Sustainability Strategy 2010 - 2020

CONSULTATION DRAFT
As at 19 April 2010

Submitted by Aaron Magner Director, UNSW Sustainability

CONTENTS 1. 2. INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................3 PURPOSE AND SCOPE .....................................................................................................3 2.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................................3 2.2 Scope .........................................................................................................................3 2.3 Review .......................................................................................................................3 2.4 Sustainability - What does it mean? ............................................................................4 IMPERATIVES FOR ACTION ON SUSTAINABILITY...........................................................5 3.1 Leading by example ...................................................................................................5 3.2 Compliance with legislative requirements ..................................................................5 3.3 Economic Savings ......................................................................................................5 3.4 Corporate Social Responsibility ..................................................................................5 3.5 Marketing ...................................................................................................................5 SUSTAINABILITY VISION AND GOALS............................................................................6 4.1 Vision for Sustainability ..............................................................................................6 4.2 Goals .........................................................................................................................6 SUSTAINABILITY GOVERNANCE .....................................................................................9 5.1 Sustainability Working Group ....................................................................................9 5.2 Action Groups ............................................................................................................9 OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS ...........................................................................................10 6.1 Energy and Emissions ...............................................................................................10 6.2 Water .......................................................................................................................12 6.3 Waste .......................................................................................................................13 6.4 Procurement.............................................................................................................14 6.5 Transport ..................................................................................................................15 6.6 Planning and Development ......................................................................................16 6.7 Research ..................................................................................................................17 6.8 Learning and Teaching .............................................................................................18 6.9 Governance .............................................................................................................19 6.10 Biodiversity..............................................................................................................20 SUSTAINABLE POLICY ...................................................................................................21 SUSTAINABILITY COMMUNICATIONS PLAN................................................................22 REPORTING ON UNSW’S SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE........................................23

3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8. 9.

ANNEXURE
ANNEXURE A – DECLARATIONS AND CHARTERS ...............................................................24 ANNEXURE B - SUSTAINABILITY POLICY ............................................................................ 30

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

2

1. INTRODUCTION No longer can society ignore its responsibilities to sustain current and future generations, nor can organisations pretend they have no part to play in the environmental and social well being of the planet. Amid depleting resources, global warming and environmental degradation, the need for change towards sustainability has become more apparent and important than ever. UNSW academics are researching the causes and impacts of climate change. Our engineers are international leaders in the development of renewable energy technologies. Our economists and social scientists have devised policy responses to slow and combat the effects of diminishing resources. Our students and the UNSW community want and expect our campuses to be models of sustainability through everything that we do, from our buildings, to the way we undertake research and facilitate learning as part of an engaging, stimulating campus community. For UNSW to be a leading research intensive university in the Asia-Pacific region, with a focus on contemporary and social issues and to be, a peer in good standing with the best globally, we must aspire to be a leader in sustainability. Sustainability is a guiding principle in UNSW’s Strategic Intent, B2B Blueprint to Beyond. UNSW is also a signatory to a number of international declarations, including Talloires Declaration and the Universitas 21 Statement on Sustainability. This Sustainability Strategy represents UNSW’s commitment to those principles and declarations to improve our sustainability performance across all areas of the University. The Strategy is also a call to the University community to transform our organisational patterns to embody the principles of sustainability into everything that we do – from the way we construct our buildings, dispose of our waste, what we purchase, utilise our existing resources and how we measure our performance. It sets out our sustainability goals in the key operational areas, the approach we will take to achieve them, and how we will record and communicate our progress for the next five to ten years. The Strategy’s ultimate goal is to make the University environmentally sound, socially responsible and economically viable in all our activities. 2. PURPOSE AND SCOPE 2.1 Purpose

This Strategy explains what the University plans to do on a day-to-day basis to incorporate the principles of sustainability into the operational plans of the University. It states our vision and sets out our goals, indicators and performance targets to measure our progress in addressing sustainability across all the core aspects of the University. 2.2 Scope

The Strategy concentrates on embedding the commitment to sustainability into the University’s governance and formal structures, establishing systems to evaluate and report on performance and increasing participation and ownership of the change towards sustainability amongst the community. This Sustainability Strategy focuses the University on its long-term goals while ensuring we remain accountable. This Strategy covers the period from April 2010 to 2020. 2.3 Review

This Strategy will be reviewed on an annual basis in consultation with staff, students and key stakeholders. This process will ensure our vision, goals and plans remain valid in the context of an ever-changing environment. A Strategy review will follow the release of the Annual Sustainability Report.
UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020 3

2.4

Sustainability - What does it mean?

Sustainability has come to mean a lot of things to a lot of people. UNSW accepts the most often quoted definition of sustainability – living successfully in the present without compromising our ability to do so in the future. UNSW also understands that sustainability is closely intertwined with issues such as climate change, planning and development, resource use, diversity and biodiversity, internationalisation, ethical practice, equality and health. For the purpose of this strategy, UNSW’s approach to sustainability recognises the need to work toward a balance between environmental protection, social justice, economic well-being and cultural diversity. Our understanding of these equal dimensions of sustainability is as follows: Environmental protection: To the best of our abilities, negating the impact of our activities on the environment to protect or enhance the local and global ecosystem. We will work to understand the environmental aspects and impacts of our activities and where appropriate change the way that we operate. Social justice: Understanding that our actions affect all members of society and behaving in a way that demonstrates our belief that all people matter. Provide the opportunity for equal employment, decent living and working conditions, support the community in poverty eradication, promotion of full employment and decent work, gender equity and access to social well-being and justice for all. Economic well-being: Maintaining and improving our economic viability to the benefit of staff, students and the community but not at the expense of other principles. Economic well-being is a crucial element of human well-being not least because most aspects of well-being in modern society have to be purchased, including food, water, shelter, health care and comfort. Cultural diversity: UNSW values and protects our cultural diversity. This includes cultural diversity reflected in gender, age, language, ethnicity, cultural background, sexual orientation, and religious beliefs. Cultural diversity also refers to the other ways in which people are different, such as educational level, life experience, work experience, physical disability, socioeconomic background, personality and marital status. It involves recognising and appreciating the value of individual differences.

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

4

3. IMPERATIVES FOR ACTION ON SUSTAINABILITY Universities are expected to practice what they preach and to be environmentally responsible and socially conscious. Apart from its ethical imperatives, sustainability has numerous other benefits such as financial savings, enhanced public image, improved student recruitment and staff engagement. Some of the key imperatives for a focussed commitment towards sustainability at UNSW include: 3.1 Leading by example

UNSW is a key institution in disseminating knowledge and facilitating research and learning. Our leadership and expertise across a range of sustainability related disciplines put UNSW in an excellent position to demonstrate through operational examples of best practice, as well as educational activities and research direction how a community can work and live sustainably. We cannot teach students one thing in the classroom concerning environmental and social matters, while the administrators practice something else on campus. This Sustainability Strategy aims to make the operations of UNSW a model of sustainability best practice. The University can be a catalyst of change, encouraging students and staff to take ownership of our environment and the community in which we learn and live. 3.2 Compliance with legislative requirements

Sustainability principles are increasingly being recognised and mandated in Government policy and legislation both domestically and internationally. This strategy forms a key part of UNSW’s environmental management framework. By measuring, reporting and actively monitoring our sustainability performance the University will be facilitating compliance with Federal and State Government sustainability related legislative requirements 3.3 Economic Savings

While the cost of operating a large research intensive university in Australia is substantial, this can be noticeably reduced while simultaneously decreasing the cost to our environment. Environmental sustainability projects at universities can and have saved thousands of dollars in operating expenses. The Sustainability Office will demonstrate that economic savings can be accomplished at UNSW while working toward our sustainability goals. 3.4 Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporations, universities and other organisations cannot function without consideration for the social and environmental impacts on the community as a result of their operations. UNSW is a large complex institution with substantial water, energy and resource consumption demands and an important role in social leadership. Climate change and diminishing natural resources make it an essential corporate responsibility that we ensure all activities on our campuses are sustainability and are conducted responsibly. 3.5 Marketing

Questions of sustainability are not confined to students interested in environmental management, environmental engineering and social sciences, but are of concern to a broader student and staff community. Practicing sustainability on campus and incorporating it into learning and teaching enhances UNSW’s positive, progressive image, offering students an attractive point of difference. This will attract more local and international students. Making sustainability a priority is also a significant driver in the attraction and retention of the best higher degree research students, academics and professional staff.
UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020 5

4. SUSTAINABILITY VISION AND GOALS 4.1 Vision for Sustainability

Having a vision and defining the University’s goals are important steps in defining our journey towards sustainability. Our vision is a declaration to the community about what UNSW wants to be. UNSW’s sustainability vision has been developed in consultation and with the active participation of staff and students. It is an accumulation of themes and ideas deemed important by the UNSW community. UNSW vision for sustainability is: to be environmentally sound, socially responsible, economically viable and respectful of cultural diversity in all our activities. This means: • • • • • As a research intensive university we function as a sustainable community, embodying responsible consumption of energy, water, food, products and transport; We actively support sustainability in our local community and region; UNSW students leave the University prepared to contribute as global citizens to an environmentally healthy and equitable society; UNSW has a reputation for being the place to learn, to work and to connect with the local and global community; and We actively seek to meet the changing social, environmental, economic and cultural conditions as part of the global effort to reduce humanities impact on the environment. Goals

4.2

To achieve UNSW’s vision for sustainability we must define our goals and objectives. Sustainability goals are interconnected and therefore can’t be considered in isolation. For example, using resources efficiently benefits environmental objectives, while also assisting in achieving economical viability. The following are UNSW’s key sustainability goals and objectives: Summary of key Sustainability Goals 1. Make UNSW a model sustainable community 2. Maintain economic viability and sustainability 3. Enhance and protect the environment 4. Reduce waste and pollutant emissions 5. Use resources efficiently 6. Maximise the utilisation of existing and future infrastructure 7. Embed sustainability into the University policies, procedures and governance. 8. Increase understanding and awareness of sustainability throughout the University 9. Increase staff, student and community communications and participation 10. Foster a vibrant and inclusive campus community. Objectives 4.2.1 • • • • • Make UNSW a model Sustainable Community Create a campus in which students and staff are proud of their environment Meet ethical and environmental standards of practice Receive Fair Trade certification for the University Assist in defining sustainability in terms of graduate capabilities and curriculum development to embed sustainability across course offerings Provide staff and students opportunities to participate in sustainability forums and initiatives
6

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

• •

Promote socially and environmentally responsible behaviour to the University community Involve staff & students in the development & implementation of sustainability plans & processes Economic viability and sustainability Ensure investment seeks to maintain ethical and environmental standards Keep tuition fees fair and equitable Maintain secure, diverse and sustainable funding sources Enhance and protect the environment Ensure all decisions, and in particular developments, minimise environmental impacts Ensure hazardous materials are used only when absolutely necessary Connect learning with practical experience in assisting to maintain and improve the environment and sustainability on campus. Ensure the community understands the value of a healthy ecosystem Reduce waste and pollutant emissions Reduce waste to landfill and improve waste processes Reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions Improve storm water quality Reduce reliance on single passenger vehicle transportation Inverstigate the opportunities for generation of electricity on campus via more energy and carbon efficient means Source and apply for funding for various initiatives particularly relating to energy and water efficiency, as well as improving biodiversity on campus. Divert waste from landfill and increase recycling Use resources efficiently Decrease per capita potable water consumption Increase energy efficiency and supply from renewable resources Identify and implement initiatives to increase water and energy efficiency Ensure procurement, tendering and subcontracting processes reflect our sustainability goals Review existing processes to see where efficiencies can be made through utilisation of online technologies. Maximise the utilisation of existing and future infrastructure Use space efficiently through regular workspace audits to maximise building efficiency and control infrastructure costs Make best use of available infrastructure & ensure it is used to maximum capability & efficiency Build to ensure energy and water efficiency Incorporate sustainability design standards for refurbishments and developments Embed sustainability into the University policies, procedures and governance All relevant policies and procedures will incorporate sustainability University Committees will address sustainability issues Sustainability will be incorporated into key performance indicators Find appropriate ways to embed sustainability into the framework of the University through avenues such as staff inductions, training courses, Performance Development and Review, and Key Performance Indicators
7

4.2.2 • • • 4.2.3 • • • • 4.2.4 • • • • • • • 4.2.5 • • • • •

4.2.6 • • • • 4.2.7 • • • •

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

Continually monitor and report on progress to the community through the sustainability website, internal and external publications and conferences, and an annual sustainability report Develop a sustainability indicator framework which identifies indicators and targets and provides the basis for Triple Bottom Line reporting Increase understanding and awareness of sustainability throughout the University Strengthen staff and student awareness and understanding of sustainability and global citizenship through learning, research and community service Develop resource efficiency education packages for use in workshops and forums with staff, students and the broader community so that staff and students: • understand the connectivity between local and global issues and the need to work collectively as well as individually • understand ethical practice in relation to social, environmental and economic responsibility • display a willingness to contribute to creating a wiser and better society • have an awareness of social disadvantage and social justice issues • have knowledge of, and openness to, other cultures and perspectives Where appropriate present at conferences and forums to showcase the sustainability initiatives of UNSW Collaborate with other higher education institutions to support their sustainability goals Increase staff, student and community communications and participation Establish connections with UNSW academic experts to provide practical assessment work relating to the enhancement of the campus environment Encourage and reward participation in sustainability actions and initiatives Connect with the greater community to promote sustainability and global citizenship through outreach programs, partnerships and collaborations. Establish an incentive system to reward and recognise staff and students who actively assist with the implementation of sustainability initiatives Utilise various media and methods of communication

4.2.8 • •

• • 4.2.9 • • • • •

4.2.10 Foster a vibrant and inclusive campus community • Ensure that all staff and students, regardless of religion, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic background, age, disability or ethnicity feel as though they are a part of the University and the local community Ensure all staff and students are given various opportunities and methods to keep informed and engaged about what is happening at the University Continually seek to include articles in campus publications and media which highlight staff and student innovation and enthusiasm towards sustainability Ensure that staff and students are consulted and given the opportunity to comment on changes occurring at the University through various means including workshops, meetings and online Seek partnerships with businesses, institutions and government organisations locally, nationally and internationally to advance UNSW’s Sustainability Strategy.

• • •

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

8

5. SUSTAINABILITY GOVERNANCE The UNSW’s Sustainability Strategy will be directed and managed by the Director of Sustainability, reporting to the Executive Director – University Services. UNSW Sustainability will have a key role in the delivery of the commitments in this Strategy, with guidance and support from a Sustainability Working Group. UNSW Sustainability and the Sustainability Working Group will work with relevant departments and offices with responsibility for student and staff services such including the Faculties, Facilities Management, Procurement, Marketing Unit, Student Services, and the student organisation ARC@UNSW. Actions to embed sustainability into the structure and operations of the University are to be facilitated by UNSW Sustainability and relevant stakeholders with the support of University Council, Executive Team and Action Groups. While identified actions are facilitated through UNSW Sustainability, implementation of the Strategy requires planning and communication across all Faculties and divisions. Each Faculty and division will have a sustainability representative to enable good communication and information dissemination. Sustainability, like OHS, will be included on the agenda of all existing committees. 5.1 Sustainability Working Group

The Sustainability Working Group provides advice to the UNSW Sustainability Office and the Executive Director – University Services regarding plans, activities and communications which seek to improve the sustainability performance of UNSW. The Sustainability Working Group will be chaired by the Executive Director – University Services and includes representatives from a range of organisational units. 5.2 Action Groups

Action Groups are responsible for providing direction and support to both the UNSW Sustainability Office and the Sustainability Working Group for initiation and implementation of initiatives which improve sustainability performance and embed sustainability into the practices of the University. New Action Groups may be developed and/or existing groups may be absorbed into other groups or discontinued when practice is successfully embedded into culture and no longer requires guidance. 5.3 Legislative Compliance

The UNSW Level 1 OHS committee, now the OHS and Environment (OHS&E) Committee has responsibility allocating management responsibility and ensuring appropriate training and procedures are in place. Responsibility and relevant policies and training for environmental laws and sustainability related legislation is set out in an Environmental Law Compliance Register a copy of which will be regularly tabled and kept up to date by the Level 1 OHS&E Committee and UNSW Sustainability Office.

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

9

6. OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS To achieve the goals and objectives of this Sustainability Strategy the UNSW Sustainability Office will work with Faculties and operational areas of the University utilising the plans, goals and targets set by these organisational units. Action Groups in areas such as water, energy, transport and waste will work directly with the UNSW Sustainability Office to develop Sustainability Action Plans. Each Sustainability Action Plan provides all the detailed actions required to reach objectives, key performance indicators (KPIs) and targets outlined in the following sections of this Strategy. Activities within one area will obviously affect activities in another area. For example, it will be difficult to reach energy and water objectives and targets if the actions addressing planning and development do not reach high design standards for energy and water efficiency. Similarly it will be difficult to gain support and ownership of sustainability initiatives if staff and students are dissatisfied with their work and study environment. 6.1 Energy and Emissions

Climate change poses one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century for individuals and institutions alike. While the extent of climate change is uncertain, its effects cumulative and erratic, that the planet is warming and sea levels are rising is beyond scientific doubt. Despite the complexity and at times uncertainty surrounding the likely impacts of climate change, the solution to the problem is somewhat clearer. Greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced below current levels. What is also clear is that immediate action is essential. If we are to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint we must change the way we procure and manage emission generating activities through innovation and creativity in our thinking. Many of the energy consumption issues we face today have come about as a result of cheap energy. The impact of future energy cost increases further enhances the requirements for high energy efficiency and importantly starts to make a significant impact on using alternative energy. It is for this reason, in conjunction with the need to preserve resources and the environment, that UNSW must plan for the future with regards to energy and emissions patterns. Aim: To use energy efficiently and become a producer of renewable energy to ensure we do not unnecessarily contribute to climate change. Objectives: 1. Use sustainable energy technology to produce energy that is not emissions intensive; 2. Undertake regular carbon emissions auditing to ensure we are consistently decreasing our emissions to an acceptable level; 3. Ensure all equipment purchased maximises energy efficiency; 4. Educate staff, students and the wider community through a power saving awareness campaign, highlighting what individuals can do to make a difference. 5. Establish an Energy and Carbon Reduction Action Group to advise and assist in the implementation of our sustainability targets. Key Performance Indicators and Targets Indicator Total energy consumption per year per
UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

2015 target Reduce by 15% per EFTSU

2020 target Reduce by 30% per
10

Equivalent Fulltime Student Unit (EFTSU) [based on 2% reduction for EFTSU per year] Percent of energy generated on site Percentage of energy from renewable sources Total Greenhouse Gas emissions produced per year for campus operations per EFTSU

from 2010 level

EFTSU from 2010 level

20% 15% Reduced by 30% from 2005 emissions

30% 35% Reduced by 30% from 2005 emissions

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

11

6.2

Water

The intermittent and uncertain supply of water has led individuals and organisations to take an active interest in their water usage and the sustainability of water supply. Australians believe water conservation is one of the most environmental challenges and water is the top environmental issue for more people than any other area of concern. Stemming from this and other imperatives to conserve water the NSW Department of Climate Change and Water requires UNSW, as one of the top 200 water users in NSW, to prepare and publish a Water Savings Action Plan. The UNSW’s Water Saving Action Plan is available at < www.facilities.unsw.edu.au/index.php/download_file/-/view/38> In addition to legislative requirements, UNSW accepts its responsibility to become an efficient water user and demonstrate to the community the place water conservation has in future developments. On many parts of the campus, drinking (potable) water has been replaced with bore water drawn from the underground Botany aquifer on which the Kensington campus sits. UNSW uses a bore water recharge system, which ensures this aquifer is properly managed. The University has devised a system to catch 70 percent of the storm water on the campus, equal to 160 million litres of water (64 Olympic swimming pools) and return this to the groundwater table via the recharge system. Other UNSW campus water saving initiatives include: • • Installation of waterless urinals and timed-flow taps (Each tap saves an estimated 20,000 litres of water a year.) A water treatment plant, being built on the western side of the campus to enable borewater to be used for air conditioning cooling towers and other applications requiring treated water. The borewater treatment plant alone will save 110 million litres of water a year. Underground leak detection in pipes, which amounts to approximately 10 percent of total UNSW consumption.

Aim: To reduce water usage and increase water capture and recycling across UNSW. Objectives 1. To achieve continual improvement in water conservation; 2. To investigate and install water saving devices and new technology; 3. To run a water saving awareness campaigns among the University’s community; 4. To reach Five Star rating in the Every Drop Counts Business Program; 5. Establish an Energy and Carbon Reduction Action Group to advise and assist in the implementation of our sustainability targets. Key Performance Indicators and Targets Indicator Total potable water consumption per EFTSU Total water consumption (potable and bore water) per EFTSU 2015 target Reduced by 20% of 2010 figures Reduced by 15% of 2010 figures 2020 target Reduce by 40% per EFTSU from 2010 level Reduce by 30% per EFTSU from 2010 level

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

12

6.3

Waste

While UNSW was an early pioneer in the recycling of paper and cardboard there is much more to be done to address the large amount of waste produced by the University and subsequently taken to land fill. The University will establish a Waste Reduction and Recycling Action Group to find better solutions to UNSW’s waste issues. Minimising waste and maximising resource recovery opportunities are critical elements of UNSW’s Sustainability Strategy. UNSW’s ultimate goal is zero waste. To turn this into reality the University will examine and re-examine our entire supply chain to find new ways of reducing waste from consumption and transforming waste into resources. UNSW already actively manages the recycling, re-use and disposal of materials ranging from hazardous substances, paper, toner cartridges, food waste and garden vegetation, containers, computers and other electronic equipment, stationery, furniture, laboratory equipment, hard waste, batteries and plastics. Bottles, cans and general waste collected from public areas at UNSW are delivered to an alternative waste technology facility that uses a four-stage biological treatment process to mechanically sort the waste to remove recyclables and inert materials. It then biologically treats the organic materials such as food scraps and garden clippings. Waste is transformed into valued resources, including metals, glass, paper, green electricity and compost with more than 70% of waste materials recovered. This process replaces individual can and bottle recycling bins. As a result UNSW’s recycling rates surpass the New South Wales Government 2014 waste reduction and resource recovery targets. Aim: To increase recycling across campus to 70% and decrease waste to landfill to 30%. Objectives 1. To ensure all waste that can be recycled is recycled, including but not limited to: a. glass, plastic, cartons, aluminium cans b. paper/cardboard c. furniture d. food waste/organics e. e-waste f. Batteries, mobile phones and florescent lights. 2. Run a waste and recycling awareness campaign to educate and raise consciousness in the University community of sustainable waste management practices (rethink, reduce, reuse, recycle). 3. To promote an environment which embraces creative and innovative solutions to promote re-use and recycling and reduce waste to land fill 4. To gather data and report on progress on an annual basis. 5. Establish a Waste Reduction and Recycling Action Group to advise and assist in the implementation of our sustainability targets. Key Performance Indicators and Targets Indicator Amount of solid waste produced per year Percentage of solid waste going to landfill Percentage of solid waste diverted from landfill waste (tonnes) includes organic, cardboard, metals, paper, glass, plastic etc 2015 target Reduced by 20% of 2010 figures Less than 30% of total waste At least 70% of total 2020 target Reduced by 30% of 2010 figures Less than 20% of total waste At least 80% of total

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

13

6.4

Procurement

Current procurement practices at UNSW do not adequately account for sustainability impacts of the goods and services we procure. By incorporating sustainability principles and practices, sustainable procurement can minimise the environmental impacts of the University, as well as benefit society, the natural environment and reduce overall operating costs. Good procurement practice serves efficient and cost-effective operations and it is clear that the procurement practices of the University have great potential to contribute to broader economic, environmental and social objectives. For example, through sustainable procurement, we can drive the production of environmentally and socially friendly goods and services and educate our students and staff about the impact of their purchasing decisions. Aim: To purchase goods only when absolutely necessary, incorporating the whole-of-life impacts of products when doing so. To work with current suppliers and seek future suppliers who will support UNSW to meet its sustainability goals and objectives. Objectives 1. Select products and services which have lower environmental impacts across their life cycle compared with competing products and services 2. Adopt strategies to avoid unnecessary consumption and manage demand 3. Support suppliers who are environmentally and socially responsible and adopt ethical practices 4. Support businesses and industry groups that demonstrate innovation in sustainability. 5. Establish a Sustainable Procurement Action Group to advise and assist in the implementation of our sustainability targets. Key Performance Indicators and Target Indicator Percentage of equipment purchased with maximum efficiency ratings for water and energy Total percent of UNSW merchandise purchased which is fair trade/environmentally/socially sound declared produce Total amount of paper (of all types) purchased by all departments 2015 target At least 90% 2020 target 95%

At least 45%

At least 75%

Reduce by 20% of base year figures

Reduce by 40% of base year figures

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

14

6.5

Transport

Each day more than 60,000 trips are made to and from UNSW most of which are by bus. While the University has a regular express bus service from Central Railway Station the large number of people travelling this route mean that despite a high frequency service, passenger loading times lead to delays and overcrowding. The UNSW Kensington is the largest single destination for people in eastern Sydney and the busiest regular bus route in Australia. The NSW Government’s State Plan includes projections for further jobs growth in the Randwick Education and Health Centre. This will further increase transport pressures. UNSW’s Kensington campus is the only major Sydney University without railway access. The University strongly supports and advocates the construction of a new metro rail line or tram line to link the Kensington campus to the city centre. A rail or tram service would dramatically reduce travelling times and car use, free up local roads and provide a valuable transport connection. It would also eliminate sizeable amounts of greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants. UNSW will continue to campaign and lobby for the construction of a railway line that includes UNSW. While car parking at UNSW is limited, driving by car to and from the University remains attractive to many staff and students. Car transport is in direct conflict with sustainability goals and objectives such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As such, it is necessary to implement actions to change single passenger private vehicle dependency. The University has undertaken to not increase the number of new car parking places available on campus. UNSW will also introduce environmental pricing for parking permits to encourage the use of cleaner vehicles and reward sustainable choices. Permit fees for cleaner vehicles, based on the star rating of vehicles in the Federal Government’s Green Vehicle Guide <www.greenvehicleguide.gov.au> will be lower than for vehicles which emit high levels of greenhouse gas and air pollution. The University has good cycle and pedestrian access however the University will continue to work with the NSW Government and Randwick Council to further improve public transport, cycle and pedestrian access and to improve facilities for cycling on campus. Aim: Achieve a Transport Greenhouse Gas Reduction target of 40% over the next 5-10 years based on 2010 levels. Objectives: 1. Change current travel patterns towards more sustainable modes using two approaches: a use initiatives which encourage and make it easier to change b use discouragement initiatives which make the car driving experience less attractive. 2. Reduce the need to travel by supporting telecommuting and video conferencing. 3. Limit the environmental impact as much as possible for those who continue to drive. 4. Establish a Sustainable Transport Action Group to advise and assist in the implementation of our sustainability targets. Key Performance Indicators and Targets Indicator Total number of students and staff primarily travelling alone in a car to and from campus Increase number of students and staff primarily travelling by foot or bicycle to & from campus Increase the number of students and staff primarily travelling by public transport Reduce Transport CO2 emissions

2015 target Students: 15% of EFTSU Staff: 35% of staff Students: 20% of EFTSU Staff: 20% of staff Students: 60% of EFTSU Staff: 45% of staff Reduce by 20% of 2010 figure

2020 target Students: 10% EFTSU Staff: 25% Students: 25% EFTSU Staff: 25% of staff Students: 65% EFTSU Staff: 55% of staff Reduced by 40% of 2010 figure
15

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

6.6

Planning and Development

Sustainable planning and development is in line with growing community expectations and complies with emerging state and local government planning and development requirements. UNSW’s Kensington Campus Strategic Brief commits the University to ensuring that future developments on all of our main campus incorporate sustainability principles. We are also committed to ensuring at all UNSW campuses and field stations incorporate sustainability principles. UNSW is committed to setting goals, objectives and targets in relation to sustainable green building design, planning and facilities management. Green buildings have benefits such as longer lifespan, reduced replacement and lower operating costs. Additionally, carbon emissions are reduced and environmental and social responsibility is accounted for. More energy efficient buildings will be less affected by an impending carbon emissions trading scheme. Aim: To reach best practice standards in accordance with Green Building Council frameworks in building design and campus planning for future developments on all UNSW campuses and field stations. Objectives: 1. Inform all stakeholders about principles and practices that guide the approach to sustainability in planning and development 2. Detail the fundamental design elements for Environmentally Sustainable Design 3. Conserve and protect natural resources by protecting non-renewable resources encouraging efficient buildings for energy and water conservation and minimisation of waste and pollution 4. Maximise long-term value of developments by catering for future generations of users 5. Continually improve to meet market and community expectations 6. Develop sustainable buildings and urban spaces to assist in the goal to become a sustainable campus. Key Performance Indicators and Targets Indicator Green Building Council of Australia 5 star (or better) for all new buildings and major refurbishments 2015 target 100% of all new buildings 70% for major refurbishments 2020 target 100% of all new buildings 100% for major refurbishments

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

16

6.7

Research

It is a key goal in UNSW’s B2B Blueprint to Beyond, Strategic Intent to be nationally and internationally recognised and reviewed research is a goal for UNSW. To become a leading research University and take our place amongst the top 3 research universities in the world, we need to undertake research that is useful to society as a whole. UNSW is already making a unique contribution to the study of global warming and study of sustainability practices more generally. We undertake outstanding research in this area with unparalleled achievements in photovoltaic and water research, the built environment and areas of the social sciences. UNSW’s School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering are international leaders in the development of solar cell and renewable energy technologies. Our Climate Change Research Centre, with its critical mass of researchers addressing almost every aspect of climate change, directly influences policy on Australia's environmental management. The UNSW Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) provides postgraduate programs in Environmental Management and multi-disciplinary teaching in sustainability building networks for consulting and research work in projects requiring technical and social or policy expertise. UNSW will work to maintain our leadership in sustainability research and this research will set the standard and a model for how large organisations conduct themselves in an environmentally responsible and sustainable way. Aim: To become a leading research University known for its contribution to achieving environmental and societal goals Objectives: 1. Undertake an analysis of research to establish the amount of collaborative projects 2. Encourage and support research related to sustainability, providing a platform for sharing findings and recommendations 3. Support student research into social and/or environmental issues Key Performance Indicators and Targets Indicator Total number of on campus research projects involving two or more oncampus departments Total tenured faculty ‘specialised’ in sustainability focused research Total research dollars spent on sustainability based projects 2015 target At least 40% of total research At least 20% of tenured staff Continued increase 2020 target At least 50% of total research At least 30% of tenured staff Continued increase

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

17

6.8

Learning and Teaching

UNSW already has some of the best sustainability related educational programs in the world. UNSW remains committed to the Universities Australia policy on Education for Sustainable Development, aimed at promoting an appropriate institutional culture of sustainable development and building capacity in the community by educating the next generation of professionals and leaders to become fully aware of sustainability. Sustainability has been referred to in higher education learning and teaching for many years following initial drives to ‘green’ the curriculum. How to incorporate issues of sustainability into the higher education experience of students continues to promote debate not least because the meaning of sustainability varies across individuals, programs and institutions. Likewise there are many ideas about how best to incorporate education for such a capability into the curriculum. UNSW has a growing emphasis on sustainability in learning and teaching as indicated by the Learning and Teaching plan, the integration of ‘planet, people and participation’ into program design, and the incorporation of sustainability into the framework of graduate capabilities. Sustainability in the curriculum aligns with drivers such as the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005 – 2015 and the NSW Council of Environmental Education who have resolved that: Aim: Incorporate sustainability into the learning and teaching of the University. Objectives 1. To stimulate academic debate and discourse about sustainability, its meaning, values and approaches to learning and teaching 2. To engage the University community in reflecting on and incorporating sustainability in learning and teaching 3. To foster the development of engaged and ethical local and global citizens who are aware of the challenges of contemporary society and willing to participate in the creation of a wiser and better world 4. To articulate the principles of sustainability for the community 5. To ensure incorporation into the curriculum via graduate capability statements 6. To make more explicit to students those aspects of sustainability already incorporated in learning and teaching programs Key Performance Indicators and Targets Indicator Total number of programs that have sustainability as a component Total number of students having taken at least one unit with substantial sustainability content Total tenured faculty ‘specialised’ in sustainability focused teaching 2015 target At least 75% At least 60% 2020 target 100% At least 80%

At least 30%

At least 50%

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

18

6.9

Governance

To embed sustainability into the framework of any organisation it is essential to address governance. It is insufficient to assume that technological changes along with educational and awareness campaigns will lead to sustained change over the long term. UNSW needs to review all its existing policies and procedures, as well as stated values, visions, missions and key performance indicators to ensure that sustainability is encompassed within these. We also need to develop a clear process to monitor, evaluate and report on progress against this Sustainability Strategy. Producing an Annual Sustainability Report will environmental help us measure our progress towards our sustainability goals and communicate these to the wider community. The UNSW Sustainability Office, the Sustainability Working Group and relevant stakeholders with the support of University Council, Executive Team and Action Groups will work with relevant departments and offices with responsibility for student and staff services such to embed sustainability into the structure and operations of the University.

Aim: To have sustainability embedded into the core of UNSW’s operations. Objectives: 1. To ensure appropriate policies and procedures are in place 2. Work with senior executives, directors, heads of departments and managers to assist them in understanding what it means to incorporate sustainability into daily practices 3. Incorporate sustainability into key performance indicators 4. Align the strategic direction of the University with the strategic direction of the sustainability program 5. Ensure departments and faculties have sustainability representatives and include sustainability on the agenda at meetings

Key Performance Indicators and Targets Indicator Total number of policies in place supporting sustainability Total number of Faculties with sustainability representatives and/or committees 2015 target 80% of possible policies 80% 2020 target 100% of possible policies 100%

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

19

6.10

Biodiversity

UNSW’s Kensington campus contains a number of threatened ecological vegetation communities. This gives both benefits and responsibilities. The benefits include the amenity values and the ability of students to implement theoretical learning in the local area, as well as the intangible environmental benefits that accrue. Responsibilities include the need to manage these areas appropriately for future generations and to link with our neighbours in creating biodiversity corridors through the region. Continual development, new buildings, the creation of towns and cities and other human activities all have an impact on plants and animals, endangering some, and creating conditions where others thrive. How plants and animals react with their environment and the way this can affect major adaptive change to generations of species in the future is increasingly becoming a concern. At UNSW, a concerted effort is being made to improve the native plant and animal communities on campus. As a result, at least half the plantings in landscape projects include indigneous plant species from locally propagated seed. The Green Trail is a bush tucker and biodiversity walk on the Kensington campus which highlights the beauty and ecological significance of the plants found in the Sydney basin. It showcases many of the initiatives UNSW is practising in environmental sustainability. The Green Trail passes 25 different native plants, which in many cases were used by Aboriginal Australians for food, medicine and tools. These plants are mapped and signposted on the Green Trail. The Green Trail also includes “Buildings and Technologies” and “Programs and People”. Buildings and Technologies highlights the technological innovations and sustainability policies that UNSW applies in the design and construction of new buildings. Programs and People showcases the environmental research, teaching and operational programs in place on campus. Aim: To ensure minimal management natural systems at UNSW campus by detailing, protecting, enhancing and linking existing biodiversity nodes. Objectives 1. To develop a learning and teaching environment that includes management of biodiversity and geodiversity on campus 2. To ensure best practice management of existing biodiversity and improve the biodiversity values on campus 3. To ensure that all University policies and procedures consider the importance of biodiversity values on campus and that development and maintenance works on campus enhance these values

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

20

7. SUSTAINABLE POLICY UNSW was one of the first Australian universities to establish a high-level environmental advisory body, the Environment Policy Advisory Committee (EPAC), and to prepare a corporate Environment Policy, approved by University Council in February 1995. An environment policy was revised and updated in 2000 and again in 2004 with the current UNSW policy approved by University Council on 20 June 2005. The University also has an Environmental Management Plan that expired in 2010. It is proposed that this Sustainability Strategy be endorsed along with a new Sustainability Policy to replace the existing Environmental Management Plan and Environment Policy. A draft UNSW Sustainability Policy to replace the existing Environment Policy has been distributed for comment and is at Annexure B.

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

21

8. SUSTAINABILITY COMMUNICATIONS PLAN Effective Communication is essential to changing existing practices Addressing sustainability provides UNSW with an opportunity to market its actions to current and future staff, students, the community and businesses. Our sustainability communications plan seeks to define the communication strategy and achieve the following goals: Goals 1. Improve recognition of UNSW’s contribution to sustainability 2. Communicate a clear message of UNSW’s vision, goals and achievements 3. Improve awareness and understanding by staff and students about sustainability at UNSW. Objectives Promote UNSW’s sustainability initiatives through: • • UNSW Publications including News@UNSW, Unkien, Tharunka, Blitz Communication and consultation with staff, students, University Council, the Alumni Association, UNSW Foundation, donors, community groups, individual community leaders, the education and sustainability community. A high quality Annual Sustainability Report A UNSW sustainability website that contains resources and is regularly updated Social media including Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Flickr. Relevant higher education, local community publications and other print media. Annual Town Hall Meetings, forums and events Coordinated and sustained communication of UNSW Sustainability vision and strategy UNSW BrainFood public lecture on Sustainability topics Demonstrated commitment to the vision and strategy in written and verbal communications with staff in Faculties, Schools and Department whenever appropriate. Sustainability Working Group meetings Communicate progress and gain input and advice from DVC and Executive Director – University Services with monthly meetings Organise regular meetings with Media and Communications Unit Education/sustainability-specific media. Politicians, both State and Federal.

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

This Sustainability Strategy communicates a clear, integrated and coherent message of our commitment to sustainability. UNSW will promote this Sustainability Strategy to provide a strongly visible vision of UNSW sustainability actions and plans to both the University’s internal community and to its external stakeholders.

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

22

9. REPORTING ON UNSW’S SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE As part of our commitment to our sustainability and our stakeholders UNSW will regularly, and where possible continuously, report and communicate its progress towards achieving sustainability against each of the objectives and targets in this Sustainability Strategy. Most ASX 200 companies and more than half of the Fortune 500 already release annual Sustainability Reports, also called Corporate Social Responsibility Reports, Triple Bottom Line and Global Citizenship Reports. Leading national and multinational corporations know that addressing sustainability and reporting on progress against targets not only benefit the environment and society, they support the bottom line and improve perception of the organisation by customers and employees. Reporting on our social and environmental performance presents a challenge, as some of the information is not captured within the existing mandatory financial reporting framework. Consequently, a Sustainability Report Action Group will help facilitate the collection of data and information for sustainability reporting throughout the University. Aim The Sustainability Report Action Group will aim to: 1. Develop a reporting framework that aligns with recognised and accepted sustainable reporting guidelines including the Global Reporting Initiative and UN Global Compact 2. Support the implementation of data reporting systems to standardise and regularise sustainability reporting 3. Produce a Sustainability Report every 12 months which is consistent and comparable over time. 4. Measure and report the University’s Carbon Footprint incorporating all relevant aspects of UNSW’s operations and in accordance with internationally recognised reporting standards 5. Analyse key progress to establish the annual benchmarking targets and priorities 6. Develop and standardise measurement systems and data collection and storage techniques for all relevant areas 7. Effectively communicate findings to all stakeholders and regularly check the effectiveness of the annual Sustainability Report with key stakeholders 8. As part of communicating progress towards sustainability, utilise a variety of communicative methods such as a UNSW Sustainability website, staff and student publications, etc. 9. Make reports and sustainability data available on the Internet in open source machinereadable formats. 10. Recommend areas of priority attention to the Sustainability Working Group and associated Action Groups UNSW’s annual Sustainability Report will be approved by the Sustainability Working Group and presented to the Vice Chancellor and University Council each year. This report will be published and made available to internal and external stakeholders.

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

23

ANNEXURE A – DECLARATIONS AND CHARTERS
The following are the major declarations and organisations endorsed by UNSW, each calling for universities to make a strong commitment to the implementation of sustainability.
Declarations and Charters Talloires Declaration Organisation or Event University Leaders for a Sustainable Future Main Goal The Talloires Declaration is a ten-point action plan for incorporating sustainability and environmental literacy in teaching, research, operations and outreach at colleges and universities. The Universitas 21 Statement on Sustainability affirm recognition of the commitments concerning the leadership of universities in progressing global sustainable development including that signatories lead by example: Establish the University Campus as a Living Laboratory a for Sustainable Future. This charter is similar in content to the Talloires Declaration and provides a strong framework to guide sustainability within Australian Universities. Declaration outlining the responsibility of universities to contribute toward the attainment of sustainability, and the specific actions they must undertake to fulfil that responsibility. It recognises 8 principles concerning the role of universities in global efforts to attain sustainability. Global sustainable development agenda to set into place a range of activities designed to implement sustainability. It advocates a holistic approach to environmental education. Focuses on the global implementation of environmental education for everyone’s benefit, while working to build the community’s capacity to co-create a sustainable future. Declares a commitment to Education for Sustainable Development, and acknowledges the leading role played by universities in furthering the goals of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. Australian Greenhouse Office Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from buildings, waste products and plant & office equipment. To urge universities worldwide to seek, establish and disseminate a clearer understanding of Sustainable Development. It is recommended that each university have its own action plan which makes an institutional commitment to the principle and practice of sustainable development

Universitas 21

The Universitas 21 Statement on Sustainability

Australian Universities Ecological Development (UAED) Charter National Union of Students.

National Union of Students

Sapporo Sustainability Declaration

G8 University Summit

Agenda 21 (particularly Chapter 36 [Education, Public Awareness and Training])

UNESCO

United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2015

UNESCO

AVCC Policy on Education for Sustainable Development

Australian Vice-Chancellor’s Committee (now Universities Australia)

The Greenhouse Challenge

Australian Greenhouse Office

Kyoto Declaration on Sustainable Development

IUA

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

24

Annexure B – Sustainability Policy

SUSTAINABILITY POLICY
UNSW Policy Responsible Officer Contact Officer Superseded Documents Review File Number Director, UNSW Sustainability Office Aaron Magner Director – UNSW Sustainability Office

Environment Policy Review shall commence date June 2011 Trim file 2010 UNSW Sustainability Strategy Associated Documents Environmental Compliance Register Talloires Declaration, Universitas 21 Version Authorisation Approval Date Effective Date Authorised by Executive Director – 0.1 20 June 2010 20 June 2010 University Services 1. Purpose To outline UNSW’s commitment to sustainability. 2. Background Sustainability is a guiding principle in UNSW’s Strategic Intent, B2B Blueprint to Beyond. UNSW is also a signatory to a number of international declarations, including Talloires Declaration and the Universitas 21 Statement on Sustainability. As a leading research intensive university in the Asia-Pacific region, with a focus on contemporary and social issues, a peer in good standing with the best globally, we aspire to be a leader in sustainability. UNSW is committed to incorporating the principles of sustainability into its actions and practices. UNSW is understands its responsibility to the community and the environment, as well as its duty to promote a healthy workplace and campus for staff and students. The University takes the approach that sustainability is an ongoing effort to improve the quality of people’s lives and surroundings. This approach is targeted towards ensuring prosperity, whilst maintaining the life supporting systems that current and future generations depend on. 3. Scope This policy applies to the activities of the University and people associated with it such as staff, students, visitors and contractors. 4. Definition of Sustainability Sustainability has come to mean a lot of things to a lot of people. UNSW accepts the most often quoted definition of sustainability – living successfully in the present without compromising our ability to do so in the future. UNSW also understands that sustainability is closely intertwined with issues such as climate change, planning and development, resource use, diversity and biodiversity, internationalisation, ethical practice, equality and health. For the purpose of this strategy, UNSW’s approach to sustainability recognises the need to work toward a balance between environmental protection, social justice, economic well-being and cultural diversity. Our understanding of these equal dimensions of sustainability is as follows: • Environmental protection: To the best of our abilities, negating the impact of our activities on the environment to protect or enhance the local and global ecosystem. We will work to understand the environmental aspects and impacts of our activities and where appropriate change the way that we operate. •
UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020 25

Social justice: Understanding that our actions affect all members of society and behaving in a way that demonstrates our belief that all people matter. Provide the opportunity for equal employment, decent living and working conditions, support the community in poverty eradication, promotion of full employment and decent work, gender equity and access to social well-being and justice for all. Economic well-being: Maintaining and improving our economic viability to the benefit of staff, students and the community but not at the expense of other principles. Economic well-being is a crucial element of human well-being not least because most aspects of well-being in modern society have to be purchased, including food, water, shelter, health care and comfort. Cultural diversity: UNSW values and protects our cultural diversity. This includes cultural diversity reflected in gender, age, language, ethnicity, cultural background, sexual orientation, and religious beliefs. Cultural diversity also refers to the other ways in which people are different, such as educational level, life experience, work experience, physical disability, socioeconomic background, personality and marital status. It involves recognising and appreciating the value of individual differences.

UNSW is committed to embedding sustainability across the institution through by balance between the each of these dimensions of sustainability. 4. Policy Statement UNSW’s vision is for the University to be ecologically sound, socially just and economically viable in all of its activities. This means: • • • • As an institution we function as a sustainable community, embodying responsible consumption of energy, water, food, products and transport. We actively support sustainability in our local community and region. UNSW has a reputation for being the place to learn, to work and to connect with the local and global community. UNSW students leave the University prepared to contribute as working citizens to an environmentally healthy and equitable society.

Global social and community awareness: The University recognises connections to the local and global community and acknowledges that its actions and decisions have the ability to affect others beyond the immediate community. To this end sustainability will be incorporated into research as well as learning and teaching, and our reach to the local and global community will be extended through active partnerships and participation. Participation: Staff, student and community participation in decision-making about the University’s activities is valued and will be sought whenever possible in the development and implementation of the University’s sustainability agenda. A range of mechanisms will be established for this purpose inclusive of joint working parties and local sustainability committees. Shared responsibility: All members of the University community are responsible for our sustainability performance and as such will be made aware of their role through induction, professional development, the provision of necessary educational and material resources and ongoing training and awareness. Sustainability is the responsibility of all staff and students and will form an important part of key performance indicators as a matter of process over time. Demonstrating best practice: The University will integrate sustainability into all its aspects and functions. It will be embedded into all operational policies and procedures; considered in all strategic and operational planning; and enabled through sustainable practices. Research into sustainability best practice in the higher education sector and other sectors of the economy will also be undertaken to ensure the University maintains best practice where possible. Leadership: Educational, research and resource management activities will be utilised to profile sustainable practices amongst staff, students and the communities served by UNSW

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

26

Openness and transparency: Actions and processes will be transparent and progress will be reported fully to staff, students and the wider community Precautionary principle: Caution and prudence will guide decisions and the absence of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing measures in the context of uncertain environmental or social effects. Innovation and creativity: Creative and innovative approaches will be employed to find solutions to and eliminate unsustainable practices. 5. Legal & Policy Framework Roles and responsibilities are set out in the Environmental Compliance Register and UNSW’s Sustainability Strategy. 6. Review UNSW’s sustainability vision, goals and objectives will be reviewed on an annual basis in consultation with staff and students. This process will ensure that our statements are still valid in the context of an ever changing environment. The University will monitor and report on progress against identified indicators and targets on a regular basis. These reports will be made publicly available and will be discussed regularly with staff and students. Appendix A: History Version Authorised by President and 1.0 Vice-Chancellor

Approval Date May 2010

Effective Date May 2010

Sections modified Not Applicable

UNSW Sustainability Policy Version: 0.1 3 May 2010

Page x

UNSW Sustainability Strategy 2010 to 2020

27

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful