of compo-

nents Ui and ui

u = u(Θi , t) = (x − X) = Ui Gi = ui gi .

Strain 163

**defined with respect to the undeformed basis Gi and the de-
**

formed basis gi , respectively.

The vectorial line elements dX and dx related respectively to

the material and spatial coordinates X and x are given by

∂X

dX = dΘi = Gi dΘi ,

∂Θi

∂x

dx = dΘi = gi dΘi .

∂Θi

The deformation gradient is defined by:

F = gi ⊗ Gi , (4.3)

and accordingly the inverse tensors by

F−1 = Gi ⊗ gi . (4.4)

**For later use we introduce the Lagrangian gradient of x refer-
**

ring to the undeformed state

∂x ∂x ∂Θi j

grad x = j

⊗ ij = i

⊗ i = gi ⊗ Gi = F,

∂X ∂Θ ∂X j

(4.5)

and similarly the spatial or Euler gradient

∂X j ∂X ∂Θi j

grad X = ⊗ i = ⊗ i = Gi ⊗ gi = F−1 .

∂xj ∂Θi ∂xj

164 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

Hence

F = grad (X + u) = G + grad u. (4.6)

**Note that G = I, the identity tensor in the undeformed base.
**

By contracting (4.3) and (4.4) by Gi and gi respectively we

acquire

FGi = (gm ⊗ Gm )Gi = gm (Gm · Gi ) = gm δim = gi

(4.7)

F−1 gi = (Gm ⊗ gm )gi = Gm (gm · gi ) = Gm δim = Gi

(4.8)

**from which it clearly follows that the deformation gradient
**

transforms the convective curvilinear coordinate system from

the undeformed to the deformed basis and vise versa. Further-

more by contracting (4.7) and (4.8) by dΘi we obtain

gi dΘi = (FGi )dΘi = F(Gi dΘi ) → dx = FdX,

Gi dΘi = (F−1 gi )dΘi = F−1 (gi dΘi ) → dX = F−1 dx,

**from which it is clear that F can also be used to transform a
**

line element in the undeformed basis to a line element in the

deformed basis and conversely. These formulas clearly are inde-

pendent of which coordinate system we choose to use.

Strain 165

**As with any second-order tensor the polar decomposition theo-
**

rem states that the deformation gradient F can be multiplica-

tively decomposed in the form

F = RU = vR (4.9)

**into a rotation tensor R, which is orthogonal, and a right stretch
**

tensor U or a left stretch tensor v, which are supposed to be

positive definite and symmetric. These translations can geomet-

rically be interpreted as a stretch of a volume element by U, a

rotation by R, and a translation by u, or a translation by u, a

rotation by R, and a stretch by v.

In general any symmetric second-order tensor, in this case U and

v, possesses three eigenvalues λi and three orthogonal principal

axes which can be determined by the eigenvectors Ni . If the

tensor U refers to the orthonormal basis Ni

ij

U = U Ni ⊗ Nj

**it possesses only three non-vanishing components
**

ii ij

U = U ii = λi , U = U ij = 0 f or i 6= j.

**This permits to represent U by the spectral decomposition the-
**

orem as

3

X

U= λi Ni ⊗ Ni .

i=1

166 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

**The eigenvalues λi are determined through the condition
**

det(U − λI) = 0,

and the unit vectors Ni satisfying the homogenous equation

(U − λi I)Ni = 0 (4.10)

determines the mutually orthogonal principal axes of U.

In accordance with (4.9) we now express U by

U = RT F = RT vR.

Next we insert the above expression for U into (4.10) and con-

tract it from the left side by R. This delivers

(RRT vR − λi RI)Ni = 0

(v − λi I)RNi = 0

by taking the orthogonality condition RRT = I and the identity

RI = IR into account. By inserting a new unit vector

ni = RNi , Ni = RT ni (4.11)

it becomes

(v − λi I)ni = 0.

Thus the spectral decomposition of v is given by

3

X

v= λi ni ⊗ ni

i=1

**with the same eigenvalues λi as for the spectral decomposition
**

of U and the principal direction given by (4.11).

Stress-strain relations 167

**Figure 4.1: Deformation of volume element with edges showing
**

in principal directions Ni or ni as a 2D illustration.

4.2 Stress-strain relations

**In this section I will postulate a stress-strain relationship that
**

is valid for great deformations. I will also consider a general

deformation on top of a uniform compression of space.

In the preceding section it was pointed out that strain can be

168 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

**represented as a translation by u, a rotation by R, and a stretch
**

by v. It was also pointed out that like any symmetric tensors,

the stretch tensor v can be represented by the spectral decom-

position theorem

3

X

v= λi ni ⊗ ni , (4.12)

i=1

**where the eigenvalues λi are the principal values and the or-
**

thogonal base vectors ni are the associated principal directions

of the stretch tensor v.

The spatial continuum is per definition homogeneous, isotropic,

and elastic. Hence a deformation as shown in Figure 4.1 will

be closely related to real internal stress that generally can be

expressed by the second order symmetric Cauchy stress tensor

σ = σ(F),

**which has got to be some function of the deformation gradient
**

F. Moreover, since it is a second order symmetric tensor, it can

be decomposed by the same decomposition theorem in much of

the same way as the stretch tensor v, and since the spatial con-

tinuum by definition is isotropic, it will have the same principal

axes as v, so

3

X

σ= γi ni ⊗ ni ,

i=1

**where the eigenvalues γi are the principal values of σ.
**

Stress-strain relations 169

**Figure 4.2: Stress acting on a volume element with edges show-
**

ing in principal directions Ni or ni as a 2D illustration.

**Aside from the more or less obvious assumption that γi is some
**

function of λi , it is for several reasons not a suitable way to

go further along the classical route leading to the definition of

the forth-order material tensor C, so here I have come to a

point where I have got to delve into some calculated guesses

and assume some more or less probable connections.

Let two opposite directed forces, say outwards along the n1 -

axes, act on two complementary surfaces of a small cube in

170 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

**the spatial continuum, see Figure 4.2. In order to keep the
**

volume unchanged from the undeformed to the deformed state,

we apply four mutually equal compressible forces on the four

faces of the cube. Hence J = λ1 ·λ3 ·λ3 = 1. My first assumption

is that the force in the n1 -direction is proportional to ln(λ1 )

keeping J constant like 1. Next let the force in the n1 -direction

be such that λ1 remains unchanged, i.e. λ1 = 1. The forces

in the remaining two directions are such that the volume of

the cube is changed to some arbitrary values, e.g. dV /dV0 =

1 · λ2 · λ3 = J. My next assumption is that the forces acting

on the faces orthogonal to those in the n1 -dirction needed to

keep λ1 unchanged is proportional to ln(J). Finally, if both the

volume and the stretch along one or more of the principal axes

are changed, I will combine these two assumptions and postulate

that the stress-strain relation for the spatial continuum is given

by

γi = 2µ ln(λi ) + 2µβ ln(J) = 2µ ln(λi · J β ), (4.13)

**where 2µ and β are constants1 . Hence the Euler stress tensor
**

is given by the fairly simple relation

3

X

2µ ln λi · J β ni ⊗ ni .

σ= (4.14)

i=1

1 I have chosen to include the number 2 because then µ turns up to be

**identical with the Lamé elastic constant.
**

Stress-strain relations 171

Generally

3

X

ln I = ln ni ⊗ ni ,

i=1

and for any scalar a we have

ln(aI) = ln[I + (aI − I)] = ln[I + I(a − 1)]

= I(a − 1) − 12 I2 (a − 1)2 + 31 I3 (a − 1)3 · · ·

= I (a − 1) − 12 (a − 1)2 + 13 (a − 1)3 · · ·

= I ln a, (4.15)

**so by (4.12) Equation (4.14) can finally be write
**

3

X 3

X

σ = 2µβ ln (J ni ⊗ ni ) + 2µ ln (λi ni ⊗ ni )

i=1 i=1

= 2µβ ln(J I) + 2µ ln v. (4.16)

**There is still another situation to be considered. Suppose that
**

space initially is compressed and then gets an additional defor-

mation. The goal would then be to consider what additional

stress this deformation would cause. In Figure (4.3) I have il-

lustrated the situation as a 2D representation. We first have a

uniform compression of space bringing a volume element from

B0 to B and then an arbitrary deformation bringing the volume

element from B to B. The principal axes for B and B follow by

172 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

**Figure 4.3: Stress caused by two successive deformations, one
**

pure compression followed by an infinitesimal strain, as a 2D

illustration.

Stress-strain relations 173

**the spectral decomposition theorem, and since the deformation
**

between B0 and B is uniform without rotation, Ni can be cho-

sen at will like Ni . The first step can be described by the the

relation

3

X

σ = 2µ ln(J β λ N1 ⊗ N1 ),

i=1

**and the next step would bring the stress tensor up to
**

3

X

σ = 2µ ln(J β · δJ β · λ · δλ1 n1 ⊗ n1 )

i=1

X3 3

X

= 2µ ln(J β λ n1 ⊗ n1 ) + 2µ ln(δJ β · δλ1 n1 ⊗ n1 ).

i=1 i=1

(4.17)

**The change of stress can be represented by the difference be-
**

tween these two stress components and we finally arrive at

3

X

δσ = 2µ ln(δJ β · δλ1 n1 ⊗ n1 ),

i=1

**or by changing the notation δσ, δJ and δλi into σ, J and λi
**

respectively we get

3

X

σ = 2µ ln(J β λ1 n1 ⊗ n1 ). (4.18)

i=1

174 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

**Hence the additional strain-stress relation for deformations in a
**

uniformly compressed or expanded space is the same as it is in

the undeformed space.

**4.3 Velocity and acceleration
**

In order to find the acceleration of points in the spatial con-

tinuum special care has got to be taken if spatial description

is considered. The following notation for the ’material’ time

derivative in spatial notation is adopted from the mechanics of

solids [1, page 115 ff.]

Df

= ḟ ,

Dt

where ḟ is given by

∂ ḟ

ḟ = + ( grad f )v.

∂t

The velocities, v, of spatial points are given by the intrinsic

function

∂u

v = u̇ = + ( grad u)v,

∂t

and the acceleration by

∂ u̇

a = ü = + ( grad u̇)u̇.

∂t

The strain-stress relation for small deformations 175

**By infinitesimal deformations the last term is negligible and the
**

acceleration is simply

∂2u

a = ü = .

∂t2

**4.4 The strain-stress relation for small
**

deformations

In this section I will show that a small variation on top of a

great compression of space obeys the same law that we find in

a classical continuum.

The spatial continuum is per definition isotropic, and a uniform

compression of space will not alter this property. It can be

shown that in an isotropic continuum a stress function σ(v)

can be obtained simply by setting v = (FFT )1/2 , see [1, page

147]. By this relation and (4.6) the strain-stress relation (4.16)

can be developed into

σ = 2µβ ln(J I) + 2µ ln(FFT )1/2

= 2µβ ln(λ1 λ2 λ3 I) + 2µ 21 ln F + ln FT

= 2µβ(ln λ1 + ln λ2 + ln λ3 )I

h i

+ 2µ 12 ln(I + grad u) + ln I + ( grad u)T .

By linearization of the tensor valued function of σ with respect

on u we get

Lσ(u, ∆u) = σ(u) + ∆σ(u, ∆u), (4.19)

176 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

**where the second term on the right hand side is the Gateaux-
**

derivative defined by

d

∆σ(u, ∆u) = σ(u + ε∆u).

dε

Equation (4.19) can be developed into

∆λ1 ∆λ2 ∆λ3

Lσ(u, ∆u) = σ(u) + 2µβ( + + )I

λ1 λ2 λ3

1 h ( grad ∆u) ( grad ∆u)T i

+ 2µ + .

2 I + grad u I + ( grad u)T ε=0

By the identity (u = 0) ⇒ (λi = 1 ∧ grad u = 0) we have

Lσ(u = 0, ∆u) = 2µβ(∆λ1 + ∆λ2 + ∆λ3 )I

i

+ 2µ 12 ( grad ∆u) + ( grad ∆u)T .

(4.20)

We now introduce the linear tensor valued function at the point

where u = 0

1

grad ∆u + ( grad ∆u)T

ǫ= (4.21)

2

**From (4.12) we have that
**

tr v = vii = λ1 + λ2 + λ3 ,

so

∆λ1 + ∆λ2 + ∆λ3 = tr (∆v). (4.22)

The strain-stress relation for small deformations 177

By (4.9) and (4.5) we have

v = FRT = (I + grad u)RT

so

∂v

tr (∆v) = tr ∆( grad u)

∂( grad u)

T

= tr R grad (∆u) = tr grad (∆u)

= tr sym grad (∆u) = tr ǫ. (4.23)

**By (4.21), (4.22), and (4.23) Equation (4.20) finally takes the
**

form

σ = λ tr ǫ I + 2µǫ, (4.24)

where λ = 2µβ.

This is the same relation as we encounter in literature on the

strain stress-relation for small deformations in a homogeneous

and isotropic elastic continuum, and it follows that the elastic

potential is given by

λ

W = (tr ǫ)2 + µ tr ǫ2 ,

2

see e.g. [1, page 167].

As shown in Equation (3.1), (3.7), and (3.8), the strain-stress re-

lation (4.24) and the Cauchy equation of motion ρü = div σ+b

[1, page 126], where b is some hypothetical force per unit vol-

ume and ρ is the the inertial density to be discussed in the next

178 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

section, can be developed into the Navier-Cauchy equation

(λ + 2µ) grad div u − µ curl curl u + b = ρü, (4.25)

and further into two wave equations

1 ∂ 2 (div u)

∇2 (div u) − = 0, (4.26)

c12 ∂t2

1 ∂ 2 (curl u)

∇2 (curl u) − = 0, (4.27)

c22 ∂t2

representing longitudinal waves moving with speed c1 and

transversal waves moving with speed c2 respectively. The ve-

locities are

s

λ + 2µ

c1 = ,

ρ

µ

r

c2 = . (4.28)

ρ

**The relation between c1 and c2 is
**

s

λ + 2µ p

c1 /c = = 2(β + 1), (4.29)

µ

Inertia and the speed of waves as a function of the compression of

space 179

**and we notice that longitudinal waves are travelling with the
**

double of the speed of transversal waves if β should happen to

be unity. Finally we notice that both µ and λ are true universal

constants according to the definitions in Equation (4.13) and

(4.24).

**4.5 Inertia and the speed of waves as
**

a function of the compression of

space

Elastic waves can only propagate through space if it has inertial

properties. In this section I will consider two possible ways

through which inertia can enter the stage.

The classical approach. The simplest possibility is the clas-

sical assumption that inertia is an intrinsic property of the con-

tinuum such that the spatial density in uncompressed space is

like a universal constant ρ0 and increases or decreases if space

is being compressed or inflated according to the relation

dV0

ρclassical = ρ0 = ρ0 D.

dV

**By the classical approach the propagating velocity of transversal
**

waves as a function of compression are given by

µ

r

c2 (D) = .

ρ0 D

180 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

**Let us consider small variations of the waves speed c in an area
**

of space that initially is compressed by a factor D. This can be

achieved by the linearization of c2 with respect to D which is

defined by

L c2 (D, ∆D) = c(D) + ∆c(D, ∆D), (4.30)

**where the second term on the right-hand side as usual is the
**

Gateaux-derivative defined by

d

∆c2 (D, ∆D) = c(D + ε∆D) , (4.31)

dε ε=0

so

µ 1/2 d

∆c2 (D, ∆D) = (D + ε∆D)−1/2

ρ0 dε ε=0

µ 1/2 1

= − D + ε∆D)−3/2 · ∆D

ρ0 2 ε=0

1 µ ∆D

r

=− · . (4.32)

2 ρ0 D D

**Generally we have the identity
**

1 ∆V

ZZ

div u = lim u n dA = lim , (4.33)

V →0 V V →0 V

A

and the inverse of the Jacobian is given by

V0

D = J −1 = lim ,

V →0 V

Inertia and the speed of waves as a function of the compression of

space 181

so by (4.33)

∂D −V0 ∆V

∆D = ∆V = lim ∆V = −D lim

∂V V →0 V 2 V →0 V

= − D div (∆u), (4.34)

**where div (∆u) is the spatial divergence in Euler coordinates.
**

By (4.34) and (4.32) we finally acquire from (4.30) the variations

of c as a function of small deformations u in a space that initially

is compressed by a factor D corresponding to a wave speed of c

µ

r

c2 = (1 + 12 div u) = c(1 + 12 div u). (4.35)

ρ0 D

**In later discussions it is the gradient of c2 that is of most interest
**

so we write

grad c2 = α c grad div u, (4.36)

where

α = 12 . (4.37)

**We notice that by this approach the wave speed of transversal
**

waves varies as a function of small displacements u independent

of how much space initially is compressed or inflated.

The spatial approach. Another possibility is that space in its

undeformed state has no inertia at all and only gets its inertia by

the energy going into it by being compressed or inflated. This is

more in line with how earthly matter gets its mass according to

182 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

**the famous equation e = mc2 where e is the energy dencity in a
**

body and c is the speed of light. The property m then becomes

the definition of mass. If this is how Nature works, the spatial

mass density might be given by

ρs = e/κ 2 ,

**where e is the deformation energy per unit volume going into
**

space by compression or inflation, and κ is a universal constant.

This is a very interesting possibility because it would mean that

the speed of any elastic waves will approach infinity if space

is in a nearly undeformed state. In order to investigate this

possibility, it will be necessary to find the energy going into

space by compression. For simplicity I will consider a space

where the constant β is set to unity.

By uniform compression of space, a little sphere with radius r0

will shrink to a sphere with radius r. The force acting on a unit

surface element of the sphere is given by the Cauchy stress

vector

t = σn

**where n is the unit vector normal to the surface. Since the
**

pressure is uniform in all directions the Jacobian is given by

dV

J= = λ3 where λ = λ1 = λ2 = λ3 .

dV0

**The Euler stress vector is normal to any surface we choose,
**

Inertia and the speed of waves as a function of the compression of

space 183

**e.g. on a surface whose unit normal points in the n1 -direction
**

3

X

t1 = σn1 = 2µ ln λ4 (ni ⊗ ni )n1 = 2µ ln λ4 n1

i=1

**Hence t is normal to the surface of the sphere and is pointing
**

outwards by stretch. The energy going into the sphere as po-

tential energy is given by the surface of the sphere times the

Cauchy stress vector times the enlargement of the radius, so

according to (4.18) we acquire

dEr = 4πr2 (σn)ndr

= 8πµr2 ln(λ4 )dr

r

= 32πµr2 ln dr

r0

= 32πµr2 (ln r − ln r0 ). (4.38)

The whole energy going into the sphere if it is inflated or deflated

from an undeformed state (or previous uniformly compressed or

expanded state) with radius r0 to its final radius r is given by

the definite integral

Z r

Er =32πµ (r2 ln r − r2 ln r0 )dr

r0

h r3 r3 r3 ir

=32πµ ln r − − ln r0

3 9 3 r0

h r3 r 3

r 3

r 3

=32πµ ln r − 0 ln r0 − + 0

3 3 9 9

r3 r0 3 i

− ln r0 + ln r0

3 3

184 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

32πµr3 h r 3i

= 3 ln r − 3 ln r0 + 1 − 03

9 r

8µ h r 3

0

r 3 i

0

= Vr 1 − − ln

3 r r

Er 8µ −1 −1

= J − 1 − ln J ], (4.39)

Vr 3

where Vr is the volume of the deformed sphere. If we define the

compression of space as D = J −1 = dV0 /dV we finally get for

the energy density of the compressed space measured by Euler

or spatial coordinates

8µ

es = (D − 1) − ln D . (4.40)

3

If we chose to postulate that ρ is a function of the energy density

of space, then it is given by

8µ

ρs = 2

(D − 1) − ln D . (4.41)

3κ

**By (4.41) and (4.28) the speed of transversal waves in a space
**

with varying compression is given by

1/2 −1/2

3

c2 (D) = κ 8 (D − 1) − ln D . (4.42)

**We notice that the wave-speed only is depending on the constant
**

κ and the compression of the spatial continuum.

Next let us consider small variations of the waves speed c in an

area of space that initially is compressed by a factor D0 . This

Inertia and the speed of waves as a function of the compression of

space 185

**can be achieved by the linearization of c with respect to D which
**

is defined by

L c2 (D, ∆D) = c(D) + ∆c(D, ∆D) ,

c2 =c, D=D0

**where the second term on the right-hand side is the Gateaux-
**

derivative defined by (4.31).

Thus we obtain from (4.42) by means of (4.31)

∆c2 (D, ∆D)

3 12 d h i− 21

=κ (D + ε∆D − 1) − ln(D + ε∆D)

8 dε

c D−1 ∆D

=−

2 (D − 1) − ln D D

c ln D −1

= 1− div (∆u). (4.43)

2 D−1

Finally we acquire for variations of c2 as a function of small

deformations u = ∆u in a space that initially is compressed by

a factor D corresponding to a wave speed of c

c ln D −1

c2 = c + 1− div u, (4.44)

2 D−1

and the gradient of c is given by

**grad c2 = α c grad div u, (4.45)
**

186 Spatial Continuum Mechanics

where

1 ln D −1

α= 1− , (4.46)

2 D−1

or by (4.40)

4(D − 1)µ

α= . (4.47)

3es

By the spatial approach the gradient of the wave speed is pro-

portional to grad div u as it was by the classical approach only

differing from that by a somewhat smaller constant depending

on the initial compression of space.

Chapter 5

**Confined Energy and
**

Gravity

**An elastic continuum might be compressed and then released in
**

a controlled manner such that it undergoes a continuous expan-

sion. In this paper I will show that confined disturbance energy

in such a space of infinite or nearly infinite extension will cre-

ate around itself a gradually decreasing compression field that

implies a gradually increasing propagation speed of transversal

waves with distance from the energy packet. A small test energy

packet in the vicinity of the confined energy will be accelerated

towards the confined energy, or alternatively feel a pull from it

if it is hindered from moving freely in space. In this way pack-

188 Confined Energy and Gravity

**ages of confined disturbance energy will influence each other
**

and move around exactly like masses do under the influence of

gravity in open space.

**5.1 Confined energy in the spatial
**

continuum

In this section I will assume that disturbance energy may be

confined in distinct regions of space where the energy for some

reason is hindered from spreading in space. First I will show

that such confined energy will displace a certain amount of the

spatial continuum regardless of how it is distributed. How it

comes that it is confined will not be discussed in this paper, but

if it is restricted to a certain area of space, it will exert an out-

ward directed pressure that is counteracted by an equally strong

grad div u-field. Next I will show that small, almost point-like,

energy packets in an expanding continuum will create a scalar

div u-field in the environment where they are situated.

In another paper, Elastodynamics in a Continuum of Infinite

Extention, I made a comparison between the Navier-Cauchy

equation1 ,

**(λs + 2µs ) grad div u − µs curl curl u + b = ρs ü, (5.1)
**

1 In order to distinguish the constants of the N-C equation from those

**in the Maxwell equations, the index s is used to indicate that the property
**

refers to the spatial continuum, i.e. ρs is defined as the mass density of the

spatial continuum, and λs and µs are Lamé’s elastic constants.

Confined energy in the spatial continuum 189

**and Maxwell’s electrodynamic equations. Provided that sinks
**

and sources can be realized in a spatial continuum of infinite ex-

tension, I found a complete match between the two sets of equa-

tions. The wave speed for transversal and longitudinal waves

were found to be

µs

r

c= , (5.2)

ρs

and

s

λs + 2µs

c1 = , (5.3)

ρs

**respectively. I also found that confined disturbance energy gov-
**

erned by the divergence-free part of the Navier-Cauchy equation,

creates a second order tensor T, the stress energy tensor, given

by

e Sx /c Sy /c Sz /c

Sx /c −σxx −σxy −σxz

Tαβ = Sy /c −σyx −σyy −σyz ,

(5.4)

Sz /c −σzx −σzy −σzz

**The condition that confined disturbance energy, that is suffi-
**

ciently smoothly distributed in space, will exert forces on what-

ever keeps it at bay. Here I will assume that there might be

conditions in space, which cause the energy to be kept inside

”bodies” that generally keep their form unchanged over a rea-

sonable span of time. Hence the forces have got to be taken

190 Confined Energy and Gravity

**up by the continuum itself, and the principle of conservation of
**

energy is covered by the condition ∇ · T = 0. This condition is

fulfilled if the trace of T is like zero so

e = σxx + σyy + σzz .

It follows that in an isotropic stress field with σxx = σyy = σzz ,

we acquire

σxx = σyy = σzz = 13 e. (5.5)

**Assume that isotropic radiation energy in the spatial continuum
**

is present as a function of position alone, but not of time, i.e.

u = u(x, y, z). The energy may then vary from place to place

and the resulting radiation pressure will exert a body force b on

an infinitesimal volume element of space. The body force in the

x-direction can be found by taking the difference of the forces

that act on the two opposite surfaces (dy · dz) at (x, y, z) and

(x + dx, y, z)

bx · dx · dy · dz = 31 e(x, y, z) · dy · dz − 13 e(x + dx, y, z) · dy · dz

1 e(x + dx, y, z) − e(x, y, z)

bx = −

3 dx

1 ∂e

=− . (5.6)

3 ∂x

This expression can be expanded to imply the two other spatial

directions, and we get

1 ∂e ∂e ∂e

bx i + by j + bz k = − i+ j+ k

3 ∂x ∂y ∂z

b = − 13 grad e. (5.7)

Confined energy in the spatial continuum 191

**Thus confined isotropic radiation that is a function of position
**

alone, will act as a body force which can be inserted into the

Navier-Cauchy equation in order to find the deformation it im-

poses on the spatial continuum. Since the force is expressed as

the gradient of a potential, it cannot cause any rotational defor-

mation, and moreover since the energy distribution is presumed

to be stationary, we can use the irrotational part of Navier-

Cauchy equation (5.1) with ü set to zero to find the deformation

1

(λs + 2µs ) grad div u = 3 grad e. (5.8)

**If we choose to set the displacement vector, u, like zero in the
**

undeformed space, i.e. the space outside the confined energy,

then both div u and e are falling down to zero outside the vol-

ume, V , were the radiation energy is confined, so Equation (5.8)

can be solved

e

div u = . (5.9)

3(λs + 2µs )

**The physical meaning of (5.8) is that the outwards directed force
**

caused by the confined radiation energy, e, is counteracted by

an inwards directed force caused by the gradient of the displace-

ment. The grad div u-field represents the force that keeps the

radiation at bay. The deduction above, however, does not prove

that the radiation has got to be confined (the reason for that

must be sought elsewhere), only that if there is a certain amount

of confined energy, then there has got to be a displacement that

sets up an exact balance of forces between the expanding force

of the confined energy and the gradient of the pressure in space.

192 Confined Energy and Gravity

**Moreover, from the divergence theorem
**

I Z

(A · n) df = div A dV (5.10)

V V

**we can infer that the displacement is independent of how densely
**

the energy is distributed in space; a certain amount of con-

fined energy will always displace the same amount of the spatial

continuum regardless of how it is distributed. Hence the total

displacement from a volume of space where an amount of dis-

turbance energy, E, is confined is given by

E

D= , (5.11)

3(λs + 2µs )

or conversely

E = 3(λs + 2µs )D. (5.12)

**5.2 The expanding spatial continuum
**

The spatial continuum can be considered to behave like being

confined in a huge spherical container with receding walls such

that the space it occupies expands in all directions. Huge in

this context is taken to mean that the receding boundaries are

so far away from the center of the sphere, S, that no signal can

reach out to the boundaries during the course of the observation.

Thus if the expansion is uniform, the speed with which a spatial

The expanding spatial continuum 193

element is moving is given by the relation

v(r) = Hr or u̇ = Hr (5.13)

**where H is a very small but not necessarily constant coefficient,
**

and r is the radius vector from S to the spatial element.

Figure 5.1: Velocities in expanding space.

**Now, let us see what the space is looking like when considered
**

from another origin, O, that is drifting along with the space

around it at a distance a from the center of the sphere, S (see

Figure 5.1). An arbitrary point P is located at a distance r from

194 Confined Energy and Gravity

S and a distance r′ from O. We have

r = a + r′ .

**Seen from S the point is moving with a speed Hr, and seen from
**

the new origin, O, it is moving with speed Hr minus the speed

with which the origin itself is moving, namely Ha, so

v′ = Hr − Ha

= H(r − a)

= Hr′ = ṙ′ . (5.14)

**If an observer at O cannot see the border of space, he will have
**

no possibility whatsoever to decide that he himself is moving

with a speed vo , so according to (5.14), the space around him

will be looking like it is uniformly expanding in all direction

from himself.

I shall assume that the speed, v ′ , is constant so the distance

between the two points is given by

r′ = v ′ T, (5.15)

**where T is the time elapsed since the two points were close to
**

each other. From (5.14) and (5.15) we can eliminate the distance

r′ between the points and the receding speed v ′ , and acquire

1

H= . (5.16)

T

Confined energy in expanding space 195

**The time derivative of H is
**

1

Ḣ = − = −H 2 , (5.17)

T2

so if the time elapsed from the points were close together is great

compared with the time of observation, the value of H can be

considered to be constant.

By (5.14) and (5.17) we see that the acceleration of any point

of the spatial continuum is nil as expected:

**v̇′ = H r˙′ + Ḣr′
**

= H · Hr′ − H 2 r′

= 0.

There are no dynamic forces at work in empty space.

**5.3 Confined energy in expanding
**

space

Let a small amount of energy E be evenly distributed within

a small sphere with radius, r. According to Equation (5.5) the

pressure on the inside of the sphere is given by

p = 13 e.

**In an expanding space the surface will recede with a speed H ·
**

r, and hence the confined energy within the sphere will loose

196 Confined Energy and Gravity

**energy at a pace given by the force on the spherical surface
**

times the velocity

∂E

= − 13 e · 4πr2 · Hr

∂t

= − 43 πr3 e · H

= −E · H. (5.18)

**Now, let such energy packets be sufficiently smoothly dis-
**

tributed throughout space. Then the mean energy density in

space is given by

m

1 X

e = lim En ,

V →ǫ V

n=1

**where En is the energy in each cell and m is the number of cells
**

within a volume, V , that is decreasing towards a small volume

ǫ, which still is great enough to contain many cells. The spatial

volume containing the energy packets is loosing energy at a pace

given by

m

∂e 1 X ∂En

= lim

∂t V →ǫ V

n=1

∂t

m

1 X

= lim −En · H,

V →ǫ V

n=1

∂e

= −e · H. (5.19)

∂t

Confined energy in expanding space 197

**We can now differentiate e once more with respect on time to
**

acquire

∂2e

= −ėH − eḢ. (5.20)

∂t2

By (5.19) and (5.17) this expression reduces to

∂2e

= 2eH 2 .

∂t2

Combined with (5.9) it yields

∂ 2 ( div u) ∂2 h e i

=

∂t2 ∂t2 3(λs + 2µs )

2

∂ ( div u) 2eH 2

= . (5.21)

∂t2 3(λs + 2µs )

**In space outside of the confined energy there is no body force,
**

but instead we have got to take into account the dynamic force

ρs ü, and since space in this area is supposed to be free of any

rotation we can without loss of generality take the divergence

of Navier-Cauchy equation (5.1)

∂ 2 ( div u)

(λs + 2µs ) div grad ( div u) − ρs = 0,

∂t2

and insert the result from (5.21) to acquire

2ρs eH 2

∇2 ( div u) = . (5.22)

3(λs + 2µs )2

198 Confined Energy and Gravity

**We first introduce a new property ̺(x) (without an index) that
**

is related to e(x) through the relation

def

e(x) = ̺(x)c2 ,

and insert it into the above equation

2ρs H 2 c2

∇2 ( div u) = ̺. (5.23)

3(λs + 2µs )2

Next we define a new variable Φ(x) and a temporary constant

a that can be chosen at will later

def

Φ(x) = −a div u, (5.24)

and let us also draw together several properties above to a new

property G defined by

def aµs H 2

G = . (5.25)

6π(λs + 2µs )2

The propagation speed for transversal waves is given by c2 =

µs /ρs , and with this property inserted we end up with

∇2 Φ = −4πG̺. (5.26)

**We notice that G can be interpreted as the gravitational con-
**

stant2 , Φ as the gravitational potential, and ̺ as the mass den-

sity of the confined energy. Then Equation (5.26) is an exact

2 In fact G is not a constant, but a function of H. Both are, however,

**functions of T −1 where T is supposed to be very great, hence the variation
**

of G in the course of any time of observation is extremely small.

Confined energy in expanding space 199

**match of the classical equation for Newton potential. This Pois-
**

son’s equation can be solved under rather general condition, so

if ̺(r′ ) is a function of the radius vector r′ , then Φ(r) at the

position r is given by the well known relation

̺(r′ )dv ′

Z

Φ(r) = G ,

|r − r′ |

**where dv ′ is a small volume element around the position r′ and
**

the integration is taken over the whole space. If the total mass

equivalence is defined as

Z

def

M = ̺ dV,

V

**and is concentrated in a small area around r′ = 0, then the
**

potential at a distance r from it is given by

GM

Φ= .

r

The gradient of Φ is given by

GM r

grad Φ = − , (5.27)

r2 |r|

or for later use by reinserting div u from (5.24) we get

1 GM r

grad div u = . (5.28)

a r2 |r|

200 Confined Energy and Gravity

**5.4 Movements of energy packets in a
**

space with varying wave speeds

In this section I will show that disturbance energy that moves

along filiform paths with velocity c within closed packages, will

be accelerated towards bodies of confined energy, or else acted

upon by forces like forces in a gravitational field if they are

hindered from moving freely in space.

In my paper Elastodynamics in in a continuum of infinite ex-

tension I discussed the property of momentum in the spatial

continuum. I found that momentum is related to energy trans-

port in solenoidal fields given by

S = e c.

The time derivative of the property

S

p=

c2

produces a force

∂p

f= .

∂t

Hence p can be interpreted as the momentum of the energy flow.

In another paper Standing waves between singularities in an

elastic continuum of infinite extension I found that standing

waves may organize between singularities along strings in the

Movements of energy packets in a space with varying wave speeds

201

**spatial continuum. Standing waves may be seen as the superpo-
**

sition of progressive waves moving in opposite directions along

the string. Here I will assume that elementary material particles

are comparable to energy packets moving with the speed of c

along such strings, and that the momentum of each particle is

like

En

pn = c,

c2

where pn is the momentum of particle number n in a collection

of m particles making up a ”material body”. A further discus-

sion of this assumption will not be performed in this paper, but

has to be to be done in another connection.

Consider a test body of the type assumed above situated in a

space where c may be a function of position, but not of time.

We take the time derivative of pn , and by applying the chain

rule and the directional derivative along the space curve of c,

we acquire

dpn d En En dcn ds

= cn = 2 .

dt dt c2 c ds dt

The term ds/dt is simply like c, and dcn /ds is the directional

derivative of cn in the direction of ĉn , so we obtain

dpn En En

= − 2 · (ĉn ∇)cn · c = − 2 · (cn ∇)cn .

dt c c

By the mathematical identity grad (A·B) = (A∇)B+(B∇)A+

202 Confined Energy and Gravity

**A × curl B + B × curl A, we obtain
**

dpn En

= − 2 12 grad c2 − cn × curl cn

dt c

En

= − 2 c grad c − cn × curl cn .

c

**We can now sum all the time derivatives of pn and obtain
**

m m m

d X c grad c X 1 X

pn = En − En (cn × curl cn )

dt n=1 c2 n=1 c2 n=1

**The last terms, concerning the interior movements of the energy
**

packets within the body, are in all possible directions and will

cancel out, and we finally acquire

dP

= M c grad c, (5.29)

dt

where P is the resulting momentum of all the packages and

def

M = E/c2 can be dubbed the mass of the body.

If the body moves through space with the velocity v, then the

mean energy flow density within the body is given by

S = En cn = ev.

Hence the mean momentum density, pn , in the body is given by

S En cn e

pn = = = 2 v.

c2 c2 c

Movements of energy packets in a space with varying wave speeds

203

It follows that the momentum of the whole body is

P = M v.

The time derivative of P is also given by

dP dv

=M = M g,

dt dt

where g is the acceleration of the body. If we compare this

expression with that in Equation (5.29) we see that the acceler-

ation of the body is given by

g = c grad c.

**We can conclude that a body situated in a field with varying
**

c gets an acceleration, which we can call the acceleration of

gravity, that is independent of the mass of the body. Note also

that neither the energy nor the mass of the body is changing

when it accelerates in a grad c-field, hence there are no external

forces acting on the body. It is the confined energy that changes

from a more chaotic movement to getting an ordered component

in the direction of g. Newton’s force of gravity is non existing in

open space, it only occurs when a body is hindered from moving

freely, but then it has to be kept back by a force that equals the

force needed to give it an acceleration like g. The force is given

by

F = M g. (5.30)

204 Confined Energy and Gravity

**5.5 Newton’s Gravitational law
**

In this final section I will show that two separate concentrations

of confined energy will attract each other by the same law as

that discovered by Newton some 300 years ago, and finally es-

timate what values µs and ρs should have in order to make the

comparison feasible.

First we have got to find out how the wave speed, c, varies

with compression of the spatial continuum. The question is not

quite trivial. In another paper, Spatial continuum mechanics,

I have addressed this question from two points of view. One

that the spatial continuum has an intrinsic mass density that

only changes when a volume element is compressed to a smaller

volume, and the other that the spatial continuum has no initial

mass density at all and only gets its inertial properties by the

energy that goes into it by compression. Here I will only consider

the first alternative.

Let a volume element, V0 , be changed to a volume V = V0 +∆V .

Then we can set up the relation:

ρs V0 = ρV,

1 1 V0 + ∆V

= ,

ρ ρs V0

and multiply both sides with the property µs

µs µs ∆V

= 1+ .

ρ ρs V0

Newton’s Gravitational law 205

Then by the identity

∆V

lim = div u,

V0 →0 V0

we get the variation of c as a function of div u

c2 = c02 (1 + div u),

**and finally by taking the divergence on both sides of the equa-
**

tion, we obtain

c grad c = α c02 grad div u, (5.31)

**where α by this approach is like 12 . Another approach where ρs
**

is assumed to be proportional to the energy density caused by

compression of the spatial continuum, yields an α that is greater

depending on the grade of compression.

Now let us introduce a mass M1 into space, which generates a

potential given by Equation (5.27)

GM1 r

grad Φ = − .

r2 |r|

**In this field at a distance r we introduce another test mass, M2 ,
**

which is kept from moving and hence be acted upon with a force

given by (5.30)

**F21 = −M2 · c grad c.
**

206 Confined Energy and Gravity

**Note that the force is acting on M2 and the radius vector is from
**

M1 to M2 , hence the negative sign. From (5.31) we get c grad c,

and from (5.28) we get the value of grad div u, and with these

two properties inserted the mutual attraction between the two

bodies above becomes

α c02 GM1 M2

F =

a r2

**Now let the temporary constant a (5.24) be given by a = α c02 .
**

Then the equation above finally reduces to

M1 M2

F =G ,

r2

and according to (5.25) the value of G becomes

α c02 H 2 µs

G= · . (5.32)

6π (λs + 2µs )2

**This is Newton’s equation for the attraction between two heav-
**

enly bodies and needs no additional comments.

It is noteworthy that confined wave energy will displace a pro-

portional amount of the spatial continuum regardless how it

is distributed. Hence the displacement is also a measure of the

amount of confined energy. It is also noteworthy that it is only in

an expanding space that there can be any density gradient that

can be associated with a gravitational field. In a non-expanding

space grad div u ≡ 0 outside any energy concentrations, and no

fields that can be resembled with gravity can occur.

A numerical comparison 207

5.6 A numerical comparison

In this final section I will try to estimate which approximate

values the fundamental constants µs and λs should have in order

to make the defined spatial continuum comparable to empty

space. To make Equation (5.32) simpler, I will estimate the

value of λs to 2µs , and α to 12 . This will certainly keep G

within its numerical order of magnitude. With λs ≈ 2µs and

α ≈ 12 inserted into Equation (5.32), µs becomes

c2 H 2

µs ≈ ,

192πG

and accordingly since c2 = µs /ρs

H2

ρs ≈ .

192πG

**Newton’s gravitational constant G = 6.673 × 10−8 cm3 /g sec2 .
**

The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project Team has measured

Hubble’s constant with an uncertainty of 10 percent to3 H =

70 km s−1 Mpc−1 = 2.3 × 10−18 sec−1 . The speed of light c =

3.0 × 1010 cm/sec. With these values inserted the spatial mass

density amounts to

3

ρs ≈ 1.3 × 10−31 g/cm ,

3 In a press release from May 9. 1996 at http:

oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/press-releases/96-21.txt the most probable

value is reported to be between 68 and 78 km s−1 Mpc−1 .

208 Confined Energy and Gravity

**which is fairly close to the estimated mean spatial density of
**

matter in the universe4 , and finally Lamé’s elastic constant

µs ≈ 1.2 · 10−10 g/sec2 cm. (5.33)

Bibliography

**[1] Yavuz Başar and Dieter Weichert. Nonlinear Continuum
**

Mechanics of Solids. Springer, 1999.

**[2] Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew
**

Sands. The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

Addison-Wesley, 1977.

**[3] S. Flűgge, editor. Mechanics of Solids II, volume VIa/2 of
**

Encyclopedia of Physics. Springer, 1972.

**[4] Egil Hylleraas. Matematisk og teoretisk fysikk. Grøndal &
**

Søns forlag, 1950.

**[5] Erwin Kreyszig. Advanced Engineering Mathematics.
**

JOHN WILEY and SONS, INC, 8 edition, 1999.

**[6] Lawrence E. Malvern. Introduction to the Mechanics of a
**

Continuous Medium. Prentice-Hall, 1969.

210 BIBLIOGRAPHY

**[7] D. H. Menzel, editor. Fundamental Formulas of Physics.
**

Dover Publications, 1960.

[8] Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, and John Archibald

Wheeler. GRAVITATION. W. H. Freeman and Company,

1972.

[9] Seth J. Putterman. Sonoluminescence: Sound into Light.

Scientific American, 272:32–37, February 1995.

[10] Sir Edmund Whittaker. A History of the Theories of

Aether and Electricity, volume I and II. Philosophical

Library, 1951.

[11] Martin V. Zombeck. Handbook of Space, Astronomy and

Astrophysics. Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Index

**acceleration, 83 curved space-time, 75
**

actual stress, 85

deformation gradient, 163

Big Bang, 33, 41 density, 83

body force, 84, 190 displacement field, 83

Bohm, David, 61 displacement vector, 162

bubble, 3, 34, 37, 42 Einstein field equation, 76

Einstein, Albert, 24

Cauchy-Poisson theorem, 84 elastic continuum, 79

chains of oscillating nodes, elasticity tensor, 85

147 elasticity waves, 179

classical approach, 12 electronS, 52

color charge, 67 energy flow vector, 94, 100

confined energy, 25, 192 energy transport, 93

convective coordinate system, entangle, 24, 58, 68

161 equation of motion, 84

Cosmic Background Euler coordinates, 160, 181

Radiation, 40 expanding space., 193

Coulomb gauge, 107

coupled oscillations, 151 Faraday’s law, 13

212 INDEX

**fermion, 65 Linear Theory of Elasticity, 79
**

local energy density, 92, 119

Gauss’s law, 13 local frame, 74

General Relativity, 4, 24 longitudinal wave, 89, 119

geodesic, 75 Lorentz frame, 16

gravitation, 17, 69, 77, 204, Lorenz gauge, 107

206

gravitational constant, 198 mass of radiation, 111

gravitational potential, 3 material coordinates, 160

Matter wave, 64

hadron, 40 matter wave, 59, 64

Helmholtz’s Theorem, 87, 116 Maxwell’s equations, 13

Helmholtz, Hermann von, 18 Maxwell’s stress tensor, 114

hidden dependency, 20, 21, 98 Maxwell, James Clerk, 14

hidden variable, 61 metric tensor, 75, 77

Huygens, Christiaan, 28 Minkowski’s space, 105

hydraulic jump, 39 Minkowski, Hermann, 16

motion, 83

isotropic radiation, 190

Navier, Claude, 17

Kelvin’s theorem, 18, 92, 119 Navier-Cauchy, 88, 117

Kelvin, Lord, 14 Navier-Cauchy equation, 17,

Kelvins cord, 15 86, 89, 116, 119

Kronecker delta, 86 neutral mode, 54, 57

neutrino, 57

Lagrangian coordinates, 160 Newton’s second law, 26

Lamé’s elastic moduli, 86 Newton, Isaac, 26

left stretch tensor, 165 nonlocality, 61

lepton, 40, 65

linear momentum, 83 Occam’s razor, 23

INDEX 213

**Occam, William of, 23 sinks, 95
**

orthogonal, 165 solenoidal standing wave, 140

solitary wave, 39

photon, 49 sonoluminecence, 3

pilot wave, 60, 62 sonoluminescence, 34

Planck’s constant, 45 source, 54

Poisson, Siméon-Denis, 69 sources, 95

polar decomposition theorem, spatial approach, 12

165 spatial continuum, 3, 11, 18,

positive definite, 165 24, 33, 55, 85

positronium, 58 spatial coordinates, 160, 184

postamble, 43, 50, 52 spatial divergence, 181

Poynting’s vector, 113 Special Relativity, 3, 23, 75

preamble, 43, 49, 52 spectral decomposition

principal axes, 166 theorem, 165, 168

propagation theorem, 89, 118 spherical waves, 121

Spin, 49

quarks, 65 spin, 55

Standing waves, 29

radiation pressure, 190 standing waves, 139

relativity, 17, 69, 72 Stokes, George Gabriel, 17

residual stress, 85 stress, 169

Ricci tensor, 77 stress energy tensor, 72, 99,

Riemannian geometry, 75 103, 189

right stretch tensor, 165 stress field, 84

rotation tensor, 165 stress vector, 84

successive deformations, 172

sink, 54

sink density, 19, 21, 97 transversal, 89, 119

214 INDEX

**uniform compression, 171
**

universal frame, 74

**vector potential, 106
**

vectorial line element, 163

velocity, 83

Wave equations, 28

- code for playerUploaded byapi-429640687
- 204Uploaded bydaniel
- 16 Waves and SoundUploaded byahmed mahamed
- Characteristics of Waves RevisionUploaded byAnonymous yQ5Qclspu
- lUploaded byAayush Patel
- Tesla's Dynamic Theory of GravityUploaded byDavid
- 9702_w02_qp_2Uploaded byFarhad Ali
- quizUploaded byeli07yu
- 00b49531f7654ded50000000Uploaded byJack Taylor
- Puzzles to Puzzle YouUploaded byLalit Kumar Agarwalla
- Theory of relativity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.pdfUploaded byProf C.S.Purushothaman
- Strip TheoryUploaded bysuman010101
- PhD Thesis - Ruta Ireng WicaksonoUploaded byRuta Ireng Wicaksono
- Ether Physics PDFUploaded byAshley
- 1934 04 08 Radio & Light Are Sound Sound_unlockedUploaded byTheARKAAH
- Asprem Pondering Imponderables_ Occultism in the Mirror of the Late Classical PhysicsUploaded by1unorma
- Physics I Problems (163).pdfUploaded byBOSS BOSS
- Abstracts 5277Uploaded byCesare Di Girolamo
- PHYSICS 1 WAVE.docxUploaded byKavi Vitya
- Time and Distance.pdfUploaded byrit_387
- Ways to Memorize Formulas For JEE Main Preparation _ CrackiitjeeUploaded byNcnagesh Prasad
- Physics Defn Pack_Revision_2012Uploaded byVarshLok
- 02 Radio Engineering - Radio PropagationUploaded byErwin Priyantono
- ch16.pdfUploaded byRodrigo Silva Quirino
- jresv67Dn1p65_A1bUploaded bySuraj Verma
- Abstract+Book+of+Theo.+Appl.+Mech.+Lett.+--+Fluid+Mechanics+Section.pdfUploaded byPunnamChandar Bitla
- Space TimeUploaded byBarry Nickel
- Archimorph 3Uploaded bygabriel_danut
- Smolin Lee.pdfUploaded bySiarhej Sanko
- Experiment 7Uploaded byVincent Vuong

- Matter as Strings of Oscillating Nodes in a Spatial Continuum.The Schrodinger Wave Equation.Uploaded byBjørn Ursin Karlsen
- Property of InertiaUploaded byBjørn Ursin Karlsen
- Confined Energy in an Expanding Space Compared With GravityUploaded byBjørn Ursin Karlsen
- Elastodynamics in a continuum of infinite extensionUploaded byBjørn Ursin Karlsen
- Standing Waves Between Singularities in an Elastic Continuum of Infinite ExtensionUploaded byBjørn Ursin Karlsen