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equation is valid for the non-relativistic case

Yusuf Z. Umul

Cankaya University, Electronic and Communication Dept., Yüzüncü Yıl, No:14, Balgat,

Ankara, Türkiye

yziya@cankaya.edu.tr

**Abstract: We prove that the de Broglie-Einstein velocity equation is also valid for
**

the non-relativistic case. The relativistic energy and momentum relations and the

wave properties of matter are used for this proof. Such a behavior is important since

the resultant equations are far from the contradictions.

Keywords: Special theory of relativity, quantum theory

1

who showed that the radiation was discontinuous by solving the problem of black body [1]. It is the aim of this note to obtain a rigorous proof of the statement that the de Broglie-Einstein velocity equation is also valid for the nonrelativistic speeds. 2. Theory First of all we will begin by considering the relativistic energy and momentum relations of m0 c 2 E= 1− v g2 (1) c2 and p= m0 v g 1− 2 v g2 c2 (2) . could also have the same dualistic nature like radiation [3.1. 4]. He explained the photoelectric effect successfully by using the quantum formula of Planck [2]. This equation gives the relation between the phase and group velocities of a matter wave in terms of the speed of light. de Broglie proposed that a quantum particle. Afterwards. However a direct proof of the subject is not given in that study. like an electron. One of the most important inventions of de Broglie was the derivation of the de Broglie-Einstein velocity equation [6]. it was shown that there will be some contradictions if the de Broglie-Einstein relation is only valid for the relativistic cases. The application of the idea was performed by Einstein. Introduction The quantum mechanics has its roots on the invention of Planck. His ideas were supported by the electron diffraction experiments of Davisson and Germer [5]. In the related paper. In this note we will further consider an approach that was mentioned in a recent paper [7].

m0 is the rest mass of the quantum particle. It is apparent that the ration of the energy to the momentum of a particle gives E w = = vp p k (7) where v p is the phase velocity. 4]. The velocity equation of de Broglie-Einstein can be obtained as vg v p = c 2 3 (8) . The relations of m0 c 2 hw = 1− v g2 (5) c2 and m0 v g hk = 1− v g2 (6) c2 can be defined when Eqs. The concepts of the group and phase velocities will be considered in the same way as de Broglie [3. respectively.respectively. v g and c are the group velocity and the speed of light. (1)-(4) are taken into account. w and k are the angular frequency and the wave-number. The equations of the energy and momentum that are related with the wave nature of matter can be given by E = hw (3) p = hk (4) and for h is the angular Planck’s constant [8].

(8) is its independency from the relativistic effects which occur because of the term of 1− v g2 c2 . One also can define the equations of hk 0 = m 0 v g and 4 (14) . The most important feature of Eq. 4]. (8). (9) Now we will take into account the non-relativistic case. which is defined by the condition of v g << c or alternatively v g << v p according to Eq. Equation (12) was first proposed by de Broglie. wk is the kinetic angular frequency.when Eqs. (9). At this point we will define the equations of hw0 = m0 c 2 (12) and hwk = mo v g2 2 (13) by following the same path with de Broglie [3. (5) and (6) are considered. The energy and momentum relations can be written as 2 hw = m0 c + mo v g2 2 (10) and hk = m0 v g + mo v g3 2c 2 (11) by using the non-relativistic approximation of Eq.

(7). These points prove that the velocity equation of de Broglie-Einstein is also valid for the non-relativistic speeds. it can be seen that the de Brogile-Einstein relation is directly obtained. Conclusion In this study. (13) by omitting the rest energy. 8]. This result brings out the necessity to reevaluate the equations. 3. A further relation can be written as m0 v g3 2c 2 vp = m0 v g2 2 (18) by using Eq.hk k = mo v g3 2c 2 (15) from Eq. In fact the energy term of hw is not directly equal to the kinetic energy as is considered in the literature [6. Equation (18) directly yields the de Broglie-Einstein velocity relation.(16) and (17). (11). This equation can be rewritten as p02 hwk = 2m0 (16) where p0 is equal to m0 v g . In literature the relation of v g = 2v p is found from Eqs. we showed that the de Broglie-Einstein velocity equation is also valid in the non-relativistic approximation. An attempt of regenerating differential equations of 5 . The kinetic energy of a particle will be considered as in Eq. The equation of hk k v p = m0 v g2 2 (17) can be obtained by taking into account Eq. (13) and (14) because of the straightforward usage of these equations. w is equal to w0 + wk and w0 can not be neglected near wk since w0 is much more greater than wk . (17). which are obtained by using the kinetic energy equation with the momentum in a straightforward manner. (15) in Eq. When these points are considered as in Eqs.

L.. West Sussex. Phys. Ann. will lead to a more consistent theory which has a direct connection between the relativistic and nonrelativistic cases. Introduction to quantum mechanics (Wiley. 30. 2003). C. Davisson and L. References [1]. Z. [4]. (Leipzig). H. Mag. [3]. [6]. [8]. 1937). (1924). 309. London. put forward in this paper. 446. Einstein. Phys. (Leipzig). A. Phil. (1927).” arXiv:0712. 507. 132. 6 . L. Born. M. Atomic physics (Blackie & Son. 705.quantum mechanics in the light of the analysis. 177. Rend. [5]. (1901). C. Ann.. Y. “Universality of the de Broglie-Einstein velocity equation. 47. de Broglie. de Broglie. Umul. Phillips.0967v1. (1923). Rev. Germer. 553. (1905). 322. [2]. A. Planck.. Phys. M. Compt. [7].

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