1

Review
Genetic Association on Radiation Induced Mucosal and Skin Toxicity in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Isabella Wai Yin Cheuk, Vincent Wing Cheung Wu
Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong
Corresponding Author: Vincent WC Wu, PhD, Email: htvinwu@polyu.edu.hk

Citation: Cheuk IWY, Wu VWC. Genetic association on radiation induced mucosal and skin toxicity in patients
with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Nasopharyng Carcinoma, 2014, 1(7): e7. doi:10.15383/jnpc.7.
Funding: This work was supported by grant from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (RPFG).
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Conflict of interest: None.
Copyright: 2014 By the Editorial Department of Journal of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. This is an open-access
article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract: Radiation therapy (RT) is the primary treatment for many head and neck cancers including
nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). While prognosis has been greatly improved with the advancement of RT
technique, radiation-induced complications especially normal tissue surrounding tumour volume is unavoidable.
Genetic factors are thought to be the most important factors contributing to individual variation in radiation
sensitivity. Over 120 studies have been published since year 2000 to investigate the association of genetic variants
to radiation-induced toxicities in various types of cancer. Candidate gene approach is the most commonly used
approach in published studies, including studies in patients with NPC. Skin and mucosal toxicities are two of the
most common radiation induced complications in the radiotherapy of NPC patients. However, studies focused on
radiation toxicity in NPC patients are limited. Published literatures focused on genetic variations and radiation
sensitivity in NPC patients are summarized in this review, and recommendations for future studies are also
suggested.
Keywords: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Radiation; Genetic association; Skin toxicity

1. Introduction

techniques to increase dose conformity to target volume [2].

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an endemic disease in

Overall survival rate and local regional control rate for NPC,

Southern China including Hong Kong, is primarily treated by

especially for advanced T3-4 diseases, have been improved from

radiotherapy (RT) due to its deep-seated anatomical location and

50-75% to about 90% with advanced RT technique [3].

its relatively high sensitivity to radiation, particularly for

Chemotherapy is used concurrently with RT to increase local

thehighest incidence subtype, undifferentiated carcinoma [1]. RT

regional control rate for advance stage disease and to reduce rate

has evolved from two-dimensional conventional RT techniques to

of distant metastasis, although the use of adjuvant chemotherapy is

three-dimensional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

still under debate [3]. Since the median age of NPC patients is

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around 50s, quality of life in these patients is one of the major
concerns in providing better patient care. Acute and late effects of

2. Risk Factors Contributing To Variations In Normal Tissue
Radiation Sensitivity

radiation induced toxicities have been receiving growing interest

Patients receiving similar treatment modality have been found to

in the field of radiation oncology, since radiation induced

experience different levels of radiation induced toxicities. There

toxicities are unavoidable and it is difficult to identify which

are probably several risk factors contributing to the individual

patients are with higher risk of developing severe radiation

variations in normal tissue sensitivity to radiation. One of the risk

induced toxicities before the start of RT. Acute reactions such as

factors in increasing the risk of radiation induced complications is

dermatitis, dysphagia, and mucositis and late complications such

treatment-related. The correlation between total irradiated volume

as xerostomia and neck fibrosis are some of the most common

and complication risk has been reported in many cancers [11]. For

radiation induced toxicities regardless of any RT techniques in

breast cancer patients with larger breast volume, higher risk of

NPC patients. Dose escalation to target volume can be achieved by

suffering severe skin reactions has been found. Correlation of

IMRT without compromising critical organs at risk (OAR) [4].

irradiated volume in lung cancer and liver cancer patients and

While incidence of radiation induced toxicities such as xerostomia,

increased risk of radiation induced toxicities have also been

temporal lobe neuropathy and cranial nerve palsy have been

reported [11]. Use of RT techniques and chemotherapeutic agents,

greatly reduced thanks to the improvement of dose-sparing

in addition to total radiation dose and number of fractions, may

technique achieved by IMRT [5,6], skin and mucosal toxicities are

contribute to the increase of developing radiation induced

unavoidable and remain the major treatment-related complications

complications [9,11]. Patient’s clinical characteristic is another

that may interrupt treatment schedule. Around 48% and 16% of

important confounding factor that increased risk of developing

NPC patients treated by RT alone suffered from grade 3 or above

radiation

mucositis and skin reactions respectively [7]. With the use of

complications and lifestyles such as smoking and drinking habits

chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, the incidence of

are patient-related risk factors [11]. However, up to 80% of the

ototoxicity is significantly higher in patients treated with

radiation induced toxicities cannot be explained by these known

concurrent chemotherapy and RT (CRT) [8]. Over 61% of NPC

factors [12]. Genetic factors seem to be a most important

patients treated with CRT suffered from grade 3 or above acute

underlying factors contributing to variation in radiosensitivity in

mucositis [8]. The overall incidence of acute toxicity in any aspect

normal tissue. Several genes have been identified throughout the

was 83.2% and 53% for patients treated with CRT and RT

past years that are related to increase radiosensitivity. Patients with

respectively [8]. In terms of late toxicity, about 5% of NPC

genetic disorders such as Ataxia-telangiectasia and Fanconi’s

patients suffered from neck fibrosis treated with RT alone or CRT

anemia are known to be hypersensitivity to radiation due to

[8]. Treatment of radiation induced toxicities is mainly palliative

truncated mutations in genes responsible for cell cycle regulation

since there is no effective way to prevent the occurrence of

and DNA repair pathways, such as ataxia-telangiectasia mutated

radiation induced toxicities. Palifermin, a recombinant truncated

(ATM), DNA ligase IV (LIG4), and genes belong to Fanconi

human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) protein, has been

anaemia complementation group (FANC) family [12-15]. RT

showed to reduce the incidence of severe oral mucositis in two

induces cell death mainly through the generation of reactive free

clinical trials with head and neck cancer patients. Management of

radicals that interact with DNA, RNA, proteins, and plasma

acute skin reactions include symptom-relieving agents such as

membrane [16]. Many signal transduction pathways are activated

moisturizing cream and hydrocortisone creams while anti-

by DNA double-strand break (DSB) to repair DNA damages, since

inflammatory and antioxidant treatments are used for late fibrosis

DSB is the primary lethal cell damage during RT [17]. ATM

[9,10].

protein recognizes the complexes formed by DSBs and DNA

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e-ISSN 2312-0398

induced

complications.

Age,

gender,

medical

Published:2014-04 -09 ★ DOI:10.15383/jnpc.7

3

repair proteins and the activity of ATM further activates other

group (unpublished data) is shown is Table 1. Positive findings

proteins such as transcription factors p53 [17]. Genes that

from included studies are summarized in Table 2. With the low

involved in cell cycle checkpoint, DNA repair, and removal of

incidence of NPC worldwide except endemic areas [1], it is not

reactive free radicals, such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB),

surprising that there is a lack of information on genetic association

superoxide dismutase (SOD), transforming growth factor beta

study on radiation induced toxicities in NPC patients Even with

(TGFβ), p53, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), and x-ray repair

the inclusion of studies focused on radiation induced toxicities in

cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) are activated by the

head and neck cancers [25-28], the total number of studies is still

DNA damages [16,18]. As a result, many genes that are associated

limited (data not shown). All five studies are retrospective, case-

with cell cycle regulation and DNA repair and their association to

control studies with different classification of “normal” and

radiation induced complications have been investigated using

“severe” toxicity. Among genetic association studies included

candidate gene approach. Candidate gene approach and genome-

NPC patients, skin reactions and mucositis are the major toxicities

wide association study (GWAS) are the two approaches used in

of interest. While genetic association to acute skin reactions and

genetic association studies. Candidate gene approach is a

acute mucositis was evaluated in two studies, the other three

hypothesis-driven approach that is useful in studying single

studies published by the same research group focused on

nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other types of genetic

subcutaneous and deep tissue fibrosis only. The largest sample

variants in genes with known biological roles in disease or

size among the five studies is 155 with median 40 months of

phenotype of interest [19]. In contrast, GWAS is a hypothesis-free

follow-up period after RT [21]. Genes investigated in these studies

approach that prior knowledge of functional roles of SNPs in

are involved in cell cycle regulations (ATM, CDKN1A, HDM2,

phenotype of interest is not required [20]. A dense set of SNPs is

TP53), inflammatory response (TGFβ1), DNA repair (LIG4,

captured by GWAS comprehensively and unbiasedly. Several

XRCC1, XRCC3, XRCC4, XRCC5), and endogenous oxidative

susceptibility loci in complex diseases such as diabetes have been

stress defense (SOD2). It is interesting to note that genetic variant

identified in GWAS [20].

rs25487 (Arg399Gln) located in XRCC1 was associated with
increased risk of acute dermatitis and acute mucositis in study by

3. Genetic Association Studies of Radiation Induced Toxicities
in NPC

Li et al. while in study by Alsbeih et al., the minor allele was
associated with lower risk of developing subcutaneous and deep

A literature search was performed on PubMed using a

skin fibrosis (Odd ratio = 0.41, CI = 0.21-0.79) [21,22]. Study by

combination of keywords “radiotherapy or radiation therapy”,

Pratesi et al. included seven types of head and neck cancers also

“radiation induced or radiosensitivit or hypersensitivit or

showed increased risk of rs25487 to acute mucositis (OR = 3.01,

radiotoxicit or normal tissue toxicity or complication”, and

CI = 1.27-7.11) [27]. However, these significant associations were

“polymorphism or single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP or

unable to be replicated by our group with similar sample size

genetic variant” (as of December 14, 2013). Over 120 published

(unpublished data). Conflicting results may be due to variation in

original and review articles were identified through literature

control and case classification, treatment modality, population

search, manual search of citations from identified articles and

stratification for studies with Chinese NPC patients, allele

selected journals (Figure 1). Candidate gene approach is the most

frequency in different ethnic groups, and other confounding

commonly used in identified articles. Among these articles, only 4

factors such as patient-related clinical information. Effect size of

articles included NPC patients, and 3 out of 4 articles were

common genetic variants may be small to moderate that a larger

published by the same research group [21-24]. A summary

sample size is needed to validate these positive findings.

characteristic of studies included NPC patients and data from our

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4

Figure 1. Number of genetic association studies from 2001-2013 (as of December 14, 2013).

Table 1. Summary characteristics of genetic association studies included NPC patients only
First
Year of
Sample Mean/Median
Origin Study Design
author Publication
size
age
Li [22]

2013

Alsbeih
[21]

China

Retrospective,
case-control

114

Gene

Treatment
method

Genotyping
method

Grading system

49.6 (19-76)

XRCC1

RT/CRT

RFLP

CTCAE v3.0

47 (15-77)

ATM
XRCC1
XRCC3
XRCC4
XRCC5
PRKDC
LIG4
TP53
HDM2
CDKN1A
TGFB1

3DCRT

Direct
sequencing

3DCRT

Direct
sequencing

RTOG

3DCRT

Direct
sequencing

RTOG

2013

Saudi Retrospective,
Arabic case-control

Alsbeih
[23]

2010

Saudi Retrospective,
Arabic case-control

60

50 (18-77)

TGFβ1
XRCC1

Alsbeih
[24]

2008

Saudi Retrospective,
Arabic case-control

50

49 (18-71)

XRCC1
XRCC3

54 (20-75)

ATM
SOD2
TGFβ1
TP53
XRCC1
XRCC3

Cheuk

unpublished Hong Retrospective,
data
Kong case-control

155

120

RT/CRT

RFLP and UPr

Control and case
Endpoint
classification
Control: Grade 12
Acute dermatitis,
acute mucositis
Case: Grade 3

Control: Grade 0Subcutaneous and
2
deep tissue
fibrosis
Case: Grade 3-4

RTOG

Control: Grade 0Subcutaneous and
1
deep tissue
fibrosis
Case: Grade 2-3
Control: Grade 0Subcutaneous and
1
deep tissue
fibrosis
Case: Grade 2-3
Control: Grade 01

RTOG

Case: Grade 2-3

Acute skin
reactions, acute
mucotisits, and
chronic neck
fibrosis

Abbreviation: RT = Radiotherapy; 3DCRT = Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; CRT = Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy; RFLP = Restriction
fragment length polymorphism; UPr = Unlabeled Probe Melting Analysis; CTCAE = Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events; RTOG = Radiation Therapy
Oncology Group.

Table 2. Positive findings from genetic association studies included NPC patients only
First author

Year of
Publication

Li [22]

2013

Endpoint

Polymorphism (s)

Mode of inheritance

XRCC1 G/A (rs25487)

Genotype

Acute dermatitis

2.65 (1.04-6.73)

Acute mucositis

Alsbeih [21]

2013

Subcutaneous and deep tissue
fibrosis

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OR (95% CI)

2.11 (0.95-4.66)
ATM G/A (rs1801516)

2.86 (1.18-6.48)

HDM2 T/G (rs2279744)

0.49 (0.29-0.84)

HDM2 T/A (rs1196333)

0.13 (0.02-0.99)
Allele

TGFβ1 C/T (rs1800469)

0.57 (0.34-0.96)

XRCC1 G/A (rs25487)

0.41(0.21-0.79)

XRCC5 T/C (rs10510677)

0.39 (0.17-0.91)

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5

Alsbeih [23]

Alsbeih [24]

2010

2008

Subcutaneous and deep tissue
fibrosis
Subcutaneous and deep tissue
fibrosis

TGFβ1 C/T (rs1800470)

0.41 (0.20-0.86)
Allele*

XRCC1 G/A (rs25487)
XRCC1 G/A (rs25487)

0.30 (0.10-0.89)
Allele*

0.31 (0.09-1.04)

Abbreviation: OR = odd ratio; CI = confidence interval.
*ORs of both genotype and allele were calculated; only the most significant results were shown.

4. Reports In Other Cancers

While significant results were reported in many genetic

While there is still lack of available information for NPC-related

association studies using candidate gene approach, these results

radiation induced toxicities, studies of genetic association in other

were unable to replicate in subsequent studies with larger sample

cancers have changed from candidate gene approach to GWAS to

size. In addition, results were often conflicting. Future studies

identify genetic variants that are associated with ethnic group and

should include large number of samples, prospectively and

disease-specific radiation induced toxicities. In addition, several

retrospectively, in order to perform well-designed study with

meta-analysis have been published and addressed on common

adequate statistical power. Two ways to overcome sample size

radiation induced toxicities arose in different cancers. A validation

limitation are to perform meta-analysis and to collaborate with

study included 1613 breast cancer and prostate cancer patients

other research groups. One limitation of meta-analysis is that

showed no association between radiation toxicity and 92 SNPs in

adequate information may not be able to obtain through literature

46 genes [29]. A replication study using breast cancer patients

search since positive findings are more likely to be published than

from three independent European cohorts showed that a SNP

negative findings. In order to enhance data pooling for genetic

located in TNF-α may be associated to radiation toxicity [30].

association studies, a 18-item checklist guideline Strengthening

Association of genetic variants located in heat shock protein beta-

the Reporting Of Genetic Association studies in Radiogenomics

1 (HSPβ1) to risk of radiation induced pneumonitis was validated

(STROGAR) was suggested by the Radiogenomic consortium

in two independent cohorts of non-small cell lung cancer patients

[36,37]. This guideline was modified based on the STrengthening

[31]. The first GWAS focusing on radiation induced toxicities in

the REporting of Genetic Association Studies (STREGA)

African prostate cancer identified a genetic variant located in

recommendation [38] to include information related to RT.

follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) that involved in

Besides meta-analysis, establishing international collaboration

testis development and function is associated with erectile

may help to increase the sample size, reduced confounding factors

dysfunction [32]. A two-stage GWAS performed by the same

by standardizing protocols and experimental design, and to

research group included mainly European ancestry showed that

perform population-based analysis. Individual gene expression

this SNP may not be the universal biomarker for all ethnic groups

profiles and genetic profiles may be combined to investigate

but an ethnic group and prostate cancer specific biomarker [33].

individual variation in radiation induced toxicity more effectively.

Two research groups published meta-analysis of genetic

Genes associated with cell cycle regulation and apoptosis

variantrs1800469 in TGFβ1 and association to fibrosis in breast

pathways showed significant changes in expression levels 2 hours

cancer patients and mixed cancer patients [34,35]. Results from

after irradiation [39]. Gene expression profiles and genetic profiles

these studies suggested that individual SNP may be ethnic-group

in future GWAS can be mapped using quantitative levels of

and complication-specific that may not be used as universal

expression (eQTLs) mapping [40]. Several cis-acting regulators

biomarker to predict all types of toxicities induced in different

involved in complex diseases have been identified using eQTLs

types of cancers.

mapping [40]. By identifying patients with higher susceptibility to

Conclusions And Future Directions

radiation, better patient cancer and customization of treatment

JNPC ★ http://www.journalofnasopharyngealcarcinoma.org/

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6

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