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Mythology

Heroes

Agamemnon

• Son of Atreus, brother of Menelaus
• Lead Greek army in Trojan War
• Had several children with wife Clytemnestra
• Had disputes with Achilles for taking his girl-slave and Artemis for saying he was equal
• When came home Clytemnestra and her new lover Aegisthus murdered him but son
Orestes killed them later
Achilles

•Son of Peleus and Thetis
•Thetis tried to make him immortal by dipping him the river Styx by his heel which made
it vulnerable
• Thetis tried to hide him from Trojan War by disguising as girl but he was revealed by
Odysseus
• Killed Hector after Hector killed his best friend and dragged his body with a chariot
around Troy
• Killed by Paris, with the help of Apollo, with an arrow in his heel
Perseus

• Son of Zeus and Danae
• Sent to sea after birth by grandfather after a prophecy of Perseus killing him
• Killed Medusa with the help of Hermes and Athena
• Used Medusa’s head to turn enemies to stone
• Killed grandfather by mistake with discus (HAHAHAHA)
Theseus

• Son of Poseidon (or Aegeus) and Aethra
• Sent off to Athena to receive sandals and sword under a large rock
• Killed six murderous bandits on way
• Defeats Minotaur
• On way back forgets to take down black sail so father kills himself
Orpheus

• Son of Calliope and Apollo
• Greatest musician of Romans
• One of Argonauts, music lured crew away from Sirens’ music
• Wife Eurydice killed by serpent so travels to underworld to get her but on way back he
mistakenly looks at her and she was bound to the underworld
• Killed by followers of Dionysus (crazy freaks)
Jason

• Son of Aeson
• Leader of Argonauts and husband of Medea
• Sent on quest to obtain Golden Fleece by King Pelias
• Had to complete a series of tasks to obtain from King Arêtes and fled
• Crew survived Scylla(six headed dragon-freak), Charybdis(whirlpool thing) and Sirens
Gods

Dionysus

•God of wine and fertility of nature
•Son of Zeus and mortal Semele who was killed while pregnant but Dionysus was saved
and raised by nymphs
• Returns to Thebes to make his cousin Pentheus allow the worship of him
• Lures Pentheus to woods where Dionysus’ crazy frickin followers tear him limb from
frickin limb
Heracles

• Son of Jupiter and Alcmene
• Driven insane by stepmom and kills wife and children by mistake
• To retain honor he is sent to Eurystheus and receives the 12 labors of Hercules including
hydra and Cerebus
• Mistakenly killed by wife (IRONY) and sent to Olympus where pizza was made in the
millions
Artemis

• Daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo
• Goddess of the hunt, wild animals and fertility (one of virgin goddesses)
• Asked father Zeus for eternal virginity and punished anyone who tried anything dirty =)
• Example- Actaeon saw her naked so she turned him into stag
• With help of Apollo killed the children of Niobe who boasted she had more children than
Leto
• Her main focus was roam the land with her nymphs to help with the hunt
Apollo

• Son of Zeus and Leto, twin brother of Artemis
• God of music, archery and medicine
• Gave those guilty of murderous deeds purification from their sins
• Killed the giant serpent Python (wow real creative)
• Many love affairs including one with the nymph Daphne who turned into a tree to escape
him
• Made it so that the prophet Cassandra could tell the future but no one would believe her
• Had music contest with Marsyas who he flayed alive
• Had games every four years held in his honor
Hermes

• Son of Zeus and Maia
• God of shepherds, merchants and thieves
• Known for cunning and shrewdness
• Messenger of gods
• Created flute which he traded to Apollo for gold wand
• Guide of souls to underworld
• Father of Pan

Athena

• Goddess of war, justice and wisdom
• Born from Zeus’ head after he ate her mother mortal Metis in fear
• Fought Poseidon over a city in Greece
• Decided the one who could give it the greatest gift won
• Athena gave olive tree while Poseidon gave nasty salt water
Hephaestus

• God of fire and craftsmen
• Son of Zeus and Hera but born weak and crippled so Hera threw his from Mount
Olympus
• As revenge he gave Hera a throne which trapped her but freed her after receiving
Aphrodite as wife
• Learned of Aphrodite and Ares affair from Helios and trapped them in bed for all to see
(but the gods likey)
Prometheus

• Son of Titan, Iapetus
• Tricked gods into eating bare bones instead of meat so mankind could eat meat and
sacrifice bones
• Did not tell Zeus prophecy that one of his sons would overthrow him so bound to have
bird eat his liver and have his liver renewed for eternity
• Endless punishment until Hercules saved him and killed the bird
Aphrodite

• Goddess of love, beauty and sexual rapture (no idea what that is)
• Born from Zeus and Dione
• Married off to Hephaestus in fear off fight of gods over her
• Given golden girdle by Hephaestus which made it impossible to resist her
• Had followers who considered sexual intercourse a method of worship

Creation

Gaea and Ouranous (Uranus)

• Gaea was mother Earth and was born from chaos with Eros (Cupid)
• Had children (without male help) including Ouranous (The Sky)
• With Ouranous they had the Titans and other monsters which Ouranous deemed too ugly
so Gaea hid them in her
• The pain became too great when Ouranous put his “god children” in her and the plan of
Cronus taking over was set
Cronus and Rhea

• Son and daughter of Uranus and Gaia
• Killed father Uranus with sickle by cutting off his genitals
• After he took the throne with Rhea and started the Golden Age (time where there was
no greed, violence, hunger, etc)
• Feared children’s power so swallowed all except Zeus which was swapped with a rock
by Rhea
• With help of Gaia Zeus made Cronus regurgitated the remaining children and defeated
Cronus
Hera

• Daughter of Cronus and Rhea, wife and sister (ewww) of Zeus
• Goddess of marriage and birth
• Able to make virginity return by taken bath
• Her children weren’t made from love but from doin things like eatin lettuce or slapping
her hand on ground (ok….)
• Jealous of Zeus many affairs so either killed ladies or made Zeus do it
• Represented by peacock or cow
• Created great things like arrows for Cupid and thunderbolts of Zeus
Poseidon

• God of sea, earthquakes and horses
• Son of Cronus and Rhea
• Many love affairs including sister Demeter who turned into mare to escape but Poseidon
turned into horse and captured her
• Usually caused earthquakes and water powers to punish people as revenge
• Lost fight over Athens with Athena
Demeter
• Daughter of Cronus and Rhea
• Had Persephone with Zeus
• God of corn and other forms of agriculture
• Persephone was abducted by Hades and Demeter went lookin for her causing no growth
on earth so Zeus sent Hermes to make Hades give her up
• Zeus tricked Persephone into spending a third of each year with him which caused no
growth of plants (winter)
Zeus

• Son of Cronus and Rhea
• Ruler of gods and Mount Olympus
• Ruler of skies and known as god of weather with his thunderbolts
• Made Cronus throw-up siblings and combined with them to defeat him and Titans
• First offspring was Athena
• Affairs with mortal, gods and men
• Olympic Games were held in his honor
• Other children included Hestia and Hades
Ancient Greek History
- Came from nomadic tribes with a sky god, patriarchal and the god of sky because of
weather so it was good to have sky god happy so they could move and hunt
- When they mixed with the other culture, they changed the stories around so that they
included the male god
- Know how they had the sacred king every year and he would be the boy toy and then
after one year he would be sacrificed in the matriarchal culture and his blood spread
among the crops
- Triple moon goddess, waning moon, waxing moon, full moon
- Soon the sacred king found ways to get out of dying so the king began to gain more
power over time and soon it was a male dominated culture
- Sports were always important (funeral games, competitions, wrestling, discus, boxing,
etc.)
- Most myths represent the merger between the two culture and male dominance

- Parthenogenesis: a pro creation without intercourse ()
o Sacred King: from the Palasgians, a young man chosen through competition,
didn’t really have any power, but could make decisions if dressed as a woman,
killed after one year and blood was used to fertilize fields ()
o Chthonic: [relating to the Underworld]
o Anthopomorhic: change from human to other form
- Characters in the Odyssey
o Achaeans: another name for people from Greece
o Antinous: seems to have forgotten that Odysseus once offered his father refuge
o Athena: allows the suitors to insult Odysseus so that he will seek greater revenge
o Argos: only one on Ithaca to recognize Odysseus immediately
o Calypso: offers Odysseus immortality and eternal youth
o Cicones: their reinforcement troops hand Odysseus’ men their first post-Trojan
defeat
o Charybdis: sucks down Odysseus’ raft while he clings to a tree
o Eumaeus: first Ithacan to greet Odysseus on his return home
o Eurylochus: incurs Odysseus wrath when he suggest that Odysseus is rash to
enter Circe’s house
o Eurynome: says she and her mistress have been praying to the suitors’ deaths
o Helios: threathens to light only the underworld if Zeus fails to punish Odysseus
and his men
o Laertes: refuses to eat during the telemachy
o Nausicaa: Athena inspires her to action through thoughts of marriage
o Odysseus: is compared to the land that sailors happily see
o Penelope: possesses a secret sign known only to herself and Odysseus
o Phaeacians: listen to Odysseus’ long tale, then take him home
o Scylla: devours men in a fashion that is compared to a man casting for fish
o Sirens: their sweet singing lures many sailors to death
o Telemachus: offers refuge to the killer prophet Theoclymenus
o Tiresias: a blink, dead seer who first drinks blood, then prophesies for Odysseus
o Zeus: finishes off Odysseus’ last remaining ship with a thunder-bolt
The Odyssey

Odyssey Themes

• Through Athena Telemachus learns to be a leader
• Penelope is like Odysseus and is cunning
• Odysseus is searching for his identity throughout epic and finds it in Ithaca
• Antinuous and his father share the same qualities
• Telemachus seeks fame and so does Odysseus who doesn’t want to die without fame
• Community real important to Odysseus

Odyssey Facts
• Odysseus is all about learning
• Calypso tries to make Odysseus forget his home if he does he loses his identity
• Gods can do anything but they cant change humans fate
• Telemachus doubtful about being Odysseus son and finds his identity through the Telemachy
• People are all about community Odysseus always used to have Assembly Penelope does
thing with weaving loom forever so she wont have social shame
• Penelope shows many resemblances to Odysseus
• Odysseus is a judge
• Odysseus knows the pain he will suffer on ocean but goes any way because he wants to be a
hero
• Phaecia people worship Poseidon and Athena, have best sailors and are like fairy world
cause the close to the gods
• Odysseus loves civilization
• Odysseus learns through the lands he encounters after Trojan War
• Odysseus goes to underworld and goes through hellish experience but comes out a new man
• Women persevere like Odysseus even though the gods cause them hardship
• Odysseus is a godly man

Figurative Language
o Personification: making something seem like person
o Simile: A descriptive phrase using like or as to compare
o Metaphor: a descriptive phrase comparing something to something else that
doesn’t use like or as
o Homeric Simile: a simile that is ten times as big and more descriptive than a
regular simile
o Conceit: A continued simile that goes on for many lines (Shakespeare)
o Imagery:
 Tactile: feel
 Kinesthetic: joints
 Visual: sight
 Auditory: hear
 Organic: feeling in organs
 Gustatory: taste
 Olfactory: smell

Midnight Summer Dream

Mid-Summer Nights Dream Themes
• Forest lets couples work out problems without getting hurt
• Leaders are to focused on other peoples problems
• Each world helps each other out
• Fairies help lovers mechanicals do hard work Theseus makes order
Romeo and Juliet

- Romeo - The son and heir of Montague and Lady Montague. A young man of about
sixteen, Romeo is handsome, intelligent, and sensitive. Though impulsive and immature,
his idealism and passion make him an extremely likable character. He lives in the middle
of a violent feud between his family and the Capulets, but he is not at all interested in
violence. His only interest is love. At the beginning of the play he is madly in love with a
woman named Rosaline, but the instant he lays eyes on Juliet, he falls in love with her
and forgets Rosaline. Thus, Shakespeare gives us every reason to question how real
Romeo’s new love is, but Romeo goes to extremes to prove the seriousness of his
feelings. He secretly marries Juliet, the daughter of his father’s worst enemy; he happily
takes abuse from Tybalt; and he would rather die than live without his beloved. Romeo is
also an affectionate and devoted friend to his relative Benvolio, Mercutio, and Friar
Lawrence.
- Juliet - The daughter of Capulet and Lady Capulet. A beautiful thirteen-year-old girl,
Juliet begins the play as a naïve child who has thought little about love and marriage, but
she grows up quickly upon falling in love with Romeo, the son of her family’s great
enemy. Because she is a girl in an aristocratic family, she has none of the freedom Romeo
has to roam around the city, climb over walls in the middle of the night, or get into
swordfights. Nevertheless, she shows amazing courage in trusting her entire life and
future to Romeo, even refusing to believe the worst reports about him after he gets
involved in a fight with her cousin. Juliet’s closest friend and confidant is her Nurse,
though she is willing to shut the Nurse out of her life the moment the Nurse turns against
Romeo.
- Friar Lawrence - A Franciscan friar, friend to both Romeo and Juliet. Kind, civic-
minded, a proponent of moderation, and always ready with a plan, Friar Lawrence
secretly marries the impassioned lovers in hopes that the union might eventually bring
peace to Verona. As well as being a Catholic holy man, Friar Lawrence is also an expert
in the use of seemingly mystical potions and herbs.
- Mercutio - a relative to the Prince, and Romeo’s close friend. One of the most
extraordinary characters in all of Shakespeare’s plays, Mercutio overflows with
imagination, wit, and, at times, a strange, biting satire and brooding fervor. Mercutio
loves wordplay, especially sexual double entendres. He can be quite hotheaded, and hates
people who are affected, pretentious, or obsessed with the latest fashions. He finds
Romeo’s romanticized ideas about love tiresome, and tries to convince Romeo to view
love as a simple matter of sexual appetite.
- The Nurse - Juliet’s nurse, the woman who breast-fed Juliet when she was a baby and
has cared for Juliet her entire life. A vulgar, long-winded, and sentimental character, the
Nurse provides comic relief with her frequently inappropriate remarks and speeches.
However, until a disagreement near the play’s end, the Nurse is Juliet’s faithful
confidante and loyal intermediary in Juliet’s affair with Romeo. She provides a contrast
with Juliet, given that her view of love is earthy and sexual, whereas Juliet is idealistic
and intense. The Nurse believes in love and wants Juliet to have a nice-looking husband,
but the idea that Juliet would want to sacrifice herself for love is incomprehensible to her.
- Tybalt - A Capulet, Juliet’s cousin on her mother’s side. Vain, fashionable, supremely
aware of courtesy and the lack of it, he becomes aggressive, violent, and quick to draw
his sword when he feels his pride has been injured. Once drawn, his sword is something
to be feared. He loathes Montagues.
- Capulet - The patriarch of the Capulet family, father of Juliet, husband of Lady Capulet,
and enemy, for unexplained reasons, of Montague. He truly loves his daughter, though he
is not well acquainted with Juliet’s thoughts or feelings, and seems to think that what is
best for her is a “good” match with Paris. Often prudent, he commands respect and
propriety, but he is liable to fly into a rage when either is lacking.
- Lady Capulet - Juliet’s mother, Capulet’s wife. A woman who herself married young (by
her own estimation she gave birth to Juliet at close to the age of fourteen), she is eager to
see her daughter marry Paris. She is an ineffectual mother, relying on the Nurse for moral
and pragmatic support.
- Montague - Romeo’s father, the patriarch of the Montague clan and bitter enemy of
Capulet. At the beginning of the play, he is chiefly concerned about Romeo’s melancholy.
- Lady Montague - Romeo’s mother, Montague’s wife. She dies of grief after Romeo is
exiled from Verona
- Paris - A kinsman of the Prince, and the suitor of Juliet most preferred by Capulet. Once
Capulet has promised him he can marry Juliet, he behaves very presumptuous toward,
acting as if they are already married.
- Benvolio - Montague’s nephew, Romeo’s cousin and thoughtful friend, he makes a
genuine effort to defuse violent scenes in public places, though Mercutio accuses him of
having a nasty temper in private. He spends most of the play trying to help Romeo get his
mind off Rosaline, even after Romeo has fallen in love with Juliet.
- Prince Escalus - The Prince of Verona. A kinsman of Mercutio and Paris. As the seat of
political power in Verona, he is concerned about maintaining the public peace at all costs.
- Friar John - A Franciscan friar charged by Friar Lawrence with taking the news of
Juliet’s false death to Romeo in Mantua. Friar John is held up in a quarantined house, and
the message never reaches Romeo.
- Balthasar - Romeo’s dedicated servant, who brings Romeo the news of Juliet’s death,
unaware that her death is a ruse.
- Sampson & Gregory - Two servants of the house of Capulet, who, like their master, hate
the Montagues. At the outset of the play, they successfully provoke some Montague men
into a fight.
- Abram - Montague’s servant, who fights with Sampson and Gregory in the first scene of
the play.
- The Apothecary - An apothecary in Mantua. Had he been wealthier, he might have been
able to afford to value his morals more than money, and refused to sell poison to Romeo.
- Peter - A Capulet servant who invites guests to Capulet’s feast and escorts the Nurse to
meet with Romeo. He is illiterate, and a bad singer (IV.iv.128–166).
- Rosaline - The woman with whom Romeo is infatuated at the beginning of the play.
Rosaline never appears onstage, but it is said by other characters that she is very beautiful
and has sworn to live a life of chastity.
- The Chorus - The Chorus is a single character who, as developed in Greek drama,
functions as a narrator offering commentary on the play’s plot and themes.

Romeo and Juliet Themes
• Contrast between light and dark shows how love is good and bad
• Grave being juliet’s bridegroom is mention throughout and that ends up being the case
• Capulet fickle and bipolar has to have his way
• Romeo always a dreamy character
• The play is a tragic comedy
• Love causes violence because it angers people
Shakespeare Vocab
Alack
Definition: expression of regret, sorrow, dismay, alarm

Anon
Definition: now; at once; soon; shortly

Beseech
Definition: implore; beg; ask; importune

Ere
Definition: before; previous to; sooner than

Methinks
Definition: I think; it seems to me; it appears as if

Morrow
Definition: morning

Soft
Definition: stop, be quiet; hold up

Thee, Thou, Thine, Thy, Thyself
Definition: thee (you), thou (you), thine (yours), thy (your), thyself (yourself)

Wherefore
Definition: why

Zounds
Definition: expression of surprise, anger, amazement, disappointment. The word is a corruption
of "by His wounds" (meaning the wounds of Christ).

Woe- great sorrow
Conjure- bring to mind
Abhore- to detest
Colliers- trash men
Solemnity- being formal, dignified
Nuptial- wedding
Coil- trouble
Consort- gang, mob (derogatory)
'Tis- It is
'Twas- It was
Hence: away, there
Marry: indeed
Plight: sorry condition, fate
Stand: wait
Stay: wait
Whence: where
Braid: to chastise, to yell at
Caitiff: slave, wretched person
Hugger-mugger: secretly
Queen Mab: whore
Vocab
Unit 10

Aspire – seek, aim, desire, hope, want, wish

Diminutive – minuscule, miniature, very small, wee

Erroneous – mistaken, flawed, wrong, incorrect, invalid, untrue

Exploited – browbeaten, subjugated, broken, oppressed, used

Obtrusive – conspicuous, interfering, blatant, meddlesome, prominent, presumptuous

Render – cause to be, Provide, Portray, Turn into, Deliver, Translate

Skeptical – Cynical, Disbelieving, Unconvinced, Dubious, Incredulous

Unit 11

Demure – Modest, Coy, Reserved, Bashful

Depreciation – Reduction, Decrease, Downgrading, Decline

Forestall – Prevent, Anticipate, Avert, Jump in before

Recoil - Shrink back, Shrinking, Withdraw, Withdrawal, Flinch, Jump back

Reek – Stink, Stench, Suggest

Staccato – Disjointed, Disconnected, Faltering

Unit 12

Appreciable – Substantial, Considerable, Significant, Noticeable, Palpable

Blanch - Go pale, Lighten, Bleach, Blench

Blasphemy - Profanity, Sacrilege, Irreverence, Swearword, Profanity

Concerted – Concentrated, Intensive, Combined, Collaborative, Resolute

Irreverent – Disrespectful, Cheeky, Impertinent, Derisive, Impious, Profane

Revere – Admire, Respect, Venerate

Synthetic – Artificial, Man-made, Insincere, Sham, Phony
Grammar:

Subject/Verb/Pronoun Agreement:

-verbs and nouns must have the same person and number in order to agree

-Indefinite Pronouns

-Each=singular pronoun

Each of the girls is studying quietly

-Many, few, both, several=always plural

Many of the walk to the store.

-Everybody=singular

Everybody from my class is going to the party

-Most, any, none= when the object of the prep is singular, the verb should also be (visa

versa)

None of it was fun.

None of them were sleeping.

-Subjects joined by “and” have a plural verb; exceptions are two things that go together, such as:

Bert and Ernie is the best part of Sesame Street.

-Subjects joined by “or” or “not” take singular verbs when both subjects are singular; verb is

plural when both subjects are plural.

Either the boys or the girls eat the most at lunch.

-When the subjects are not the same number, the subject closest to the verb dictates the number

of the verb when one is plural and the other subject is singular.

Either the boy or the girls want to play.

Either the boys or the girl wants to play.
-Pronouns and antecedents must agree in number and gender.

(All rules that apply to subjects and verbs, apply to pronouns and antecedents,

essentially)

-Ms. Stockard's Tirade: “His” is the correct pronoun when the gender is not known.

Usage/Correct Verbs:

-Forms of Verbs:

Basic verbs:

Base Present participle Past Past participle
Jump (am) jumping Jumped (have) jumped
Walk (am) walking Walked (have) walked
Sing (am) singing Sang (have) sung
Eat (am) eating Ate (have) eaten

Tricky verbs:

Lie (am) lying Lay (have) lain
Lay Laying Laid Laid
Sit Sitting Sat Sat
Set Setting Set Set
Rise Rising Raised Raised
Raise Raising Raised Raised
nd
-Verbs with “i” as 2 letter are intransitive (NO direct object): Lie, Sit, etc.

-You must have an auxiliary for participles!

Usage:

-accept: saying yes to something

except: leave out

-affect: to change something (v); physical look (n)

effect: to accomplish (v)--I effected a change.; a result of action (n)
-all right is TWO WORDS

-a lot is also TWO WORDS

-I drive badly. (badly=adv modifying drive)

I feel bad. (bad=adj modifying I)

-bring: to bring towards me

take: take it away from me

-could of-->could've

-emigrate: simply the movement

immigrate: out of a country, into another

-fewer: plural (fewer cars in that parking lot than in this one)

less: singular (has less money than me)

-hopefully: adverb, not to modify whole clause; NOT: Hopefully, Santa Claus will come

tonight

-I wish he wouldn't have done that. Wouldn't have should be had not.

If you had read carefully, you would have passed.

-Like need a preposition:

The animal sheds its skin like a snake does. X

The animal sheds its skin as a snake does. Correct

-Off of: you don't have to include “of”

He jumped off the bridge. (not he jumped off of the bridge)

Tenses:

-The six tenses:

past, past perfect
present, present perfect

future, future perfect

Perfect Tenses:

(Picture a timeline with present perfect on today's date—the things before that are the past,

after= the future)

Past Perfect: -subject+past tense form of “to have” + past participle

-She had put the children to bed before her mother called.

Past: pretty basic—you should just know

Present Perfect: -pres. of “to have”+past participle of main verb

-She has been working on that project for a long time.

Future Perfect:-future of “to have”+past of main verb

-Before too long, Susan will have seen The Godfather.

Progressive Forms: (No more timeline)

-to be+present participle

I am writing. (present progressive)

Perfect Progressives:

-to have+Past participle of to be+ present participle of the verb

I had been working.
ESSAY TOPIC TO END ALL ESSAY TOPICS

This is going to be fun. Here are some sample essay topics that treat all three books

- Society’s effect on people
- Lovers being exactly like each other
- The presence of God/Religion
- Forms of Leadership
- Real World vs. a Fairy type world
- The Effect of Time
- Family Influences Events
- Strength of Women
- Guys Like to Take it All the Way