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Biology 152 Nevado 2015

TISSUES
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After completing this unit, asking clarifying questions to enhance understanding, reviewing, and practicing, you
should be able to:
1. Describe characteristics common to each of the four major tissue types.
2. Spot patterns and characteristics of specific tissue types so you can identify and name the tissue if you are
given a picture or description.
3. Relate tissue structure to its function and location.
4. Describe the components of a tissue and how they relate to each other.
5. Compare and contrast different tissue types.

I. INTRODUCTION TO TISSUES
- tissue = group of specialized cells that perform function
- 4 major types of tissues:
1) epithelial tissue
Struc:

- 1 or more layers of tightly packed cells, exposed apical surface

Func:

- lines surfaces protect


- forms glands secrete

2) neural tissue
Struc:

- neurons with big cell bodies and processes


- various smaller neuroglia

Func:

- carries info via electrical impulses

3) muscle tissue
Struc:

- striated cells or spindle shaped cells

Func:

- contracts to produce movement

4) connective tissue
Struc:

- cells spread out with extracellular material in between

Func:

- provides structural support, fills spaces, binds and connects


- transports material
- stores energy

Biology 152 Nevado 2015

II. FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE


A. Cells have polarity
- apical surface is exposed

- unequal distribution of organelles

- basal surface anchored to underlying connective tissue

B. Layers of tightly packed cells bound together by cell junctions


1) tight junctions
- interlocking membrane proteins fuse adjacent cell membranes
- prevents molecules moving between cells
- e.g. keeps stomach acid away from tissues
2) desmosomes
- transmembrane proteins reinforced by cytoskeleton
- strong connection resists stretching, twisting
- e.g. skin comes off in sheets
3) gap junctions
- channel proteins (=connexons) connect cells
- allows exchange of small molecules, ions
- e.g. to coordinate cilia beating (and muscle contraction)
C. Avascular
- no blood vessels present
- exchange of nutrients, waste by diffusion
D. High rate of cell division to replace lost/damaged cells

Biology 152 Nevado 2015

When cancer patients are treated with chemotherapy, they are given drugs that affect the basic function of all
cells. Cancer cells grow and divide rapidly, therefore they tend to take in more nutrients and thus more of the
drug than other cells. However, because these drugs are not cancer cell specific, they can cause side effects
like hair loss, sensitive skin, nausea and vomiting. What does this tell you about the tissues that form hair, skin
and line the digestive tract?

When you burn the roof of your mouth, it peels off in a large sheet instead of just disintegrating. When you
skin your knee or elbow, you can also peel off sheets of skin. What do you suppose makes this possible? What
does this tell you about epithelial tissues?

The skin of your arm is dry and if you rub it with a dark cloth, the white flecks you see will be dead, sloughed
off cells. If all the visible cells of your skin are dead, how can you grow new skin? If someone pinches your skin,
why doesnt it just tear off revealing bone and muscle? What does this tell you about epithelial tissues?

skin is attached to the tissues below by connective tissues and proteins

The stomach can be filled with burning hot liquids (e.g. soup, coffee), acid (e.g. pickles, soft drinks, stomach
acid), bacteria and digestive enzymes, yet is lined only with simple columnar epithelial cells. How can a single
layer of cells withstand this harsh environment, protect the tissues that lie beneath it and prevent itself from
being washed away into the small intestine? Your answers will describe some special characteristics of epithelial
tissues.

Biology 152 Nevado 2015

III. SPECIFIC TYPES OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE


1) simple squamous

struc:

- one layer of flat cells, fragile

func:

- lines protected areas


- reduces distance + time required for diffusion

loc:

- mesothelium lines body cavities


- endothelium lines heart, blood vessels (smooth lining prevents clots)
- alveoli + capillary walls (speeds gas exchange)

2) simple cuboidal

struc:

- one layer of cube-shaped cells


- spherical nucleus in center of cell

3) simple columnar

func:

- limited protection with more cytoplasm for secretion, absorption

loc:

- lines kidney tubules, pancreatic ducts, salivary glands, forms glands

struc:

- one layer of tall rectangular cells


- elongated nuclei near basal surface

func:

- limited protection
- lots of cytoplasm for secretion, absorption

loc:

4) stratified squamous struc:


func:

- forms glands, lines stomach, intestine

- many layers of cells, apical layers appear flat


- protects against abrasion, chemicals, pathogens

a) keratinized stratified squamous epithelium


struc:

- apical layers of cells packed with keratin protein

func:

- prevents water loss

loc:

- skin

b) nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium


struc:

- no keratin protein will dry out, must be kept moist

loc:

- lines oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, anus, vagina

Biology 152 Nevado 2015

5) stratified cuboidal

struc:

- several layers of cells, apical layer appears cuboidal

func:

- protection + secretion

loc:

- rare, e.g. forms ducts of sweat, mammary glands

6) stratified columnar struc:

- several layers of cells, apical layer appears columnar

func:

- protection + secretion

loc:

- rare, e.g. lines parts of pharynx, vas deferens, urethra

7) pseudostratified ciliated columnar


struc:

- cells vary in size, shape


- position of nucleus varies cells look layered
- but all cells contact basement membrane

func:

- protects, moves material along passageway

loc:

- lines nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, ovarian tubes

8) transitional epithelium
struc:

- cells may be crowded into many layers, looks like stratified cuboidal
- or stretched, looks like simple squamous

func:

- tolerates stretching, recoil

loc:

- empty vs. full bladder

IV. GLANDULAR EPITHELIA


- glands = single cell or complex organ that secretes
- usually cuboidal or columnar epithelia
A. Endocrine glands
- produce hormones
- ductless
- secrete by exocytosis into interstitial fluid blood

Biology 152 Nevado 2015

- e.g. scattered cells in digestive tract, pancreas


- e.g. organs such as thyroid, pituitary gland
B. Exocrine glands
- produce enzymes, mucus, sweat, tears, oil, milk, bile
- secrete through ducts onto surfaces/cavities
- classified according to:
1) mode of secretion
- merocrine glands release by exocytosis
- most common, e.g., merocrine sweat gland, mucus
- apocrine glands shed apical portion of cell
- e.g. lipid droplets by mammary glands
- holocrine glands burst open, release
- e.g. sebaceous glands produce oil
2) # of cells, shape
- unicellular = goblet cells produce mucin in intestine, respiratory tract
- multicellular glands further classified according to shape, branching, # of ducts

Biology 152 Nevado 2015

V. NEURAL TISSUE
- specialized to conduct electrical impulses
- contains 2 basic types of cells
1) neurons

- nerve fiber up to 1 m long


- most dont divide limited repair ability
- large cell body, nucleus, nucleolus
- dendrites receive info
- axon carries info to other cells

2) neuroglia/glial cells

- much smaller but more numerous


- support, insulate, supply nutrients, repair

VI. MUSCLE TISSUE


- 3 types of muscle tissue, all contract
1) Skeletal muscle = striated voluntary muscle
- long cells (up to 30 cm) have 100s of nuclei
- actin, myosin proteins organized in bands = appears striated
- contract in response to nervous stimulation
- tied together by collagen + elastic fibers
2) Cardiac muscle = striated involuntary muscle
- only in wall of heart
- has 1-5 nuclei
- striated
- looks branched: connected at intercalated discs (= desmosomes + gap junction)
- pace of contraction set by specialized cardiac cells = pacemaker cells
- pace can be altered by nervous system, but involuntary
3) Smooth muscle = nonstriated involuntary muscle
- in walls of blood vessels, hollow organs (e.g. digestive, urinary, reproductive)
- spindle shaped with 1 nucleus
- connected by gap junctions

Biology 152 Nevado 2015

- can contract on their own, controlled by nervous system (involuntary)


VII. CONNECTIVE TISSUE
A. Structural characteristics of connective tissue
- all CT composed of 3 components:
1) cells
- different connective tissues vary in #, type of cells
- cells are spread out, separated by lots of extracellular material = ground substance + fibers
2) ground substance
- fluid, gel or solid that fills spaces between cells
3) protein fibers
a) collagen

- most common
- ropes of collagen protein
- long, straight, very strong, a little flexible

b) reticular fibers
- thin, branching, flexible network of collagen proteins
c) elastic fibers
- wavy, branched elastin protein allows stretch, recoil

B. Fluid connective tissues


1) blood

cells:

- red blood cells (carry O2, CO2)


- white blood cells (immune defense)
- platelets (cell fragments involved in clotting)

ECM:

- fluid called plasma = water + nutrients, proteins, hormones, wastes


- fibers normally absent
- soluble proteins turn into fibrin mesh to form a clot

func:

- transports nutrients and wastes to/from cells


- immune defense and clot formation

loc:

- found within blood vessels and heart

Biology 152 Nevado 2015

2) lymph

cells:

- white blood cells

ECM:

- fluid called lymph = water + dissolved wastes, few proteins


- no fibers

func:

- returns fluid to circulatory system


- carries pathogens to immune organs

loc:

- found within lymphatic vessels, lymphatic organs

C. Osseous connective tissue


- all bone is vascular, able to heal
- all bones have:

cells:

- osteocytes in small chambers called lacunae

ECM:

- solid, with calcium salts deposited on collagen fibers

func:

- provides framework for muscles


- supports weight of body
- protects soft organs

- 2 types of bone:
1) compact bone

loc:

- shafts of long bones, outer surface of all bones

2) spongy bone

loc:

- ends of long bones, body of flat or irregular bones

D. Cartilage
- all cartilage are avascular appear white, rely on diffusion, heal slowly
- all cartilage have:
- cells: - chondrocytes in lacunae
- ECM: - firm gel of polysaccharides + proteins = chondroitin sulphate + hyaluronic acid
- fibers: - varied
- 3 types of cartilage:
1) hyaline cartilage (most common)
ECM:

- collagen fibers present but not visible, ECM appears smooth

func:

- strong flexible support, resists deformation

Biology 152 Nevado 2015

- protects ends of bones


loc:

- articular cartilage at ends of bones, nasal cartilage and respiratory tract

cells:

- chondrocytes line up in rows

ECM:

- bundles of collagen fibers, appear wavy

2) fibrocartilage

- little ground substance


func:

- resists compression, absorbs shock

loc:

- intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, knee menisci

cells:

- many chondrocytes

ECM:

- elastic fibers, usually stained blue/black

func:

- flexible support

loc:

- e.g., pinna, epiglottis, larynx

3) elastic cartilage

E. Types of Connective Tissue Proper


1) areolar connective tissue
cells:

- fibroblasts produce fibers + ground substance


- adipocytes store lipids
- mesenchymal cells divide to produce all other connective cells
- white blood cells defend

ECM:

- loose framework of collagen, elastic fibers


- distorts easily, springs back
- polysaccharides + proteins
- viscous, absorbs shock

func:

- fills space
- cushions, stabilizes organs
- supports, anchors epithelia, blood vessels, nerves

loc:

- underlying epithelial tissue

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Biology 152 Nevado 2015

2) adipose tissue
cells:

- mostly adipocytes

ECM:

- not visible

func:

- pads, insulates, fills space, stores energy

loc:

- children have brown fat between shoulder blades, around neck


- highly vascularized with many mitochondria
- breakdown lipid for heat
- adults have white fat
- lipid content constantly changes
- cells deflate but dont die

3) reticular tissue
cells:

- fibroblasts (+ cells of the organ)

ECM:

- branching network of reticular fibers

func:

- create framework to support cells of the organ

loc:

- liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow

4) dense regular connective tissue


cells:

- few fibroblasts

ECM:

- mostly tightly packed, parallel collagen fibers

func:

- provide strong attachments

loc:

- tendons, ligaments, aponeurosis = tendinous sheet

5) dense irregular connective tissue


cells:

- few fibroblasts

ECM:

- irregular bundles of collagen fibers

func:

- resists force from different directions

loc:

- sclera, dermis, sheath around cartilage, capsule around liver, kidneys

cells:

- few fibroblasts

ECM:

- mostly dense regular elastic fibers, stain blue/black, appear wavy

func:

- allow stretch and recoil

loc:

- walls of arteries, elastic ligaments stabilize vertebrae

6) elastic tissue

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