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Electric motors and generators

Jitendra kumar
1103107

D.C. GENERATORS-CONSTRUCTION & OPERATION

DC Generators
Principle of operation
Action of Commutator
Constructional details of DC Machine
Types of DC generators
EMF Equation

DC Generator

DC motor

D.C. GENERATORS PRINCIPLE OF


OPERATION
DC generator converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy. when a conductor move in a magnetic
field in such a way conductors cuts across a magnetic
flux of lines and e.m.f. produces in a generator and it is
defined by faradays law of electromagnetic induction
e.m.f. causes current to flow if the conductor circuit is
closed.

Faradays laws

First Law :
Whenever the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes, an e.m.f. is always
induced in it.
or
Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux, an e.m.f. is induced in that
conductor.
Second Law :
The magnitude of the induced e.m.f. is equal to the rate of change of flux
linkages.

Faradays Law of Electromagnetic Induction


A changing magnetic flux through a loop or loops of wire induces an electromotive
force (voltage) in each loop.

Lenzs Law

The induced currents in a conductor are in such a direction as to


oppose the change in magnetic field that produces them..

The direction of induced E.M.F in a coil (conductor) is such


that it opposes the cause of producing it..

Fleming's Right Hand Rule

The Thumb represents the direction of

Motion of the conductor.


The First finger (four finger) represents
Field.
The Second finger (Middle finger)
represents Current

Fleming's Right Hand Rule

Are the basic requirements to be satisfied for


generation of E.M.F
1.A uniform Magnetic field
2.A System of conductors
3.Relative motion between the magnetic
field and conductors

Simple loop generator

Simple loop generator


with slip ring

Generators
Basic operation of the generator
As the loop rotates, the magnetic flux through
it changes with time
This induces an e.m.f and a current in the
external circuit
The ends of the loop are connected to slip
rings that rotate with the loop
Connections to the external circuit are made
by stationary brushes in contact with the slip
rings

Simple loop generator


with split ring

Working Principle of D.C Generator

Schematic diagram of a simple DC


Generator
1st half cycle(00 to 1800 ) Path of current
ABR1B1MLR2B2CD
2st half cycle(1800 to 3600) Path of current
DCR2B1MLB2R1BA

1)Yoke
-

Acts as frame of the machine


Mechanical support
low reluctance for magnetic flux
High Permeability
-- For Small machines -- Cast ironlow cost
-- For Large Machines -- Cast Steel (Rolledsteel)
Small DC machine

Large DC machine

2)pole cores and pole shoes

Constructional Details Of DC Machine


Yoke:
Rotor:
Stator:
Field electromagnets:
Pole core and pole shoe:
Brushes:
Shaft:
Armature:
Coil:
Commutator:
Bearings:

Construction details of DC generator


Cross section view of dc machine

Practical Dc Machine

2)pole cores and pole shoes


a) Pole core (Pole body) :- --Carry the field coils
--Rectangle Cross sections
-- Laminated to reduce heat losses
--Fitted to yoke through bolts
b) Pole shoe:- Acts as support to field poles
and spreads out flux
Pole core & Pole shoe are laminated of annealed steel
(Of thickness of 1mm to 0.25 mm)

4)commutator
:--Hard drawn copper bars segments insulated from each
other by mica segments (insulation)
-- Between armature & External circuit
-- Split-Rings (acts like Rectifier AC to DC )

5&6 Bearings and Brushes


5)Brushes and brush gear:Carbon, Carbon graphite, copper used to Collects current
from commutation (in case of Generator)
6)Shaft and bearings:Shaft-- Mechanical link between prime over and armature
Bearings For free rotation

DC Machine Construction

Armature Winding
Armature Winding is classified into two types:
Lap winding
Wave windings

Armature windings

Lap Winding:

are used in machines designed for low voltage and high current
armatures are constructed with large wire because of high current
Eg: - are used is in the starter motor of almost all automobiles
The windings of a lap wound armature are connected in parallel. This
permits the current capacity of each winding to be added and provides a
higher operating current.
No of parallel path, A=P ; P = no. of poles

Wave winding:

are used in machines designed for high voltage and low current
their windings connected in series
When the windings are connected in series, the voltage of each winding
adds, but the current capacity remains the same
are used is in the small generator.
No of parallel path, A=2,

Commutation process in D.C Generator


Commutation is the positioning of the DC generator brushes so that the
commutator segments change brushes at the same time the armature current
changes direction.

The total losses in a dc machine


1.Cu losses
2.Iron losses
3.Mechanical losses
Cupper losses are mainly due to the current passing through the winding.
1.Armature cu losses
Cu losses

(30 to 40% of full load losses)

2.Shunt field cu losses(20 to30% of full load losses)


3.Series field cu losses

1.Cu losses

Armature cu losse s= Ia2 Ra


Ra=Armature resistance , Ia= Armature current
--Losses due to brush contact resistance is usually include in armature cu losses
Shunt field cu losses = Ish2Rsh
Rsh=Shunt field resistance, Ish=Shunt field current
Series field cu losses = Ise2Rse
Rse=Series field resistance , Ise=Series field current

2.Iron
losses (Magnetic losses) (20 to 30% of full load losses)

1)Hysteresis losses
2)Eddy current losses

1)Hysteresis losses (Wh)


The losses is due to the reversal of magnetisation of the armature core
Every portion of the rating core passes under N and S poles alternately. There by attaining S and N
polarity respectively. The core undergoes one complete cycle of magnetic reversal after passing
under one pair of poles.
P=No. of poles
N= Armature speed in rpm
frequency of magnetic reversals
f=NP
120
The losses depends upon the volume and B max and frequency of reversals.
Hysteresis losses is given by steinmetz formula

Wh= B1.6maxf V wats


V=Volume of the core in m3
= Steinmetz hysteresis coefficient

2)Eddy current losses:-(We)


when the armature core rotates, it cuts the magenetic flux hence an e.m.f
induced in in the body of the core according to faradays law of electro magnetic
induction. This e. m.f through small sets up large current in the body of the core
due to its mall resistance. This current is known as Eddy Current

We=k B2 maxf2t2v2 watts

Bmax=maximum flux densities


f=Freequency of the magenetic reversals
v=volume of the armaturecore
t=Thick ness of lamination

Efficiency of D.C Generator


Efficiency of generator is defined as the ratio of output power to input power
Efficiency

() =output 100
input

input=output+ losses

(or) output=input-losses

For D.C generator input mechanical & output electrical

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