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System Dynamics and Control

Homework #2 SOLUTION
Instructor: Dr. Tarek A. Tutunji
TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSIS
1) Sketch the region in the s-plane in which the poles should be located.

2) Find the position, velocity, and acceleration error constant for the system shown below. Then, find the
steady state error for a unit step, unit-ramp, and unit-parabolic inputs.

3) The unit-step response of a linear control system is shown below. Find the transfer function of a secondorder prototype to model the system. (problem 5.18)

4) Consider the open-loop system:

G s

3
2

s 2s 3

a. Plot the step response of the open-system using MATLAB. Comment on the figure.

Note that the system has pole at right hand side:

b. Calculate by hand the minimum k to use for the system to be stable.

c. Using MATLAB, plot the step response of the closed-loop system designed and calculate the rise time, settling
time, steady-state error, and maximum overshoot for the designed system.

Step Response
1.6
System: sysCL
System: sysCL
Peak amplitude: 1.5
Settling Time (sec): 4.14
Overshoot (%): 5
System: sysCL At time (sec): 2.98
Rise Time (sec): 1.45

1.4

1.2

System: sysCL
Final Value: 1.43

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

3
Time (sec)

Rise Time is 1.45 seconds


Settling Time is 4.14 Seconds
Overshoot is 5%
Steady State Error = 1.43 1.00 => 0.43

PID DESIGN

5) Consider the cart-system below (problem 9.34)

Where f is the engine force, v is the velocity, and u is the friction force = v.
Assume M=1000 Kg, =50 Nsec/m, and f= 500N
a. Find the transfer function

b. Design a PID with the following specs: Rise time less than or equal 5 sec, maximum overshoot less than
or equal to 10%, and steady state error less than 2%
Adding a controller Gc(s) will give the following closed loop T.F.

6) Consider the open-loop system:

Gs

10
ss 2

a. Design a PD controller with the specifications: a rise time < 0.3 sec, overshoot < 10% and steady state error < 2%.
The controller D(s) will be implemented in the feed-forward path as shown below

Type I system and therefore the ess is for ramp input, ess = 1/kv. Therefore, kv = 1/0.02 kv = 50

k v lim s 0 sD( s)G ( s )


k v lim s 0 s

K D s K p 50 K
s( s 2)

100

The closed-loop transfer function,

10 ( K D s K p
Y ( s)
D( s )G ( s )

R( s ) 1 D( s )G ( s ) s 2 2 10K D s 10K p

Now comparing the above equation with the standard 2nd order systems:

n2
s 2 2n s n2

We get, (n)^2 = 10Kp n = 31.6


Checking the systems requirements, n > 1.8 / tr. Then, tr = 1.8 / 31.6 = 0.0569 which satisfies the requirement
Next, = 0.6 (1 Mp) = 0.6(1-0.1) = 0.54
Then, 2 n = 2 + 10 KD KD = 3.2
b. Verify results using MATLAB
>> kd=3.2;kp=100;
>> sysCL=tf([10*kd 10*kp],[1 2+10*kd 10*kp])
>> step(sysCL)

Step Response
1.4

1.2

System: sysCL
Peak amplitude: 1.26
Overshoot (%): 26
System: sysCL
At time (sec): 0.078
Rise Time (sec): 0.0307

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

Time (sec)

Although the rise time is within specs, the overshoot here is 26% which is above specifications.
The reason is that the equations used are approximated for standard 2nd order systems and our system does not have the
standard numerator form.
So, lets increase KD to 10 and try again
>> kd=10;kp=100;
>> sysCL=tf([10*kd 10*kp],[1 2+10*kd 10*kp]);
>> step(sysCL)

Step Response
1.4

1.2

Amplitude

System: sysCL
Peak amplitude: 1.05
Overshoot (%): 5.39
At time (sec): 0.0558

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Time (sec)

Now it passes the requirements. So final design Kp = 100 and Kd = 10

ROOT LOCUS
7) Consider the plant model: Gs

K
ss 1s 3) s 4)

a. Sketch the root locus by hand

There are four loci because P=4


The root loci start from s = 0, -1, -3, -4
Because there are no zeros, all the roots end at infinity
Root locus is symmetrical about the real axis
Angles of asymptotes are: 45, 135, 225, and 315
The point of intersection of asymptotes with the real axis: x= (-1-3-4-0)/(4-0) => x = -2
The breakaway points of the root loci are obtained from: s^3 + 6s^2 + 9.5s + 3 = 0 s1=-0.424, s2=2.0 and s3=-3.576
S2 cannot exist because there are no root locus in this section as the number of poles to the right is even.
Therefore, there are two breakaway points (between 0 & -1 and -3 & 4)
The limiting value of K can be found from equation: 17.5s^2 + 26.2 = 0 = 1.224 rad/sec. The root
locus passes through on jaxis

After all this information, it can be sketched by hand


b. Plot the root locus using MATLAB
>> z=[]; p=[0;-1;-3;-4];
>> sys = zpk(z,p,1)
>> rlocus(sys);grid

Root Locus
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Imaginary Axis

0.74

0.85

0.93

0.98

10
0

-2

0.98

-4

0.93

-6

0.85

0.74
-8
-10

0.62

0.48

0.32

0.62

0.48

0.16

0.32

-5

0.16
0

Real Axis