Denis Merrill and Thomas G. Patterson.

Chapter 2: Woodrow Wilson, the First World War, and
the League Fight (Documents 4-8). in Major Problems in American Foreign Relations Volume
34 1914.Major
Problems
in American
Relations
2: Since
Cengage
Learning,
2010. Foreign
pp 41-75.

Just a word of comment more upon one of the points in the President's address.
He says that this is a war "for the things which we have always carried nearest to our
hearts—for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice
in their own government." In many places throughout the address is this exalted sen­
timent given expression....
But the President proposes alUance with Great Britain, which, however libertyloving its people, is a hereditary monarchy, with a hereditary ruler, with a hereditary
House of Lords, with a hereditary landed system, with a limited and restricted suf­
frage for one class and a multiplied suffrage power for another, and with grinding in­
dustrial conditions for all the wageworkers. The President has not suggested that we
make our support of Great Britain conditional to her granting home rule to Ireland,
or Egypt, or India, We rejoice in the establishment of a democracy in Russia, but
it will hardly be contended that if Russia was still an autocratic Government, we
would not be asked to enter this alliance with her just the same. Italy and the lesser
powers of Europe. Japan in the Orient; in fact all of the countries with whom we are
to enter into alliance, except France and newly revolutionized Russia, are still of the
old order—and it will be generally conceded that no one of them has done as much
for its people in the solution of municipal problems and in securing social and indus­
trial reforms as Germany....
Who has registered the knowledge or approval of the American people of the
course this Congress is called upon in declaring war upon Germany? Submit the
question to the people, you who support it. You who support it dare not do it, for you
know that by a vote of more than ten to one the American people as a body would
register their declaration against it.
In the sense that this war is being forced upon our people without their know­
ing why and without their approval, and that wars are usually forced upon all
peoples in the same way, there is some truth in the statement; but I venture to
say that the response which the German people have made to the demands of this
war shows that it has a degree of popular support which the war upon which we
are entering has not and never will have among our people. The espionage bills,
the conscription bills, and other forcible military measures which we understand
are being ground out of the war machine in this country is the complete proof
that those responsible for this war fear that it has no popular support and that
armies sufficient to satisfy the demand of the entente allies can not be recruited by
voluntary enlistments.
D O C U M E N T

4

Wilson Proclaims U.S. War Aims:
The Fourteen Points, 1918
I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no
private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always
frankly and in the public view.
This document can be found in Congressional Record, LVI (January 8, 1918), Part I, 680-682.

assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. and. A free. Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea. The removal. and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims. but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development. in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all. except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years. based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. and Montenegro should be evacuated. IX. The peoples of Austria-Hungary. III. occupied territories restored. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired. outside territorial waters.Woodrow Wilson. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas. so far as possible. open-minded. more than a welcome. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty. and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly consul along historically established Unes of allegiance and nationality. of all economic barriers and the establish­ ment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. should be accorded the freest opportunity of autono­ mous development. VI. and the League Fight 35 II. Serbia. IV. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institu­ tions of her own choosing. X. the whole world will agree. VII. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationahty. Rumania. Belgium. Vni. and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should he entered into. XII. and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy. alike in peace and in war. whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured. without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. the First World War. and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine. should be righted. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored. of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confi­ dence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. XI. V. must be evacuated and restored. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will. and the Dardanelles should be permanently .

The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political indepen­ dence of all Members of the League.S.. and they agree in no case to resort to war until three months after the award by the arbitrators or the report by the Council. whether immediately affecting any of the Members of the League or not. 1919 (Washington. It is also declared to be the friendly right of each Member of the League to bring to the attention of the Assembly or of the Council any circumstance whatever affecting international relations which threatens to disturb international peace or the good understanding between nations upon which peace depends. Department of State. Article 13. 1942-1947). . Article 11. ^ D O C U M E N T 5 Articles 10 Through 16 of the League of Nations Covenant. they will submit the whole subject-matter to arbitration. D.: Government Printing Office. 1919 Article 10. XIII. they will submit the matter either to arbitration or to inquiry by the Council. Any war or threat of war. which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea. The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute shall arise between them which they recognise to be suitable for submission to arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily settled by diplomacy.. and the League shall take any action that may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of nations. This document can be found in U. 83-89... The Members of the League agree that if there should arise between them any dispute likely to lead to a rupture. is hereby declared a matter of concern to the whole League. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territo­ rial integrity to great and small states alike. and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.. XIII.C. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States.. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations. Article 12. XIV. and the report of the Council shall be made within six months after the submission of the dispute.36 Major Problems in American Foreign Relations opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees. In any case under this Article the award of the arbitrators shall be made within a reasonable time.

You have heard it said. and the prevention of all financial. Article 16. it shall ipso facto be deemed to have com­ mitted an act of war against all other Members of the League. LVIII (September 1919): Part 5. 6249. 6417. that is intended to be all the great nations of the world. for that article says that the members of this league.Woodrow Wilson. If there should arise between Members of the League any dispute likely to lead to a rupture. Should any Member of the League resort to war in disregard of its covenants under Articles 12. 6422. 6244-6245. that we are robbed of some degree of our sovereign independent choice by articles of that sort.5005. being disregarded and violated.. and I can not for one see anything that robs me of any inherent right that I ought to retain when I promise that I will do right.. D O C U M E N T 6 Wilson Defends the Peace Treaty and League. when I promise that I will respect the thing which. brought on a war in which millions This document can be found in Congressional Record. Every man who makes a choice to respect the rights of his neigh­ bors deprives himself of absolute sovereignty. Article 10 is the article which goes to the heart of this whole bad business. which hereby un­ dertake immediately to subject it to the severance of all trade or financial relations. The Court may also give an advisory opinion upon any dispute or question referred to it by the Council or by the Assembly. the Members of the League agree that they will submit the matter to the Council. 6254. and we are absolutely discredited if we fought this war and then neglect the essential safeguard against it. 1919 Indianapolis. Article 10 speaks the conscience of the world. 13 or 15. . September 4 You have heard a great deal about article 10 of the covenant of the league of nations. whether a Member of the League or not. The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of the League for adoption plans for the establishment of a Permanent Court of Interna­ tional Justice. but he does it by promising never to do wrong. the prohibition of all intercourse between their nationals and the nationals of the covenant-breaking State. my fellow citizens. engage to respect and to preserve against all external aggression the territorial integrity and political inde­ pendence of the nations concerned. It shall he the duty of the Council in such case to recommend to the several Governments concerned what effective military. Indiana. Article 15.. which is not submitted to arbitration in accordance with Article 13. Part 7.5001-5002. Part 6. the First World War. naval or air force the Members of the League shall severally contribute to the armed forces to be used to protect the covenants of the League. That promise is necessary in order to prevent this sort of war from recurring.5593. commercial or personal intercourse between the nationals of the covenant-breaking State and the nationals of any other State. and the League Fight 37 Article 14. The Court shall be competent to hear and determine any dispute of an international character which the parties thereto submit to it.

for I need not tell you that the representatives of the Government of the United States would not vote without instructions from their Government at home. Louis. And if this economic boycott bears with unequal weight. because that indepen­ dent judgment would have to join with the judgment of the rest. St. There will be no travel to or from that na­ tion. It says that every matter which is likely to affect the peace of the world is everybody's business. an absolute economic boycott. my fellow citizens? Only after it is evident that every other resource has failed. by the engagements of this covenant. that it shaU be the friendly right of any nation to call attention in the league to anything that is likely to affect the peace of the world or the good understanding between nations. No citizen of any other State will be allowed to enter it and no one of its citizens will be allowed to leave it. and if we accepted the advice we would be accepting our own advice. So that it is perfectly evident that if in the judg­ ment of the people of the United States the council adjudged wrong and that this was not a case of the use of force. there ensues automatically. September 5 There can hereafter be no secret treaties. That article. there would be no necessity on the part of the Congress of the United States to vote the use of force. It will be hermetically sealed by the united action of the most powerful nations in the world. in which the civilization of mankind was in the balance. then what happens? The council of the league advises what should be done to enforce the respect for that covenant on the part of the nation attempting to violate it. We engage in the first sentence of article 10 to respect and preserve from external aggression the ter­ ritorial integrity and the existing political independence not only of the other member States but of all States. whether that matter immediately con­ cerns the nation drawing attention to it or not. to article 11. and I want to call your at­ tention to the central machinery of the league of nations.. upon which the peace of the world depends. so far as I am concerned. is the favorite article in the treaty. . But when is that judgment going to be expressed. • . There is in that covenant not only not a surrender of the independent judgment of the Government of the United States. 11 I want to call your attention. There will be no trade with that nation by any member of the league. let me say. but an expression of it. But there could be no advice of the coun­ cil on any such subject without a unanimous vote. and the unanimous vote mcludes our own. following article 10 of the covenant of the league of nations.38 Major Problems in American Foreign Relations of men lost their lives. if you will turn it up when you go home. Missouri. There were nations represented around that board—I mean the board at which the commission on the league of nations sat. Its borders will be closed. and if any member of the league of nations disregards that promise. . There will be no interchange of communication by post or telegraph. and that what we united in advising we could be certain that the American people would desire to do. If any member of that league or any nation not a member refuses to submit the question at issue either to arbitration or to discussion by the council.. the members of the league agree to support one another and to relieve one another in any exceptional disadvantages that may arise out of it. and there is no compulsion upon us to take that advice except the compulsion of our good conscience and judgment. in which there was the most outrageous exhibition ever witnessed in the history of man­ kind of the rapacity and disregard for right of a great armed people.

" America can stay out. and the whole thing sways like a team. but if you want to talk business. You have cleared the deck thereby of the most dangerous thing and the most embarrassing thing that has hitherto existed in international politics. Moral force is a great deal more powerful than physi­ cal. It is like our arrangements with regard to mortgages on real estate. the inarticulate cry of mothers all over the world. that the general secretary shall publish it in full just so soon as it is possi­ ble for him to publish it. I sometimes think. until they are registered in this office of the league nobody. make it feel that you are hot and jealous rivals of the other nations. California. South Dakota. arid I seem to hear the cry. can insist upon their execution. not even the parties themselves. but I want to call you to witness that the peace of the world can not be established without America. September 17 The Monroe doctrine means that if any outside power. San Francisco. I can talk business. millions of them on the other side of the sea and thousands of them on this side of the sea. that it does not have to wait for anything but the action of its own administration and its own Congress. September 8 I can not understand the psychology of men who are resisting it [the treaty]. I can not understand what they are afraid of. And so with the trea­ ties. center its suspicion upon you. that it does not have to wait for the action of the league of nations. with the general secretary of the league. my fellow countrymen. and that no treaty shall be valid which is not thus registered. determine their fortunes. This is the first time in the history of international diplomacy that any great government . once get them antagonizing one another. and society itself goes to pieces. The provision of the covenant is that every treaty or international understanding shall be registered. and they made not the least objection to promising that hereafter no secret treaty should have any validity whatever. when I wake in the night. get them together in concerted masses. You can make more money out of men who trust you than out of men who fear you. that until they are registered nobody else need pay any attention to them. of all the wakeful nights that anxious fathers and mothers and friends have spent during those weary years of this awful war. America is necessary to the peace of the world. any power outside this hemi­ sphere.Woodrow Wilson. Disappoint the world. give us the sensible and hopeful and peaceful processes of right and of justice. Govern the sentiments of mankind and you govern mankind. "In God's name. and the League Fight 39 where 14 nations were represented—there were nations represented around that board who had entered into many a secret treaty and understanding. tries to impose its will upon any portion of the Western Hemisphere the United States is at liberty to act independently and alone in repelling the aggression. you can make more money out of friendly traders than out of hostile traders. Govern their fears. We are trying to make a society instead of a set of barbarians out of the governments of the world. I believe the word is. unless it is that they know physical force and do not understand moral force. the First World War. govern their hopes. And reverse the proposition: The peace and good will of the world are neces­ sary to America. Once get them suspecting one another. Sioux Falls. and do you think you are going to do as much business with them as you would otherwise do? I do not like to put the thing on that plane. If you want to put it on the low plane of how much money you can make.

385. "It is intoler­ able to think that the league of nations should interfere with domestic questions. $3.000.000. poor Russia that got nothing but terror and despair out of it all.000. the other five votes are the votes of Canada. France. 1.600. Besides the vote of Great Britain herself. and other countries. I brought with me the figures as to what this war [First World War] meant to the world. and the covenant of the league expressly provides that the league can take no action whatever about matters which are in the practice of international law regarded as domestic questions. and that is exactly the arrangement under the league. 900. including nighttime with daytime. the biggest single item. They are too big for the imagination of men who do not handle big things.000. acknowledge the validity of the Monroe doctrine and acknowledge it as part of the international practice of the world. This is a body of business men and you will understand these figures.000.000. $26. $21. a total of $63.000.000. overcome it at one time.000—ahnost the capital of the world. Italy. Now for the first time all the great fighting powers of the world except Germany. California.000.000.000 men.000.300 dead.000. indeed. of giving a vote to Cuba—^both of them under the direction and protectorate of the United States—and if a vote was given to Panama and to Cuba. We ourselves were champions and advo­ cates of giving a vote to Panama. The battle deaths during the war were as follows: Russia lost in dead 1.000.000. They [critics] are nervous about domestic questions. of South Africa. I am perfectly content to have only one when the one counts six. of the question of the tariff.000. The total for all the belligerents. of New Zealand.000. 364. $39.000.000. Austria.000. including Belgium.200 men—just about seven and a half million killed because we could not have arbitration and discussion.000 (this is the direct cost of our operations). The expenditures of the United States were at the rate of $1.000 an hour for two years. San Diego.000. the United States. but which did not dare retain .000. Austria-Hungary. 1. because the world had never had the courage to propose the conciliatory methods which some of us are now doubting whether we ought to accept or not. My fellow citizens. because I am constantly hearing it said that the British Empire has six votes and we have one. of the question of naturalization. and of India. Great Britain.000. Germany.000. Japan. $18.700. September 18 In order that we may not forget. This is what it cost the Cen­ tral Powers: Germany.000. Here is the cost of the war in money. no competent or authoritative student of international law would dream of maintaining that these were anything but exclusively domestic questions. September 19 It is feared that our delegates will be outvoted. Russia.000.000. $123. 800.000. 7.000.000." and whenever they begin to specify they speak of the question of immigration. $38. and the total. 50. could it reasonably be denied to the great Dominion of Canada? Could it be denied to that stout Republic in South Africa. that is now living under a nation which did. and a grand total of direct war costs of $186. exclusive of what we loaned one another: Great Britain and her dominions.000. They say. San Francisco.000. California. the United States. which for the time being has ceased to be a great fighting power.000. $22. Turkey and Bulgaria.450.000. Italy $13.000.000.40 Major Problems in American Foreign Relations has acknowledged the validity of the Monroe doctrine.000. of Australia. Let us examine that matter a litde more particularly.000: France.

The assembly is not a voting body. and the United States is represented on the council. Salt Lake City. "Yes. They are not waiting for ratification. Utah. having given these six votes. There would be nobody else that cared for our fortunes. the First World War. Those are treaties already in force. At the beginning of the war and during the war Great Britain and France engaged by solemn treaty with Japan that if she would come into the war and continue in the war. These six votes are in the assembly. the affirmative vote of every nation represented on the council is indispensable. in Great Britain. you want to start a war for the purpose. and whenever those questions are questions of action. and I ought to add that the representatives of those great nations themselves admit. provided she in the meantime took it by force of arms. not in the council. what are the facts? For you have been misled with regard to them.Woodrow Wilson. but turned it over to the very men whom it had fought? Could we deny it to Australia. We would have to look out for ourselves. and the League Fight 41 its government in its hands. except upon a limited number of questions. "Well. what Germany had in China. that Great Britain and France and the other powers which have insisted upon similar concessions in China will be put in a position where they will have to reconsider them. Colorado. And I want to say very frankly. There will have to be universal conscription. but what I want to call your attention to is that just so soon as this covenant is ratified every nation in the world will have the right to speak out for China. added to a vote of the majority in the assembly itself. and under the operations of article 11 and of article 10 it will be impossible for any nation to make any further inroads either upon the ter­ ritorial integrity or upon the political independence of China. We have got that for her now. Think of the economic burden and the restraint of liberty in the development of professional and mechanical life that resulted from the maintenance of great armies. to discuss the Shantung provision [which shifted control of the area from Germany to Japan] in all its aspects. unless. consult your fellow citizens. then. September 23 I am not going to stop. There will have to be taxes such as even yet we have not seen. but by being parties to that arrangement we can insist upon the promise of Japan—the promise which the other Governments have not matched—that she will return to China immediately all sovereign rights within the Province of Shantung. You can not conduct a war or command an army by a debating society. to some extent. Denver. France and England can not withdraw from those obligations. not only in Germany but in France and in Italy and. she could have. that is what we want to do. You can not determine in . September 25 The adoption of the treaty means disarmament. The league can take no active steps without the unanimous vote of all the nations represented on the council. my fellow citizens. and it will serve China not one iota if we should dissent from the Shantung arrange­ ment. we want to be independent and look out for ourselves" I say. If the United States should stand off from this thing we would have to have the biggest army in the world. indeed. and when I hear gentlemen say. This is the only way to serve and redeem China. There will have to be concentration of authority in the Government capable of using this terrible instrument. that independent little republic in the Pacific. which has led the world in so many liberal reforms? Could it be denied New Zealand? Could we deny it to the hundreds of millions who live in India? But.

and you will have to center in the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy the right to take instant action for the protection of the Nation... Part 9. and may in its discretion provide for the participation of the United States in any commission.... have been fulfilled. may be given by a concurrent resolution of the Congress of the United States.. This document can be found in Congressional Record... 157.. 9. LVIII (November 19. 10. and notice of withdrawal. shall have been made by the Congress of the United States... has the sole power to declare war. 877-878.. 3... The United States reserves to itself exclusively the right to decide what ques­ tions are within its domestic jurisdiction...42 Major Problems in American Foreign Relations community centers what the command of the Commander in Chief is going to be. 1919 1. The United States shall not be obligated to contribute to any expenses of the league of nations . so provide.. which . 1919). The Congress of the United States will provide by law for the appointment of the representatives of the United States in the assembly and the council of the league of nations...... any questions which in the judgment of the United States depend upon or relate to . ... 7. D O C U M E N T 7 Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Proposes Reservations to the League Covenant. No person shall represent the United States under either said league of nations or the treaty of peace . No mandate shall be accepted by the United States under article 22 ... or to employ the military or naval forces of the United States under any article of the treaty for any purpose. the Monroe doctrine.. shall. The United States assumes no obligation to preserve the territorial integrity or political independence of any other country .. 5. 4.. 6.. it reserves the right to increase such armaments without the consent of the council whenever the United States is threatened with invasion or engaged in war.. unless in any particular case the Congress. wholly outside the jurisdiction of said league of nations.. If the United States shall at any time adopt any plan for the limitation of armaments proposed by the council of the league . 2. said doctrine is to be interpreted by the United States alone and is ........ except by action of the Congress of the United States. In case of notice of withdrawal from the league of nations. The United States withholds its assent to articles 156. except with the approval of the Senate of the United States. .. under the provisions of article 10. The United States will not submit to arbitration or to inquiry by the assembly or by the council of the league of nations ." America will never consent to any such thing... . and 158 [Shan­ tung clauses]. the United States shall be the sole judge as to whether all its international obligations . you will have to have a staff like the German staff... unless and until an appropriation of funds . as provided in said article [Article I].

pp. 170. de­ cision. and in 1915 she sent the so-called Twenty-one Demands to China which China was forced to accept. 160-161.180-181.. 4. .000 students were present at the meeting. 1927). 77ieK?Mf/!Movemen?mC/ima(NewYork: New Republic. Mr. The following description is written by one of the students who took part in the strike: "At 1 P. but we refused to listen. 1927 Japan took possession of Kiaochow [Jiaozhou] and Tsing-tao [Qing-dao] in Shan­ tung [Shandong] Province in 1914. or parts of empire.M. the First WorldWar. and that we as students must fight to show the world that 'Might should never be right!' Four methods of pro­ cedure were then discussed. When we arrived at Tieng-Ang Mien. according FromTsiC. 1919. To send telegrams to all provinces in the country asking them to parade on May 7th.. May 3rd. "Next morning at 10 o'clock. and the League Fight 43 14. the Peace Conference decided the Shantung issue in favor of Japan. 1919.. or finding of the council or assembly in which any member of the league and its self-governing dominions. in the aggre­ gate have cast more than one vote. Wang Recalls the Shandong Question and China's May Fourth Movement.. They stood in order. a student of the Law School. "During the meeting. A representative of the Board of Education came to our school and advised us not to go. When on April 30. 2. Lo. After dinner all of us marched out toward Tieng-Ang Mien. D O C U M E N T 8 The Chmese Reformer Tsi C. the National Humiliation Day. To get the people of the country to fight together. colonies. was the outcome of this unrest. To decide on the coming Sunday (May 4th) to meet the students of all of the schools in Peking at 'Tieng-Ang Mien [Tianamen Gate]' and to show our discontent by a great mass parade. one of the student-leaders in ^e Literary Revolution Movement was among those in charge of the meeting. a few thousand students of other schools had already gathered there. More than 1. All of them met in the big yard in front of the gate. and that Japan would be forced to withdraw.' The students were all quiet. deliberately broke his finger and wrote on the wall in blood 'Return Our Tsing-tao.163-167. Wang. report. The intellectuals with high hope believed that the principles of Woodrow Wilson would prevail at the Peace Conference. They were as follows: 1. group after group. 3.175-176.Woodrow Wilson. a notice was posted calUng for a mass meeting. Tshia. a meeting of the school representatives of about eighteen leading schools in Peking was held at the Peking Law College to plan the procedure of the afternoon mass parade. "We first discussed the problem of our national crisis and we all agreed that the Shantung Problem was caused by corruption and in justice. The famous parade of the Peking students on May 4th. To send telegrams to the Chinese delegates in Paris and ask them not to sign the treaty. The United States assumes no obligation to be bound by any election. Mr. the alert in China were deeply stirred.

About thirty schools were present with more than 10.. directed both to the Government and to the students in Peking Although the thirty-two students were released.. May 26th. International Justice . we paraded the streets. "After waiting in vain for a time.44 Major Problems in American Foreign Relations to their schools. That three officials in the government should be dismissed. May 24th. scholars. The students tried to see him.. . May 28th. Propaganda spread. then Min­ ister of Communication. Nanking. 'Down with the Traitors'[(a ref­ erence to three Chinese government officials who signed secret treaties that ceded Shandong to Japan)]. Student unions organized throughout the whole country. and others sent telegrams to Peking. but his home was guarded by soldiers and policemen. but the police of the special extraterritorial district refused to let us enter. Not only were students of other schools sympathetic with the movement.. 4. the Government continued to make many arrests. Paotingfu. Three thousand of us paraded to the Legation Quarter to ask the Alhed Ministers to aid us in securing jus­ tice. Tientsin. and Kaifeng. Wushang. embarrassed the government by remaining in jail all night and the day following. All of them had in their hands white flags made of paper or cloth. The students dispersed because a fire suddenly broke out from the building and the soldiers fired at them. Abolish the Twenty-one Demands'. bearing the inscriptions. . Doors were thrown open. 3. All of us called loudly. In Foochow. Anking. That the government make them a public apology. Hangchow. May 19th. more than 10. That the students should be allowed freedom of speech.. Hankow. Places of detention for students were getting full. 2. were then appointed to see the American Minister. 'Return Our Tsing-tao'. On June 6th guards were taken away from the prisons. including Mr. Canton.. newspaper organizations. 'Self-determination . but they were stopped by the Japanese. Four representatives. Tsinan. but the students proposing to be released on their own terms. At the same time the Government used mandates to suppress the activities of students in different places The indifference of the Government led to a general strike of all Peking students. Lo. May 23rd. They saw one of the 'traitors' conversing with a group of Japanese.. "It was about 2 o'clock in the afternoon. we marched on through Chang-Ang Street. but merchants.' Tsao Ju-lin. .. . . 'The Traitor! The Traitor! We threw all our small white flags through the windows. .000 strong. 1. Amoy. They went forward to question him. The fact that Shanghai merchants had struck and Peking merchants had threatened to take similar steps at last brought the government to its senses. and practically all over the country there were also student strikes.000 students! . Thirty-two were arrested. Shanghai. and there were so many that we could see the array of white colored flags from a long distance. May 31st. May 30th. for suddenly the door of the building was opened and the students marched in. and the people in Peking were greatly aroused. May 27th. sending four demands to the government. That they should be allowed to parade through the streets of Peking on being released from prison. and passed by the residence of one of the so-called 'traitors. Strikes in other cities occurred as follows: Peking.. and the like...". it was Sunday. Finally a conflict took place. The Minister was absent.

power and fed a mistaken American notion that Europe awaited a blueprint for "peace without victory. Everywhere bands played. and mediate a "peace without victory. The police apologized and sent automobiles to the prison doors." Once America entered the war. The masses cheered and shouted: "Long live the Republic of China! Long live the Students!" and "Long live the National University of Peking!" Even the janitor of the University congratulated the freed students with a thousand pieces of "red flower. India. "In the second essay. nationalists in colonial societies experienced deep disillusionment when Wilson tumed down their pleas for national self-determination at Versailles. Thomas J. Manela attributes the double standard that championed nation-state status for Europeans but not for Afro-Asians to Wilson's conviction that non-European peoples lacked the capacity for selfgovernment and would be best off under a League of Nations trasteeship imposed by more civilized powers. including the League of Nations. a condem­ nation as it were of its wrong moves. the resignations of the three so-called "traitors" were accepted.S. Erez Manela of Harvard University analyzes the impact of Wilsonianism on the colonial world and finds the U. sent an apology to the students by a pacification delegate. the cabinet was altered. Wilson con­ vinced himself that the war he had once viewed as a sordid blood feud represented a noble battle between democracy and autocracy." As his dream of a U. and out of admiration for the spirit demonstrated." More than that. and the Chinese delegates at the Paris Peace Conference refused to sign the treaty. advance his liberal domestic agenda. rather than a coherent national security strategy. Knock argues that Wilson drew on both progressive and conservative internationalists in pursuing neutrality toward Europe's war but rallied a left-of-center coalition to win reelection in 1916. E S S A Y S In the first essay." In the last essay. Robert W. The disappointment that accompanied the "Wilsonian moment" led anticolonial patriots in China. Egypt. Tucker of The Johns Hopkins University delivers a biting assessment of Wilson's efforts to stay out of the war. Wilson's neutrality did not take into account modem U. schoolmates applauded. Initially inspired by the president's crusade for international justice. mediated peace collided with the reality of German submarine warfare. the president failed to win support for his controversial peace treaty.S. Indochina. primarily because the backing of the progressives he needed for victory eroded in the face of wartime reaction at home and abroad. Knock of Southern Methodist University delivers a sympathetic but not uncritical assessment of Wilson. Tucker maintains that the president's response to the Great War was grounded in his visionary espousal of neutral rights. the First World War. through fear of its own security and understanding of the grave situation. . thus transforming international history.S.Woodrow Wilson. and the League Fight 45 It is significant that the government of its own accord. and Korea to embrace revolutionary ideologies in their straggles for sovereignty. however. president less supportive of self-determination than his rhetoric indicated. The day that the students marched triumphantly from prison was a gala one for Peking.