The Persecution

of

Jehovah's Witnesses

T

HE record of violence
a·gainst a religious organization unparalleled
in America since the at-

tacks

on

the

Mormons•


American Civil Liberties Union
170 Fifth Avenue
New York City
.,..,181

January, 194 1

Introduction
undersigned believe that the issues raised by the attacks
T onHEJehovah's
Witnesaes constitute a challenge to American
democracy and religious tolerance. Nothing in the beliefs or
practices of Jehovah's Witnesses justifiea the charges of a lack
of patriotism levelled against them. Their refusal on religious
grounds to salute the flag reats upon a Biblical injunction which
they accept literally. In the conflict between loyalty to God and
loyalty to the State Jehovah's Witnesses stand upon the ancient
tradition of putting loyalty to God first.
Though the Supreme Court of the United States has sustained
the right of school boards to expel children who do not aalute
the fiag, the Court has not imposed fiag saluting on others,
though that is the ignorant assumption behind much of the
persecution. The court has in three cases sust ained the rights of
Jehovah's Witnesses to distribute their leaflets on the streets
and house-to-house and to play their phonograph records upon
request.
Yet it is these very activities which have aroused the ire of
so-called patriotic citizens and have led to the outbursts of lawlessness. While ;some of the literature of Jehovah's Witnesses
contains vigorous attacks on all organized religions and thus
arouses hostility, it i3 clearly within the law.
The undersigned clergymen endorse the publication of this
story of a shocking episode of intolerance in American life,
t'efiectlng a tendency against which both officials and citizens
should constantly be on guard.
DR. DWIGHT J. BRADLEY
DR. F REDERICK MAY ELIOT
DR. HARRY EMERSON FOSD1CK
DR. JOHN HAYNES HOLMES
RABBI EDWARD L. ISRAEL
REV. HALFORD E. LuccocK
BISHOP FRANCIS J. McCONNELL
DR. REINHOLD NIEBUHR
REV. CLARENCE R. SKINNER
REV. ERNEST F. TITTLE

The Persecution of Jehovah 's Witnesses
the persecution of the lVIqrmons years ago has
N OTa nysince
religious minority been so bitterly and generally at-

tacked as the members of Jehovah's Witnesses-particularly in
the spring and summer of 1940. While this was the peak of the
a ttacks upon them, hostility and discrimination have been rife
for several years.
Documents filed with the Department of Justice by attorneys
for Jehovah's Witnesses and the American Civil Liberties Union
showed over three hundred thirty-five instances of mob violence in forty-four states during 1940, involving one thousand
four hundred eighty-eight men, women, and children.

The cause of this ext raordinary outbreak was the "patriotic"
fea r aroused by the success of the Nazi armies in Europe and
the panic which seized the country at the imagined inv.a sion of
t he Uni ted States. From California to Maine this emotion ex~
pressed itself in searching out "Fifth Columnists" and "Trojan
Horses"-phrases which sprang into almost immediate popularity to characterize those thought to be opposed t o national
def ense.
Jehovah's Witnesses were the object of immediate and widespread attack, chiefly because of their position on flag saluting,
well advertised by their widespread distribution of the May 29,
1940 issue of the magazine Consolation giving details of t he
hearing before the U.S. Supreme Court of the Gobitis flag salute
case. Following the decision of J une 3, 1940, in which school
boards were upheld in their r ight to expel children of this sect
who refused to salute the fla g, this propaganda was taken by
some as seditious.

Small Town Intolerance
of the attacks occurred in small communities, where
lV1OSTJehovah's
Witnesses are particularly active in spreadlng
their gospel by house-to-house canvassers, selling literature and

4

TEE PzRsECU'IlON oF JzROVAs's WcTNEssts

playing phonograph records of the speeches of their leader,
Judge Jo3eph F. Rutherford.
These publicity tactics are the obligation of Jehovah's Witnesses, whoae hundreds of thousands of members are to be
found throughout the country- and in other lands as well. They
carry their propaganda directly to the people in their homes.
Organized in little groups, traveling by a utomobile, they systematically canvass a community, offering their literature
house-to-house and on the streets. They thus readily attract
attention and arouse opposition.
In smaller communities, intolerance is easily organized and
gets out of hand. Though Jehovah's Witnesses distribute in
the larger cities as well, lawless action in the face of adequate
police forces is impracticable. Only a few of the incidents were
reported from towns of more than five thousand population.
One of the most extraordinary aspects of the persecution of
these Jehovah's Witnesses engaged in the peaceful distribution
of literature, was the charge, made at once when the agitation
against them began, that they were agents of the Nazis. Not a
word in their literature justifies such a charge.
One piece of their literature carries a swastika-but as a
symbol to be attacked. Jehovah's Witnesses are strongly antiNazi. Being an international organization with members in
many countries, and with a strong following in Germany, they
have run foul of the Nazi government, and several tho usands of
their followers are reported to be in concentration camps. In
Germany, as elsewhere, they refuse to salute the flag, holding
that the Bible commands them to worship no symbol but that
of Jehovah.

A Law-Abiding G roup
XCEPT on the sole issue of fiag saluting, the attitude of
E
J ehovah's Witnesses toward governments is to obey every
"righteous" law. Though Jehovah'a Witnesses individually are
opposed to participation in wars between nations, in this coun·
try they have complied with the selective service law. Their
attitude individually toward the law's requirement of partici-

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH 'S WITNESSES

5

pation in military training and service Ls at this writing an
unsett led question confronting draft boards and appeal agencies.
lt is plain that no charge of lack of loyalty or patriotism can
be rightly or successfully laid against Jehovah's Witnesses. On
flag saluting, they firmly maintain the ancient practice of
"obeying God rather than men"-putting loyalty to the Creator
above loyalty to the State.
But there is a secondary cause of antagonism to Jehovah's
Witnesses. They oppose the all religious systems on the ground
that they pervert the purposes of "Almighty God, expressed in
the Bible." Their pamphlets attack the Catholic Church, Protestants and Jews. Jehovah's Witnesses are not themselves a church
in the accepted sense. They have no creed but the Bible, no
clergymen and no places of worship. They are evangelists for a
brand of Christian fundamentalism and they are zealous in
making converts. It is their evangelism, their attitude to the
flag and to the churches, which have aroused a persecution unparalled in recent years.
Jehovah's Witnesses have sought to obtain what they regard
as their civil rights by proceedings in the courts. Three years
ago they contested an ordinance in a Georgia town requiring
permits for the distribution of lit erature. Permits were refused
to them and they carried the case to the United S tates Supreme
Court, which voided the ordinance. The decision was a landmark
in guaranteeing freedom of the press in terms of the right to
distribute literature on public streets.
Another case in Connecticut was taken to the U.S. Supreme
Court, again involving a state statute prohibiting the canvassing of homes for religious causes without a permit. The
Court voided the statute, thus sustaining Jehovah's Witnesses' rights to canvass homes, to sell tracts, and to play their
phonograph records on request.
Despite those decisions local officials in scores of communities
have continued to prohibit street distribution of literature and
house-to-house canvassing. Since regulat ory local ordinances
have been voided, Jehovah's Witnesses are arrested on more
general charges, such as disturbing the peac~ 1 ya¥rancy, s~llini
without a licen~e, o.nq cHsorqerlr coP.dlJct,

6

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

The Record of Violence
reach~ d

Y a recital of the extraordinary incidents which
0 NLtheir
peak in May and June of this year will indicate the
extent of the persecution. The following instances are taken
from the volume of testimony presented to the Department of
Justice baaed upon affidavits and reports from the field, and
backed up in practically every instance by press reports.
From an affidavit by Albert Stroebel of Flagstaff, Arizona
dated June 26, 1940:
"On Wednesday evening J une 19th, 1940 my dad
and I drove to Ash Fork from Williams to contact two
fellow workers at a friend's house. I drove up in front
of the house and went up on the porch when three men
stepped into the ya.rd up on the porch and said, 'Are
you looking for anyone ?' -and then, 'will you salute the
flag?' and when I replied that I respected the flag but
was consecrated to do God's will and did not salute or
attribute salvation to the fiag they cried, 'Nazi spy !'
knocked me down, beat me badly, and .finally knocked
me out- then dragged and pushed me across the street
to a service station and again tried to make me salute
the fiag. I was dizzy, befuddled and don't clearly remember anything further except that a considerable
crowd had gathered yelling 'Nazi spy !-Heil Hitler!
-String him up I-Chop his head off I'
" A deputy sheriff appeared later. He took me to a
local jail and put my dad and I in a cell, as he said,
'to protect you from the mob and rest you up.'
"After two hours he took us both to Prescott to the
sheriff's headquarters, arriving there about 9 :00 p.m.,
some one else driving my car down. Upon arrival,
all of Jehovah's Witnesses' literature in my car was
taken in to the sheriff's office and three men spent
about three and a half hours inspecting same. A t
12 :30 a.m., the sheriff or District Attorney said, 'We
find nothing radically wrong in your literature and if
the people would take time to read it they wouldn't
get so hysterical and excited calling you Nazi spies
and the like.' Then they let us go."

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOV.AH'S WITNESSES

7

Another Cau
an affidavit of Roy Orabb of Prescott, Arizona
F ROM
June 29, 1940:

da~ed

"On Wednesday afternoon June 19th, 1940 after having engaged in Kingdom service ·in Ash Fork for
several hours my brother and I entered a friend 's home
on the main street of the town when we noticed cars
driving up in front of the house. Six cars in all parked
around the house, which is located on a. corner, the
leading car being a blue Plymouth sedan driven by the
local deputy sheriff' named Russell. The cars were there
about ten minutes when about a dozen men got out of
said cars, the deputy sheriff then driving away while
the men started into the house.
"The men entered the house and took my brother
and I out into the street where they produced a U.S.
fiag and said 'you fellows salute this' and when we
declined the assault began-the mob split and 6 or
more jumped on me while the rest, about the same
number, attacked my brother. After we were beaten
up, knocked down and out we were kicked aroundand I have a dim recollection of being dragged around
t he streets by our legs and feet and finally left semiconscious in the street. When we recovered enough to
stand we were driven out of town by the same mob.
"The mob went back to the house of our friends,
got our literature and portable phonographs which
were reported burned. Neither my brother O·r I know
the names of our attackers except one young fell ow,
Bud LaMar of Jerome who took a leading part in
beating up my brother. He is reported to be a French
Catholic and his grandmother resides in Ash Fork.
"We could Identify the ring leaders of the attackers
and in common with other cases of mob violence directed at Jehovah's Witnesses jn Yavapai County have
reported the matter direct to the District Attorney's
office and to Sherift' Robbins in Prescott and requested
that a deputy be sent with us to Ash Fork to enable
us to identify the mobsters without inciting further vio-

8

'THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH 'S WlTNESSES

lence. This was agraed to by under-Sheriff B-0rn la.st
Wednesday, June 26th, but when we appeared at the
sheriff's office for this purpose the foll owing day
Sheriff Robbins was there and he declined t o send the
deputy. Said he'd serve all the warrants we swore
out but wouldn't send a deputy to Ash Fork with us.
Ass 't District Attorney Frank encouraged this stand."

Sheriff R efuses Protection
an affidavit by Millard H. Pemberton of Crocker, MisF ROM
souri, dated July 4, 1940:
"On June 19th, 1940 at 7 p.m., Roy Cadwell, sheriff
of Pulaski County, Missouri, Ed Cusick, proaecuting
attorney and another man came to the trailer and inquired into my work and about saluting the flag. We
oft'ered to play them some records explaining our po:;ition and they would not let us but said they would
come back the next day.
"About 10 :30 p.m. that same night the sheriff and
prosecuting attorney and about nine others came back
fo the trailer, got me out of bed and asked to hear the
records. I played the following records for them: "Instructions," "Remedy," and the "Government & Peace"
series. At the end, the sheriff and prosecuting attorney
said there was nothing wrong with the records, but
because we would not salute the flag, that we should
be run out of the country and they both said they
would not give us any protection. They left about
11:45 p.m.
"About 1 :30 a.m. this same n ight, Howard Shackley, Ted Spears, and Clarence Quisenberr y, Jr., came
back and gave us 45 minutes to leave the county. We
phoned the sheriff for protection and he r efused. My
wife then called the state police at Jefferson City and
they said they would see what they could do. They did
not come, however.
"About 2: 15 a.m Shackley, Spears, and Quisenberry,
Jr., came back again and Howard Shackley shot 10
holes in three of my tires. They then left and again

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

cam e back in about 30 miru. Thi.s t ime they brought
gasoline to burn the trailer and Howard Shackley
drew a gun on me and threatened me. The state police
were again called and they did not respond. It W!l.S
about 3 a.m. by this time.
About 8 a.m. Carl Brisch and five other men, among
them Clarence Quisenberry and Ben Whickler 1 came
back and said that if we were not out of town by noon,
they would burn the trailer. We left town at 10 :30
11

a.m. 11

Women Beaten
a n affidavit by John
F ROM
dated Oct ober 30 1940:

Q. Adams of Beaumont, Texas,

1

"On September 1st, 1940 B. P. J ones, a resident of
Beaumont, Texas was visiting friends near Jasper,
Texas having brought home some of the children who
had been attending his wife in her illness. While he
was in Jasper he performed a baptismal service for
some of the colored people, he himself being a colored man and one of Jehovah'a Witnesses.
" While walking from one house to another a car
drew up alongside and someone said, 'Hello preacher,
what are you doing up here?' While explaining that
he was here to bring home the girls who had been attending his wife, two more cars drove up; one man
with a shot$un got out of one of the cars and forced
him into one of the cars, whereupon they drove out
the highway and turned off onto a dirt road leading to a cemetery. Upon arriving at the cemetery, one
of the men s·aid, 'We ought to go and get that white
son-of-a-bitch.' (Referring to one of the men who lives
in that vicinity who likewise is one of Jehovah's Witnesses). The man with the gun then said 'Well, let's
go ahead with him now!' The mob then tried to force
Jones to say that he knew the white 'son-of-a-bitch'
that they were alluding to-he did not know the man
as he was only visiting and was not acquainted with
any except the colored people.

9

lO

THE' PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES
"The mob the:n tied Jones' hands behind hh! back
and put a rope around the neck, by which one held him
while another beat him with a wet rope. Two of the
others cut a pofo from one of the trees nearby with
which they took ·their turn at beating him. Wl'len they
quit beating him, the man with the gun said, 'Now
run I' Jones repli1ed, 'No, if you want to shoot me you
can do it. while l( am looking at you.' At this, one of
them said "You got a lot of nerve, eh, nigger?' Then
the mob said the1y would give Jones three minutes to
get his stuff fror.n the house and leave Jasper, whereupon they took him back to the house where he

{as
visiting and waited for him to get his car. The mobst ers then followE?d him about 8 or 9 miles out of town.
"The above incident is merely one of the numeroua
acts of mob violence that have occui-red in the past
three or four months in the vicinity of Jasper and

Newton counties. In June, a mob of Legionnaires
dragged some of Jehovah's Witnesses from their automobiles as they were sitting in the Court House Square
at Jasper and bef~t them up and when some bystanders
attempted to come to the rescue of these people, they
likewise were ·b eaten-two of them being a frail woman
and her daughter. When the woman and her daughter
appealed to the s :heriff and Deputy and Town Marshall
of Jasper for protection, they merely stood by and
chuckled while the mob continued their 'dirty work.'
This mob has beEm trailing and attempting to ambush
various ones asso1eiated with Jehovah's Witnesses and
have forced one f'amily to leave the county.
"One of Jehovnh's Witnesses in Jasper whose name
is Mrs. Dave StEmford has a brother who is Deputy
Sheriff, and whone name is R. B. Gilbert. He warned
his sister that the American Legion would beat them
to death when th•~Y caught them engaging in the work
of preaching the gospel from house to house, and that
they could expect no protection from the law. In fact,
the sheriff of Jas,per County made the statement that
none of Jehovah'n Witnesses would ever see the inside
of the Jasper ja'il, but would be turned over to the
mob."

T HE PERSECUT!O)l OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

II/ ob

1(ells,

"Damn the Law!"

an affidavit ;by Lee Bruton of Hinton, Oklahoma,
F ROM
dat ed September 18, 1940:
"On Sunday, September 8th, 1940, at about 2 p.m.,
I was engaged in preaching the Gospel of Jehovah
God's Kingdom as shown in Matt. 24 :14 by quietly
calling at the homes of the people in the r ural section
of Canadian Cou.nty just west of Union City, Okla .
A car bearing tag number 31-2400 drove back and
forth by me several times. The driver I later learned
was named BoulJinger. In my car were several other
people. We proce1eded on in our work and did not see
this car for some time. Stopping at another home I
went in and took my phonograph with me to play for
the people there. On my return to the car, I saw the
above mentioned cai· with four men in it. They asked
that I come dowin the road and play the phonograph
for them. We played the phonograph and showed them
some Bible helps which we distribute to the people.
They drove off and were gone for some time.
"We had pl'oceieded on about 3 miles and were in
front of a home waiting for a young lady to return
from the house where she was playing a phonograph
record for a gentleman in his home. The four men who
appear ed before came up in a car with a fifth man.
The car's tag number was 1-86578 (Okla.). The five
men got out of the car and came over to our car. They
had with them ;a. small American Flag which they
fastened to our ear. We said 'Let it stay on the car,
we are for the flag.' Then they said they were going
to make us salute it, also stating that we were Germans and should be sent over to Germany. The young
lady having returned we were trying to get our car
started when theBe men began to threaten to shoot ua
with t he gun the?y had with them, saying they'd use
it if we did not salute the flag.
"The five men were very rude and cursed, saying
'damn Jehovah,' "damn the law,' 'We are the law' and

11

12

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

made m any other blasphemous remarks . They w~re
asked if they believed in the laws of this country and
thought they were good, and then asked if they thought
so then why did they try to take the law into their own
hands. While trying to get my car started two of the

men hit me breaking my nose and at the same time
shooting the gun around the car. They boasted that
the sheriff of Canadian county had told them to come
out and do what they wanted to, also that in time of
war they were the law and would start war on the
J ehovahi tes now.
"The mob was organized by the driver of the first
car and none of these had any excuse to molest us as
we were not even in their neighborhood."

Jailed Without Charges
an affidavit by Edgar A. Kircher and Edwin M.
F ROM
Kircher of Greenville, Illinois dated July 4, 1940 dealing
with an attack upon eight members of Jehovah's Witnesses
arrested by the Sheriff and held in jail sixteen hours without
charges before being freed .,
"On the evening of June 8th, 1940, we, the undersigned, together with other associates of the Greenville Company of Jehovah's Witnesses had taken our
positions upon the streets of Greenville, Ill. as we had
done upon previous occasions, for the purpose of distributing the Watch Tower magazine. We had been
upon the streets but a few minutes when we were
stopped by the local sheriff, Cecil McCracken, and
deputies, including a deputy sheriff from Clinton
County by the name of Robert Hooker.
"We were roughly handled, and two of us (Edwin
Kircher and Edgar Kircher) were struck repeatedly
by the officers on the way over to the Bond county jail.
After arriving at the jail, we were again attacked and
beaten about the head and face, my brother Maynord
Kircher was struck over the shoulder with the butt of

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

13

a r evolver in the h and of deputy Hooke:-. All of this
abuse in spite of the fact that no resistance was offered.
"Bond County Sheriff Cecil McCracken and deputy
Rob€rt Hooker were both noticeably under the influence of liquor. Deputy Hooker was the one most active
in the beatingn that were administered, and not satisfied with the a.buae already heaped upon us, this same
deputy took me (Edgar Kircher and a companion,
Mr. Truman Marietta) to the Clinton county jall and
again assaulted us, in an effort to make us promise
that we would! not come into Carlyle, Ill. or Clinton
County any more with our literature, and threatened
to lead a mob against us if we did. After being re·
tained in the jiail all night and most of the next day,
without any c.harge lodged against us, we were released and escorted to within a mile of the county line
(Bond and Clinton county line) and dumped out.
"On the way out of town the county officers were
seen to wave 1!lt passing brown car. This same car
overtook us shortly after we had been dumped out on
highway No. 127, and as we were making our way
home on foot :along the highway, we were taken to a
side road and beaten by the occupants of the brown
car, and those of another car that had joined them, in an
effort to make us salute the fl.ag."

a

Kid:napping in Jackson, Miss.
following letter from a Jehovah's Witness resident in
l 'HE
Jackson, Missis:sippi addressed to the Solicitor General of the

United States deals with a case in which federal law was clearly
violated, the Witniesses being virtually kidnapped and taken
across a state line. Indictments were not sought by the district
attorney because of his certainty that a conviction could not
be obtained. The circumstances are clearly set forth in the
following extracts from a letter fl'om H. M. S. Dixon of Jackson,
Mississippi :
"I was appointed by The Watch Tower & Tract
Society, 117 Adams St., Brooklyn, N. Y. to attend to

14

Tm: PERSECUTION

OF JEHOVAH'S W ITNEssEs

convention arrangements at Jackson, .Mississippi. A
num~r of my assistants were arrested from time to
time and released without charges and we have been
continually harassed from the beginning. Wednesday morning at 10 :80 a.m., about 50 men called at my
office at the building leased for said convention and
took several hundred dollars worth of · property stating that they represented the American Legion and
that this property would be destroyed. The same day
this same body of men called at the tourist camp where
several of my assistants were staying in trailers, having leased the property for sixty days. They broke in
forcibly, took literature, Bibles and other goods, loading same into cars.
"These men threatened me and the other assistants
with violence and said if we were not out of the State
by 5 a.m. Thursday, June 27 they would forcibly remove us and our ca.rs and trailers. At the time set by
them, they entered this leased property, removing
signs, 'No trespassing.' They placed these Christian
people forcibly in cars hooked on trailers with wreckers. This mob was led by a Major Birdsong who operates a private detective agency at Jackson, Mississippi. We were taken acr oss the MississipJ>i river at
Vicksburg and at Tallulah, La. Birdsong placed us in
the hands of the sheriff and he ordered us to move on.
They would not allow the women and children to toilets
or to secure food. Several of the American Legion·
aires went ahead and at every town we were met by
officers and ordered on. I got out of car at Monroe,
La. and mana,sed to get to hotel.
"Major Birdsong, the leader of this mob, had a. nice
house trailer that belonged to me hooked on to a
wrecker and hauled into La. and at Tallulah La. turned
it over to the sheriff who placed on the jail grounds.
This trailer was badly damaged and clothing and other
things ruined. Before leaving us, Major Birdsong
threatened the lives of any one of these men· that ever
returned to Mississippi, several of whom own property there."

1

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH S WITNESSES

15

Newspaper Appro'Yes Violence
edit orial in the Jackson, Mississippi, Daily News under
A Ndate
of June 28, 1940, put the newspaper's blessing on
this mob violence against Jehovah's Witnesses.
"Departure under pressure of a colony of 'Jehovah's
Witnesses' camped on the Pocahontas Road just beyond
the city limits was proper disposal of what threatened to become a serious situation.
"There is no room in Jackson or vicinity for any
person who will not salute the American fta.g and
openly says he will not fight for his country under any
circums tances.

"... It so happens that sturdy citizens of Jackson
don't believe in nonsense of that sort and will not tolerate its existence in or near this community."

A So-Called Riot
by a Jehovah's Witness concerns a so-called
A Nriotaffidavit
at Litchfield, Illinois, involving about one h undred

Witnesses, who had come in twenty-one a utomobiles to dist ribute literature house-to-house. Twelve of the cars were
wrecked beyond repair, and over $8,000 damage to cars and
clothing caused. Sixty-four of the one hundl'ed Witnesses were
taken to the police station by a mob and bea ten in an a ttempt
to force them to salute the flag. Says the affidavit:

,

"They chased us for about two miles and then blocked
the H ighway forcing us to stop. Then they pulled all
of us, women as well aa men out of the car and beat up
the men for about 10 minutes and pushed the women
around. Finally they stopped and pushed us back into
the car and one of the mobsters took the keys to the
car fr om me and started driving us to the jail. Just
before the car started up one of the mobsters threw
a book case full of books through the car and hf t me
on the head, breaking the glass.
"Some of the mobsters devoted their attention to destroying our literature and personal property. Fists

16

'rHE 1?ERSECt:TION OF JEHOVA.R 18 WITNESSES

·- - - - --

came from every direction, they threw us on the
ground, kicking us a.11 over. Then they dragged the
men over to the car and butted my head against the
flag. In the meantime, the Chief of Police was sitting
in bis automobile watching the mobstem beat ua up.
Only when the mobsters yelled to get thte women did
he put us in jail to protect u.s from the rnob."

The Kennebunk Case
HE ahocking events at Kennebunk, Mnine in the early
T
summer of 1940 were preceded by a long campaign against
Jehovah's Witnesses, who maintained in the town a Kingdom
Hall.
The culmination of the attack on the night of June 9 resulted
in charges not against the assailants but 1a.gainst Jehovah's
Witnesses, who fired some shots from inside the Hall. Nobody
was killed or wounded. One member of Jehovah's Witnesses
was convicted of assault with intent to kill nnd his conviction
appealed to the Supreme Court. One man still remains to be
tried. Four others were acquitted. Persons charged with burning Kingdom Hall were arrested and tried but all acquitted.
The following is from an affidavit of Mrs. Gertrude A. Bobb,
a member of Jehova.h's Witn~sses, whose hm1band was largely
responsible for the conduct of Witness work. Mrs. Bobb's affidavit recounts events after Jehovah' s Witnusses were forced
out of a rented hall because of mob violence:
"One day during the last week of September, 1939,
at approximately 5 p.m. I went with Edwin Bobb, my
husband, and Richard Trask to the hom1~ of a deputy
sheriff of York 'County, to tell him of tho plans of the
French Catholics to break up our meeting, and to ask
for police protection. I waited outside in the car while
my husband and Richard Trask went ina,i de. In a few
minutes they came out and I saw the shEiriff swinging
his arms and heard him shouting 'Don't come here
for protection and don't go to any other deputy sheriffs
because they are Legionnaires, too. You'll get no protection from them.
"We held the meeting without police protection.

T HE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

Kingdom .Hall was packed wit h hoodlums. Wnile I was
ait ting there a r ock crashed in and missed my head by
about a foot.
"The following Sunday night we held another meeting and Bible study in the same ball. About 8 :30,
rocks and all kinds of fruit and garbage were t hrown
through the windows, breaking every window in the
front. There were others in the alley crashing windows
in the back. We were forced to leave the building.
Aft er we left, the hoodlums crashed the doors down
and broke all the furniture. The mob downstairs was
estimated at about 2,000, among whom there were a
handful of Salvation Army men and women in uniform . .. .
"The night after Memorial Day, a mob attacked
Kingdom Hall, · crashing in the front, breaking the
windows and even the walls. I jumped into the car and
drove to the nearest telephone to call the state police.
In the meantime the hoodlums had returned and two
got out of a car with their arms full of beer bottles.
As they stepped Int o the yard to throw them, a shot
was "fired from the building. The two men dropped the
bottles and fled.
"The next day Pat McCab, a state policeman, told
my husband that our lives were in danger. He said
he was telling this to us because he was afraid the
whole thing was getting beyond the point where the
state police could control it. My husband told him we
would stick it out and protect Kingdom Hall even if
we were to be shot.
"On Friday night, a large car swung out from the
road heading right for our front doors. When they
were several feet from the doors, we switched the lights
on. They quickly swerved out into the road again and
drove around in circles in front of the hall. I went out
to take their license number. At first they warned
me to go back into the house but when I wouldn't leave,
they tried to run me over.
"The next night, June 7th, our service meeting had

17

!S

T HB PERSECUTION OF J EH OVA H'S W !TNE.SS'ES

just been completed when a hail of rocks hit the building in the rear. But when we got back there, no one
was in sight. We called for an officer in Kennebunk but
we couldn't get one. We heard that a mob was threatening to tar and feather us. So we wired the Governor
and the Attorney-General of Maine, appealing to them
for protection. The Governor was out of town and
we received no answer from him or from the Attorney.
General. We made preparations to protect our lives
as well as Kingdom Hall.
"On Saturday about eight car.a of hoodlums began
circling the hall. A weird light was thrown across our
back yard and the field alongside of the hall. We later
discovered it came from the home of the brother of the
man who got shot, Mr. MacDonald. These cars would
come up almost to the front porch but t hey only stayed
there a moment and then swerved out into the r oad
again. This sort of thing kept up until 2 :30 in the
morning when a car pulled up in front of the Kingdom Hall and three men got out and started for the
Hall. As soon as the rocks started to fly, I said 'Lighta I'
Then I heard gun-fire but I couldn't tell how many
guns were fired.

"A little later the state police came and r eported
that two men were hurt and in the hospital. They took
our names and addresses and the guns, and left. About
4 :80 we decided that the mob would be after us, so we
started to get our car which was about a mile away.
The state police picked us up, telling us we were under
arrest. They also picked up two others who were just
leaving the hall to go to a friend's house.
"Later the police said that the women had been taken
into custody for their protection but that the men were
under arrest, one charged with assault and attempt to
murder and the other with being an accessory. Mv
husband and I were put in the same cell. A little later
the father of one of the boys that was hurt came up
to our cell and said, pointing at Eddie, 'I've got you
where I want you, you fat bastard. You got my boy
and I'll get you the minute you get out." He turned

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

19

to me and said "I'll get you too. I'll drag you through
Biddeford and make you salute something.'

"The police later told us that the mob was very
vicious and that our lives were not worth a nickel out
in the streets. I later learned that six of Jehovah's
Witnesses had been arrested and charged with assault
and attempt to murd€r."
In another Maine villag~. North Windham, a member of
Jehovah's Witnesses has been convicted of murder resulting
from an unprovoked assault by a garage man to whom he had
tried to play phonograph records. The garage man threatened and struck the Witness with. a. tire iron and in a scuffle the
Witness, Arthur F. Cox, pulled a gun and shot the garage man.
He alleged self-defense. The case is on appeal to the· Supreme
Court.

Court Trial in Indiana
T Connersville, Indiana, the customary attacks on Jehovah's
A
Witnesses culminated in a court trial of two women residents, one aged seventy and the other in her fifties, for "riotous

I

'1
1

conspiracy'' which in substance was their refusal to salute the
nag. They were found guilty and sentenced on September 24
to two to ten years in Indiana State Prison. An appeal was
taken but the women were not released on bond until early
December. The American Civil Liberties Union is assisting on
the appeal.
The charge grew out of a complaint made to the sheriff's
office on June 19 that six members of J ehovah's Witnesses were
distributing literature. The sheriff asked them to desist and
they refused. He asked them to salute the flag. They refused.
The arrest of five persons followed. Under great pressure, three
pleaded guilty to "desecrating the flag" and sentence was suspended on their promise to refrain from further a ctivity. The
two women put on trial were charged not only with "desecrating
the flag" but riotous conspiracy, an offense aimed at the Ku Klux
Klan and covering "three or more persons who unite to do an
unlawful act in the night time." A statement from one of the
local attorneys describes the proceedings:
"On June 19th, 1940 Grace Trent and Lucy McKee
in company with four other ladies were distributing

20

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

books and papers of the faith of Jehovah's Witneoses
from door to door in Connersville, Indiana. They were
placed under arrest without a. warrant being iaaued at
the time of arrest, and taken to the Fayette Circuit
Court, and there were charged with desecration of the
flag. When it was found that this offense only provided for a ftne of $10, another charge of riotous conspiracy was filed and they were placed under a bond
of $3,000 ~ach and remained in j ail until August 20th,
at which time they gave bond in said sum.
"The trial of the ladies was set for Sept. 18th, 1940
and a change of venue requested which was overruled
by the judge who took jurisdiction and called a jury.
"The affidavit charged that these ladies incited the
people of Fayette County against all forms of organized government and to the dis-respect of the flag.
"Books and papers of the publishers of the Watch
Tower were introduced in evidence, and even the
Bible. The point turned on 'do Jehovah's Witnesses
seek to set up another government'? The Witnesses
pointed out that they took no part in political activity, and that if a government was set up, it would be
done by the God of heaven.
"The defend ants each stated that they did not salute
any flag, but that they had the greatest respect for the
flag and for what it stood; yet notwithstanding the
assistant prosecuto·r made a .vicious speech calculated
to stir up prejudice against the defendants.
11

The defendants were convicted and sentenced at
once after the jury returned a verdict, and a mob
formed without the court house and mobbed the attorneys in the case. In the mob gathered outside the
courthouse was the Commander of the American
Legion and hundreds of others. One of the attorneys
was marched a half mile and beaten, the other assaulted with objects thrown at him and fell in the
gutter expecting to be killed.
"Seventy-five deputy sheriffs have been sworn in
out of the various organizations, a great many out of

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

21

the American Legion, whose object ia to prevent the
circulation of the literature of Jehovah's Witnesses.
"No effort was made by the police prior to the formation of the mob to protect the lawyers, as eggs were
thrown even before the verdict wa3 returned by the
jury." ·
·
In Harlan County, Kentucky, notorious for its official lawlessness, six members of Jehovah's Witnesses were arrested
in June undet the state sedition act on the ground that they
advocated another form of government, "theocracy.'' They
were held in jail for weeks, being finally released when the
general counsel for Jehovah's Witnesses, Hayden Covington,
applied for an injunction before a three-man federal court to
prevent the t rial. The court ordered the Witnesses freed and
advised the state's attorney to notify prosecutors throughout
the state not to invoke the sedition statute against Jehovah's
Witnesses.

Steps to Check Lawlessness
most of these instances eft'orts were at once made to check
I Nlawlessness
by appeal to the courts. Attorneys for Jehovah's

Witnesses in town after town where members of the mob were
identified endeavored to get warrant! for their arrest. They
were unsuccessful in every case in getting the local authorities to act. Only in Harlan, Kentucky-of all places- were the
attorneys for Jehovah's Witnesses successful in invoking federal jurisdiction against local officials. Instead of punishing
the assailants of Jehovah's Witnesses, the authorities in many
cases arrested the Jehovah's Witnesses themselves, on the
ground that they had by their conduct provoked the lawlessness.
The American Civil Liberties Union at once published in
the local papers in each community where mob violence took
place ·offers of rewards of $500 for the arrest and conviction
of any person engaged in persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses.
Copies were sent by registered mail to the local sheriffa and
didtrict attorneys, but no prosecutions resulted. But in no
community where these offers of reward were made public
and where Jehovah's Witnesses returned to conduct their
canvassing, as they always do, were any further incidents
reported.

:

22

THE PERSECUTION" OF JEHOV.AH'S W ITNESSES

When local aufooritiaa failed to act, and when appeal;) t 0 ~ta•.:
authorities fell on deaf ears, counsel for the Jehovah's Witnesses aided by the American Civil Liberties Union turned to
the Department of Justice. It seemed clear to counsel that under
the civil rights statute federal jurisdiction could be invoked.
The Attorney General accepted the view that at least in cases
where local officials clearly participated in lawlessness indictments might well be sought. Over one hundred cases were investigated by the F.B.I. on order of the Attorney General.
After weeks the Department o! Justice finally announced in
October that district attorneys had been ordered to present to
grand juries the evidence against local officials and citizens in
three communities-Litchfield, Illinois, Port Arthur, Texas and
Refugio, Texas.
When the th·st appeal for action was made to the Department
of Justice in June, Solicitor General Francis Biddle voiced a
vigorous protest against lawlessness in a radio address on a
national network. Said Mr. Biddle:
"A religious sect known as Jehovah's Witnesses have
JJeen repeatedly set upon and beaten. They had committed no crime; but the mob adjudged they had, and
meted out mob punishment. The Attorney General has
ordered an immediate investigation of these outrages.
"The people must be alert and watchful, and above
all cool and sane. Since mob violence will make the
government's task infinitely more difficult, it will not
be tolerateJ. We shall not defeat the Nazi evil by emulating its methods."
Though Attorney General Jackson had announced his determination to check mob violence, almost no public official in the
states where the worst outrages took place raised a voice. The
newspapers, with a few notable exceptions, remained silent.

Jehovah's Witnesses and the Public Schools
HE mob violence against Jehovah's Witnesses is not unreT
lated to the expulsion by school authorities of the children
of that "sect" who refuse to salute the flag. That issue goes
back over a decade. It was brought to a climax in the courts

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

23

wit.t the ced5ion of the cu p:·en:e Cc·trt of the United Sbtes
June 3, 1940 upholding the right of school boards to expel
children who on grounds of conscience refuse to salute the
flag. That deciaion doubtless had its effect, along with the war
hysteria of those weeks, in the attacks on Jehovah's Witnesses.
In these recent years, school children have been expelled in
practically every state in the Union. The organization reports
that several hundred children are receivinp; private instruction
in schools organized by them. In some communities parents
have been penalized for encouraging their children not to salute
the flag. In a few cases parents have been threatened with removal of their children from h ome to state institutions. Such
orders have been made by several courts, and several children
have been so removed in New Hampshire.
Despite the decision of the United States Supreme Court a
number of schools permit the children of Jehovah's Witnesses,
who are usually very few in any school, to be excused from the
flag saluting exercises. In Rochester, Michigan, recently when
nineteen children expelled from school came before the local
aourt the judge arranged a compromise under which the children
were returned to school, and took part in the patriotic exercises
by reciting t he pledge of loyalty without saluting the flag. The
compromise was not followed, however, and the children were
exempted from the exercises altogether.
Wherever this issue arises, and it still crops out, those interested in religious freedom can help by requesting the school
either to exempt the children affected, or to make an adjustment such as the one proposed in Michigan. There is nothing in
the Supreme Court decision which prevents the school authorities from making any arrangement whatever.

What A.C.L.U. Members Can Do
of the Civil Liberties Union and friends of
A LLr.ivilmembers
liberty are urged, whenever and wherever they hear

of any attack on Jehovah's Witnesses in their localities, to w1·ite
or wire to local public officials urging action, and to send letters
cf comment to the local press urging editorial expression. Where
it seems hopr:;,;ss to expect local public officials to act, the United

24

THE PERSECUTtON OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

States diatrict attorney in that j u'l'isdiction should be app::oached ; if unresponsive, the matte1· should be called to the
attention of the Civil Liberties Unit of the Department of
Justice at Washington. Copies of any letters, telegrams and
clippings should be sent to the American Civil Liberties Union,
170 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
Only this sort of backfire from defenders of civil rights on
principle will help prod public officials into doing their duty,
and the press into editor: al support of civil rights.
Persecution has not in the slightest discouraged the activities
of Jehovah's' Witnesses. Their loyalty to their beliefs and their
organizational morale inspires them t o make whatever sacrifices
are necessary to spreatl their gospel. Inevitably such an unpopular sect always will be attacked in times of fear and hysteria. Only vigorous action by the federal government and
pressure by public opinion can counteract the tendencies to
persecution.

Date......
wish to become a member of the American Civil Liberties Union. Enclosed
is my check for a year's membership as marked below.

D
D

CONTRIBUTING MEMBER,

$5

D
D

SUSTAINING MEMBER,

$2 5

SUPPORTING MEMBER, $ 10
PATRON, $100 ANO OVER
T hi abo114 m1mb1r1 ar4 e11ti1/1d 10 otlr comp/ell p11blim1icn and pamphle1 url'ia.

Associate members entitled to pamphlet service, $2.00 a year ; to Civil LibertieJ
Q11a1·tel'ly and Annual Report, $1.00 a year (25c of each membership and subscription is for the Civil LibertitJ Quarterly) .
NAME ............................................................................ OCCUPATION
ADDRESS ........................................................................................... ......... . ···················· ...... .. ·····················
OTY ............................................................. .............. STATE ....................... ....... ........ ................ ..

Related Interests

{as
visiting and waited for him to get his car. The mobst ers then followE?d him about 8 or 9 miles out of town.
"The above incident is merely one of the numeroua
acts of mob violence that have occui-red in the past
three or four months in the vicinity of Jasper and

Newton counties. In June, a mob of Legionnaires
dragged some of Jehovah's Witnesses from their automobiles as they were sitting in the Court House Square
at Jasper and bef~t them up and when some bystanders
attempted to come to the rescue of these people, they
likewise were ·b eaten-two of them being a frail woman
and her daughter. When the woman and her daughter
appealed to the s :heriff and Deputy and Town Marshall
of Jasper for protection, they merely stood by and
chuckled while the mob continued their 'dirty work.'
This mob has beEm trailing and attempting to ambush
various ones asso1eiated with Jehovah's Witnesses and
have forced one f'amily to leave the county.
"One of Jehovnh's Witnesses in Jasper whose name
is Mrs. Dave StEmford has a brother who is Deputy
Sheriff, and whone name is R. B. Gilbert. He warned
his sister that the American Legion would beat them
to death when th•~Y caught them engaging in the work
of preaching the gospel from house to house, and that
they could expect no protection from the law. In fact,
the sheriff of Jas,per County made the statement that
none of Jehovah'n Witnesses would ever see the inside
of the Jasper ja'il, but would be turned over to the
mob."

T HE PERSECUT!O)l OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

II/ ob

1(ells,

"Damn the Law!"

an affidavit ;by Lee Bruton of Hinton, Oklahoma,
F ROM
dat ed September 18, 1940:
"On Sunday, September 8th, 1940, at about 2 p.m.,
I was engaged in preaching the Gospel of Jehovah
God's Kingdom as shown in Matt. 24 :14 by quietly
calling at the homes of the people in the r ural section
of Canadian Cou.nty just west of Union City, Okla .
A car bearing tag number 31-2400 drove back and
forth by me several times. The driver I later learned
was named BoulJinger. In my car were several other
people. We proce1eded on in our work and did not see
this car for some time. Stopping at another home I
went in and took my phonograph with me to play for
the people there. On my return to the car, I saw the
above mentioned cai· with four men in it. They asked
that I come dowin the road and play the phonograph
for them. We played the phonograph and showed them
some Bible helps which we distribute to the people.
They drove off and were gone for some time.
"We had pl'oceieded on about 3 miles and were in
front of a home waiting for a young lady to return
from the house where she was playing a phonograph
record for a gentleman in his home. The four men who
appear ed before came up in a car with a fifth man.
The car's tag number was 1-86578 (Okla.). The five
men got out of the car and came over to our car. They
had with them ;a. small American Flag which they
fastened to our ear. We said 'Let it stay on the car,
we are for the flag.' Then they said they were going
to make us salute it, also stating that we were Germans and should be sent over to Germany. The young
lady having returned we were trying to get our car
started when theBe men began to threaten to shoot ua
with t he gun the?y had with them, saying they'd use
it if we did not salute the flag.
"The five men were very rude and cursed, saying
'damn Jehovah,' "damn the law,' 'We are the law' and

11

12

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

made m any other blasphemous remarks . They w~re
asked if they believed in the laws of this country and
thought they were good, and then asked if they thought
so then why did they try to take the law into their own
hands. While trying to get my car started two of the

men hit me breaking my nose and at the same time
shooting the gun around the car. They boasted that
the sheriff of Canadian county had told them to come
out and do what they wanted to, also that in time of
war they were the law and would start war on the
J ehovahi tes now.
"The mob was organized by the driver of the first
car and none of these had any excuse to molest us as
we were not even in their neighborhood."

Jailed Without Charges
an affidavit by Edgar A. Kircher and Edwin M.
F ROM
Kircher of Greenville, Illinois dated July 4, 1940 dealing
with an attack upon eight members of Jehovah's Witnesses
arrested by the Sheriff and held in jail sixteen hours without
charges before being freed .,
"On the evening of June 8th, 1940, we, the undersigned, together with other associates of the Greenville Company of Jehovah's Witnesses had taken our
positions upon the streets of Greenville, Ill. as we had
done upon previous occasions, for the purpose of distributing the Watch Tower magazine. We had been
upon the streets but a few minutes when we were
stopped by the local sheriff, Cecil McCracken, and
deputies, including a deputy sheriff from Clinton
County by the name of Robert Hooker.
"We were roughly handled, and two of us (Edwin
Kircher and Edgar Kircher) were struck repeatedly
by the officers on the way over to the Bond county jail.
After arriving at the jail, we were again attacked and
beaten about the head and face, my brother Maynord
Kircher was struck over the shoulder with the butt of

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

13

a r evolver in the h and of deputy Hooke:-. All of this
abuse in spite of the fact that no resistance was offered.
"Bond County Sheriff Cecil McCracken and deputy
Rob€rt Hooker were both noticeably under the influence of liquor. Deputy Hooker was the one most active
in the beatingn that were administered, and not satisfied with the a.buae already heaped upon us, this same
deputy took me (Edgar Kircher and a companion,
Mr. Truman Marietta) to the Clinton county jall and
again assaulted us, in an effort to make us promise
that we would! not come into Carlyle, Ill. or Clinton
County any more with our literature, and threatened
to lead a mob against us if we did. After being re·
tained in the jiail all night and most of the next day,
without any c.harge lodged against us, we were released and escorted to within a mile of the county line
(Bond and Clinton county line) and dumped out.
"On the way out of town the county officers were
seen to wave 1!lt passing brown car. This same car
overtook us shortly after we had been dumped out on
highway No. 127, and as we were making our way
home on foot :along the highway, we were taken to a
side road and beaten by the occupants of the brown
car, and those of another car that had joined them, in an
effort to make us salute the fl.ag."

a

Kid:napping in Jackson, Miss.
following letter from a Jehovah's Witness resident in
l 'HE
Jackson, Missis:sippi addressed to the Solicitor General of the

United States deals with a case in which federal law was clearly
violated, the Witniesses being virtually kidnapped and taken
across a state line. Indictments were not sought by the district
attorney because of his certainty that a conviction could not
be obtained. The circumstances are clearly set forth in the
following extracts from a letter fl'om H. M. S. Dixon of Jackson,
Mississippi :
"I was appointed by The Watch Tower & Tract
Society, 117 Adams St., Brooklyn, N. Y. to attend to

14

Tm: PERSECUTION

OF JEHOVAH'S W ITNEssEs

convention arrangements at Jackson, .Mississippi. A
num~r of my assistants were arrested from time to
time and released without charges and we have been
continually harassed from the beginning. Wednesday morning at 10 :80 a.m., about 50 men called at my
office at the building leased for said convention and
took several hundred dollars worth of · property stating that they represented the American Legion and
that this property would be destroyed. The same day
this same body of men called at the tourist camp where
several of my assistants were staying in trailers, having leased the property for sixty days. They broke in
forcibly, took literature, Bibles and other goods, loading same into cars.
"These men threatened me and the other assistants
with violence and said if we were not out of the State
by 5 a.m. Thursday, June 27 they would forcibly remove us and our ca.rs and trailers. At the time set by
them, they entered this leased property, removing
signs, 'No trespassing.' They placed these Christian
people forcibly in cars hooked on trailers with wreckers. This mob was led by a Major Birdsong who operates a private detective agency at Jackson, Mississippi. We were taken acr oss the MississipJ>i river at
Vicksburg and at Tallulah, La. Birdsong placed us in
the hands of the sheriff and he ordered us to move on.
They would not allow the women and children to toilets
or to secure food. Several of the American Legion·
aires went ahead and at every town we were met by
officers and ordered on. I got out of car at Monroe,
La. and mana,sed to get to hotel.
"Major Birdsong, the leader of this mob, had a. nice
house trailer that belonged to me hooked on to a
wrecker and hauled into La. and at Tallulah La. turned
it over to the sheriff who placed on the jail grounds.
This trailer was badly damaged and clothing and other
things ruined. Before leaving us, Major Birdsong
threatened the lives of any one of these men· that ever
returned to Mississippi, several of whom own property there."

1

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH S WITNESSES

15

Newspaper Appro'Yes Violence
edit orial in the Jackson, Mississippi, Daily News under
A Ndate
of June 28, 1940, put the newspaper's blessing on
this mob violence against Jehovah's Witnesses.
"Departure under pressure of a colony of 'Jehovah's
Witnesses' camped on the Pocahontas Road just beyond
the city limits was proper disposal of what threatened to become a serious situation.
"There is no room in Jackson or vicinity for any
person who will not salute the American fta.g and
openly says he will not fight for his country under any
circums tances.

"... It so happens that sturdy citizens of Jackson
don't believe in nonsense of that sort and will not tolerate its existence in or near this community."

A So-Called Riot
by a Jehovah's Witness concerns a so-called
A Nriotaffidavit
at Litchfield, Illinois, involving about one h undred

Witnesses, who had come in twenty-one a utomobiles to dist ribute literature house-to-house. Twelve of the cars were
wrecked beyond repair, and over $8,000 damage to cars and
clothing caused. Sixty-four of the one hundl'ed Witnesses were
taken to the police station by a mob and bea ten in an a ttempt
to force them to salute the flag. Says the affidavit:

,

"They chased us for about two miles and then blocked
the H ighway forcing us to stop. Then they pulled all
of us, women as well aa men out of the car and beat up
the men for about 10 minutes and pushed the women
around. Finally they stopped and pushed us back into
the car and one of the mobsters took the keys to the
car fr om me and started driving us to the jail. Just
before the car started up one of the mobsters threw
a book case full of books through the car and hf t me
on the head, breaking the glass.
"Some of the mobsters devoted their attention to destroying our literature and personal property. Fists

16

'rHE 1?ERSECt:TION OF JEHOVA.R 18 WITNESSES

·- - - - --

came from every direction, they threw us on the
ground, kicking us a.11 over. Then they dragged the
men over to the car and butted my head against the
flag. In the meantime, the Chief of Police was sitting
in bis automobile watching the mobstem beat ua up.
Only when the mobsters yelled to get thte women did
he put us in jail to protect u.s from the rnob."

The Kennebunk Case
HE ahocking events at Kennebunk, Mnine in the early
T
summer of 1940 were preceded by a long campaign against
Jehovah's Witnesses, who maintained in the town a Kingdom
Hall.
The culmination of the attack on the night of June 9 resulted
in charges not against the assailants but 1a.gainst Jehovah's
Witnesses, who fired some shots from inside the Hall. Nobody
was killed or wounded. One member of Jehovah's Witnesses
was convicted of assault with intent to kill nnd his conviction
appealed to the Supreme Court. One man still remains to be
tried. Four others were acquitted. Persons charged with burning Kingdom Hall were arrested and tried but all acquitted.
The following is from an affidavit of Mrs. Gertrude A. Bobb,
a member of Jehova.h's Witn~sses, whose hm1band was largely
responsible for the conduct of Witness work. Mrs. Bobb's affidavit recounts events after Jehovah' s Witnusses were forced
out of a rented hall because of mob violence:
"One day during the last week of September, 1939,
at approximately 5 p.m. I went with Edwin Bobb, my
husband, and Richard Trask to the hom1~ of a deputy
sheriff of York 'County, to tell him of tho plans of the
French Catholics to break up our meeting, and to ask
for police protection. I waited outside in the car while
my husband and Richard Trask went ina,i de. In a few
minutes they came out and I saw the shEiriff swinging
his arms and heard him shouting 'Don't come here
for protection and don't go to any other deputy sheriffs
because they are Legionnaires, too. You'll get no protection from them.
"We held the meeting without police protection.

T HE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

Kingdom .Hall was packed wit h hoodlums. Wnile I was
ait ting there a r ock crashed in and missed my head by
about a foot.
"The following Sunday night we held another meeting and Bible study in the same ball. About 8 :30,
rocks and all kinds of fruit and garbage were t hrown
through the windows, breaking every window in the
front. There were others in the alley crashing windows
in the back. We were forced to leave the building.
Aft er we left, the hoodlums crashed the doors down
and broke all the furniture. The mob downstairs was
estimated at about 2,000, among whom there were a
handful of Salvation Army men and women in uniform . .. .
"The night after Memorial Day, a mob attacked
Kingdom Hall, · crashing in the front, breaking the
windows and even the walls. I jumped into the car and
drove to the nearest telephone to call the state police.
In the meantime the hoodlums had returned and two
got out of a car with their arms full of beer bottles.
As they stepped Int o the yard to throw them, a shot
was "fired from the building. The two men dropped the
bottles and fled.
"The next day Pat McCab, a state policeman, told
my husband that our lives were in danger. He said
he was telling this to us because he was afraid the
whole thing was getting beyond the point where the
state police could control it. My husband told him we
would stick it out and protect Kingdom Hall even if
we were to be shot.
"On Friday night, a large car swung out from the
road heading right for our front doors. When they
were several feet from the doors, we switched the lights
on. They quickly swerved out into the road again and
drove around in circles in front of the hall. I went out
to take their license number. At first they warned
me to go back into the house but when I wouldn't leave,
they tried to run me over.
"The next night, June 7th, our service meeting had

17

!S

T HB PERSECUTION OF J EH OVA H'S W !TNE.SS'ES

just been completed when a hail of rocks hit the building in the rear. But when we got back there, no one
was in sight. We called for an officer in Kennebunk but
we couldn't get one. We heard that a mob was threatening to tar and feather us. So we wired the Governor
and the Attorney-General of Maine, appealing to them
for protection. The Governor was out of town and
we received no answer from him or from the Attorney.
General. We made preparations to protect our lives
as well as Kingdom Hall.
"On Saturday about eight car.a of hoodlums began
circling the hall. A weird light was thrown across our
back yard and the field alongside of the hall. We later
discovered it came from the home of the brother of the
man who got shot, Mr. MacDonald. These cars would
come up almost to the front porch but t hey only stayed
there a moment and then swerved out into the r oad
again. This sort of thing kept up until 2 :30 in the
morning when a car pulled up in front of the Kingdom Hall and three men got out and started for the
Hall. As soon as the rocks started to fly, I said 'Lighta I'
Then I heard gun-fire but I couldn't tell how many
guns were fired.

"A little later the state police came and r eported
that two men were hurt and in the hospital. They took
our names and addresses and the guns, and left. About
4 :80 we decided that the mob would be after us, so we
started to get our car which was about a mile away.
The state police picked us up, telling us we were under
arrest. They also picked up two others who were just
leaving the hall to go to a friend's house.
"Later the police said that the women had been taken
into custody for their protection but that the men were
under arrest, one charged with assault and attempt to
murder and the other with being an accessory. Mv
husband and I were put in the same cell. A little later
the father of one of the boys that was hurt came up
to our cell and said, pointing at Eddie, 'I've got you
where I want you, you fat bastard. You got my boy
and I'll get you the minute you get out." He turned

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

19

to me and said "I'll get you too. I'll drag you through
Biddeford and make you salute something.'

"The police later told us that the mob was very
vicious and that our lives were not worth a nickel out
in the streets. I later learned that six of Jehovah's
Witnesses had been arrested and charged with assault
and attempt to murd€r."
In another Maine villag~. North Windham, a member of
Jehovah's Witnesses has been convicted of murder resulting
from an unprovoked assault by a garage man to whom he had
tried to play phonograph records. The garage man threatened and struck the Witness with. a. tire iron and in a scuffle the
Witness, Arthur F. Cox, pulled a gun and shot the garage man.
He alleged self-defense. The case is on appeal to the· Supreme
Court.

Court Trial in Indiana
T Connersville, Indiana, the customary attacks on Jehovah's
A
Witnesses culminated in a court trial of two women residents, one aged seventy and the other in her fifties, for "riotous

I

'1
1

conspiracy'' which in substance was their refusal to salute the
nag. They were found guilty and sentenced on September 24
to two to ten years in Indiana State Prison. An appeal was
taken but the women were not released on bond until early
December. The American Civil Liberties Union is assisting on
the appeal.
The charge grew out of a complaint made to the sheriff's
office on June 19 that six members of J ehovah's Witnesses were
distributing literature. The sheriff asked them to desist and
they refused. He asked them to salute the flag. They refused.
The arrest of five persons followed. Under great pressure, three
pleaded guilty to "desecrating the flag" and sentence was suspended on their promise to refrain from further a ctivity. The
two women put on trial were charged not only with "desecrating
the flag" but riotous conspiracy, an offense aimed at the Ku Klux
Klan and covering "three or more persons who unite to do an
unlawful act in the night time." A statement from one of the
local attorneys describes the proceedings:
"On June 19th, 1940 Grace Trent and Lucy McKee
in company with four other ladies were distributing

20

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

books and papers of the faith of Jehovah's Witneoses
from door to door in Connersville, Indiana. They were
placed under arrest without a. warrant being iaaued at
the time of arrest, and taken to the Fayette Circuit
Court, and there were charged with desecration of the
flag. When it was found that this offense only provided for a ftne of $10, another charge of riotous conspiracy was filed and they were placed under a bond
of $3,000 ~ach and remained in j ail until August 20th,
at which time they gave bond in said sum.
"The trial of the ladies was set for Sept. 18th, 1940
and a change of venue requested which was overruled
by the judge who took jurisdiction and called a jury.
"The affidavit charged that these ladies incited the
people of Fayette County against all forms of organized government and to the dis-respect of the flag.
"Books and papers of the publishers of the Watch
Tower were introduced in evidence, and even the
Bible. The point turned on 'do Jehovah's Witnesses
seek to set up another government'? The Witnesses
pointed out that they took no part in political activity, and that if a government was set up, it would be
done by the God of heaven.
"The defend ants each stated that they did not salute
any flag, but that they had the greatest respect for the
flag and for what it stood; yet notwithstanding the
assistant prosecuto·r made a .vicious speech calculated
to stir up prejudice against the defendants.
11

The defendants were convicted and sentenced at
once after the jury returned a verdict, and a mob
formed without the court house and mobbed the attorneys in the case. In the mob gathered outside the
courthouse was the Commander of the American
Legion and hundreds of others. One of the attorneys
was marched a half mile and beaten, the other assaulted with objects thrown at him and fell in the
gutter expecting to be killed.
"Seventy-five deputy sheriffs have been sworn in
out of the various organizations, a great many out of

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

21

the American Legion, whose object ia to prevent the
circulation of the literature of Jehovah's Witnesses.
"No effort was made by the police prior to the formation of the mob to protect the lawyers, as eggs were
thrown even before the verdict wa3 returned by the
jury." ·
·
In Harlan County, Kentucky, notorious for its official lawlessness, six members of Jehovah's Witnesses were arrested
in June undet the state sedition act on the ground that they
advocated another form of government, "theocracy.'' They
were held in jail for weeks, being finally released when the
general counsel for Jehovah's Witnesses, Hayden Covington,
applied for an injunction before a three-man federal court to
prevent the t rial. The court ordered the Witnesses freed and
advised the state's attorney to notify prosecutors throughout
the state not to invoke the sedition statute against Jehovah's
Witnesses.

Steps to Check Lawlessness
most of these instances eft'orts were at once made to check
I Nlawlessness
by appeal to the courts. Attorneys for Jehovah's

Witnesses in town after town where members of the mob were
identified endeavored to get warrant! for their arrest. They
were unsuccessful in every case in getting the local authorities to act. Only in Harlan, Kentucky-of all places- were the
attorneys for Jehovah's Witnesses successful in invoking federal jurisdiction against local officials. Instead of punishing
the assailants of Jehovah's Witnesses, the authorities in many
cases arrested the Jehovah's Witnesses themselves, on the
ground that they had by their conduct provoked the lawlessness.
The American Civil Liberties Union at once published in
the local papers in each community where mob violence took
place ·offers of rewards of $500 for the arrest and conviction
of any person engaged in persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses.
Copies were sent by registered mail to the local sheriffa and
didtrict attorneys, but no prosecutions resulted. But in no
community where these offers of reward were made public
and where Jehovah's Witnesses returned to conduct their
canvassing, as they always do, were any further incidents
reported.

:

22

THE PERSECUTION" OF JEHOV.AH'S W ITNESSES

When local aufooritiaa failed to act, and when appeal;) t 0 ~ta•.:
authorities fell on deaf ears, counsel for the Jehovah's Witnesses aided by the American Civil Liberties Union turned to
the Department of Justice. It seemed clear to counsel that under
the civil rights statute federal jurisdiction could be invoked.
The Attorney General accepted the view that at least in cases
where local officials clearly participated in lawlessness indictments might well be sought. Over one hundred cases were investigated by the F.B.I. on order of the Attorney General.
After weeks the Department o! Justice finally announced in
October that district attorneys had been ordered to present to
grand juries the evidence against local officials and citizens in
three communities-Litchfield, Illinois, Port Arthur, Texas and
Refugio, Texas.
When the th·st appeal for action was made to the Department
of Justice in June, Solicitor General Francis Biddle voiced a
vigorous protest against lawlessness in a radio address on a
national network. Said Mr. Biddle:
"A religious sect known as Jehovah's Witnesses have
JJeen repeatedly set upon and beaten. They had committed no crime; but the mob adjudged they had, and
meted out mob punishment. The Attorney General has
ordered an immediate investigation of these outrages.
"The people must be alert and watchful, and above
all cool and sane. Since mob violence will make the
government's task infinitely more difficult, it will not
be tolerateJ. We shall not defeat the Nazi evil by emulating its methods."
Though Attorney General Jackson had announced his determination to check mob violence, almost no public official in the
states where the worst outrages took place raised a voice. The
newspapers, with a few notable exceptions, remained silent.

Jehovah's Witnesses and the Public Schools
HE mob violence against Jehovah's Witnesses is not unreT
lated to the expulsion by school authorities of the children
of that "sect" who refuse to salute the flag. That issue goes
back over a decade. It was brought to a climax in the courts

THE PERSECUTION OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

23

wit.t the ced5ion of the cu p:·en:e Cc·trt of the United Sbtes
June 3, 1940 upholding the right of school boards to expel
children who on grounds of conscience refuse to salute the
flag. That deciaion doubtless had its effect, along with the war
hysteria of those weeks, in the attacks on Jehovah's Witnesses.
In these recent years, school children have been expelled in
practically every state in the Union. The organization reports
that several hundred children are receivinp; private instruction
in schools organized by them. In some communities parents
have been penalized for encouraging their children not to salute
the flag. In a few cases parents have been threatened with removal of their children from h ome to state institutions. Such
orders have been made by several courts, and several children
have been so removed in New Hampshire.
Despite the decision of the United States Supreme Court a
number of schools permit the children of Jehovah's Witnesses,
who are usually very few in any school, to be excused from the
flag saluting exercises. In Rochester, Michigan, recently when
nineteen children expelled from school came before the local
aourt the judge arranged a compromise under which the children
were returned to school, and took part in the patriotic exercises
by reciting t he pledge of loyalty without saluting the flag. The
compromise was not followed, however, and the children were
exempted from the exercises altogether.
Wherever this issue arises, and it still crops out, those interested in religious freedom can help by requesting the school
either to exempt the children affected, or to make an adjustment such as the one proposed in Michigan. There is nothing in
the Supreme Court decision which prevents the school authorities from making any arrangement whatever.

What A.C.L.U. Members Can Do
of the Civil Liberties Union and friends of
A LLr.ivilmembers
liberty are urged, whenever and wherever they hear

of any attack on Jehovah's Witnesses in their localities, to w1·ite
or wire to local public officials urging action, and to send letters
cf comment to the local press urging editorial expression. Where
it seems hopr:;,;ss to expect local public officials to act, the United

24

THE PERSECUTtON OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES

States diatrict attorney in that j u'l'isdiction should be app::oached ; if unresponsive, the matte1· should be called to the
attention of the Civil Liberties Unit of the Department of
Justice at Washington. Copies of any letters, telegrams and
clippings should be sent to the American Civil Liberties Union,
170 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
Only this sort of backfire from defenders of civil rights on
principle will help prod public officials into doing their duty,
and the press into editor: al support of civil rights.
Persecution has not in the slightest discouraged the activities
of Jehovah's' Witnesses. Their loyalty to their beliefs and their
organizational morale inspires them t o make whatever sacrifices
are necessary to spreatl their gospel. Inevitably such an unpopular sect always will be attacked in times of fear and hysteria. Only vigorous action by the federal government and
pressure by public opinion can counteract the tendencies to
persecution.

Date......
wish to become a member of the American Civil Liberties Union. Enclosed
is my check for a year's membership as marked below.

D
D

CONTRIBUTING MEMBER,

$5

D
D

SUSTAINING MEMBER,

$2 5

SUPPORTING MEMBER, $ 10
PATRON, $100 ANO OVER
T hi abo114 m1mb1r1 ar4 e11ti1/1d 10 otlr comp/ell p11blim1icn and pamphle1 url'ia.

Associate members entitled to pamphlet service, $2.00 a year ; to Civil LibertieJ
Q11a1·tel'ly and Annual Report, $1.00 a year (25c of each membership and subscription is for the Civil LibertitJ Quarterly) .
NAME ............................................................................ OCCUPATION
ADDRESS ........................................................................................... ......... . ···················· ...... .. ·····················
OTY ............................................................. .............. STATE ....................... ....... ........ ................ ..

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