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Solutions to Problems on Volumes Theme 7

1. The region enclosed by the x-axis, the line x=3, and the curve y = x is rotated about the x-
axis. What is the volume of the solid generated ?

We can use the disk method where R=y and the limits are from x=0 to x=3.
3 3
x2 3 9π
Using the formula for volume of a disk V = π ∫ R 2 dx = π ∫ x dx = π |0 =
2 2
0 0

9 36 3
(A) 3π (B) 2π 3 (C) π √ (D) 9π (E) π
2 5

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2. If the region enclosed by the y-axis, the line y=2, and the curve y = x is revolved about the
y-axis, the volume of the solid generated is

We can use the disk method where R=x and the limits are from y=0 to y=2.
2 2
y5 32π
Using the formula for the volume of a disk V = π ∫ R 2 dy = π ∫ y 4 dy = π |02 =
5 5
0 0

32π 16π 16π 8π
(A) √ (B) (C) (D) (E) π
5 3 5 3

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3. The base of a solid S is the region enclosed by the graph of y = ln x , the line x=e, and the
x-axis. If the cross section of S perpendicular to the x-axis are squares, then the volume of
S is

A(x)= y2

X= e

e e
The volume of S is V = ∫ A(x) dx = ∫( ln x )2 dx = 1
1 1

1 2 1 2
(A) (B) (C) 1 √ (D) 2 (E) (e − 1)
2 3 3

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4. Let R be the shaded region in the first quadrant enclosed by the graphs of y = sin x and
y = cos x, as shown in the figure below.

(a) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the x-axis.
(b) Find the volume of the solid whose base is R and whose cross sections cut by planes
perpendicular to the x-axis are squares.

(a) If we take a representative rectangle, perpendicular to the axis of rotation, and
revolve it about the x-axis, a solid of revolution (a washer) will result.

π π π
4 4 4
2 2 π π
The volume V = π ∫ (cos x − sin x) dx = π ∫ cos 2x dx = sin 2x | = = 1.571
2 0 2
0 0

* Note: the trigonometric identity → (cos2x – sin2x) = cos 2x

(b) The volume of a solid whose cross sections are cut by planes perpendicular to the
x-axis are modeled by the slicing technique.

A(x)

The volume of the solid is the summation of the area of the squares A(x) over the
π
4
entire interval of the base. V = ∫ A(x) dx where A(x) = (cos x − sin x)2 .
0
π π π
4 4 4
2 2
V = ∫ (cos x − sin x) dx = ∫ (cos x − 2 sin x cos x + sin2 x) dx = ∫ (1 − sin 2x) dx
0 0 0

π
1 4 π 1
V = x + cos 2x | = − = 0.285
2 0 4 2