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1.

The sports offered at a retirement village are Golf (G), Tennis (T) and Swimming (S). The Venn
diagram shows the numbers of people involved in each activity.

2
11
1

(a)

(b)

6
3

4
4

How many people


(i)

only play golf?

(ii)

play both tennis and golf?

(iii)

do not play golf?

Shade the part of the Venn diagram that represents the set G S.

Working:

Answers:
(a) (i) ..
(ii) .
(iii) .
(Total 4 marks)

2.

The table below shows the relative frequencies of the ages of the students at Ingham High
School.

(a)

Age
(in years)

Relative
frequency

13

0.11

14

0.30

15

0.23

16

0.21

17

0.15

Total

If a student is randomly selected from this school, find the probability that
(i)

the student is 15 years old;

(ii)

the student is 16 years of age or older.

There are 1200 students at Ingham High School.


(b)

Calculate the number of 15 year old students.

Working:

Answers:
(a) (i) ...
(ii) ..
(b) ..
(Total 4 marks)

3.

The table below shows the number of left and right handed tennis players in a sample of 50
males and females.
Left handed

Right handed

Total

Male

29

32

Female

16

18

Total

45

50

If a tennis player was selected at random from the group, find the probability that the player is
(a)

male and left handed;

(b)

right handed;

(c)

right handed, given that the player selected is female.

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..
(b) ..
(c) ..
(Total 4 marks)

4.

Let

= {x : 1 x < 17, x

P , Q and R are the subsets of

}.
such that
P = {multiples of four};
Q = {factors of 36};
R = {square numbers}.

(a)

List the elements of


(i)
(ii)

P Q R.
(2)

(b)

Describe in words the set P Q.


(1)

(c)

(i)

Draw a Venn diagram to show the relationship between sets P, Q and R.


(2)

(ii)

Write the elements of

in the appropriate places on the Venn diagram.


(3)

(d)

Let p, q and r be the statements


p: x is a multiple of four;
q: x is a factor of 36;
r: x is a square number.
(i)

Write a sentence, in words, for the statement


(p r) q
(2)

(ii)

Shade the region on your Venn diagram in part (c)(i) that represents (p r) q
(1)

(iii)

(a)

Use a truth table to determine the values of (p r) q. Write the first


three columns of your truth table in the following format.
p

F
(3)

(b)

Write down one possible value of x for which (p r) q is true.


(1)
(Total 15 marks)

5.

Note: For this question, it is important that you show your working and explain your method
clearly.
A box contains 10 coloured light bulbs, 5 green, 3 red and 2 yellow. One light bulb is selected at
random and put into the light fitting of room A.
(a)

What is the probability that the light bulb selected is


(i)

green?
(1)

(ii)

not green?
(1)

A second light bulb is selected at random and put into the light fitting in room B.
(b)

What is the probability that


(i)

the second light bulb is green given the first light bulb was green?
(l)

(ii)

both light bulbs are not green?


(2)

(iii)

one room has a green light bulb and the other room does not have a green light
bulb?
(3)

A third light bulb is selected at random and put in the light fitting of room C.
(c)

What is the probability that


(i)

all three rooms have green light bulbs?


(2)

(ii)

only one room has a green light bulb?


(3)

(iii)

at least one room has a green light bulb?


(2)
(Total 15 marks)

6.

It is known that 5% of all AA batteries made by Power Manufacturers are defective. AA


batteries are sold in packs of 4.
Find the probability that a pack of 4 has
(a)

exactly two defective batteries;


(3)

(b)

at least one defective battery.


(2)
(Total 5 marks)

7.

In each of the Venn diagrams, shade the region indicated.


(a)

(b)

(c)

AB

The complement of (A B)

The complement of (A B)

(d)

A (B C)

C
Working:

(Total 4 marks)

8.

A bag contains 2 red, 3 yellow and 5 green sweets.


Without looking, Mary takes one sweet out of the bag and eats it. She then takes out a second
sweet.
(a)

If the first sweet is green, what is the probability that the second sweet is also green?

(b)

If the first sweet is not red, what is the probability that the second sweet is red?

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..
(b) ..
(Total 4 marks)

9.

Three propositions p, q and r are defined as follows:


p: the water is cold.
(a)

q: the water is boiling.

r: the water is warm.

Write one sentence, in words, for the following logic statement:


( p q) r

(b)

Write the following sentence as a logic statement using symbols only.


"The water is cold if and only if it is neither boiling nor warm"

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..
(b) ..
(Total 4 marks)

10.

In a school, 180 pupils are asked which is their favourite outdoor sport in winter. The pie chart
shows the result of the survey. The diagram is not accurately drawn.

H ockey
(4 3 )

F o o tb a ll
(5 6 )

R ugby
(3 8 )

O th e r
N e tb a ll
(3 4 )
(a)

Calculate the angle of the sector representing rugby.

(b)

Estimate the probability that a pupils favourite outdoor sport in winter will be hockey.

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..
(b) ..
(Total 4 marks)

10

11.

Let
= {positive integers less than 15};
X= {multiples of 2};
Y = {multiples of 3}.
(a)

Show, in a Venn diagram, the relationship between the sets , X and Y.


(1)

(b)

List the elements of:


(i)

XY
(1)

(ii)

X Y.
(2)

(c)

Find the number of elements in the complement of (X Y).


(2)
(Total 6 marks)

12.

Three propositions are defined as follows:


p: The oven is working.
q: The food supply is adequate.
r: The visitors are hungry.
(a)

Write one sentence, in words only, for each of the following logic statements.
(i)

qrp
(2)

(ii)

r (p q)
(2)

(b)

Write the sentence below using only the symbols p, q and logic connectives.
"If the oven is working and the food supply is adequate then the oven is working or the
food supply is adequate."
(2)

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(c)

A tautology is a compound statement which is always true. Use a truth table to determine
whether or not your answer to part (b) is a tautology.
Hint: Begin by writing the first two columns of your truth table in the following format:
p

F
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

12

13.

Consider the following statements:


p: Good mathematics students go to good universities
q: Good music students are good mathematics students
r: Students who go to good universities get good jobs
(a)

From these statements, write two valid conclusions.

(b)

Write in words each of the following


(i)

q;

(ii)

p r.

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..
..
..
(b) (i) ...
...
(ii) ..
..
(Total 4 marks)

13

14.

A group of 25 females were asked how many children they each had. The results are shown in
the histogram below.
N u m b e r o f C h ild re n p e r F e m a le
10
9
8
7
6
F req u e n c y 5
4
3
2
1
0

(a)

2
N u m b e r o f C h ild re n

Show that the mean number of children per female is 1.4.


(2)

(b)

Show clearly that the standard deviation for this data is approximately 1.06.
(3)

(c)

Another group of 25 females was surveyed and it was found that the mean number of
children per female was 2.4 and the standard deviation was 2. Use the results from parts
(a) and (b) to describe the differences between the number of children the two groups of
females have.
(2)

(d)

A female is selected at random from the first group. What is the probability that she has
more than two children?
(2)

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(e)

Two females are selected at random from the first group. What is the probability that
(i)

both females have more than two children?


(2)

(ii)

only one of the females has more than two children?


(3)

(iii)

the second female selected has two children given that the first female selected had
no children?
(1)
(Total 15 marks)

15.

A group of 30 children are surveyed to find out which of the three sports cricket (C), basketball
(B) or volleyball (V) they play. The results are as follows:
3 children do not play any of these sports
2 children play all three sports
6 play volleyball and basketball
3 play cricket and basketball
6 play cricket and volleyball
16 play basketball
12 play volleyball.
(a)

Draw a Venn diagram to illustrate the relationship between the three sports played.
(1)

(b)

On your Venn diagram indicate the number of children that belong to each region.
(3)

(c)

How many children play only cricket?


(2)
(Total 6 marks)

15

16.

Let the propositions p, q and r be defined as:


p: Matthew arrives home before six oclock
q: Matthew cooks dinner
r: Jill washes the dishes
(a)

(i)

Express the following statement in logical form.


If Matthew arrives home before six oclock then he will cook dinner.
(1)

(ii)

Write the following logic statement in words.


qr
(1)

(b)

(i)

Copy and complete the truth table below.


pq

q r r

(p q) (q r) r

[(p q) (q r) r] p

q r

T T

T F

F T

F F

T T

T F

F T

F F

T
(5)

(ii)

Explain the significance of the truth table above.


(2)
(Total 9 marks)

17.

Nene and Deka both play netball. The probability that Nene will score a goal on her first attempt
is 0.75. The probability that Deka will score a goal on her first attempt is 0.82.
Calculate the probability that
(a)

Nene and Deka will both score a goal on their first attempts;

(b)

neither Nene nor Deka will score a goal on their first attempts.
16

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..
(b) ..
(Total 4 marks)

18.

The propositions p and q are defined as follows:


p: you have understood this topic
q: you will be able to do this question
(a)

Write the following proposition in symbols using p, q and logical connectives only.
You have understood this topic, or you will not be able to do this question.

17

(b)

Explain, in words only, what the following symbolic proposition represents:


(p q) p.

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..
(b) ..
(Total 4 marks)

19.

In a club with 60 members, everyone attends either on Tuesday for Drama (D) or on Thursday
for Sports (S) or on both days for Drama and Sports.
One week it is found that 48 members attend for Drama and 44 members attend for Sports and x
members attend for both Drama and Sports.
(a)

(i)

Draw and label fully a Venn diagram to illustrate this information.


(3)

(ii)

Find the number of members who attend for both Drama and Sports.
(2)

(iii)

Describe, in words, the set represented by (D S)'.


(2)

(iv)

What is the probability that a member selected at random attends for Drama only or
Sports only?
(3)

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The club has 28 female members, 8 of whom attend for both Drama and Sports.
(b)

What is the probability that a member of the club selected at random


(i)

is female and attends for Drama only or Sports only?


(2)

(ii)

is male and attends for both Drama and Sports?


(2)
(Total 14 marks)

20.

The propositions p, q and r are defined as follows:


p: this is a good course
q: the course is worth taking
r: the grading is lenient
(a)

Write a symbolic statement for each of the following sentences.


(i)

If this is a good course, then it is worth taking.

(ii)

Either the grading is lenient, or the course is not worth taking.


(2)

(b)

Write the following argument using p, q, r and logic symbols or connectives only.
If this is a good course, then it is worth taking. Either the grading is lenient, or the course
is not worth taking. But the grading is not lenient. Therefore, this is not a good course.
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

19

21.

Two jars contain a number of coloured balls as indicated in the diagrams below.

2 B la c k
3 W h ite

2 B la c k
1 W h ite

Jar One

Jar Two

Two experiments are carried out.


First Experiment: A jar is first chosen at random and then a ball is drawn from that jar.
(a)

Draw, and label fully, a tree diagram to show all possible outcomes of this experiment.
(2)

(b)

What is the probability that a white ball is drawn?


(3)

Second Experiment: The ball drawn in the first experiment is not replaced. A second ball is then
drawn from the same jar.
(c)

What is the probability that both balls are white?


(2)
(Total 7 marks)

22.

Members of a certain club are required to register for one of three games, billiards, snooker or
darts.
The number of club members of each gender choosing each game in a particular year is shown
in the table below.

(a)

Billiards

Snooker

Darts

Male

39

16

Female

21

14

17

Use a (Chi-squared) test at the 5% significance level to test whether choice of games
is independent of gender. State clearly the null and alternative hypotheses tested, the
expected values, and the number of degrees of freedom used.
2

(13)

The following year the choice of games was widened and the figures for that year are as
20

follows:

(b)

Billiards

Snooker

Darts

Fencing

Male

15

10

Female

10

21

17

37

2
If the test were applied to this new set of data,

(i)

why would it be necessary to combine billiards with another game?

(ii)

which other game would you combine with billiards and why?
(2)

A club member is to be selected at random.


(c)

What is the probability that the club member selected is a


(i)

female who chose billiards or snooker?

(ii)

male or female who chose darts or fencing?


(2)
(Total 17 marks)

23.

The universal set U is defined as the set of positive integers less than 10. The subsets A and B
are defined as:
A = {integers that are multiples of 3}
B = {integers that are factors of 30}
(a)

List the elements of


(i)

A;

(ii)

B.

21

(b)

Place the elements of A and B in the appropriate region in the Venn diagram below.
U

Working:

Answers:
(a) (i)
(ii) ............................................................
(Total 4 marks)

22

24.

A bag contains two red sweets and three green sweets. Jacques takes one sweet from the bag,
notes its colour, then eats it. He then takes another sweet from the bag.
Complete the tree diagram below to show all probabilities.
R ed

2
5

R ed

G re en
2
4

R ed

G re e n

G re en
Working:

(Total 4 marks)

25.

If each of the following compound propositions is true, what conclusions can be made?
(a)

x < 7 or x 3, and x < 7

23

(b)

p = 3 if and only if q = 5, and if q 5 then r 12.

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..
(b) ..................................................................
(Total 4 marks)

26.

In a survey of 52 students it was found that 30 study Spanish and 15 have computers. Seven of
the students who study Spanish also have computers.
(a)

Copy and complete this table.


Study
Spanish

Do not study
Spanish

Total

Have computers
Do not have computers
Total

52
(3)

24

(b)

Draw and label fully a Venn diagram to illustrate this information. Use U to represent the
set of all students surveyed, S the set of students who study Spanish and C the set of
students who have computers.

(2)

(c)

Describe, in words, the set represented by C S .


(2)

(d)

Find n(C S ).
(1)

A student is selected at random to attend a computer workshop given in Spanish.


(e)

What is the probability that the student


(i)

has a computer and studies Spanish?


(2)

(ii)

as a computer but does not study Spanish?


(2)

(iii)

as a computer if he/she studies Spanish?


(2)
(Total 14 marks)

25

27.

[(p q) p] q
(a)

(b)

Complete the truth table below for the compound statement above.
p

p q

(p q) p

[(p q) p] q

Explain the significance of your result.

Working:

Answers:
(b) ..................................................................
..................................................................
(Total 4 marks)

28.

Two propositions p and q are defined as follows:


p: the number ends in zero
q: the number is divisible by 5
(a)

Write in words
(i)

p q;

(ii)

the converse of (p q).

26

(b)

Write in symbolic form


(i)

the inverse of (p q);

(ii)

the contrapositive of (p q).

Working:

Answers:
(a) (i) ...........................................................
...........................................................
(ii) ...........................................................
...........................................................
(b) (i) ...........................................................
(ii) ...........................................................
(Total 4 marks)

29.

The sets A, B and C are subsets of U. They are defined as follows:


U = {positive integers less than 16}
A = {prime numbers}
B = {factors of 36}
C = {multiples of 4}

(a)

List the elements (if any) of the following:


(i)

A;

(ii)

B;

(iii)

C;

(iv)

A B C.
(4)

(b)

(i)

Draw a Venn diagram showing the relationship between the sets U, A, B and C.

27

(ii)

Write the elements of sets U, A, B and C in the appropriate places on the Venn
diagram.
(4)

(c)

From the Venn diagram, list the elements of each of the following
(i)

A (B C);

(ii)

(A B);

(iii)

(A B) C.
(3)

(d)

Find the probability that a number chosen at random from the universal set U will be
(i)

a prime number;

(ii)

a prime number, but not a factor of 36;

(iii)

a factor of 36 or a multiple of 4, but not a prime number;

(iv)

a prime number, given that it is a factor of 36.


(6)
(Total 17 marks)

30.

Two propositions p and q are defined as follows.


p: Jones passed this course
q: Smith passed this course
(a)

Write in symbolic form


(i)

neither Jones nor Smith passed the course;

(ii)

it is not the case that Jones and Smith both passed the course.

28

(b)

Complete the following truth table for the logic statement p q.


p

pq

Working:

Answers:
(a) (i) ...
(ii) ...
(Total 4 marks)

29

31.

A committee U has three sub-committees: research R, finance F and purchasing P. No member


belongs to both finance and purchasing sub-committees. Some members belong to both research
and purchasing committees. All members of the finance sub-committee also belong to the
research sub-committee.
Draw a Venn diagram, showing the relationship between the sets U, R, F and P.
Answer:

(Total 4 marks)

32.

A teacher has a box containing six type A calculators and four type B calculators.
The probability that a type A calculator is faulty is 0.1 and the probability that a type B
calculator is faulty is 0.12.
(a)

Complete the tree diagram given below, showing all the probabilities.
0 .1

FA U LT Y

ty p e A
0 .6
N O T FA U LT Y
FA U LT Y
0 .4
ty p e B
N O T FA U LT Y

30

(b)

A calculator is selected at random from the box. Find the probability that the calculator is
(i)

a faulty type A;

(ii)

not faulty.

Working:

Answers:
(b) (i) ...
(ii) ...
(Total 4 marks)

33.

Let F be the set of all families that have exactly 2 children.


(a)

Assuming P(boy) = P(girl), copy and complete the following tree diagram, for families
with 2 children.
B oy

1
2

B oy
G irl
B oy
G irl

G irl

(2)

31

(b)

What is the probability that a family chosen at random from F has exactly
(i)

2 boys?

(ii)

2 boys, if it is known that the first child is a boy?

(iii)

2 boys, if it is known that there is a boy in the family?


(3)
(Total 5 marks)

34.

100 students were asked which television channel (MTV, CNN or BBC) they had watched the
previous evening. The results are shown in the Venn diagram below.
U
M TV

C N N
35

19

23
6

3
7
BBC
From the information in the Venn diagram, write down the number of students who watched
(a)

both MTV and BBC;

(b)

MTV or BBC;

(c)

CNN and BBC but not MTV;

(d)

MTV or CNN but not BBC.


(Total 4 marks)

32

35.

Let p and q be the statements


p: you watch the music TV channel
q: you like music
(a)

Consider the following logic statement.


If you watch the music TV channel then you like music.
(i)

Write down in words the inverse of the statement.

(ii)

Write down in words the converse of the statement.


(4)

(b)

Construct truth tables for the following statements:


(i)

p q.

(ii)

p q.

(iii)

p q.

(iv)

p q.
(4)

(c)

Which of the statements in part (b) are logically equivalent?


(1)
(Total 9 marks)

36.

Consider the statement If a figure is a square, then it is a rhombus.


(a)

For this statement, write in words


(i)

its converse;

(ii)

its inverse;

(iii)

its contrapositive.

33

(b)

Only one of the statements in part(a) is true. Which one is it?

Working:

Answers:
(a) (i) .......................................
.......................................
(ii) .......................................
.......................................
(iii) .......................................
.......................................
(b) ..............................................
(Total 8 marks)

37.

The Venn diagram below shows the number of students studying Science (S), Mathematics (M)
and History (H) out of a group of 20 college students. Some of the students do not study any of
these subjects, 8 study Science, 10 study Mathematics and 9 study History.
U
1

A
2
1

3
3

34

(a)

(i)

How many students belong to the region labelled A?

(ii)

Describe in words the region labelled A.

(iii)

How many students do not study any of the three subjects?


(5)

(b)

Draw a sketch of the Venn diagram above and shade the region which represents S H.
(1)

(c)

Calculate n(S H).


(2)

This group of students is to compete in an annual quiz evening which tests knowledge of
Mathematics, Science and History. The names of the twenty students are written on pieces of
paper and then put into a bag.
(d)

One name is randomly selected from the bag. Calculate the probability that the student
selected studies
(i)

all three subjects;

(ii)

History or Science.
(2)

(e)

A team of two students is to be randomly selected to compete in the quiz evening. The
first student selected will be the captain of the team. Calculate the probability that
(i)

the captain studies all three subjects and the other team member does not study any
of the three subjects;

(ii)

one student studies Science only and the other student studies History only;

(iii)

the second student selected studies History, given that the captain studies History
and Mathematics.
(5)
(Total 15 marks)

35

38.

A poll was taken of the leisure time activities of 90 students.


60 students watch TV (T), 60 students read (R), 70 students go to the cinema (C).
26 students watch TV, read and go to the cinema.
20 students watch TV and go to the cinema only.
18 students read and go to the cinema only.
10 students read and watch TV only.
(a)

Draw a Venn diagram to illustrate the above information.

(b)

Calculate how many students


(i)

only watch TV;

(ii)

only go to the cinema.

Diagram:

Working:

Answers:
(b) (i) ..
(ii) ..
(Total 8 marks)

36

39.

Consider the following statements.


p: students work hard
q: students will succeed
(a)

Write the following proposition in symbols using p, q and logical connectives only.
If students do not work hard, then they will not succeed.

(b)

Complete the following truth table, relating to the statement made in part (a), and decide
whether the statement is logically valid.
p

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..................................................................
(b) ..........
(Total 8 marks)

40.

Heinrik rolls two 6-sided dice at the same time. One die has three red sides and three black
sides. The other die has the sides numbered from 1 to 6. By means of a tree diagram, table of
outcomes or otherwise, answer each of the following questions.
(a)

How many different possible combinations can he roll?

37

(b)

What is the probability that he will roll a red and an even number?

(c)

What is the probability that he will roll a red or black and a 5?

(d)

What is the probability that he will roll a number less than 3?

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..................................................................
(b) ..................................................................
(c) ..................................................................
(d) ..................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

38

41.

In the Venn diagram below, A, B and C are subsets of a universal set U = {1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9}.
U

B
2

3
9
8

List the elements in each of the following sets.


(a)

AB

(b)

ABC

(c)

(A C) B

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..................................................................
(b) ..................................................................
(c) ..................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

42.

The sets U, P, R and S are defined as follows:


39

U = {all quadrilaterals}
P = {all parallelograms}
R = {all rectangles}
S = {all squares}
(a)

Draw a Venn Diagram illustrating the relationships of the above sets.


(4)

(b)

Draw a separate Venn Diagram for each of the examples below.


Indicate by shading each of the following:
(i)

(P S)

(ii)

(R S) P
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

43.

Consider each of the following statements:


p: Alex is from Uruguay
q: Alex is a scientist
r: Alex plays the flute
(a)

Write each of the following arguments in symbols:


(i)

If Alex is not a scientist then he is not from Uruguay.

(ii)

If Alex is a scientist, then he is either from Uruguay or plays the flute.


(3)

(b)

Write the following argument in words:


r (q p)
(3)

40

(c)

Construct a truth table for the argument in part (b) using the values below for p, q, r and
r. Test whether or not the argument is logically valid.
p

T
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

44.

Fifty students at Layton High School recorded how much money each student in their class
spent on video rentals this month (to the nearest dollar). The results are shown in the frequency
table below:

(a)

Class interval in $

Boundaries in $

Frequency

110

0.5010.50

10

1120

10.5020.50

20

2130

20.5030.50

10

3140

30.5040.50

4150

40.5050.50

5160

50.5060.50

6170

60.5070.50

On graph paper using a scale of 2 cm to represent each interval ($10.00) on the horizontal
axis and 1 cm to represent 5 people on the vertical axis, draw and clearly label a
frequency histogram which displays the above information.
(5)

41

(b)

Answer the following questions:


(i)

Which class is the modal class?

(ii)

In which class is the median?


(2)

(c)

Assuming these students spend the same amount on videos each month, find the
probability that next month a student will spend an amount in the class interval:
(i)

From $21 to $30 inclusive on video rentals.

(ii)

$30 or less on video rentals.

(iii)

From $41 to $60 on video rentals, given that they spent more than $20 on video
rentals.

(iv)

Not more than $60 on video rentals, given that they spent over $10 on video
rentals.
(6)
(Total 13 marks)

42

45.

Consider two propositions p and q. Complete the truth table below for the compound
proposition.
(p q) ( p q)
p

pq

(b)

(f)

T (a)

(c)

(g)

pq

(p q) ( p q)

(d)

(e)

(h)

Working:

(Total 8 marks)

43

46.

The following Venn Diagram shows the sets U, A, B and C.


U
B

A
C

State whether the following statements are true or false for the information illustrated in the
Venn Diagram.
(a)

AC=

(b)

CB=C

(c)

C (A B)

(d)

A C

Working:

Answers:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

..................................................................
..................................................................
..................................................................
...................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

44

47.

3
Today Philip intends to go walking. The probability of good weather (G) is 4 . If the weather is
17
good, the probability he will go walking (W) is 20 . If the weather forecast is not good (NG)
1
the probability he will go walking is 5 .
(a)

Complete the probability tree diagram to illustrate this information.


W
17
20
G
3
4
N W
W

N G

N W

(b)

What is the probability that Philip will go walking?

Working:

Answer:
(b) ..................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

48.

(a)

Solve 2x + 3 = 5.
45

(b)

Consider the logic statements.


p: 2x + 3 = 5

q: x = x
2

The compound proposition 2x + 3 = 5 x = x is given.


Is this compound proposition true?
(c)

Write down the converse of this compound proposition.

(d)

Give an example to show that the converse is false.

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..................................................................
(b) ..................................................................
(c) ..................................................................
..................................................................
(d) ..................................................................
..................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

49.

On a particular day 100 children are asked to make a note of what they drank that day.
They are given three choices: water (W), coffee (C) or fruit juice (F)
1 child drank only water.
6 children drank only coffee.
8 children drank only fruit juice.
5 children drank all three.
7 children drank water and coffee only.
53 children drank coffee and fruit juice only.
18 children drank water and fruit juice only.
(a)

Represent the above information on a Venn Diagram.


(4)

(b)

How many children drank none of the above?


(2)

46

(c)

A child is chosen at random. Find the probability that the child drank
(i)

coffee;

(ii)

water or fruit juice but not coffee;

(iii)

no fruit juice, given that the child did drink water.


(4)

(d)

Two children are chosen at random. Find the probability that both children drank all three
choices.
(3)
(Total 13 marks)

47

50.

Let U = {4,

2
3 , 1, , 13, 26.7, 69, 1033}.

A is the set of all the integers in U.


B is the set of all the rational numbers in U.
(a)

List all the prime numbers contained in U.

(b)

List all the members of A.

(c)

List all the members of B.

(d)

List all the members of the set A B.

Working:

Answers:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

..................................................................
..................................................................
..................................................................
..................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

51.

Let p and q be the statements:


p: Sarah eats lots of carrots.
q: Sarah can see well in the dark.
Write the following statements in words.
(a)

p q.

(b)

p q.

(c)

Write the following statement in symbolic form.


48

If Sarah cannot see well in the dark, then she does not eat lots of carrots.

(d)

Is the statement in part (c) the inverse, the converse or the contrapositive of the statement
in part (a)?

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..................................................................
..................................................................
(b) ..................................................................
..................................................................
(c) ..................................................................
(d) ..................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

49

52.

Two identical dice have sides numbered one to six. The dice are weighted. All the numbers
except the four have equal probability of appearing on top. The four is three times as likely as
each of the other numbers to appear on top.
The tree diagram below shows some of the probabilities.
a
8

one
tw o
1
8
1
8

th re e
b
8
fo u r

1
8

1
8
fiv e

s ix

(a)

Find the values of a and b in the diagram.

(b)

Both dice are thrown. Calculate the probability that two fours appear on top.

50

(c)

One of the dice is thrown once. The result is not a two or a three. What is the probability
that it is a six?

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..................................................................
(b) ..................................................................
(c) ..................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

53.

There are two biscuit tins on a shelf. The red tin contains three chocolate biscuits and seven
plain biscuits. The blue tin contains one chocolate biscuit and nine plain biscuits.
(a)

A child reaches into the red tin and randomly selects a biscuit. The child returns that
biscuit to the tin, shakes the tin, and then selects another biscuit.
Find the probability that
(i)

both biscuits chosen are chocolate.


(2)

(ii)

one of the biscuits is plain and the other biscuit is chocolate.


(3)

51

(b)

A second child chooses a biscuit from the blue tin. The child eats the biscuit and chooses
another one from the blue tin. The tree diagram below represents the possible outcomes
for this event.
C

10
P
C
9
10

P
a
b

(i)

Write down the values of a and b.


(2)

(ii)

Find the probability that both biscuits are chocolate.


(1)

(iii)

What is the probability that at least one of the biscuits is chocolate?


(3)

(c)

Suppose that before the two children arrived, their brother randomly selected one of the
biscuit tins and took out one biscuit.
Calculate the probability that this biscuit was chocolate.
(4)
(Total 15 marks)

52

54.

Shade the given region on the corresponding Venn Diagram.


(a)

AB
U
B

(b)

CB
U
A

(c)

(A B C)
U
B

53

(d)

A C
U
A

C
(Total 8 marks)

55.

Consider the following logic statements:


p: the train arrives on time
q: I am late for school
(a)

Write the expression p q as a logic statement.

(b)

Write the following statement in logic symbols:


"The train does not arrive on time and I am not late for school."

(c)

Complete the following truth table.


p

pq pq

54

(d)

Are the two compound propositions (p q) and ( p q) logically equivalent?

Working:

Answers:
(a) ..................................................................
..................................................................
(b) ..................................................................
(d) ..................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

56.

The probability, p, that James gets up before 07.00 is 0.95.


If James gets up before 07.00, the probability, t, that he arrives at school on time is 0.98.
If James gets up later than 07.00, the probability that he arrives at school on time is 0.55.
The above information is represented by the following tree diagram.
t
p
not t
t
not p
not t
(a)

Complete the tree diagram.

(b)

Calculate the probability that James gets up before 07.00 and is on time for school.

55

(c)

Calculate the probability that James does not arrive at school on time.

Working:

Answers:
(b) ..................................................................
(c) ..................................................................
(Total 8 marks)

56

57.

The figure below shows the set U of all functions of x.


A is the set of all sine and cosine functions of x (measured in degrees).
B is the set of all functions of x with period 120.
C is the subset of A, containing functions whose amplitude is 3.
U

A
C

Write the following functions in the correct place in the Venn diagram.
(You may use the numbers (i) to (vi) if you wish, to achieve a better fit.)
(i)

sin (x);

(ii)

x;

(iii)

3 cos (x);

(iv)

2 sin (3x);

(v)

3 cos (3x);

(vi)

3 sin (2x).

57

W o r k in g :

(Total 6 marks)

58.

Neil has three dogs. Two are brown and one is grey. When he feeds the dogs, Neil uses three
bowls and gives them out randomly. There are two red bowls and one yellow bowl. This
information is shown on the tree diagram below.
2

R ed

3
2
3
1
3

B ro w n

G re y

1
3

Y e llo w

R ed

3
1
3

(a)

Y e llo w

One of the dogs is chosen at random.


(i)

Find P (the dog is grey and has the yellow bowl).

(ii)

Find P (the dog does not get the yellow bowl).


(3)

58

(b)

Neil often takes the dogs to the park after they have eaten. He has noticed that the grey
dog plays with a stick for a quarter of the time and both brown dogs play with sticks for
half of the time. This information is shown on the tree diagram below.
S tic k
2
3

B ro w n

S tic k

1
3

N o
s tic k

G re y
N o
s tic k

(i)

Copy the tree diagram and add the four missing probability values on the branches that
refer to playing with a stick.

During a trip to the park, one of the dogs is chosen at random.


(ii)

Find P (the dog is grey or is playing with a stick, but not both).

(iii)

Find P (the dog is grey given that the dog is playing with a stick).

(iv)

Find P (the dog is grey and was fed from the yellow bowl and is not
playing with a stick).
(9)
(Total 12 marks)

59

59.

There are 49 mice in a pet shop.


30 mice are white.
27 mice are male.
18 mice have short tails.
8 mice are white and have short tails.
11 mice are male and have short tails.
7 mice are male but neither white nor short-tailed.
5 mice have all three characteristics and
2 have none.
Copy the diagram below to your examination script.
S

W
3

W re p re s e n ts w h ite m ic e .
M re p re s e n ts m a le m ic e .
S re p re s e n ts s h o rt-ta ile d m ic e .

M
(a)

Complete the diagram, using the information given in the question.


(4)

(b)

Find (i)

n(M W)

(ii)

n(M S)
(3)

Two mice are chosen without replacement.


(c)

Find P (both mice are short-tailed).


(2)
(Total 9 marks)

60

60.

The universal set U is the set of integers from 1 to 20 inclusive.


A and B are subsets of U where:
A is the set of even numbers between 7 and 17.
B is the set of multiples of 3.
List the elements of the following sets:
(a)

A;
(1)

(b)

B;
(1)

(c)

A B;
(2)

(d)

A B.
(2)

W o r k in g :

A n sw ers:
( a ) .....................................................
( b ) .....................................................
( c ) .....................................................
( d ) .....................................................
(Total 6 marks)

61

61.

A school offers three activities, basketball (B), choir (C) and drama (D). Every student must
participate in at least one activity.
16 students play basketball only.
18 students play basketball and sing in the choir but do not do drama.
34 students play basketball and do drama but do not sing in the choir.
27 students are in the choir and do drama but do not play basketball.
(a)

Enter the above information on the Venn diagram below.


(2)

D
99 of the students play basketball, 88 sing in the choir and 110 do drama.
(b)

Calculate the number of students x participating in all three activities.


(1)

(c)

Calculate the total number of students in the school.


(3)

62

W o r k in g :

A n sw ers:
( b ) ...................................................
( c ) ...................................................
(Total 6 marks)

63

The table below shows the number of words in the extended essays of an IB class.
Number of
words

3200w3400

3400w3600

3600w3800

3800w4000

4000w4200

Frequency

17

(a)

Draw a histogram on the grid below for the data in this table.
20

15
F req u e n c y

62.

10
5

0
3000

3200

3400

3600
3800
N u m b e r o f w o rd s

4000

4200

4400
(3)

(b)

Write down the modal group.


(1)

The maximum word count is 4000 words.


(c)

Write down the probability that a student chosen at random is on or over the word count.
(2)

W o r k in g :

A nsw ers:
( b ) ...................................................
( c ) ...................................................
(Total 6 marks)
64

65

63.

The following histogram shows the weights of a number of frozen chickens in a supermarket.
The weights are grouped such that 1 weight 2, 2 weight, 3 and so on.
55
50
45
40
35
num ber of
c h ic k e n s

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

w e ig h t (k g )
(a)

On the graph above, draw in the frequency polygon.


(2)

(b)

Find the total number of chickens.


(1)

(c)

Write down the modal group.


(1)

Gabriel chooses a chicken at random.


(d)

Find the probability that this chicken weighs less than 4 kg.
(2)

66

W o r k in g :

A nsw ers:
( a ) .....................................................
( b ) .....................................................
( c ) .....................................................
(Total 6 marks)

64.

(a)

Shade (A B) C on the diagram below.


U

(2)

(b)

In the Venn diagram below, the number of elements in each region is given.
Find n ((P Q) R).
U
P

9
R
(2)

(c)

U is the set of positive integers,

.
67

E is the set of even numbers.


M is the set of multiples of 3.
(i)

List the first six elements of the set M.

(ii)

List the first six elements of the set E M.


(2)

W o r k in g :

A nsw ers:
( b ) ..................................................
(c )

( i) ..........................................
( ii) .........................................
(Total 6 marks)

68

65.

Claire and Kate both wish to go to the cinema but one of them has to stay at home to baby-sit.
The probability that Kate goes to the cinema is 0.2. If Kate does not go Claire goes.
If Kate goes to the cinema the probability that she is late home is 0.3.
If Claire goes to the cinema the probability that she is late home is 0.6.
(a)

Copy and complete the probability tree diagram below.


L a te
0 .3
K a te
0 .2
...

...
...

N o t L a te
L a te

C la ire
...

N o t L a te
(3)

(b)

Calculate the probability that


(i)

Kate goes to the cinema and is not late;


(2)

(ii)

the person who goes to the cinema arrives home late.


(3)
(Total 8 marks)

69

66.

A survey of 400 people is carried out by a market research organization in two different cities,
Buenos Aires and Montevideo. The people are asked which brand of cereal they prefer out of
Chocos, Zucos or Fruti. The table below summarizes their responses.
Chocos
Zucos
Fruti
Total
Buenos Aires

43

85

62

190

Montevideo

57

35

118

210

Total

100

120

180

400

(a)

One person is chosen at random from those surveyed. Find the probability that this person
(i)

does not prefer Zucos;

(ii)

prefers Chocos, given that they live in Montevideo.


(4)

(b)

Two people are chosen at random from those surveyed. Find the probability that they both
prefer Fruti.
(3)

The market research organization tests the survey data to determine whether the brand of cereal
preferred is associated with a city. A chi-squared test at the 5 level of significance is
performed.
(c)

State the null hypothesis.


(1)

(d)

State the number of degrees of freedom.


(1)

(e)

Show that the expected frequency for the number of people who live in Montevideo and
prefer Zucos is 63.
(2)

(f)

Write down the chi-squared statistic for this data.


(2)

(g)

State whether the market research organization would accept the null hypothesis. Clearly
justify your answer.
(2)
(Total 15 marks)

70