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Homework #2 SOLUTION

Instructor: Dr. Tarek A. Tutunji

TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSIS

1) Sketch the region in the s-plane in which the poles should be located.

2) Find the position, velocity, and acceleration error constant for the system shown below. Then, find the

steady state error for a unit step, unit-ramp, and unit-parabolic inputs.

3) The unit-step response of a linear control system is shown below. Find the transfer function of a secondorder prototype to model the system. (problem 5.18)

G s

3

2

s 2s 3

a. Plot the step response of the open-system using MATLAB. Comment on the figure.

c. Using MATLAB, plot the step response of the closed-loop system designed and calculate the rise time, settling

time, steady-state error, and maximum overshoot for the designed system.

Step Response

1.6

System: sysCL

System: sysCL

Peak amplitude: 1.5

Settling Time (sec): 4.14

Overshoot (%): 5

System: sysCL At time (sec): 2.98

Rise Time (sec): 1.45

1.4

1.2

System: sysCL

Final Value: 1.43

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

3

Time (sec)

Settling Time is 4.14 Seconds

Overshoot is 5%

Steady State Error = 1.43 1.00 => 0.43

PID DESIGN

Where f is the engine force, v is the velocity, and u is the friction force = v.

Assume M=1000 Kg, =50 Nsec/m, and f= 500N

a. Find the transfer function

b. Design a PID with the following specs: Rise time less than or equal 5 sec, maximum overshoot less than

or equal to 10%, and steady state error less than 2%

Adding a controller Gc(s) will give the following closed loop T.F.

Gs

10

ss 2

a. Design a PD controller with the specifications: a rise time < 0.3 sec, overshoot < 10% and steady state error < 2%.

The controller D(s) will be implemented in the feed-forward path as shown below

Type I system and therefore the ess is for ramp input, ess = 1/kv. Therefore, kv = 1/0.02 kv = 50

k v lim s 0 s

K D s K p 50 K

s( s 2)

100

10 ( K D s K p

Y ( s)

D( s )G ( s )

R( s ) 1 D( s )G ( s ) s 2 2 10K D s 10K p

Now comparing the above equation with the standard 2nd order systems:

n2

s 2 2n s n2

Checking the systems requirements, n > 1.8 / tr. Then, tr = 1.8 / 31.6 = 0.0569 which satisfies the requirement

Next, = 0.6 (1 Mp) = 0.6(1-0.1) = 0.54

Then, 2 n = 2 + 10 KD KD = 3.2

b. Verify results using MATLAB

>> kd=3.2;kp=100;

>> sysCL=tf([10*kd 10*kp],[1 2+10*kd 10*kp])

>> step(sysCL)

Step Response

1.4

1.2

System: sysCL

Peak amplitude: 1.26

Overshoot (%): 26

System: sysCL

At time (sec): 0.078

Rise Time (sec): 0.0307

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

Time (sec)

Although the rise time is within specs, the overshoot here is 26% which is above specifications.

The reason is that the equations used are approximated for standard 2nd order systems and our system does not have the

standard numerator form.

So, lets increase KD to 10 and try again

>> kd=10;kp=100;

>> sysCL=tf([10*kd 10*kp],[1 2+10*kd 10*kp]);

>> step(sysCL)

Step Response

1.4

1.2

Amplitude

System: sysCL

Peak amplitude: 1.05

Overshoot (%): 5.39

At time (sec): 0.0558

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Time (sec)

ROOT LOCUS

7) Consider the plant model: Gs

K

ss 1s 3) s 4)

The root loci start from s = 0, -1, -3, -4

Because there are no zeros, all the roots end at infinity

Root locus is symmetrical about the real axis

Angles of asymptotes are: 45, 135, 225, and 315

The point of intersection of asymptotes with the real axis: x= (-1-3-4-0)/(4-0) => x = -2

The breakaway points of the root loci are obtained from: s^3 + 6s^2 + 9.5s + 3 = 0 s1=-0.424, s2=2.0 and s3=-3.576

S2 cannot exist because there are no root locus in this section as the number of poles to the right is even.

Therefore, there are two breakaway points (between 0 & -1 and -3 & 4)

The limiting value of K can be found from equation: 17.5s^2 + 26.2 = 0 = 1.224 rad/sec. The root

locus passes through on jaxis

b. Plot the root locus using MATLAB

>> z=[]; p=[0;-1;-3;-4];

>> sys = zpk(z,p,1)

>> rlocus(sys);grid

Root Locus

8

Imaginary Axis

0.74

0.85

0.93

0.98

10

0

-2

0.98

-4

0.93

-6

0.85

0.74

-8

-10

0.62

0.48

0.32

0.62

0.48

0.16

0.32

-5

0.16

0

Real Axis

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