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Review of last class

Kirchhoffs rules:
Junction rule: \sum I =0
Loop rule: \sum V=0
Meters: Ammeter and voltmeter
RC circuit: Charging and discharging

Chapter 20 Lecture

Chapter 20:
Magnetic Field
and Magnetic
Forces

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Two Experiments, Different Scale


(left) electromagnet, (right) permanent magnet

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The Behavior of Bar Magnets


attraction and repulsion
dipole or monopole. Always in pairs.

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Our Earth Itself Has a Magnetic Field


This field is not very strong but it is consistent
(and convenient).

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Tracking north
magnetic pole
(from wiki)

A Compass Will Align with Fields


The compass will align with
whatever average field is
strongest.
Absent the current-carrying
wire, the compass would align
with the earth's magnetic field.
Oersted experiment: current
can generate magnetic field
and influence the compass.

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Examples of Magnetic Fields Figure 20.8


Fields are created in a variety of ways and
observed in a variety of places.

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Iron Filings Will Align as a Compass


Does Figure 20.7
Each small filing lines up tangent to the field
lines, allowing a visual demonstration.

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B field lines:
1. Always closed loops.
2. No intersect of two lines (loops).
3. Density of the lines is proportional to the strength of the field
4. Direction: arrow points to the test compass north direction

Charges Moving with Respect to a Field

!
! !
F = qv B
! ! !
P = F v = 0
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Zero work

Meaning of cross product of vectors

! !
! !
a b = b a =| ab | sin( )

http://emweb.unl.edu/math/mathweb/
vectors/vectors.html

The Right-Hand Rule

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The Effect of the Sign of a Moving Charge


Figure 20.11
Positive and negative
charges will feel
opposite effects from
a magnetic field.

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Word records in B field


https://nationalmaglab.org/about/facts-figures/world-records

Proton in-vivo MR images of


mouse head acquired on
the UWB 900 MRI scanner.
Resolution in coronal plane
was 62x62 m, slice
thickness was 150 m.
(from Maglab report)

A parallel beam of positive ions enters the space


between two charged plates, where there is also a
magnetic field. For the electric and magnetic
forces on the ions to be in opposite directions,
what should be the direction of the magnetic field?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Vertically upward.
Vertically downward.
Directly into the page.
Directly out of the page.

2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

A parallel beam of positive ions enters the space


between two charged plates, where there is also a
magnetic field. For the electric and magnetic
forces on the ions to be in opposite directions,
what should be the direction of the magnetic field?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Vertically upward.
Vertically downward.
Directly into the page.
Directly out of the page.

2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Circular motion of charge in a uniform B field

A charged particle enters a uniform magnetic field.


Which of the following statements is true?

a)
b)
c)
d)

The particle's velocity changes.


The particle's speed changes.
The particle's kinetic energy changes.
The particle's potential energy changes.

2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

A charged particle enters a uniform magnetic field.


Which of the following statements is true?

a)
b)
c)
d)

The particle's velocity changes.


The particle's speed changes.
The particle's kinetic energy changes.
The particle's potential energy changes.

2016 Pearson Education, Inc.