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University of Vienna

Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology
Affective Globalisation: On the politics and economies of emotions in the global era
Winter term 2013/14
Dr. Herta Nöbauer

Sport and National Identity
A German Example

Johanna Hohaus
Matrikelnummer: 1347009
MA Global Studies, 1st semester
Laxenburgerstr. 85/17, 1100 Wien

...............................................2...................................... Identity ............................................................................................ Conclusion ...............................1................................................................................................ 2 2................................... Internet Sources ......................... Media and Football ..................................... 12 5.......................... 6 4...................................Content 1.................................................. FIFA World Cup .......................................... Introduction ................................................................................................ 15 7......................... 4 3........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 13 6...................................................................................................2......... Current situation in Germany ............................................................................................................................................1................ Annex ............ 9 4.. 11 4..... 2 2................. 10 4............ Factors influencing national identity ............ The Olympics ........................ Historical development in Germany...... Sport and national identity .....................................................................2......... 18 8................................................................................................................. 12 4......... 2 2..................3................. 18 1 ...............2............................1.......................................................................... 7 4..........................................2.......................................... Definition of terms .2............... Bibliography ...... Nation ................

2 . The time before the tournament is a period full of excitement. The main part in this game play the various national media programs – be it radio. collective memory or symbols and it 1 Merriam-Webster Online (2014). The Latin original means birth and race. It is a belonging together for various reasons: It can be based on culture/cultural rituals. national teams represent the best players of each country. Besides the football. That is where national clichés and national identities come into the game.1. But how and to what extent does football contribute to the formation of national identity? Before getting deeper into the topic of sport and its effect on collective identity it should be assured that writer and reader refer to the same definitions. It can be taken for granted that there is a certain connection of sport and identity. especially all forms of collective identity. Therefore. religion. This will be followed by a general discussion of the influences national identity is exposed to. The term “nation” is largely discussed among scientists. leading to the last and most interesting point of the actual linkage of sport and national identity. An international tournament allows experiencing playfully prejudices and concepts of enemies among fans and professionals and is a sort of a modern international understanding.1. Nation The Merriam-Webster dictionary leads “nation” back to the Latin word “nation” making a detour over Middle English (“nacioun”) and Anglo-French (“naciun”). also the Olympics are integrated into this paper because they represent the oldest tradition of mass sport events and unite all sorts of sport. such as “nation” and “(national) identity” and the different perspectives on them are going to be outlined in a first place. Definition of terms 2. language. the media try to do this analysis for the public. All this will be done on the basis of the development in/of Germany. coaches develop their strategies with a large number of experts. the prevalent terms. broadcast or print – offering their spectators/readers the broadest information possible. While the coaches act behind the curtains. Introduction It is the year 2014 and it is the year of a new world cup. people compete with each other for the victory. As it comes with human nature. Hence. Every four years football fans in the whole world come together to celebrate the sport and their teams. weaknesses of the others are analyzed and tried to be used as advantages for the own team. I have chosen this country not only because the German people are enthusiastic football fans but also because the German history offers some very interesting points for such a topic. 1 Today’s meaning is “a large area of land that is controlled by its own government” . 2.

it is based on the free will of the latter. This ethnic concept focuses on the origins of a community (“Abstammungsgemeinschaft”) A nation can therefore be defined as a named human population sharing an historic territory. 3 3 . One lies in the past. In order to create a community through imagination the nation has to become imaginable through pictures and texts. a common 4 economy and common legal rights and duties for all members. Laetsch. himself explains it as following: A nation is a soul. both of them put the formation of a nation down to external interests and drives. Similar to Smith. 6 Renan. a German historian differentiates between the cultural nation and the nation as a state. one in the present. The topic this paper is going to discuss has nothing (or 2 Kolpatzik. This 5 common history creates the wish to uphold the common human and cultural heritage in the future. common myths and historical memories. Andrea (2009: 29). he sees the key to a nation within an already existing group of people. Hobsbawm and Anderson have a common approach which is the integration of a nation’s members who had been complete strangers before and whose lives are very heterogeneous. Man.results in nation-specific symbols like the flag. 5 Cp. whereas Hobsbawm sets 7 up the term “invented tradition” focusing the historical elements. As an example he names the situation after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Moreover. Consequently.: 30. which in truth are but one. the other is present-day consent. Gentlemen. there is a constructivist perspective with its well-known representatives Benedict Anderson and Eric Hobsbawm. (1991: 14). a mass public culture. The territorial borders had been chosen (to a certain extent) according to the cultural communities. Stefan (2008: 22). Laetsch. 2 Anthony Smith. meaning also different kinds of nation can emerge. The cultural 9 nation is independent from the political form. a spiritual principle. According to the choice of the criteria different communities. is the culmination of a long past of endeavours. Laetsch. Anthony D. Ibid. the will to perpetuate the value of the heritage that one has received in an undivided form. sacrifice. 8 (print) media have an important role to communicate the basis for such an imagined community. Anderson speaks of “imagined community”. 8 Cp. Andrea (2009: 29). the anthem or a national currency. Stefan (2008: 23). Ernest. 9 Cp. One is the possession in common of a rich legacy of memories. The new nation-states felt the community before creating the actual political and sovereign form of a nation in the post-Soviet time. He declares nation as a flexible construct which is subject to changing emotions and memories of its members. The nation. 4 Smith. the French historian Ernest Renan bases the term “nation” on a collectively experienced history. and devotion 6 Furthermore. 7 Kolpatzik. a British ethnographer and Professor Emeritus of Nationalism and Ethnicity at the 3 London School of Economics introduces the “ethno-nationalism”. the desire to live together. does not improvise. constitute this soul or spiritual principle. Two things. Therefore. like the individual. So. Friedrich Meinecke. Stefan (2008: 23f). He.

like family. The political system is regarded as superior to others. Stefan (2008: 25). Maurice (2000: 218). Ibid.only little) to do with political issues. Since there are several levels of identity the literature speaks of “multiple identities”. interests or job – it can be called collective identity. 14 The inclusive nationalism offers the political system an integrating and legitimizing effect. Therefore. nationalism can be divided into an exclusive and an inclusive form of nationalism. Both terms correspond very well to the topic of sport and national identity. it can be the opportunity after a long period of foreign domination to form a proper state. 16 Laetsch. Identity Since the Enlightenment. Ibid. Nationalism in its pure sense means acceptance of and support for the own constitution and the political system by the population of each nation-state.: 26. to bigger ones like companies. 11 Also. 11 4 16 Normally. the latter needs a clear separation from actual “racism”. Laetsch. The exclusive nationalism is perhaps closer to racism supporting the idea of superiority. 2. the .2. 12 An extreme example would be the German National Socialism. 15 Cp.: 26. This ideology accepts different cultural groups within the nation. In sports represent hooligans the exaggerated form of support for a team just as nationalists overestimate their own nation-state. Roche. Having a rather negative connotation. 12 Cp. it does not regard itself as superior but as an equal partner in the international state system. As soon as several people come together and experience common grounds – through communication/language. 10 This leads to a discriminating behavior towards other ethnic groups. Stefan (2008: 26). Contrary to this. popular individualism was promoted and thus the people’s awareness of their humans need for a proper identity was continuously activated. It can be expressed through emancipation efforts as it can be observed in countries of the “3 rd world” in the post-colonial period. In a nutshell. The goal of this form of nationalism is the exclusion of other political. 13 A moderate form of national consciousness and patriotism is the inclusive nationalism. Whenever the term “nation” comes up in a societal discourse the word “nationalism” is not far. cities or whole regions. But where can collective identity appear? It can be found in all kind of groups from rather small ones. 15 On an individual level identity attests the belonging or not-belonging to a community. sport. Identity then describes the selfcomprehension of this group. 10 Cp. Ibid. For such countries. it will be based on Meinecke’s idea of a cultural nation as well as on Andersons’s imagined community. nationalism is an ideology based on the history and values of the own state. ethnic or religious groups from the homogenous national community. The precondition for nationalism is the identification with the national community. racism is an ideology defending the superiority of the own race for biological reasons. Also. 13 Cp. Cp. Ibid. 14 Cp.: 93.

21 Nation and identity can barely be analyzed separately. Roche. it is essential to have political symbols like a national anthem. Equally important are the days of independence or foundation of the state. Laetsch (2008: 31). Laetsch. intellectuals of a country are important for this theoretical construction of identity. Stefan. symbols. Important elements of the term “nation” – inclusion/exclusion. It consists of certain values. Through birth. The capital of a country with the most important government buildings represents the political order and most often national history. On the other hand. 20 Cp. 3) The future as a projection of possible political development and actions. art. A consequence of a collective identity is the creation of a certain collective spirit. 20 The national collective memory is based on national success stories and defeats. 2) The present as a frame for orientation. It depends on how the society incorporates these events in their present and how it transforms them in important points in history by promoting them in museums. Both identities – political and cultural – are part of the national identity. won and lost battles. Stefan (2008: 27). Geographical borders are often also language borders because language is one main reason for people to feel connected. 19 Cp. different kinds of everyday life paper. 18 5 . 21 Cp. Therefore. by building monuments or by creating official holidays.cultural identity is the strongest one. At the same time such an identity cannot be imposed but has to grow in a long process of social communication and interaction (inner homogenization). traditions. Also a threat can make people get closer together by fighting it together. – are at the same point essential for the development of national identity. symbols. It is often said that identity is a pure construction. Stefan Laetsch describes collective identity based on three dimensions: 1) The past in form of a collective memory. flag and the capital.: 28. Maurice (2000: 102). rituals. Collective identity means also the acceptance of the own and the exclusion of the other. collective memory etc. the nationality can be helpful when the cultural identity is not strong enough to build up a collective spirit. 19 Still. to experience the nation-state emotionally. people are automatically part of a political community – the state. Stefan (2008: 29). the most extreme example would be the Holocaust where identity was transformed into political ideology and used as an “excuse” to extinguish other groups. stories and tales. Ibid. a nation cannot persist without any kind of 17 Cp. It is a symbolic combination of political and cultural identity. Again. Monarchies have additional celebrations like the monarchs’ jubilee and their birthdays. Laetsch. It is important to keep in mind the negative part of the identity phenomenon: It can lead to abuse by persecuting the other in the name of the own identity. This special identity. Even sport mass events like world cups or the Olympics can be integrated in the collective memory. The existence of such a collective spirit means on a national level not only legitimacy but also support for and acceptance of the political system. 18 17 – and also sport what is going to be focused on in this Especially the politics of symbols is important for the development of a cultural identity. These symbols are the visual part of an important integration of the national population in democratic states. Cp.

Ibid. the basis for a peaceful living together is the inclusive nationalism explained in chapter 2. In her government statement from November 30 2005. 25 By speaking of “culture” in the plural form. she speaks of Germany as a European cultural nation and remembers the importance of care for the own national cultures and tradition. Germany or rather the Germans themselves had a long time problems with their national identity and st especially with displaying it in public. 3. 24 They show a new self-confidence in handling and presenting their nationality. Factors influencing national identity Various forces of globalization increasingly challenge the contemporary international order to develop more explicitly trans-national forms of governance at regional and global level. 26 Cp. she accepts and integrates the several cultures imported by the many migrants. This leads to an institutionalization of “global citizenship” or “cosmopolitan democratic citizenship” 23 as it is called in Roche’s book about global culture. Stefan (2008: 90). Part of this “new” generation is also Angela Merkel. the home region or country has still a certain importance for the people. This allows her to address th also critical issues. Another important factor is her very own person. 25 Cp. Especially the East German population has a new figure to identify with as Merkel is a protestant Christian democrat from former East Germany which corresponds with many of these people. Roche.: 87. The modern habit of following the job from city to city and even moving back and forth from one country to another changes the meaning of “home”. She represents a selfconfident behavior and relaxed relationship to the own country. Stefan (2008: 88). German chancellor has always a formal distance to too deep emotions. The 21 century brings with it some changes in the mentality. the collective spirit is essential for the stability and integrity of a political system.1. Hence. 23 6 . Ibid. They are a condition for the existence and perception of each other. It is a new generation of politicians who did not experience the times of National Socialism but which is nevertheless aware of its historical responsibility. Laetsch. shortly after her election as chancellor. 26 The side-effect of this new self-confidence among politicians was taken over by the media. Nevertheless (or maybe due to this development?). Laetsch. 24 Cp. 22 Furthermore. Angela Merkel. these positive aspects should not make forget the importance of the perception and acceptance of “the other”. With regard to the understanding of “nation” it is not about the exclusion of other groups but about their acceptance and integration into the community. As already said before. Maurice (2000: 200). 22 Cp.collective identity.

This was seen as a big opportunity to foster the national identity. National success in sport has a large impact on the strength of national identity. Germany was host of the FIFA World Cup. John MacAloon states in his article about mega events like the Olympics and Expos that the 7 . One of the projects was the social-marketing-campaign “Du bist Deutschland” (You are Germany). 4. They refer not only to historic figures like Albrecht Dürer (painter) but also to modern personalities known to the whole of Germany like Günther Jauch (TV presenter and journalist). the goal was a more natural identification with the home country and it was a reminder that every individual belongs to the collective. There was a controversial discussion about this campaign because the slogan was already used for a NS announcement during Hitler times. The result was a two minute TV spot and a print campaign bringing together famous German personalities and the normal German citizen. Public Relation agencies and several VIP’s initiating a politically independent project. especially in Western societies. It is about the collective memory and putting the achievements of German ancestor back in the mind. Nevertheless. The aim was to create the consciousness for more self-confidence and motivation regarding the own nationality. The participation of many prominent figures with different origins shows that the formation of a collective spirit doesn’t require an exclusion from a homogenous group but it means an identity comprising different groups of people and has a positive identification with the own nation-state. It was a cooperation of more than 20 media companies. Representatives don’t stop highlighting the essentially peaceable character of this cultural competition. Already in the pre-world cup-period several groups tried to promote the collective spirit and to prepare the Germans for an emotional tournament.In 2006. to the nation. Sport and national identity Whenever an international sport event takes place national identity is widely discussed. The two pictures on this page are exemplary for the whole campaign.

Sanna (2006: 155). People of a country can identify themselves with the national team. Laetsch. They use references to national characters. There is a deep connection between the team. The different channels enable a much larger audience to take part in the competition. Inthorn. 30 Cp. An example are the headlines of the British press on the occasion of games between Great Britain and Germany saying: “war minus shooting” (Orwellian formulation) or “Achtung Surrender!” (tabloid press). Maurice (2000: 96). 31 The technological development in the past years (which is still ongoing) challenges this opportunity. language and food to differentiate the teams. Cp. But it would be a mistake to reduce multi-national sport events to nationalism only in a negative way. media discourse constructs a sense of national identity by placing different nations in direct opposition to each other. newspapers… Sitting in front of the television sets at home give us the sense of belonging to the already mentioned imagined community. internet. The second and not less important part are the spectators. Inthorn. First. Modern sport. 29 This only can happen because they share the enjoyment of football and the ultimate wish to see “their” team win. This might lead or has already led to a different feeling. 31 Cp. When it comes to the World Cup. The people are no longer bound to their television set at home but they have mobile internet and can follow the match from wherever they are and whenever they want.“participation itself was worthy of recognition and respect and […] ‘losing’ would be tolerated and not lead to exit or war. They share the same nationality. meaning the several sportsmen and the fan community. Nevertheless. 27 Roche. They endure the team’s defeats as well as they cheer its success. At the same time loses the coverage its simultaneity. culture and past. It is true that the concept of national teams fighting against each other contributes to the strengthening of nationalist groups. 30 There are two major parts within this “procedure” of a sport competition. With their references to past wars they emphasize nations’ rivalries and past military relationships. 28 8 32 Journalists use the nations’ past glories . Social and political differences among fans of a specific national team are ignored for the period of the tournament and the supporters become one imagined community. especially team sport on an international level is unimaginable without the accompanying fans.” 27 This is an important factor for the global community after having suffered two world wars and several regionally limited armed conflicts. 29 Cp. national dress. They are not only a possibility for many companies to make money but they support the sportsmen on an emotional level. they participate in the whole “journey” from qualification phase to group stage and the final knock-out stage with the closing final. They are split between the spectators directly at the pitch and then the large group of people participating through the different channels – be it TV. Stefan (2008: 93). there are the participants – the teams or single sportsmen. Sanna (2006: 156). Let’s go back to the connection of national identity to sport and especially to sport tournaments. Ibid. The extent to which sporting events can still make us feel part of the nation changes. For the time of a tournament social divisions are not important. 28 Sports have a powerful potential for popularizing intra-national communication and national identity. 32 Ibid.

he also asks the audience to connect the competition to emotions (“do what you feel”) which also contributes to an emotionalization of the tournament and also of identity. (The complete lyrics of the songs can be found in the annex of this paper. all around us”). does this song also mention the role of national flags repeatedly. Furthermore. The Austrian songwriter speaks repeatedly of the will to win (“Du stehst da oben im Siegessinn”/”reach for the number one”). namely the song “We are one” by Pitbull for the championship in 2014. there must be a connection between the sporting performance and the image a society has of itself. The most common symbol is the national flag that Andreas Gabalier incorporates as well (“Fahnen schwingen”) and which brings me directly to the next song “Waving flag” by K’naan. This shows that the sportsmen are not only fighting for their own good but that they are representatives of a whole country. The Olympics The Olympic Games are an ancient tradition and one of the oldest ways of competing peacefully against each other.1. The last example is the latest official song for a FIFA World Cup. This was one of the main songs for the FIFA World Cup in 2010 in South Africa. He underlines this wish with the line “show the world where you’re from”. he refers to the collective memory of a nation recalling the possibility for the sportsmen to become part of this memory by making the nation proud (“für ewige Zeiten Nationsidol”/”unsterblich sein”). make us feel proud”. His song focuses on the flags and the celebration of all nations (“every nation. Like the other two songs. 4. “Put your flags up in the sky” is an invitation to present and show if not even uphold the own nation. these songs always remember to celebrate not only the own nation but also the one-ness which is built on the belonging to this special sport football (“show the world we are one”). Success on such an occasion has a major importance for the identity of a nation. Just as a defeat would make the nation feel ashamed for the bad performance or maybe for not having been able to choose a better representative for the nation. So. they appeal the whole nation and construct the image of a homogenous group. Still.associating them with the battlefield and transplanting them into the sports sphere and the football pitch. The actual national identity is mentioned when he sings “fight for the nation you belong”. But even this song refers to national identity saying “you define us. Striving for victory is the ultimate goal in a tournament. By doing so. The ban 9 .) Do these songs cheer or at least contain references to national identity? The first example is the song “Go for gold” by Andreas Gabalier who wrote it for the FIS Alpine Skiing World Championship in Schladming. Another part of the public celebration during sport tournaments are the official songs going along with every event. Elements like the five rings flag or the flame of the contemporary Olympics were developed particularly in the inter-war period. Finally. The modern form was (re-) introduced in 1896. The last thing I want to highlight is the classification into the different nations which is basis of international tournaments. the team spirit during a tournament (“steht dein Land hinter dir”) is essential and regardless to win or lose. In the following I picked out three songs from past sporting mass events. Nevertheless. Again is the origin of the participants and the differentiation between the different national groups important. The chorus “go for gold” makes the possible victory subject of discussion. He reminds that international sport tournaments can assist international understanding apart from political and economic negotiations.

33 Roche. 35 Ibid. FIFA (2014). : 96. They enter the stadium in the national groups. football is played all over the world and the FIFA is the world’s football global governing body counting 209 national associations. of the Olympic Charter says “membership of the movement is incompatible with any form of discrimination with regard to a country or a person on grounds of race. 38 Cp. The specificity of the Olympic Games is the Olympism. all nations are celebrating together the come-together. According to the Charter “The goal of Olympism is to place everywhere sport at the service of the harmonious development of man. 4. One of the most representative parts is the opening and respectively the closing ceremony. 36 Cp.” 34 Differing to the general public perception the International Olympic Committee defines the Olympic Games as “competitions between athletes […] and not between countries” 35 The commercial players in this whole tournament and partly also the media are working against this principle because they support the nationalization of the Games.of advertising and commercial imagery allows focusing only on the sport.2. around the world to their colonies. cricket. Maurice (2000: 195). The institutionalization of sports began with the Olympics and its International Olympic Committee. the Olympic movement resembles the inclusive nationalism. away from the actual home country. 34 10 38 . with a view to encouraging the establishment of a peaceful society concerned with the preservation of human dignity. The opening of the games is done by the head of state hosting the Olmpics which shows also the political importance of hosting such an event in the own country. rugby and squash. The British imperialism with its colonialism can be set as a starting point. religion.2. the nations are represented separately. 37 By doing this they reproduced the British society around the world. On the other side. Ibid. sex or otherwise. They are the embodiment of international competition. The same thing happened to football. On the one hand.” 33 It seems to have a special “civilizing mission” developing an own identity apart from or in addition to national identities. In the course of time the Olympics gave birth to a series of specialist international sport mega-event movements. Article 3. Especially the selection of the standard-bearer is very important for the sportsmen and felt to be an honor. The British exported their cultural traditions and many of their (old) games. It was meant for the expatriate British upper and middle class to help them feel at home. 37 Cp. Today. FIFA World Cup The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) emerged from the Olympics and the International Olympic Committee in 1928. 36 Sport itself becomes more and more international. Although the Olympic Games are no geographical entity (no nation). Ibid. are dressed in specially designed national outfits and carry their nation’s flag. Maurice (2000: 102). Roche. including the football’s world cup. politics.

Markus and Ide. The German literature focuses often on the football’s impact on the nation-building process in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and on its reunification with West Germany. For many of them football was an important part of this biography. the GDR needed sport as an identificational factor more than other countries. They do so even more the further we move temporally from reunification.: 43.2. The World Cup 1974 was a special event for Germany. but none of that would distance them from West Germany .: 46f. Bundesliga (2 nd league). Ibid.1. In the same year beat the GDR “Auswahl” (selection) the West Germany’s “Nationalelf” (national eleven). Historical development in Germany At the beginning football was disapproved by the German elites and people of influence. Robert (2006: 37). “Many East Germans seriously reclaimed what they thought of as their right to their own biography which had. They sure had a common language. due to mismanagement and lack of financial support they disappear more and more from the Bundesliga and even the 2. Roman (2006: 25).” That is one reason why a club like Hansa Rostock which – in GDR times – had a rather regional appeal became important for the whole of the former GDR population representing the East German identity. 42 Ibid. 41 In the 1970s it seemed football would have become a major factor in shaping the GDR national identity.except for the political system which was imposed by the authorities and not developed or approved by the population. Therefore.4. 43 Cp. Ibid. On the other hand was there a debate about a new rising nationalism and parties and media tried equally to avoid national expressions. 40 Since then the football developed into the most popular sport in the Federal Republic of Germany. been taken away by a perceived West German take over. Specifically interesting is the connection of national identity and football during the existence of two Germanys. In 1900 the Deutsche Fußballbund (German Football Association) was founded and the parlor game became competitive. By translating the rules and terms into German they freed the game from the stigma of “Englishism” and redefined it as a German game. in their view. It then became a “parlour game” 39 for the bourgeois middle class even though it was initially a working-class mass spectacle. Cp. 40 11 . an East German author says: “It is always more fun to see the favourites stumble and the underdog win. after all.” 42 This is also one reason why even critical East Germans took sides with the GDR team who had. 41 Cp. history etc. This joy about the victory was of short duration and the country turned back to feelings of insecurity and separation. FC Magdeburg won the UEFA Cup Winner’s Cup in 1974. Thomas Brussig. Hesselmann. Especially in the match between the two German 39 Horak. 43 The West German team won its first title in 1954. beaten the European Champions and World Champions-to-be. East German football clubs retain an important function in preserving East German identity. This success was very controversially presented. Nevertheless. On the one hand was it the first opportunity in the post-war times to celebrate collectively and a chance for a positive identification with the fatherland. The GDR was a rather artificially constructed state and had none of the features listed in the chapter about “nation”. The 1.

Stefan (2008: 94f). The style of the different national teams corresponds to this “stereotypical image vested in tradition” 48 that the national community gives itself and wants to show to others. 49 During the European Cup in 2004 short clips introduced the host country Portugal and the respective opponents. 47 Cp. cultural and ethnic stereotypes are used to 44 Hesselmann. They provide the interpretation of the games and the classification of who is doing a “good” or “bad” sport performance. 45 12 . 46 Current situation in Germany As already mentioned before.: 101. 4. It also corresponds often to the fan behavior. But the game of football is based on the essence of collective identity formation and the definition of borders between “in-groups” and “out-groups”.: 155. I already implied that the TV programs have an important role. 4. Laetsch. the patriotic feelings set off by the World Cup are comparable to any other mega event in the past.2. Ibid.2.2. The World Cup functioned as a sort of outlet and the support of the national team is the visualization of the development Germany experienced to that time. Players and supporters showed two collective identities and demonstrated the political separation on a sports-level. Ibid. key moments in history and national cuisine contributing in that way to a strengthening of different national characters.3. They showed culture. Media and Football Media emphasizes the discursive construction of national identity dividing national styles of play. the FIFA World Cup in 2006 was of major importance to make this change more public. It was the first possibility to live feelings of national belonging within the own country. Sanna (2006: 155). 47 The sport has had a positive impact on this development and was emotionalized by integrating national symbols.” 44 But back to the reunification: It was a tough task to unite two national teams to one excellent team and also to unite the population that was – after ca.: 157. Even though they did not win the tournament. Of course. The long history of multi-national sport events has led to stereotypical images. Sanna (2006: 156). 50 Here again. 48 Inthorn. the year of reunification only West German players participated in the World Cup. whereas the Germans have a less exciting but reliable style. Inthorn. Since the fall of the Berlin wall there hasn’t been any national celebration of that extent in Germany. there were other World Cups before but hosting such a big event in the own country is very different and involves the rapt attention of the international media. 40 years of separation – used to differentiate one from another. Robert (2006: 36). 46 Cp. 45 In 1990.Ibid. They won their third title but due to the political events (upcoming unification and break-down of the Soviet bloc) the victory was of minor importance. the situation of feeling and displaying national identity changed in the past years. Werner Schneider. 50 Cp. a West German TV reporter stated: “The world ‘national team’ should not be a taboo tonight. So are the Italians said to play fiery and volcanic. 49 Cp. even though we know that there can’t be two national teams from one nation. Markus and Ide. Therefore.teams a certain suspicion was manifested from both sides.

The purpose of this development lies in the possibility for all kind of national audiences to project their own local meanings on these transnational stars. Inthorn. To conclude it can be said that football can be at the same time inclusive and exclusive. Ibid.: 163. Taking again Germany as an example: Football stars like Mario Gomez (currently at ACF Fiorentina. 52 This is of high value for global companies and their marketing campaigns. Adidas. there is a difference between “old” national football stars who are important for the story of the nation and the concept of today’s football superstars being marketed transnationally. Hence. Media is definitely a source for the discursive construction of national identity. 51 The fact of buying players from abroad and going to foreign football clubs shows that the presence of “home-grown” talent is less important than success. namely through the co-commentators like in Germany Mehmet Scholl (former midfielder) and Oliver Kahn (former goalkeeper) assisting the commentators in analyzing the matches. Consequently. Advertising campaigns of global players like Coca Cola. Italy) or Mesut Özil (playing in Arsenal F. there are two discourses present in today’s society. Great Britain) don’t function only as a symbol of German national identity anymore but rather as symbols of successful athletic performance. It functions as inclusion when barriers of race. To show real examples: Franz Beckenbauer belongs to a different type of football star then the modern superstars Christiano Ronaldo or David Beckham do. They become a symbol of an international. 13 . There is a growing tension between the persisting representation of national identity during international tournaments and the presentation of football as a global game. They have a flexible celebrity status without limitation of one specific geographical area. As many other parts of the life challenge the effects of globalization of football and the media industry also the way in which this sport evokes images of national culture and identity. Like any other economic sector is this part influenced by the globalization. Media companies do not only transmit and analyze the actual football matches but participate in advertisement. It concerns those people who don’t belong to the same fan group but could still be in the same social class. 5. global game in which football talent and star performance matter more than being representative of national characteristics. or McDonald’s form transnational stars. Especially in TV shows is past success present. On the 51 52 Cp. Sportsmen are built up into transnational global citizens. The previous chapters explained on the basis of the German history and current habits where sport and especially football influences the formation of identity.illustrate and explain their reports. Cp. Conclusion Football has a unique position among other sporting disciplines and it has an impact on different settings of identity formation.C. Past success is omnipresent in the media – be it to cheer it again (because people supposedly identify with it) or to distract from recent defeats. Sanna (2006: 158). The traditional division between “us” (the nation) and “them” (the other nations) becomes less sharp. religion or class become – at least – temporarily invalid and it has exclusive consequences by “othering” people. It became clear that sport and especially football had a positive impact on the development of the German’s attitude to national identity and its portrayal..

will replace cultural diversity by a homogenous and global culture. hereby confirm that I wrote the paper „Sport and National Identity – A German Example“ on my own and that I did not use any other sources than indicated. 53 I would like to end this paper with a quote by Sanna Inthorn.: 167.” But as long as people include these transnational pop stars in their national team and consider them as a part of their nation the story of national teams and its strong connection to identity can be maintained.05. the further globalization of media sport.2014 53 Ibid. On the other side people argue that it is sufficiently financially lucrative to keep up the diversity and to address audiences as distinct national communities. 14 . 30. (total word count: 6100) I. She says: “The story of football today became the story of ‘popstars’ and not hand people fear that the future development.

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give me fire Saying forever young Give me reason. now wave your flag Now wave your flag Now wave your flag. now wave your flag So wave your flag. give you fire Now wave your flag Give you reason.Wavin’ flags – K’naan Every nation.letssingit. all around us They'll call me freedom just like a wavin' flag Staying forever young So wave your flag. make us feel proud And together at the end of the day. when I get older I will be stronger They'll call me freedom just like a wavin' flag They'll call me freedom just like a wavin' flag When I get older I will be stronger When I get older I will be stronger They'll call me freedom just like a wavin' flag They'll call me freedom just like a wavin' flag So wave your As we lose our inhibition wavin-flag-coca-cola-celebration-mix- Celebration. now wave your flag Let's rejoice in the beautiful game Now wave your flag. we all say Now wave your flag When I get older I will be stronger We all say. we all say In the streets our heads are liftin' When I get older I will be stronger As we lose our inhibition They'll call me freedom just like a wavin' flag Celebration. now wave your flag Now wave your flag. it surrounds us When I get older I will be stronger Every nation. all around us Give me freedom. make us feel proud And we all will be singing it In the streets our heads are liftin' <http://artists. take you higher See the champions take the field now And everybody will be singing it You define us. it surrounds us 1v3b623#ixzz32x5D2Akq> 16 . now wave your flag Singing songs underneath the sun Now wave your flag. now wave your flag And together at the end of the day. take me higher Singing songs underneath the sun See the champions take the field now Let's rejoice in the beautiful game You define us. now wave your flag Give you freedom.

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05. Robert (2006).). Christopher (ed.).jpg> (called up: 28. renan. <http://www. Kolpatzik. Maurice (2000). Laetsch. Internet Sources FIFA (2014): <http://www. Anthony D. Smith.05. Bibliography Hesselmann.merriam-webster.05.7. Münster: Lit. Oxon: Routledge. „Die Waden der Nation“ – Fußballweltmeisterschaft als deutsch-deutscher Erinnerungsort. Hamburg: Diplomica Verlag.14) "Du bist Deutschland” Campaign : Günther Jauch <http://www.jpg> (called up: 28.html> (called up: 22. urbanism and national identity.05. In: Tomlinson. Ernest (1882): <http://web. (1991)> (called up: 05. Verlag. German Football – history. Megaevents and Modernity – Olympics and Expos in the growth of global culture. Inthorn. Christopher (ed.14) Renan. “Germany versus Austria – Football. “A tale of two Germanys – Football culture and national identity in the German Democratic Republic”. culture. society. in: Tomlinson. German Football – history. Alan and Young. German football – history.14) Merriam-Webster Online (2014). National Oxon: Routledge.14) "Du bist Deutschland” Campaign : Albrecht Dürer <http://dubistdeutschland. Roche. Alan and Young. Christopher (ed. „A game of nations? – Football and national identities”. Oxon: In: Tomlinson. Alan and Young. society. Sind wir Deutschland? – Eine politikwissenschaftliche Erklärung für das Fußballmärchen 2006. Markus and Ide. Andrea (2009). London: Routledge. London. Stefan (2008).cooper. 8.amazink. culture.fifa. Sanna (2006).html> (called up: 22.14) 18 society. Roman (2006).