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Deice Bleed Air Warning System Rudder Boost System Pressurization

Controller Pressurization Safety Valve." Presentation transcript:


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BLEED AIR PNEUMATIC AND VACUUM SYSTEMS Brake Deice Bleed Air Warning System Rudder Boost
System Pressurization Controller Pressurization Safety Valve Pneumatic air is utility air used by various
systems in the aircraft. It originates from the P3 section of the engine, is routed through firewall shutof
valves and regulated to 18 PSI. Pneumatic air supplies pneumatic pressure and vacuum for the
following systems: Pressure Vacuum De-Ice Boots


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General Information Bleed air comes of of each engine and is brought back to the fire seal. Right after
the fire seal and before the flow pack, we tap of the little P3. Air passes through a N.O valve (power
required to close it). The air then passes through a one way check valve installed in the bleed air line
which ensures adequate air supply during single engine operation by preventing air from escaping back
into the compressor of the inoperative engine. Next both engines P3 air joins at a T fitting and goes to
a regulator that steps the pressure down from 120 to 18 PSI.


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Brake Deice First system to use the pneumatic air System consists of: Plumbing Two solenoid operated
valves operated by Brake Deice switch Distributor manifold on each main gear Electrical circuit
containing a time delay PCB

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Brake Deice If the aircraft takes of with the brake deice control switch on, a circuit is completed
between uplock switch and timing circuit Solenoid closed after 10 minutes Cant activate till gear
cycled down If operation does not auto terminate after 10 minutes; turn brake Deice switch-OFF Dont
operate brake deice > 15 degrees C >85% N1 required to operate brake deice and surface deice at the
same time


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Bleed Air Warning System The engine uses 25% of air for combustion and the other 75% to cool engine
and drive pressurization and pneumatic systems System provides for visual indication in the cockpit of
a ruptured bleed air line Bleed air lines are accompanied / paralleled by bleed air warning lines of
plastic (polyflow) tubing from the engines to the cabin

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Bleed air warning lines are plugged and have an internal pressure of 2 psi. If a bleed air line fails,
escaping hot air wil melt the paralleling warning line. Resulting drop in pressure (1 psi) will actuate a
pressure switch and illuminate the L or R BL AIR FAIL warning light Steady illumination of the warning
light indicates a possible ruptured bleed air line aft of the firewall. Follow procedure in checklist /
operators manual.

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Bleed Air System Emergency Procedures / Knowledge Check Procedure: Brake Deice switch-of, ITT and
TQE monitor (note readings),Bleed Air switch- OFF, Cabin Pressurization-check Break in big P3 inside
vessel will not result in change in torque or ITT. Break in little P3 will always result in drop in torque and
rise in ITT. Break in P3 forward of firewall = drop in torque and rise in ITT but no warning light. Is the
paint blistering?


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Rudder Boost Aids pilot in maintaining directional control in the event of engine failure Diferential
pressure valve accepts high pressure bleed air pressure from each engine If pressure diferential
reaches preset tolerance, rudder boosting servos activate cables to compensate for asymmetrical
thrust System controlled by RUDDER BOOST switch and tested during run-up

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Rudder Boost Continued.. Moving either bleed air valve switch to PNEU & ENVIR of will disengage the
system, however, note that both switches must be in OPEN for system to operate correctly
(environmental switches complete electrical circuit required for activation) Discuss unscheduled Rudder
Boost Activation Emergency Procedure


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Surface De Ice System removes ice accumulation from leading edges of the wing and horizontal
stabilizer by alternately inflating and deflating boots. The inflation and deflation phases are controlled
by a surface deice distributor valve and automatic timer Actuated by three position switch; MANUAL
OFF - SINGLE CYCLE AUTO Spring loaded to OFF

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Surface De Ice Continued Pressure regulated bleed air supplies pressure to inflate the boots. A
venturi ejector, also operated by bleed air, creates vacuum to deflate boots and hold them down while
not in use. Single Cycle Auto via distributor inflates wing boots for 6 seconds, timer deflates wing
boots and 4 second inflation begins on horizontal stabilizer boots. When deflated, cycle complete.

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Surface De Ice Continued Manual position; all boots inflate simultaneously and remain inflated till
switch released, then go into vacuum hold-down condition until actuated again. Use of system below
40 degrees C can cause permanent damage to the boots Allow minimum inch of ice to form before
attempting ice removal. (Discuss SOP requirements)

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Vacuum System Vacuum is created by pneumatic bleed air flowing through the venturi ejector mounted
beneath the cabin floor. The venturi efect creates a vacuum as bleed air passes through the venturi
cone. The vacuum regulator valve maintains a constant vacuum level in the system by bleeding in
ambient air through the vacuum regulator filter.

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Vacuum SystemCont The surface deice system uses vacuum as previously discussed. The
pressurization system uses vacuum directly to operate the safety valve to depressurize the cabin. The
pressurization controller uses vacuum to control the cabin pressure outflow valve. Each will be covered
in discussing the Pressurization System.

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Pressurization BACKGROUND Turbine aircraft are more efficient in terms of True airspeed and fuel flow
at higher altitudes. The crew needs either supplemental oxygen or a pressurized cabin to operate at
these altitudes because atmospheric pressure decreases with an increase in altitude. Pressurization is
desirable in an airplane because it allows the altitude of the cabin to be lower than the altitude of the

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DEFINITIONS CONT Pressure vessel means the portion of the aircraft which is designed to withstand
the pressure diferential. The pressure vessel extends from a forward pressure bulkhead between the
cockpit and nose section to a rear or aft pressure bulkhead just behind the baggage compartment, with
exterior skins making up the outer seal. Side windows are of a round design for maximum strength. All
cables, wire bundles, and plumbing passing through the pressure vessel boundaries are sealed to
reduce leaks.

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PRESSURIZATION REQTS To have a pressurization system we must have an air source to increase the
pressure inside the pressure vessel, a means to regulate the pressure, and an emergency relief system.
The pressurization system in the C-12 pumps engine bleed air in and we control the rate it leaks out.

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AIR DELIVERY SYSTEM Engine bleed air is ducted from the last compressor stage (station 3) of each
engine. This P3 air line is routed to the electronic flow control unit (sometimes called the flow pack)
mounted at the firewall. The flow control unit regulates the mixture of engine bleed air with ambient air
from the cowling intake.

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Air Delivery Cont.. Pilot controls inflow with ENVIRO & PNEU BLEED AIR switches. ON = Valve in Flow
Pack open; air allowed into duct system Heated air may be retained for heating, or cooled through airto-air heat exchanger on the way to cabin Check valve installed in environmental (Big P3) lines to
prevent pressure loss in the event of engine failure Air flows through mixing plenum to ducts for
windshield defrost, flight compartment air, and floor outlets for cabin air.

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ELECTRONIC FLOW CONTROL UNIT Controls flow of ambient and bleed air as a function of atmospheric
temperature, for cabin heating and pressurization. Regulates the inflow of air into the pressure vessel
Flow control unit attempts to always provide a relatively constant inflow. Advantage of electronic flow
pack is that it can maintain scheduled pressurization even with power levers at idle

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FLOW CONTROL UNIT CONT After T/O, the main landing gear safety switch prevents pressure bumps
by allowing left ambient air valve to open first. Through a 4-6 second time delay, the right ambient air
valve will open. As aircraft climbs and temperature decreases, ambient flow valve closes incrementally
to maintain sufficient heating until 0 degrees Celcius when it becomes completely closed.

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PRESSURIZATION CONTROL SYSTEM AND COMPONENTS 5 Primary Components: 1.Controller to select

cabin altitude and rate of climb/descent 2.System switch to select pressurization, de- pressurization, or
test of the system 3.Indicators to inform the flight crew of system performance 4.An outflow valve to
control cabin altitude 5.A safety valve to protect against over- pressurization and to provide emergency
de- pressurization

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Pressurization Control Cont Pressurization Controller maintains selected cabin altitude dialed into it
by adjusting flow of air out of the pressure vessel through the outflow valve. Rate control knob
regulates the rate at which the cabin pressure ascends or descends to the selected altitude. System
indicator: Long needle = cabin altitude Short needle = pressure diferential Maximum diferential is 6.5
+/-.1 PSI

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OUTFLOW VALVE FUNCTIONS: Modulates. The outflow valve modulates to give us the desired pressure
inside the pressure vessel; we are controlling the pressure going out. The valve is opened or closed by
the pressure controller using vacuum. Negative Diferential Relief. (Greater pressure outside the
airplane than inside) If it were to happen, the outside pressure will push on the negative relief
diaphragm and relieve the negative pressure.

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SAFETY VALVE Safety valve prevents pressurization on the ground, does nothing during normal
pressurized flight. Primary Functions: Dump. Pilot opens the safety valve by placing system control
switch to DUMP. Maximum Pressure Relief. Safety valve senses cabin diferential. Relief valve set to
trigger at 6.5 PSI will guard against over-pressurization. If exceeded, valve opens and vents excessive
pressure outside the pressure vessel. Once within limits, valve closes. Negative Diferential Relief.
Safety valve will relieve negative pressure the same way as the outflow valve.

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When DC electrical power is applied to the aircraft, the pressurization system receives power. Power is
routed through the PRESS CONT CB, the pressurization system switch, the left main landing gear safety
switch to the N.C. Dump Solenoid and N.O Preset Solenoid. When these solenoids receive power the
Dump Solenoid opens and the Preset Solenoid closes. Since the engines are not running there is no
environmental air at this point. Before Engine Start (Engines Of)

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After the engines are started there is P3 air for both Pressurization and vacuum. The pressurization or
environmental air enters the Pressure vessel through the duct system as depicted as a red arrow in the
upper left hand corner. Vacuum is blocked from the pressure controller by the closed preset solenoid.
This keeps the outflow valve closed. Since the dump solenoid is open, Vacuum reaches the safety valve
and opens it.. The environmental air is ported outside of the pressure vessel through the safety valve
preventing the aircraft from pressurizing on the ground. Engines running prior to T/O Bleed Air Valves

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To test pressurization, set the cabin altitude 500 feet below field pressure altitude on the pressure
controller. Then place the cabin pressure control switch to TEST. Electricity is removed from both
solenoids causing the preset solenoid to open and the dump solenoid to close. Since were asking for a
lower cabin altitude it is necessary to increase the cabin pressure. Since environmental air is continuing
to enter the pressure vessel and the outflow valve and the safety valve remains closed, the cabin
pressure increases as the system descends the cabin to the lower altitude. This is shown as a descent
on the cabin controller rate indicator. This verifies that the pressurization system is working correctly.
Pressurization Test

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When the aircraft takes of, the left main landing gear squat switch de- energizes the preset solenoid
open and the dump solenoid closed, positioning them to their normal flight modes. As the airplane
climbs, the controller modulates the outflow valve based on commands from the rate control chamber.
By regulating how much vacuum is applied to the rate chamber in the controller, the outflow valve is
positioned to yield the desired rate of climb. If the pilot increases the rate of climb, the leak in the lower
chamber is increased from the upper chamber causing an increase in pressure in the upper chamber
which moves the needle valve down allowing more vacuum to the outflow valve. More vacuum causes
the outflow valve to open slightly more causing an increase in the rate of climb. After Takeof (Normal

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If the flight crew deems it necessary to de-pressurize the cabin because of some emergency, the DUMP
position on the system select switch will energize the dump solenoid and de-energize the preset
solenoid. When the dump solenoid is energized vacuum reaches the safety valve and pulls it open,
rapidly de- pressurizing the cabin. A small solenoid operated door is located in the right side forward
fuselage area ahead of the copilots feet. Commonly called the ram air door, it is held tightly closed by a
solenoid that receives 28 VDC through the PRESS detent of the system control switch. When the switch
is moved to the DUMP position, the solenoid is de-energized and the door is opened by ram air
pressure. > 12,500 Will illuminate Ram Air Door Pressurization Dump (Airborne)

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DESCENT / ARRIVAL On descent for landing, schedule the controller to depressurize the cabin 500 feet
above landing airport field elevation; this ensures cabin will not dump when the left main landing gear
safety switch activates. When the weight of the airplane activates the safety switch, the pressurization
again reverts to the ground mode. The preset solenoid is energized closed and regulated vacuum for
the controller is of. The dump solenoid is energized open and the safety valve is held open with
vacuum. The ram air door solenoid remains energized and closed.