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Cohen (1990) motivation is something that drives people to do what they do. Definnition Motivation is defined as conditions within the organism which arouse, maintain and direct behaviour towards a specific goal. In public speaking motivation is defined as communicating to an internal force that actuates a behavioral pattern, thought process, action or reaction. Negative forces or positive forces can act as actuators.

Motivational thoughts
A winner never quits and a quitter never wins, is a valuable application in every type of situation. Intrinsic or Extrinsic These forces can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic is when the force comes from within oneself. Extrinsic is when the external forces, positive or negative, produce a behavioral change. Definition of Motivation of the Extrinsic Kind Extrinsic motivation would include circumstances, situations, rewards or punish ment, both tangible and intangible that participation in results in an external benefit. Tangible benefits could include monetary reward or a prize. Intangible could include things like adoration, recognition, and praise. Definition of Motivation of the Intrinsic Kind Intrinsic motivation would include involvement in behavioral pattern, thought process, action, activity or reaction for its own sake and without an obvious external incentive for doing so. A hobby is an example. If you are desirous of mastering public speaking for the sake of mastery and not any reward, you have experienced intrinsic motivation.

Types of Motives
There are three kinds of motives-

Primary or Biological or Basic Hunger, thirst, Avoidance of pain, Need for sleep and air, Elimination of waste,Regulation of temperature,Sex

Stimulus or General Activit , Curiosit , Exploration, anipulation, Ph sical contact

Secondary, Social or Learned Achivement, Affiliation, Aggression, Power, Curiosit .

Vince Augustine/Psychology/motivation

Sources of Moti tional Needs
acti ate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc) decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort, etc. maintain homeostasis, balance increase/decrease affecti e dissonance increase feeling good decrease feeling bad increase securit of threats or of self-esteem maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm maintain attention to something interesting or threatening develop meaning or understanding 

Affecti e

Cogniti e

y Conati e 

obtain personal dream take control of one's life eliminate threats to meeting goal, obtaining dream reduce others' control of one's life elicited by stimulus associated/connected to innately connected stimulus obtain desired, pleasant consequences (rewards) imitate positive models understand purpose of one's life connect self to ultimate unknowns

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Theories of Motivation
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivational model
Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50's USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. 1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. 2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. 3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

Vince Augustine Psyc ology



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increase/decrease sti ulation (arousal

increase/decrease cognitive disequilibrium; uncertaint solve a problem or make a decision figure something out eliminate threat or risk meet individuall developed/selected goal


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4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. 5. Self-Actualization needs - realising personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences Maslow¶s hierarchy of needs ca be represented with a model.

Self Act alisatio and fulfilment Esteem Needs

Personal growth

achievement, Status, Responsibility,reputation

Belo gi g ess, Social a d Love needs

Family, affection, relationships, workgroup, etc.

Safety and Sec rity Needs
Security, comfort, freedom from fear.

Basic and S rvival needs
Psychological needs, water, oxygen, rest, sexual expression

McClelland¶s Need for Achievement Theory (Theory of needs) This theory was developed by David McClelland and his associates. The theory focuses on the three needs : achievement, power, and affiliation. Need for achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for power This is the ability or capacity of a person to produce intended effect on the behaviour or emotions of other people. Need for affilliation The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

Vince Augustine/Psychology/motivation





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Two factor theory
It is also called motivation-hygiene theory. This theory was proposed by Frederick Herzberg. A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction, while associating extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction.

Motivation and Nurse
The nurse has to remember that motives are at work in the lives of the patients, colleagues and her own daily relationships. Understanding own motives and motives of the patient will help the nurse to improve the nurse patient relationship. Nurse should understand the need for satisfaction of the primary needs. Eg. Need for proper food and water, non-polluted fresh air, rooms should not so congested etc. The knowledge of motivation will help her to understand herself and others especially patients. She should understand that the history shared by the patient is completely confidential. She should correlate the psychological factors with the age of the patient and understand that each and every age group is different. A nursing superintendent must reward the good nursing care given by staff nurse so that she is motivated to work harder.


Vince Augustine Psyc ology




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