# Experimental Uncertainty

 Measure of data validity and accuracy.
 Representative of the overall result.
 Precision and accuracy.

 Uncertainty  Error.
 Error.
 Fixed (systematic).
o Predictable.
o Same for each reading.
o Removed by calibrations and corrections.
o Decreases accuracy.
 Random (non-repeatable).
o Unpredictable.
o Different for every reading.
o Cannot be removed.
o Decreases precision.
 Sources of errors.
 Manufacturing Errors.
 Operating Errors.
 Environmental Errors.
 Application Errors.

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& Exp. 2) Uncertainty interval x    .05 ./Exp. P.  E  100  x app .  Three steps of uncertainty estimation.)  Overlapping: 5.  2 2 2  h    P    T    u    uh    uP    uT      h    P    T       u  Results comparison.  Single-sample experiment: one-half the smallest scale division./The.  Relative uncertainty u   / x  . N  25 . (Exp.   N  1 3) Propagation analysis.1  1  1. 1) Confidence limit. 1  E  100  3.141592653 2 . Uncertainty estimates result random errors. o Proper construction and calibration of equipment.    f h.  Population of data (N number of Data).  Small .   Equally . xexc. o Good reading and recording of data.1  0.3 . T .  x m    t 2 .4  0. N  25 N  xi  x 2 i 1  Mean standard deviation:  x m  N N  1    0.  Assumption: fixed error is almost zero (negligible).  Multi-variable measurements.3% 3.  Standard engineering 95 %.2 and 5.  Unlimited .  x  m  .

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1 n  xi  x 2  x m  i 1 N N  1  20. 20.140   2. 21. Determine the uncertainty interval of the given mass measurements.7. 21.12    21.9. 20. m [kg] = 20. 21.2620.  x m  t 0. 20. 21. 21.4.6  21.9  21.Ex.317 m  21.3.1  0.6.025.140   t 2 . 20.9 0.6.   0.5.12  20.12 1010  1  0.9.8.05 N  10   N 1  9 x  21.317 kg 4 .140   0.6  21.6.

04  4% 4   2kxPT 4 x   kx 2T 4 P   4kx 2 PT 3 T 2 2  x    P    T   u    ux    uP    uT    x   P   T         2  2  2         x P T    2kxPT 4 u x    kx 2T 4 u P    4kx 2 PT 3 uT  2 4 2 4 2 4  kx PT   kx PT   kx PT   2u x 2  u P 2  4uT 2  0.060 kg/m 3 5 .   kx 2 PT 4 .16  0.3%   kx 2 PT 4  0.02 mm . k  3 s 2 /m 4 C 4 .01  1% 2 uP  3  0. x  2  0.025  2.369 kg/m 3    0.369  0.369  0. Determine density relative uncertainty u  .162 2   0.060 kg/m 3    0.0252  0. ux  0. P  120  3 Pa .022  0.16  C .163   16.Ex.5% 120 uT  0.163  0. T  4  0.02  0.

8  0.0% 200 u   0.   0.9 m/s 6 .08152  0.102   10.163  16.010  1.4  0.Ex.369  0.0% 9. uF  6  0. v  k F2 g  .012 2 2 2      kF 2   g  u      2  2g       kF    g    kF 2   g2       u g       2    ug 2   0.1  0.5 .4 m/s  v  2479. Determine velocity relative uncertainty u v .3% ug  0.060 kg/m 3 . F  200  6 N . k  1 m1.1 m/s 2 .8 v 2kF  F g  v kF 2   2 g  v kF 2  g g2  2 2  F v    v   g v  uv    uF    u    ug  v  F v   v  g       2   F   2kF    2  g kF    g           u F    2    kF    g    2u F 2  12 u    0.9 m/s  v  2479.102  252.5s/kg 2.03  3.4  252.062  0.2% v kF 2 g   2479. g  9.

5  8.01  9.5% 9.15  0.5  0.81 uh  0.9 kPa  P  591.01  1% 50 u Pa  1  0.015   9.00832  0. h  50  0. Determine pressure relative uncertainty u P .15 kN/m 3 . uk  0.81 50 101    500.01   10. Pa  101  1 kPa .5 m .01  1% 101 P h k P k h P 1 Pa 2 2  P P  k P  h P  u P    u k    uh    a u Pa   P k   P h   P Pa  2 2 2 P  k h u k    h k u h    a 1u Pa     kh  Pa   kh  Pa   kh  Pa  2 2 2 9.5% P  kh  Pa  591.015  8. k  9.81  0.81  50  101   9.0017 2   0. P  kh  Pa .015   1. 5  0.Ex.81  50  101   9.5 kPa  P  591.81  50  101   2 0.015  1.0122  0.810.9 kPa 7 .

They are usually associated with standard deviation The differences between accurate and precise are illustrated in Figure 1. “They affect the precision. Remember that when thinking about uncertainty.Uncertainty Analysis INTRODUCTION: It is important to understand sources of errors/uncertainties not only to ensure proper experimental procedure but to ensure the accuracy and precision of the results. Most errors can be determined using statistical approach. Fixed uncertainty does not necessarily mean that the uncertainty is repeatable. if an experiment has low fixed error it is said to be accurate” Different for each reading and are associated with unpredictable variation in the experimental conditions under which the experiment is being conducted. it is important to understand these associations. Systematic uncertainty decreases the accuracy of an experiment. e. where the black dots represent data points taken in a measurement of a quantity whose true value is at the center of the circles. e. if an experiment has low random error it is said to be precise”. 8 . measuring the length of a table with a steel tape that has a kink in it or measuring the period if a pendulum with a clock that runs too fast. Reference [1] outlines statistical procedure and computer programming commonly used in analyzing experimental data. “They affect the accuracy. i. There are two types of errors that shortly will be explained. random errors (can be modeled).g.. which is useful during experiments.g. Fixed errors are the same for each reading and can be eliminated by calibration. so they are worth repeating: Random uncertainty decreases the precision of an experiment. electrical noise from nearby machinery.e. The purpose of measurements is to determine a value of a property of interest (measurand) by means of an experimental procedure.     The boiling point of water under 1 atmosphere The Rockwell hardness number of a given material The tensile strength of an elastic material The length of a metal bar The objective is to determine a value that is representative of the overall result.. TYPES OF ERRORS:  Fixed Error:  Random Error: Usually called systematic error and caused by faults in measuring instruments or technique. Examples of some quantities of interest includes. changes in room temperature. Uncertainty analysis is a procedure that is used to quantify data accuracy and validity. The variation of the results is due to the influence quantities (many of them) that are not constant. “Hard to discover”. it might be that the uncertainty involves physics that has not been accounted for in the analysis. These kind of errors are hard to be removed but yet “Easy to discover”. or improper measurements. imperfect connections..