1SeisSpace Reference

Data Input/Output ............................................................................ 2
SEG-Y Input ........................................................................................................... 3
Disk Data Input ..................................................................................................... 13
Disk Data Output .................................................................................................. 19
Synthetic Trace Generation................................................................................... 22

Headers .......................................................................................... 29
Specify CDP Bin Grid .......................................................................................... 30
Header Math.......................................................................................................... 33
Header Scan .......................................................................................................... 38

Amplitude ....................................................................................... 40
Automatic Gain Control........................................................................................ 41
Amplitude Scanning.............................................................................................. 44
Bandpass Filter...................................................................................................... 47
Trace Length ......................................................................................................... 55
Threshold Amplitudes........................................................................................... 57

Display ............................................................................................ 59
Trace Display ........................................................................................................ 60
Trace Display Label.............................................................................................. 64

Flow Control ................................................................................... 66
Else........................................................................................................................ 67
Else If .................................................................................................................... 69
End If .................................................................................................................... 71
End Split ............................................................................................................... 73
If............................................................................................................................ 74
Inline Sort.............................................................................................................. 76
Join........................................................................................................................ 81
Reproduce Traces.................................................................................................. 83
Split ....................................................................................................................... 84

Velocity ........................................................................................... 87
Velocity Auto Picker............................................................................................. 88

Migration ........................................................................................ 97
3D Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration................................................................ 98
3D Prestack Kirchhoff Curved-Ray Time Migration ......................................... 137

Archive/Restore ........................................................................... 139
Archive Project ................................................................................................... 140
Restore Project .................................................................................................... 142

Miscellaneous .............................................................................. 145
Process Cleanup .................................................................................................. 146
Test Data Difference ........................................................................................... 149

SeisSpace Tools
Data Input/Output

3SeisSpace Reference

SEG-Y Input
SEG-Y Input reads data from most disk image files
approximately conforming to the SEG-Y standard, produced by
various workstations including Sierra, Landmark, MS-DOS,
Charisma, Prakla, and Western. It offers the additional,nonstandard option, to read more than one SEG-Y file in sequence.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips ] [Parameters]
[Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
Traces can be grouped into ensembles by:

FFID (File No.) bases input records on SEGY field file
number. Used primarily for shot gathers.

CDP bases input traces on their common depth point
number. Used primarily for CDP gathers.

SOURCE, SOU_XD, or SOU_YD bases input records on
the sequential source number or changes in coordinates
within the file. To be used primarily for shot gathers.

REC_XD, or REC_YD bases input ensembles on changes
in their receiver coordinates. Used primarily for receiver
gathers.

OFFSET bases input ensembles on changes in the offset
header. Used primarily for common offset gathers.

NONE retains default trace ensembles, as indicated by the
SEG-Y header

Required Format
The SEG-Y binary header can be in one of the following
formats:

IBM Real is 4-byte IBM Floating Point SEG-Y.

4SeisSpace Reference

IEEE Real is 4-byte IEEE Floating Point SEG-Y (nonstandard).

4 byte Integer is 4-byte Integer SEG-Y.

2 byte Integer is 2-byte Integer SEG-Y.

4 byte w/Gain is 4-byte SEG-Y Fixed Point with Gain
Code.

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Tips and Recommendations
Standard SEG-Y Header and translation to SeisSpace

Bytes

Use

Input

Output

1-4

trace sequence number within
line

Ignored (reassigned
internally in SeisSpace)

Output from TRACENO

5-8

trace sequence number within
reel

Ignored

Used on output

9-12

original field record number

Input to FFID

Output from FFID

13-16

trace number within the original
field record (channel)

Input to CHAN

Output from CHAN

17-20

energy source point number

Input to SOURCE

Output from SOURCE

21-24

CDP ensemble number

Input to CDP

Output from CDP

25-28

trace number within CDP
ensemble

Ignored

Output from SEQNO

29-30

trace identification code

Input to TRC_TYPE

Output from
TRC_TYPE

5SeisSpace Reference

Bytes

Use

Input

Output

31-32

number of vertically summed
traces

Ignored

Ignored

33-34

number of horizontally stacked
traces (fold)

Input to TR_FOLD

Output from TR_FOLD

35-36

data use: production or test

Ignored

Ignored

37-40

distance from source to receiver

Input to OFFSET and
AOFFSET

Output from OFFSET

41-44

receiver group elevation

Input to REC_ELEV

Output from
REC_ELEV

45-48

surface elevation at source

Input to SOU_ELEV

Output from
SOU_ELEV

49-52

source depth below surface

Input to DEPTH

Output from DEPTH

53-56

datum elevation at receiver

Ignored

Ignored

57-60

datum elevation at source

Ignored

Ignored

61-64

water depth at source

Input to SOU_H2OD

Output from
SOU_H2OD

65-68

water depth at receiver

Input to REC_H2OD

Output from
REC_H2OD

69-70

scalar for bytes 41-68

Used on input

Computed on output

71-72

scalar for bytes 73-88

Used on input

Computed on output

73-76

source X coordinate

Input to SOU_XD, 8 byte
real

Output from SOU_XD
(precise to 7 digits)

77-80

source Y coordinate

Input to SOU_YD, 8 byte
real

Output from SOU_YD
(precise to 7 digits)

81-84

receiver X coordinate

Input to REC_XD, 8 byte
real

Output from REC_XD
(precise to 7 digits)

85-88

receiver Y coordinate

Input to REC_YD, 8 byte
real

Output from REC_YD
(precise to 7 digits)

89-90

coordinates units - to database

Input to data context

Output from data
context

91-92

weathering velocity

Ignored

Ignored

93-94

sub-weathering velocity

Ignored

Ignored

95-96

uphole time at source

Input to UPHOLE

Output from UPHOLE

97-98

uphole time at receiver

Ignored

Ignored

99-100

source static correction

Input to SOU_STAT

Output from
SOU_STAT

6SeisSpace Reference

Bytes

Use

Input

Output

101-102

receiver static correction

Input to REC_STAT

Output from
REC_STAT

103-104

total static applied

Input to TOT_STAT

Output from TOT_STAT

105-106

lag time A

Ignored

Ignored

107-108

lag time B

Ignored

Ignored

109-110

delay recording time

Ignored

Ignored

111-112

mute time start

Input to TLIVE_S

Output from TLIVE_S

113-114

mute time end

Input to TFULL_S

Output from TFULL_S

115-116

number of samples in this trace

Ignored (cannot vary in
SeisSpace)

Output from data
context

117-118

sample interval in this trace

Ignored (cannot vary in
SeisSpace)

Output from data
context

119-120

gain type of instruments

Ignored

Ignored

121-122

instrument gain constant

Ignored

Ignored

123-124

instrument early gain

Ignored

Ignored

125-126

correlated flag

Ignored

Ignored

127-128

sweep start frequency

Ignored

Ignored

129-130

sweep end frequency

Ignored

Ignored

131-132

sweep length

Ignored

Ignored

133-134

sweep type

Ignored

Ignored

135-136

sweep start taper length

Ignored

Ignored

137-138

sweep end taper length

Ignored

Ignored

139-140

sweep taper type

Ignored

Ignored

141-142

alias filter freq - to database

Ignored

Ignored

143-144

alias filter slope - to database

Ignored

Ignored

145-146

notch filter freq - to database

Ignored

Ignored

147-148

notch filter slope - to database

Ignored

Ignored

149-150

low cut freq - to database

Ignored

Ignored

151-152

high cut freq - to database

Ignored

Ignored

153-154

low cut slope - to database

Ignored

Ignored)

155-156

high cut slope - to database

Ignored

Ignored)

157-158

year recorded - to database

Ignored

Ignored

7SeisSpace Reference

Bytes

Use

Input

Output

159-160

day of year recorded

Ignored

Ignored

161-162

hour of day recorded

Ignored

Ignored

163-164

minute of hour recorded

Ignored

Ignored

165-166

second of minute recorded

Ignored

Ignored

167-168

time basis code

Ignored

Ignored

169-170

trace weighting factor

used in 32 and 16 bit
integer formats

computed for 32 and 16
bit integer formats

171-172

geophone group number of roll
switch pos. 1

Ignored

Ignored

173-174

geophone group number of trace
1 in record

Ignored

Ignored

175-176

geophone group number of last
trace in record

Ignored

Ignored

177-178

gap size

Ignored

Ignored

179-180

overtravel associated with taper

Ignored

Ignored

181-240

optional use

Used on input

Used on output

Loading non-standard SEGY headers
You can override the SEG-Y trace header, using user-supplied
format and position. Header entries are created if they do not
exist. Format can be 2I, 4I, 4R IBM, 4R IEEE. Position is
anywhere inside the 240 byte SEG-Y trace header. You can also
add or modify an override entry with the submenu for Nonstandard headers.

Parameters
Do you want to enter multiple SEG-Y files?
Select Yes to enter multiple SEG-Y files.

Path to the input SEG-Y file
This appears if No to multiple SEG-Y files. Enter the fullyqualified SEG-Y filename. For example,

8SeisSpace Reference

D\:\data\segy\Synth_Shots.segy or
/export/d01/SEGY/FieldRecords.sgy.

List of input SEG-Y files
This appears if Yes to multiple SEG-Y files. Click the Editor
icon and enter your list of fully-qualified SEG-Y filenames. The
Editor window allows cut and paste, and the import of text files.
Separate individual files by spaces or by placing them on new
lines. For example:
/data/Synth_Shots.segy /data/Shots2.segy
or
/data/Synth_Shots.segy
/data/Shots3.segy

Print information about each input file?
Select Yes to list a data context and file size summary for each
input SEG-Y file.

Output data start time
Enter the output data start time. This value can be greater than
zero for delayed start time. The is used, for example, with deep
water input. You can input a 1.0 s start time.

Specify input trace list?
Select Yes to specify the input trace list. Select No to use all
traces.

Primary selection header
This appears if Yes to Specify input trace list. Select a primary
trace header from the list of standard SeisSpace headers.

9SeisSpace Reference

Secondary selection header
This appears if Yes to Specify input trace list. Select a
secondary trace header from the list of standard SeisSpace
headers.

Specify selection list
This appears if Yes to Specify input trace list. Enter a list to
define the traces.
Since data from a file is input sequentially, you should try to
build the list based upon sequential location within a file. If the
primary selection choice is decreasing within the file then the
list should be decreasing. For example:
100-1/
The default, *.*/, accepts all traces.

Override SEG-Y reel header?
Select Yes to explicilty set some or all of the global dataset
informatino, rather than reading from the SEG-Y binary header.

Number of samples per trace
This appears if Yes to Override SEG-Y reel header. Enter the
number of samples in a data trace. Enter 0 to get from SEG-Y
binary header bytes 21-22.
This parameter is intended for the case when bytes 21-22 of the
binary header are incorrect. The number of samples specified
must represent the exact number of samples.
Note: For Sierra format, this value is required. You must enter
the number of samples in the data traces.

Maximum number of traces per ensemble
This appears if Yes to Override SEG-Y reel header. Enter 0
for the default.

10SeisSpace Reference

Input data sample interval
This appears if Yes to Override SEG-Y reel header. Enter 0
for the default.

Data is stacked?
This appears if Yes to Override SEG-Y reel header. Select Yes
if the input traces are stacked data.

Input trace format?
This appears if Yes to Override SEG-Y reel header. Select the
input data format, or instruct the program to read the format
information from the SEG-Y binary header. The normal choice
would be to read the information from the binary header, but
this can be incorrect. If that happens, you will have to specify
the format. The choices are:

Get from header gets the trace format from binary header.

IBM Real is 4-byte IBM Floating Point SEG-Y.

IEEE Real is 4-byte IEEE Floating Point SEG-Y (nonstandard).

4 byte Integer is 4-byte Integer SEG-Y.

2 byte Integer is 2-byte Integer SEG-Y.

4 byte w/Gain is 4-byte SEG-Y Fixed Point with Gain.

Input data primary sort order
This appears if Yes to Override SEG-Y reel header. Select
how the traces are sorted on this SEG-Y tape. The choices are:

Get from header gets the trace format from binary header.

CDP bin number

Source number

Receiver index number

11SeisSpace Reference

Source-receiver offset

Recording channel

Inline number

Crossline number

Unknown

Load non-standard headers?
Select Yes to load non-standard headers. The Non-Standard
headers menu appears. Click Show to display defined
mappings. Click Add to add one or more override definitions.

Non-standard header parameters.
Click Show button to view non-standard header parameters.

Starting byte number of the non-standard header
Enter the starting byte number of the header to be mapped,
counting at byte 1 of the trace header.

Format of the non-standard header
Select the input data format The choices are:

4 byte Integer is 4-byte Integer SEG-Y.

2 byte Integer is 2-byte Integer SEG-Y.

IEEE Float is 4-byte IEEE Floating Point SEG-Y.

IBM Float is 4-byte IBM Floating Point SEG-Y.

Output SeisSpace header
Choose a standard SeisSpace header from the pop-up list or
enter a new one in the User defined header space above the
list.

12SeisSpace Reference

New SeisSpace header description
This appears if a User defined header is entered for Output
SeisSpace header. Enter a new description for the SeisSpace
header. This description can contain spaces.

New SeisSpace header format
This appears if a User defined header is entered for Output
SeisSpace header. Select one of the following SeisSpace
header formats:

4 byte Integer is 4-byte Integer SEG-Y.

8 byte Integer is 8-byte Integer SEG-Y.

4 byte Float is 4-byte Float SEG-Y.

2 byte Float is 2-byte Float SEG-Y.

End of non-standard header parameters.

Click Hide button to remove non-standard header paramters

Header used to define ensemble breaks
Select a trace header entry to use to define ensemble breaks. A
new ensemble begins when the selected header value changes.
Select NONE to turn this parameter off.

Expected number of output ensembles
Enter the expected number of output ensembles. Enter 0 for a
computed default.

Print ensemble information?
Select Yes to print information for each output ensemble.

13SeisSpace Reference

Disk Data Input
Disk Data Input reads either SeisSpace or ProMAX datasets
from disk files. Any dataset may be input passing only selected
primary sort key values. Multiple datasets may be read as
separate "pipes" of input, merged with the Join tool.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
Standard headers, such as FFID, SOURCE, or CDP.

Required Format
Disk-resident files. A ProMAX or SeisSpace dataset, as
selected from a corresponding area/line or project, or a full
UNIX path.

Output
Output Headers
SEQ_DISK, trace sequence number from disk.
DS_SEQNO, dataset identification counter, set from the menu
parameter.

WorkFlow
The SeisSpace Input and Output routines provide for
generalized parallel I/O where multiple joblets running on a
distributed set of compute nodes will each read their own data
from a single input volume and write all of the data to a single
output volume. I/O rates linearly increase with the number of
nodes used to do the work, up to the network and disk I/O
saturation point. For a pure I/O flow reading and writing to a

14SeisSpace Reference

network file server we have seen figures that level off at about
50 megabytes per second. The number of nodes vs. linearlity of
throughput is directly related to the processing load between the
Input and Output. i.e. the higher the processing load, the more
nodes you can use and still have linear improvement in data
throughput.
Some jobs, like Prestack Migration jobs, perform better if each
node is allowed to read all of the data in the input file. This
"Broadcast" option is supported and highly recommended for
this type of job. At this time, there are no other supported
workflows that require, or should use this functionality.
There is no Disk Data Insert in SeisSpace, where each input tool
defines a separate "pipe" of data. To read multiple datasets into
the same flow, use multiple Disk Data Input modules, followed
by the Join tool. Data will be read from separate input tools
concurrently, rather than sequentially. Any processing tools
following an input tool, but before Join, will apply only to that
data pipe. Use the "Flow Graph" tab on the Flowbuilder to
verify the module connections and data flow.

Tips and Recommendations
Syntax
In the following few paragraphs the use of the syntax for
selecting primary keys is discussed.

15SeisSpace Reference

Legal characters in the input string include the following:
-,()[]*/
as well as digits 0 through 9.
The - character is used to indicate a minus sign for a negative
number, or to indicate a range of numbers. For example,
1 - 100

indicates a range between 1 and 100.
Example: 1- -100

indicates a range between 1 and negative 100.
The character , is used to indicate the continuation of a list of
numbers. For example,
1,2,4,5

indicates individuals 1, 2, 4, and 5.
The meaning of the ( ) characters indicates either an increment
of some value, or a repetition of a specific value. The rule for
use of the ( ) syntax is that when a range of numbers precedes
the ( ), the value inside ( ) is interpreted as an interval. When
there is only one value preceding the ( ), then the value within
the ( ) is interpreted as the number of times to retrieve the key
value. For example,
1-20(4)

indicates an increment since (4) follows a range of values; 1, 5,
9, 13 and 17 would be selected. In the example
3(4)

3 is copied 4 times since (4) follows a single value. The input
trace list would be 3, 3, 3, 3. The entry
1(2), 4-10(2)

will retrieve 1 twice, and then retrieve 4, 6, 8, 10.
The [ ] characters are used to retrieve groups of sequential
ensembles starting at some initial value. This syntax is useful
for building supergathers of traces. For example,
4[3]

selects 3 sequential ensembles, 4, 5, 6.

16SeisSpace Reference

1-40(10)[3]

first selects every 10th input, and then expands the list to create
groups of 3 ensembles at those seed points. The resulting list
would be ensembles 1, 2, 3,11, 12, 13, 21, 22, 23, 31, 32, 33.
The . symbol is simply a decimal point used for non-integer
values.
The slash / is used to separate groups of header entry values.
For example,
10-14(2) / 15-21(3)

would select ensembles 10, 12, 14, 15, 18, 21.

Parameters
Source of dataset

Database is the most commonly used option. Select a
dataset from a project dataset list. A SeisSpace dataset
may come from the current working project or from
another project defined on the same project host. A
ProMAX dataset must be from the ProMAX area/line with
which the SeisSpace project is associated.

File can be used to point to a specific file path on disk. This
option would only be used in the absence of a complete
ProMAX area/line or SeisSpace Project.

Select a dataset from the database
Appears if Database to Source of Dataset. Select a dataset in
an existing list of datasets. Use the Navigator tree-structure
panel to navigate to the desired project. The cursor changes to a
pointing hand, indicating selection mode.

Path to the input dataset
Appears if File to Source of Dataset. Enter a fully-qualified
dataset path or click on the folder icon to do browser selection.
For a SeisSpace dataset, the file path must be a VFS data
directory, excluding the "_._" extension. For a ProMAX dataset,
specify a CIND file or a TRC/HDR directory. For example:

17SeisSpace Reference

SeisSpace data: /filer/data/central_vfs/expl/My3D/RawShots
ProMAX data: /export/d01/promax_data/gom/new3d/56712349

Data sequence number in flow
Enter an integer value for the DS_SEQNO trace header. You
can identify different datasets with different DS_SEQNO
header values during processing.

Select only certain primary keys?
Select No to read the complete input as stored on disk. Selecting
Yes is equivalent to using SPLIT to pass only specified
primary keys. No sorting is done, just ensemble selection.

Selected primary keys
Enter the selected primary key values to process in this flow. All
others are discarded by the input tool.

Broadcast same data to all joblets?
Select Yes for PSTM jobs where all nodes will read the entire
dataset. This should be set to No for all other jobs, where each
node of a job will process only it’s assigned subset of the input
data volume.

Network slowness factor
Appears if No to Broadcast same data to all joblets? This
parameter only pertains to distributed SeisSpace datasets and is
used in determining how to allocate portions of a dataset across
compute nodes. Local I/O has much less overhead than I/O
done over NFS. If a specific extent of a dataset is local to a
compute node, it will be assigned to that node with this
weighting factor over extents which must be read via NFS from
disk attached to other nodes. The default of 3.0 implies that a
local file can be read 3 times as fast as one on a networkmounted filesystem. This parameter should not generally need
to be changed from the default and is ignored for centrally
stored, i.e. file server, SeisSpace datasets, and all ProMAX
datasets.

18SeisSpace Reference

Share data among processes?
Appears if No to Broadcast same data to all joblets? Select
Yes for a node to read data from other nodes when it has
exhausted its own data. This is most appropriate for a
distributed VFS where the data reside on the internal disks of
the cluster nodes. Disk Data Input will allocate a portion of the
input dataset to each compute node. Some nodes will probably
finish reading their data and stop processing before all of the
data on all of the other nodes has been read and processed. If
No, these nodes will sit idle until joblets on the other nodes
finish reading and processing their data. If Yes, a joblet, which
has finished processing its assigned data, will search for more
file extents on the other nodes and continue processing until all
of data have been read and processed. For a large network
mounted filesystem on a file server, leave this set to No.

19SeisSpace Reference

Disk Data Output
Disk Data Output writes traces to SeisSpace disk format, in
either full 32-bit, 16 bit compressed 2-byte integer format with
real scalars, or 8 bit compressed 1-byte integer format with real
scalars.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
None specifically required, the tool will pass what it is given.

Output
Files can be output to any VFS that has been associated with the
SeisSpace project.

Full Disk Detection
When the output disk is full, the job pauses and you will see
notification in the job.output file. You will also notice that the %
data input has stopped progressing. You can restart the job, once
more disk space is made available. The job will automatically
retry to continue periodically.

Output Headers
Data Output overwrites the trace without changing the sort
order. If the trace does not exist, it is appended to the dataset.
Traces are identified by the TRACENO header entry.

WorkFlow
Multiple Disk Data Output tools may be used to write data at
different point in a processing flow. For more information on
SeisSpace I/O, please read the helpfile for Disk Data Input.

20SeisSpace Reference

Tips and Reccomendations
Parameters
Source of Dataset

Database is the most commonly used option. Select a
dataset from a project dataset list. A SeisSpace dataset may
be written to the current working project or to another
project defined on the same project host.

File can be used to output a specific file name on disk. This
option would only be used in the absence of a complete
SeisSpace Project.

Select a datast from the database
Appears if Database to Source of Dataset. Select a dataset or
add a new dataset name to the existing list of dataset files. To
create a new dataset, use the MB3-->New Dataset pop-up or
select the New Document icon from the toolbar to enter a new
dataset name of up to 30 characters.

Path to the output dataset (in a valid VFS)
Appears if File to Source of Dataset. Use the browse icon to
get a list of existing datasets or type in a new name. (This option
would rarely be used.)

Number of bytes per sample
Select the number of bytes per sample to use when writing the
output data:

1 - write data with 8 bit compression

2 - write data with 16 bit compression

4 - write data in full 32 bit, uncompressed format

21SeisSpace Reference

Use distributed I/O

Yes will have cause each joblet to write its own data to
disk. This is the preferred method.

No will pass all the data back to the foreman exec for
output. This option can cause significant decrease in flow
throughput and extra load on the foreman node but might
be necessary for networks with poor bandwidth or
designated I/O nodes connected to disk storage.

Number of ensembles per file extent
Use 0 to get the default of 32 megabyte file extents. Some
increase in throughput in I/O-intensive flows can be gained by
increasing the size of dataset extents, but the effect is minimal
for most processing flows. SeisSpace does not open all file
extents concurrently, so there is no penalty for having many
extents in a dataset. Many small extents may actually improve
even distribution over many compute nodes for subsequent
dataset reads.

22SeisSpace Reference

Synthetic Trace Generation
Synthetic Trace Generation generates synthetic seismic traces
to use for testing other processing tools. Events can be
generated for either CDP or SOURCE gather types. These
events can each have a given amplitude, wavelet, moveout type,
velocity, time, and dip. Each event will have a constant wavelet
type and amplitude for all offsets. Different wavelets can be
used on different events.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
There are no required headers.

Output
Output Headers
AMP_NORM, AOFFSET, CDP or SOURCE, CHAN,
LEN_SURG, NA_STAT, OFFSET, SKEWSTAT, TFULL_E,
TFULL_S, TLIVE_E, TLIVE_S, TOT_STAT, TRC_TYPE, and
TR_FOLD

WorkFlow
You create a parameter set for each event by describing
amplitude, wavelet, moveout type, velocity, time, and dip. Each
event has a constant wavelet type and amplitude for all offsets.

23SeisSpace Reference

Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
Ensemble type
Select either CDP or SOURCE, depending on the type of
ensemble desired.

Number of ensembles to generate
Enter the number of ensembles desired. If this tool is run in a
parallel flow, ensembles will be generated on each node, and
this parameter specifies the total number of ensembles to be
created. The foreman node is responsible for numbering the
ensembles. Depending on the load on each node, the number of
ensembles generated may vary greatly from node to node.

Sample rate of output data (ms)
Enter the time interval in ms between successive data time
samples. This value must be greater than zero.

Time of first sample of output traces (ms)
Enter the time in milliseconds of the first data sample. This
value is usually zero, but may be either a positive or negative
value to simulate the datuming of real data.

Time of last sample of output traces (ms)
Enter the time in milliseconds of the last data sample. If the
maximum time of the data is to be one second, enter 1000.0.
The number of samples on a trace is calculated as:
Number of samples = 1 + (last_sample_time –
first_sample_time)/sample_rate

Number of output traces (offsets)
Enter the number of traces to generate per ensemble. Each
output trace will have a different offset and channel number.

24SeisSpace Reference

Initial trace offset (m or ft)
Enter the initial trace offset in meters or feet. This will be the
offset of channel number 1.

Offset increment (m or ft)
Enter offset increment in meters or feet between output traces.
This will be the difference in offset between channels 1 and 2.

Events
Select ‘Show’ to parameterize the events for each output
ensemble.
Select the type of wavelet for an event to be added. Options are:




Ricker – a Ricker wavelet with a specified dominant
frequency will be used for this event
Bandpass – a bandpass filter with a flat passband over a
range of frequencies
Spike – a spike will be added to the nearest sample value
Sinc – a sinc function (sine(x)/x) will be used as the
wavelet
Sinewave – a single frequency sinusoid will be generated
as the wavelet

Bandpass parameters

Event time at zero offset (ms)
Enter the time of the event at zero offset. At larger offsets the
time will differ depending on the offset, velocity, and dip of the
event.

Moveout type of the event
Select the type of moveout, either Hyperbolic or Linear.

Moveout velocity of the event
Enter the moveout velocity in feet or meters per second.

25SeisSpace Reference

Dip of the event (degrees)
If the ensemble type is CDP, the offset is multiplied by the
cosine of the dip when computing the offset time.
If the ensemble type is SOURCE, the offset time is computed
using Dobrin’s method.

Peak amplitude of the event
The peak amplitude is measured before the wavelet is sampled.
If a sample falls on the peak, this will be the amplitude of that
sample.

Wavelet duration (ms)
The duration of the wavelet will be the specified number of
milliseconds around the center of the wavelet.

Minimum frequency (hz)
The minimum frequency of the passband of the wavelet.

Maximum frequency (hz)
The maximum frequency of the passband of the wavelet.

Length of ramp (hz)
The length of the frequency ramp from the passband to the
stopband of the wavelet filter.

Ricker parameters

Event time at zero offset (ms)
Enter the time of the event at zero offset. At larger offsets the
time will differ depending on the offset, velocity, and dip of the
event.

26SeisSpace Reference

Moveout type of the event
Select the type of moveout, either Hyperbolic or Linear.

Moveout velocity of the event
Enter the moveout velocity in feet or meters per second.

Dip of the event (degrees)
If the ensemble type is CDP, the offset is multiplied by the
cosine of the dip when computing the offset time.
If the ensemble type is SOURCE, the offset time is computed
using Dobrin’s method.

Peak amplitude of the event
The peak amplitude is measured before the wavelet is sampled.
If a sample falls on the peak, this will be the amplitude of that
sample.

Wavelet duration (ms)
The duration of the wavelet will be the specified number of
milliseconds around the center of the wavelet.

Peak frequency (hz)
The dominant frequency of the Ricker wavelet.

Spike parameters

Event time at zero offset (ms)
Enter the time of the event at zero offset. At larger offsets the
time will differ depending on the offset, velocity, and dip of the
event.

Moveout type of the event
Select the type of moveout, either Hyperbolic or Linear.

27SeisSpace Reference

Moveout velocity of the event
Enter the moveout velocity in feet or meters per second.

Dip of the event (degrees)
If the ensemble type is CDP, the offset is multiplied by the
cosine of the dip when computing the offset time.
If the ensemble type is SOURCE, the offset time is computed
using Dobrin’s method.

Peak amplitude of the event
The amplitude of the spike which is placed at the nearest
sample to the computed offset time. All spikes will have this
amplitude and there will be no interpolation over time.

Sinc parameters

Event time at zero offset (ms)
Enter the time of the event at zero offset. At larger offsets the
time will differ depending on the offset, velocity, and dip of the
event.

Moveout type of the event
Select the type of moveout, either Hyperbolic or Linear.

Moveout velocity of the event
Enter the moveout velocity in feet or meters per second.

Dip of the event (degrees)
If the ensemble type is CDP, the offset is multiplied by the
cosine of the dip when computing the offset time.
If the ensemble type is SOURCE, the offset time is computed
using Dobrin’s method.

28SeisSpace Reference

Peak amplitude of the event
The peak amplitude is measured before the wavelet is sampled.
If a sample falls on the peak, this will be the amplitude of that
sample.

Sine wave parameters

Peak amplitude of the sine wave
The peak amplitude is measured before the wavelet is sampled.
If a sample falls on the peak, this will be the amplitude of that
sample.

Phase of the sine wave (degrees)
The degrees of phase shift of the sine wave. A sine wave with
zero phase will have zero amplitude at zero time. A sine wave
with a 90 degree phase shift will have its peak amplitude at zero
time.

Frequency of the sine wave (hz)
The constant frequency of the sine wave.

Theory
This module generates Spike, Ricker, Bandpass, Sinc Function
wavelets. Each wavelet type requires a different specification,
dependent on the number of frequency values needed to define
the wavelet.
The Ricker wavelet is defined by a single frequency. If you
know the frequency, you can compute the width of a wavelet in
the time domain.

29SeisSpace Reference

Headers

30SeisSpace Reference

Specify CDP Bin Grid
Specify CDP Bin Grid is used to define a coordinate space for
operations like 3D Kirchhoff Prestack Time Migration which
require one. This XY -to- Inline/Crossline mapping can be
imported from an associated ProMAX LIN database.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Since SeisSpace has no geometry database, like ProMAX,
Specify CDP Bin Grid is used to define the coordinate-toheader mapping required by other processes in the flow. The
most common use for this tool is in defining the CDP Bin Grid
onto which 3D Kirchhoff Prestack Time Migration will migrate.
Though the grid defined can be used in a more global sense,
parameters are documented here for this specific workflow.
The CDP Bin parameters can be initialized by reading them
from a ProMAX LIN database. Select "Properties" on the
SeisSpace project to set or verify the associated ProMAX
Area/Line.

31SeisSpace Reference

Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
Initialize the grid with the default PrOMAX geometry?
Select Yes or No. Selecting Yes will cause SeisSpace to query
the ProMAX LIN database and set the grid parameters
according to the existing geometry.

PRIMARY header key for stack grid
Select a primary header to define the grid. Use the default of 3D
inline number (ILINE_NO) for a 3D Prestack Time Migration
flow.

Minimum PRIMARY key for grid
Enter the minimum primary header value for the grid, i.e.
minimum ILINE_NO.

Maximum PRIMARY key for grid
Enter the maximum primary header value for the grid, i.e.
maximum ILINE_NO.

SECONDARY header key for stack grid
Select a secondary header to define the grid. Use the default of
3D crossline number (XLINE_NO) for a 3D Prestack Time
Migration flow.

Minimum SECONDARY key for grid
Enter the minimum secondary header value for the grid, i.e.
minimum XLINE_NO.

Maximum SECONDARY key for grid
Enter the maximum secondary header value for the grid, i.e.
maximum XLINE_NO.

32SeisSpace Reference

Coordinate measurement units
Choose between unknown, feet and meters.

X-coordinate of grid origin
Enter the X-coordinate of the location with the minimum
PRIMARY and SECONDARY header key values.

Y-coordinate of grid origin
Enter the Y-coordinate of the location with the minimum
PRIMARY and SECONDARY header key values.

X-coordinate of end of first ILINE_NO
Enter the X-coordinate of the location with the minimum
PRIMARY and maximum SECONDARY header key values.

Y-coordinate of end of first ILINE_NO
Enter the Y-coordinate of the location with the minimum
PRIMARY and maximum SECONDARY header key values.

X-coordinate of end of first XLINE_NO
Enter the X-coordinate of the location with the maximum
PRIMARY and minimum SECONDARY header key values.

Y-coordinate of end of first XLINE_NO
Enter the X-coordinate of the location with the maximum
PRIMARY and minimum SECONDARY header key values.

Theory

33SeisSpace Reference

Header Math
Header Math is used to create or modify a header word using a
user-specified equation.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Header entries are created or modified by a mathematical
function using existing header entries and constants. Only one
new trace header can be created per process, but multiple
existing headers can be modified with semi-colon-separated
equations in a single instance of the tool.
The manner in which a value is entered in the menu can
determine the output format of a new trace header. For example,
C = 0 is assumed to be an integer, whereas C = 0.0 is assumed
to be floating point.
Caution: You cannot change the format of existing header
words from integer to real, or real to integer.

34SeisSpace Reference

Legal characters for header entries
A through Z, a through z, 0 through 9 and _ (underscore). A
header entry name cannot have more than 8 characters.

Precedence Levels
The precedence levels are ordered from lowest to highest and
are as follows:






=
Binary + or * or /
^ or ** (exponentiation)
FUNCTION(X) or FUNCTION(X,Y)
Unary + or ( ), Literals, Variables

Everything is left to right associative. Case of expressions does
not matter.

Functions
The following math functions are used in writing equations:










REAL(X), FLOAT(X) returns the real value of argument
X.
INT(X) returns the integer value of argument X.
NINT(X) returns the nearest integer value of argument X.
RINT(X) returns the real number equivalent of the closest
integer to X.
ROUND(X) returns the nearest integer value of X,
retaining the type of X.
CEIL(X) returns the equivalent type of the next integer
larger than X (closer to positive infinity).
FLOOR(X) returns the equivalent type of the next integer
smaller than X (closer to negative infinity).
ABS(X) returns the absolute value of argument X.
URAND(X) returns a uniform random real number in
[0,1). If X is nonzero, it is the starting seed for the random
number generator, otherwise the time of day clock is used
to initialize the generator.
MAX(X,Y) returns the algebraically larger of X and Y.
MIN(X,Y) returns the algebraically smaller of X and Y.
MOD(X,Y) returns the remainder of X/Y.

35SeisSpace Reference

















EXP(X) returns the value of e to the Xth power.
SQRT(X) returns the square root of X.
LOG(X) returns the natural logarithm of X.
LOG10(X) returns the base 10 logarithm of X.
POW(X,Y) returns X to the power of Y.
SIN(X),SINE(X) returns the sine of X radians.
COS(X),COSINE(X) returns the cosine of X radians.
TAN(X) returns the tangent of X radians.
SINH(X) returns the hyperbolic sine of X.
COSH(X) returns the hyperbolic cosine of X.
TANH(X) returns the hyperbolic tangent of X.
ASIN(X) returns the arcsine of X.
ACOS(X) returns the arccosine of X.
ATAN(X) returns the arctangent of X.
ATAN2(X,Y) returns the arctangent of X/Y.
TO_RADIANS(X) converts X degrees to radians.
TO_DEGREES(X) converts X radians to degrees.

All trigonometric functions take arguments in radians. Types
are preserved when possible. All real numbers use double
precision (64 bits), and all integers use long precision (64 bits).
The following are examples of valid calls to functions:
A = MOD(X,Y)
The following are illegal calls to functions:
A = MOD(X Y)
A = MOD X,Y
The usual format of a header math equation is:






C=A/B
C = A**B
C = REAL (CHAN)
C = -C
C = NINT(10.0 * (COS(B)**2.0+SINE(A)**2.0))
C = FLOAT(MAX (B,C)) + SQRT(A**2.0+B**2.0)
C = SQRT(C) + B**C + A

Where A and B are either existing header entries or scalars. C is
an existing header word, but its type (REAL4 or INTEGER4)
must match its defining expression. If C does not exist and it has

36SeisSpace Reference

been designated as a new header word, it is created with the
appropriate type, and its description is the defining equation.

Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
Adding a new header word?
Select Yes to create a new header word. Select No to modify an
existing header word.

Name of trace header
Select from list of header words or enter new user-defined
header.

Equation
Enter a function to overwrite an old header or create a new one
in the following format:
NEW_ELEV = REC_ELEV + 100.0
FFID = FFID - 900
OFFSET = (CHAN-60.0)* 110.0
AOFFSET = ABS(OFFSET)

If you are adding a new header and have selected it in the menu,
then typing the right side of the equation and hitting Enter will
complete the expression.
Multiple equations which modify existing headers may be
entered together, delmited by semi-colons.
ILINE_NO=1+INT(CDP/450) ; XLINE_NO=CDP-((ILINE_NO1)*450)

Syntax errors which the menu can detect will be reported in the
equation field. When the flow runs, headers created in Header
Math, but not defined as new, will generate a warning and not
be saved in the output trace header. See the Workflow section

37SeisSpace Reference

for more information on legal characters and mathematical
functions.

Theory

38SeisSpace Reference

Header Scan
Header Scan lists values of the selected trace header at userspecified frequency at the point it is inserted in the processing
flow.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
WorkFlow
Insert Header Scan into flow to display header values.

Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
Name of trace header
Select from list of header words or enter new user-defined
header.

Frequency of trace header printout
Select from:

39SeisSpace Reference

Dataset - prints a summary of the selected Trace Header
over the entire dataset, including minimum, maximum and
average values.

Ensemble - in addition to the Dataset summary, prints a
line for each ensemble, annotated by primary key value,
with minimum, maximum and average of the selected
Header and the number of live, dead and pad traces
encountered.

Trace - in addition to the Dataset and Ensemble
summaries, prints a line with the selected Header value for
each trace, annotated by primary and secondary keys.

Print a histogram of trace header values
Select Yes or No for a summary histogram display of the
selected header value over the entire dataset.

Theory

40SeisSpace Reference

Amplitude

41SeisSpace Reference

Automatic Gain Control
Automatic Gain Control automatically varies the gain applied
to trace samples as a function of sample amplitude within an
AGC time window.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
There are four modes of application:


Apply derives and applies AGC scalars.
Apply and Save applies and saves scalars in the trace
headers for later inverse scaling.
Remove AGC removes AGC by inverse scaling the trace
using scalars derived and saved either in the flow or from a
previous run.
Output Scalar Traces outputs scalar traces.

The success of multi-channel filters, such as F-K and Radon,
often depends upon the data being well balanced. AGC is a
simple, effective method to achieve this scaling, but results in
the loss of true amplitudes. AGC removal allows you to nearly
restore the original amplitude profile after filtering.

42SeisSpace Reference

After AGC removal the trace header scalars are deleted. If
scalars are saved in the trace headers, they should be removed in
the same flow to reduce the storage requirement upon output.

Tips and Recommendations
To prevent harsh scaling of very weak or anomalously strong
zones the AGC gain can be limited to a specified factor of the
median gain.

Parameters
Application mode
Select one of the gain application modes:



Apply applies AGC scalars only.
Apply and Save applies AGC scalars and save in trace
headers.
Remove AGC removes AGC scalar stored in headers from
an earlier AGC. (No other parameters are necessary.)
Output Scalar Traces outputs scalar values as traces.

Type of AGC scalar
The three options for the AGC scalar type are:


Mean bases the AGC scalar on the mean of the absolute
values of the samples in the sliding time gate.
RMS bases the AGC scalar on the root mean square of the
sample values in the sliding time gate.
Median bases the scalar on the median absolute sample
value in the window.

AGC operator length
Enter the Automatic Gain Control operator length in ms.

BASIS for scalar application
The choices for applying computed gain are:

43SeisSpace Reference



Centered uses the middle sample in each sliding gate.
Trailing uses the first sample in each sliding gate.
Leading uses the last sample in each sliding gate.

Include/Exclude hard zeroes?
Select Exclude, the default, to exclude hard zeroes, which
normally result from trace muting operations, such as first break
mutes. Select Include to include zeroes as valid samples in
AGC scalar computations.

Robust scaling?
Select Yes to limit the AGC gain curve to be within a specified
factor of the median gain applied to the entire trace.

Theory
The AGC operator length defines the length of the AGC
window used for gain computations. The AGC program moves
the window down the trace sample-by-sample and calculates a
scale factor at each location. The scale factor is equal to the
inverse of the mean, median, or RMS amplitude in the window.
The scalar is applied to the sample at the beginning, center, or
end of the AGC window.
At the start and end of the trace, where there is less data in the
window than the operator length requested, the window will be
made as long as possible. Therefore, the window will grow at
the start of the trace until it reaches the full operator length, and
will remain constant until it reaches the end of the data, where it
will shrink to a progressively smaller value.

44SeisSpace Reference

Amplitude Scanning
Amplitude Scanning finds the largest amplitude, the smallest
amplitude, the RMS amplitude, and other statistics within trace
samples and prints the requested information into the flow
output listing at the user-specified frequency.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
All values from Amplitude Scanning are written to the job
logfile, and can be examined within the Job Viewer window.
You may also choose to generate an amplitude histogram to
make it easier to interpret the results. For example:

| Key Name : Key Value :
:
Dead
:
Null
| SIN
:
261
1.176969e+05
1
| SIN
:
261
3.793133e+05
1
| SIN
:
261
7.400466e+04
1
| SIN
:
306
5.845800e+04
0

RMS Ampl

:

MIN Ampl

:

MAX Ampl

:

MIN Abs

:

MAX Abs

3.691641e+03
0
5.741071e+03
0
1.060028e+03
0
1.757186e+03
0

-1.176969e+05

1.046578e+05

0.000000e-01

-3.793133e+05

3.089171e+05

0.000000e-01

-7.235325e+04

7.400466e+04

0.000000e-01

-5.845800e+04

5.793526e+04

0.000000e-01

45SeisSpace Reference

| SIN
:
306 6.584536e+03 -1.657213e+05 1.633536e+05 0.000000e-01
1.657213e+05
0
0
| SIN
:
306 8.188586e+02 -2.775662e+04 2.465278e+04 0.000000e-01
2.775662e+04
0
0
| SIN
:
1031 1.397879e+03 -5.516353e+04 4.126704e+04 0.000000e-01
5.516353e+04
5
0
| AmpScanTool: Full Dataset: 10104 traces
|
RMS Ampl :
MIN Ampl :
MAX Ampl :
MIN Abs :
MAX Abs
:
Dead
:
Null
| 4.162651e+03 -4.997425e+05 6.850422e+05 0.000000e-01 6.850422e+05
18
0
| Log Histogram of amplitude distribution
| Bin Center :
Number
: Graph
| 0.000000e-01
226405 *****************************************************
| 7.629395e-06
2
| 7.812500e-03
2945
| 1.562500e-02
5905 *
| 3.125000e-02
12060 **
| 6.250000e-02
23918 *****
| 1.250000e-01
46345 **********
| 2.500000e-01
83317 *******************
| 5.000000e-01
131305 ******************************
| 1.600000e+01
208819 *************************************************
| 5.120000e+02
221618 ****************************************************
| 1.024000e+03
170590 ****************************************
| 2.048000e+03
115589 ***************************
| 4.096000e+03
70024 ****************
| 8.192000e+03
35889 ********
| 1.638400e+04
15472 ***
| 3.276800e+04
6047 *
| 2.621440e+05
203
| 5.242880e+05
9

Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
Frequency of trace amplitude printout
Choose from Trace, Ensemble or Dataset.

Put trace maximum value in trace header
Choose Yes to create header MAX_AMPL or No.

Put trace RMS value in trace header
Choose Yes to create header RMS_AMPL or No.

46SeisSpace Reference

Print a histogram of trace amplitudes
Choose Yes to display a summary histogram or No.

Store a sample amplitude in the trace header
Choose Yes to create header AMPLxxxx or No.

Time of the selected sample (ms)
This appears if Yes to Store a sample .... Specify the time in
milliseconds at which to extract the nearest sample amplitude.
e.g. requesting 700 will store the value at 704 ms as AMPL700
if the data is sampled at 8 ms.

Gate length around the selected sample (ms)
This appears if Yes to Store a sample .... Set to 0.0 to report the
actual sample value or specify a non-zero length window over
which to calculate an RMS amplitude.

Apply an amplitude threshold
Choose eithe Yes or No. Default setting is No. If Yes,values
greater than the threshold will be set to the threshold value.

Amplitude threshold value
This appears if Yes to Apply an amplitude threshold. Specify
the amplitude above which all trace amplitudes will be set to
this value.

Theory

47SeisSpace Reference

Bandpass Filter
Bandpass Filter applies a frequency filter(s) to each input
trace.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Each filter is specified by a set of four integers separated by
dashes. The numbers sequentially represent the 0% and 100%
points of the low-cut ramp, and the 100% and 0% points of the
high-cut ramp in Hz for the Ormsby filter, and -3dB low
frequency - low slope - -3dB high frequency -high slope for the
Butterworth filter. The ramps for the Ormsby filter are formed
by cosine tapers (Hanning windows) in the frequency domain.
The Butterworth ramps are formed by:

1
----------------------------------------2P
F
1 +  ----------------
 FMID
where FMID is the center frequency of the pass band and P is
computed for the lower and upper slopes to get the correct
dB/octave rolloff.

48SeisSpace Reference

You can specify the percent of the input trace to pad with zeroes
for FFT considerations.
A notch filter can be applied in addition to the bandpass filter.
You can control the center frequency and width of the notch.
The notch filter can also be centered at the maximum spectral
amplitude within a specified frequency range by using the
automatic notch frequency search option.

Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
TYPE of filter
Select the type of filter to apply to input data from the following
choices:

Single Filter applies a single bandpass filter, specified as
four corner frequency values.
Time and Space-Variant Filter applies time and space
variant filters in space variant time windows.

Type of filter specification
Select the type of filter from:

Ormsby bandpass specifies filters using four frequencies.
Butterworth bandpass specifies filters using (F1db/Octave1) - (F2-db/Octave 2).

PHASE of filter
Select the phase of your bandpass filter(s) from: Zero or
Minimum.

Domain for filter application
This appears if Single Filter to Type of filter. Select either
Frequency or Time domain filter application.

49SeisSpace Reference

Tapered filter length in ms
This appears if Time to Domain of filter application. Enter a
Hanning taper length in ms. Accepted values are between 201000 ms. The resulting time domain filter will not have the
same rejection as those applied in the frequency domain unless
the filter length is quite long, such as 300-600 ms. However, a
modest 160 ms filter is often accurate enough for most prestack
applications and may be considerably faster on some machines.
Beyond performance issues, a truncated time domain filter can
be desirable due to its limited temporal effects. For example,
large amplitude events or noise bursts can only affect the trace a
half filter length above and below the offensive sample.

Percent zero padding for FFTs
This appears if Frequency to Domain of filter application.
Enter the percentage of the input trace length to pad with zeroes
to avoid wrap-around effects of circular FFTs.

Apply a notch filter?
Select Yes to apply a notch filter to all input traces. A notch
filter may be applied at virtually any frequency.

Notch filter frequency
This appears if Yes to Apply a notch filter. Enter the center
frequency of the notch filter to apply in Hz.
Example: 60.0

Width of notch filter
This appears if Yes to Apply a notch filter. Enter the width of
the notch filter to be applied, in Hz. A notch filter at 60 Hz with
a width of 2 Hz will provide a 59 - 61 Hz notch, with
exponential edge tapers. A wider filter will produce more
attenuation at the central frequency than a narrower filter.

50SeisSpace Reference

Automatic notch frequency search?
This appears if Yes to Apply a notch filter. Select Yes to center
the notch at the maximum spectral amplitude.

Maximum notch frequency variation
This appears if Yes to Automatic notch frequency search.
Enter the maximum notch frequency variation. This is the
frequency range on either side of the specified notch frequency
which will be searched for the spectral maximum. A value of
3.0 based on a 50 Hz notch will center the notch on the
maximum spectral magnitude found between 47 and 53 Hz.

Ormsby filter frequency values
This appears if Single Filter to Type of filter and Ormsby
bandpass to Type of filter specification. Enter a set of four
Ormsby corner frequencies separated by dashes. The values
may be integers or real numbers. They represent sequentially
the 0% and 100% points of the low-cut ramp, and the 100% and
0% points of the high-cut ramp, in Hz. These ramps are formed
by Hanning (cosine) tapers in the frequency domain.
For example, the entry
0-0-40-60

creates a 20 Hz wide high-cut ramp. For high-cut filters the first
two frequencies are set to zero. And similarly, for low-cut filters
the third and forth frequencies are set to Nyquist.
The entry
5-10-Nyq- Nyq

creates a 5 Hz wide low-cut ramp.

Butterworth filter freq-slope values
This appears if Single Filter to Type of filter and Butterworth
bandpass to Type of filter specification. Enter a set of freq slope - freq - slope values separated by dashes, where frequency

51SeisSpace Reference

values represent the -3dB points of the amplitude spectrum. For
example, the entry
10-18-40-36 /

creates a 10 to 40 Hz pass-band filter with an 18 dB/octave low
roll-off and a 36 dB/octave high roll-off. The 10 and 40 Hz
value correspond to the -3 dB points of the filter.

Space-variant filter parameters
This appears if Time and Space-Variant Filter to TYPE of
filter. Enter each time gate value. The editor window contains
both the generic format for value entry, and an example. If you
are using a time gate parameter file, then the primary and
secondary location keys must be the same as the data sort order
when the parameter file was created. If no header word values
are specified, either a 1: or a 1:1: is automatically inserted for
header word values.

Ormsby bandpass
For a single time-invariant filter, only a single filter should
be entered. For example, the entry
6-10-40-60/

creates a 10 to 40 Hz pass-band filter with a 4 Hz wide low-cut
ramp and a 20 Hz wide high-cut ramp.
Multiple frequency bandpass filter specifications are separated
by commas. For example, the entry
5-10-40-60,8-12-80-120/

creates two Ormsby filters, the first with a 10 to 40 Hz passband with a 5 Hz wide low-cut ramp and a 20 Hz wide high-cut
ramp. The second filter will be a 12 to 80 Hz pass-band with a 4
Hz wide low-cut ramp and a 40 Hz wide high-cut ramp.

Butterworth bandpass
The entry
10-18-40-36,12-24-80-72/

52SeisSpace Reference

creates two Butterworth frequency bandpass filters, the first
with a 10 to 40 Hz pass-band with a 18 db/octave low-cut rolloff and a 36 db/octave high-cut roll-off. The second filter will
be a 12 to 80 Hz pass-band with a 24 db/octave low roll-off and
a 72 db/octave high roll-off.
Note: The number of filters and time gates must match exactly.
The compute time for applying a time and/or space-variant
filter is considerably longer than for a simple bandpass filter.

Source of time gate
This appears if Time and Space-Variant to Type of filter.
Select Database if you interactively created a parameter file
containing spatially varying time gates. Enter TypeIn to enter a
single time-invariant bandpass filter, or a spatially varying
bandpass filter from the keyboard. Select File, if you wish to
use a time gate saved in a file.

SELECT time gate parameter file
This appears if Database or File to Source of time gate. Select
a filter time gate parameter file from the database or from the
file system.

SELECT Primary time gate header word
This appears if TypeIn to Source of time gate. Select a header
word to use as the primary key for specifying time gate values.
Time gates can be specified without a primary header word
selection.

SELECT Secondary time gate header word
This appears if TypeIn to Source of time gate. Select another
header word to use as the secondary header word key for
specifying time gate values. A secondary header word selection
is not required.

SPECIFY filter time gate parameters
This appears if TypeIn to Source of time gate. Enter values for
the primary header word, the secondary header word, and the

53SeisSpace Reference

time gate(s) for a time- variant filter, each value separated from
the previous one by a colon. The editor window contains both
the generic format for value entry and examples. For example:
Primary header word:
Source(1):
1:

Secondary header word:
Aoffset(1):
0:

Time gate/
Time gate(1)/
700-2000/

Source(1):
1:

Aoffset(2):
5280:

Time gate(2)/
1200-2200/

You can define multiple time gates per primary:secondary
header word location by separating them with commas. You
may define additional time gate location changes by specifying
more Source or CDP values farther along your dataset, with
corresponding secondary values and time gates.
Examples:
1:10560:1500-2400/
1:0:700-2000,2500-4000/
20:0.0:800-2100/20:2640:1200-2400/20:5280:1500-2500/

Design windows are interpolated between locations and
extrapolated as constant outside specified location ranges. If no
primary location key is specified, then one set of windows is
used for the entire dataset, and only time ranges are entered.
A wildcard character * is supported for entire trace time
window specification. For example:
CDP:Time gate/
101:0-4000/ is the same as 101:*/

where 4000 ms is equal to the trace length.

Re-apply trace mute after filter?
Select Yes to reapply a trace mute to your data after filtering.
Select No to leave the data as output. You will probably want to
reapply mutes after filtering stacked data.

54SeisSpace Reference

Theory
The filter algorithm operates in the frequency domain. You can
specify one or more sets of bandpass filter frequencies, and a set
of notch filter parameters. Filters are four-frequency Ormsby or
Butterworth, and can be zero phase or minimum phase.
This process allows you to perform three types of bandpass
filtering:

Single bandpass filter applies a single filter to all traces at
all times. This filter is input via the keyboard. Only the four
corner frequencies need be specified for the Ormsby filter
or only one group of (freq-slope-freq-slope) for the
Butterworth filter.
Time variant filter allows you to specify a time-varying
filter, which is then applied to all traces. This filter is input
via the keyboard. The first filter is applied from the
beginning of the trace to the end of the first window, then
with decreasing linear taper to the beginning of the second
window. The second filter is applied with increasing linear
taper from the end of the first window to the beginning of
the second window, and so on. The last filter is then held
constant through the last window to the end of the record.
Filter windows may overlap.
Time and spatially variant filter applies a series of time
varying filters that vary along the seismic line.

55SeisSpace Reference

Trace Length
Trace Length is used to shorten or lengthen traces.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
This process allows the user to specify new start and/or end
times for traces. It will truncate or pad the trace with zeros, as
appropriate.
Not processing and storing samples above or below the zone of
interest can save on both compute time and disk storage.
SeisSpace tools use information stored in the data context to
honor delayed start time. However, since ProMAX does not
have this ability, be sure to return the trace start time to zero
before writing a dataset to be used in ProMAX.

56SeisSpace Reference

Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
New time of first sample of output trace (ms)
Enter the revised output trace start time in ms. The trace is
truncated if shortened or padded with zeros if lengthened. Must
be less than New time of last sample.
The new start time will be saved in the SeisSpace dataset
context and honored by other SeisSpace processing tools.

New time of last sample of output trace (ms)
Enter the revised output trace length in ms. The trace is
truncated if shortened or padded with zeros if lengthened. Must
be greater than New time of first sample.

Theory

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Threshold Amplitudes
Threshold Amplitudes allows limiting of trace amplitude
between specified maximum and minimum threshold
amplitude.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Parameters
Set a MINIMUM threshold?
Select Yes to set a minimum threshold value. Select No if you
do not want to alter data samples based on a minimum threshold
value.

MINIMUM threshold value
This appears if Yes to Set a Minimum threshold. Enter a
sample amplitude value as a threshold. Samples with amplitude
less than this value are set to the Minimum replacement value.

58SeisSpace Reference

MINIMUM replacement value
This appears if Yes to Set a Minimum threshold. Enter a
sample amplitude value to replace sample amplitudes that are
less than the Minimum threshold value.

Set a MAXIMUM threshold?
Select Yes to set a maximum threshold value. Select No if you
do not want to alter data samples based on a maximum
threshold value.

MAXIMUM threshold value
This appears if Yes to Set a Maximum threshold. Enter a
sample amplitude value as a threshold. Samples with amplitude
greater than this value will be set to a Maximum replacement
value.

MAXIMUM replacement value
This appears if Yes to Set a Maximum threshold. Enter a
sample amplitude value to replace sample amplitudes that are
greater than the Maximum threshold value.

Theory
The menu presents an option to independently set minimum and
maximum threshold values. If a trace sample exceeds the
maximum threshold value set in the menu, that amplitude will
be replaced by a value specified in the menu. Similarly, a
minimum threshold value can be set. If a trace sample
amplitude is less than the minimum threshold, then it is
replaced by a value specified in the menu.

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Display

60SeisSpace Reference

Trace Display
Trace Display is a general purpose tool for displaying and
interacting with prestack and poststack seismic data.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
Traces can be specified by:

FFID (File No.) bases input records on SEGY field file
number. Used primarily for shot gathers.

CDP bases input traces on their common depth point
number. Used primarily for CDP gathers.

Source Index No. bases input records on the sequential
source number within the tape. To be used primarily for
shot gathers.

Channel bases input traces on their trace, or channel
number.

Receiver bases input traces on their receiver surface
location number. Used primarily for receiver gathers.

Line trc. seq. no. bases input traces on their ProMAX
sequential trace number within the line.

Trc. seq. no. bases input traces on their ProMAX
sequential trace number within the tape.

SEQ_DISK, trace sequence number from disk, is created by
Disk Data Input. It cannot be used as an input sort key until data
has been read with DDI, written to disk with DDO, and then
reread with DDI.

61SeisSpace Reference

Required Format
The SEG-Y binary header can be in one of the following
formats:

IBM Real is 4-byte IBM Floating Point SEG-Y.

4 byte Integer is 4-byte Integer SEG-Y.

IEEE Real is 4-byte IEEE Floating Point SEG-Y (nonstandard).

2 byte Integer is 2-byte Integer SEG-Y.

4 byte w/Gain is 4-byte SEG-Y Fixed Point with Gain
Code.

2 byte float is 2-byte floating point SEG-Y (non-standard).

1 byte Integer is 1-byte Integer SEGY-Y (non-standard).

Output
The output is a display of your data.

WorkFlow
Disk Data Input or SEGY Input or Synthetic Trace Generation
Trace Display

Tips and Recommendations
The use of high (2D) compression will result in some distortion
of the input data. This distortion can include live amplitudes in
zones which were previously zeroed. This will have the visual
effect of a 2D filter without remuting of the data in the original
mute zone.

62SeisSpace Reference

Parameters
Start the viewer automatically
Select Yes to automatically start the viewer. Select No to
independently start the viewer.

Broadcast access by same user only
Select Yes for only one user to have broadcast access. Select No
to allow access to any user at the site. Be careful if you select
No because another user can gain access to your jobs and
accidently kill them while they are running.

Add frames automatically to the movie
Select Yes to automatically add frames to the movie.

Compression level
Select the compression level from the following choices:

None (4 bytes/sample) is no compression, full fidelity

Low (2 bytes/sample) is a good default for most data.

Medium (1 byte/sample) is good for some data.

High (2D) is good with low bandwidth (ISDN, DSL).

Number of ensembles per screen
Enter the number of ensembles per screen. The default is 1.

Backup Screen Size
Enter the number of screens you can backup from the current
screen. The default is 3.

63SeisSpace Reference

Gap between ensembles
Enter the number of pixels between ensembles.The default is
10.

Color file
Click the folder icon to display the Select Color file window.

Trace Display Options
Click the Modify... to display the Trace Display Options
window. In this window, you can adjust the Scaling,
Interpolation, Display, and Normalization viewing options.

Theory
This interactive process displays on screen gray scale, color,
wiggle trace, variable density plots. Wiggle trace can also be
overlain on variable density plots. You can zoom and pan the
data display, view trace headers, and pick horizons, mutes,
gates, and first breaks. The pick data can be written to
parameter files for later use in processing. Many of the display
parameters can be altered while the data is displayed without rerunning the display flow.
Trace Display has an integrated neural net first break picker
which can be created and trained interactively. While the neural
net picker runs, you may QC and, if necessary, retrain the neural
net.

64SeisSpace Reference

Trace Display Label
Trace Display Label creates a display label for the data.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
IInput Requirements
Required Headers
Traces can be specified by:

FFID (File No.) bases input records on SEGY field file
number. Used primarily for shot gathers.

CDP bases input traces on their common depth point
number. Used primarily for CDP gathers.

Source Index No. bases input records on the sequential
source number within the tape. To be used primarily for
shot gathers.

Channel bases input traces on their trace, or channel
number.

Receiver bases input traces on their receiver surface
location number. Used primarily for receiver gathers.

Line trc. seq. no. bases input traces on their ProMAX
sequential trace number within the line.

Trc. seq. no. bases input traces on their ProMAX
sequential trace number within the tape.

Output
Output Headers
PARMTEST is created or overwritten if it exists.
Output is a label to display with the data.

65SeisSpace Reference

WorkFlow
Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
Trace label
Enter a label (characters and blanks) for displaying with the
trace data.

Theory
This is the same procedure used in Trace Header Math.

66SeisSpace Reference

Flow Control

67SeisSpace Reference

Else
ELSE takes all traces which were not selected by an IF or
ELSEIF conditional, and applies them with an alternate set of
processes.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
IInput Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions
The trace selection is performed in the preceding IF or ELSEIF
conditions. Any trace which does not meet those conditions
falls through into the ELSE branch of the conditional setup.

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Tips and Recommendations
IF, ELSE and ELSEIF statements can be nested ten deep.
Caution: Using panel tools, such as F-K Filter, within an IF
statement can cause the data to be improperly sorted. To avoid
this problem, add an Inline Sort after the termination of the IF
statement.

68SeisSpace Reference

Parameters
There are no parameters in an ELSE statement. The trace
selection is performed in the preceding IF or ELSEIF
conditions. Any trace which does not meet those conditions
falls through into the ELSE branch of the conditional setup.

Theory
The IF process allows conditional trace processing and flow
branching. Traces which meet the conditions set up in an IF
conditional process can be included in following processes, or
excluded from following processes. The IF trace selection
applies to all processes until terminated by the ELSE statement.
Trace selection is performed in the IF conditional process by
primary and secondary trace header values or ranges. Any trace
which has not been selected by a preceding IF or ELSEIF is
directed through the processes following the ELSE statement,
until an ENDIF statement terminates the trace selection.

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Else If
ELSE IF is used together with the IF process to allow
conditional trace processing and flow branching.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
IInput Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Tips and Recommendations
Any ELSEIF statement should logically be preceded by an IF
statement earlier in the flow. IF and ELSEIF statements can be
nested ten deep.
Caution: Using panel tools, such as F-K Filter, within an IF
statement can cause the data to be improperly sorted. To avoid
this problem, add an Inline Sort after the termination of the IF
statement.

70SeisSpace Reference

Parameters
Trace selection mode
Select whether to Include or Exclude the traces in the list for
following processes.
Select Primary trace header word
Select a header word from the Trace Headers window to use as
the primary key for specifying the ELSEIF conditional values.
If you have used Reproduce Traces for parameter testing, then
you can use Repeated Data Copy Number as the header word
key.

Select Secondary trace header word
Select an optional header word from the Trace Headers window
to use as the secondary header word key for specifying the
ELSEIF conditional values.

Specify trace list
Enter a list of traces to include or exclude or the copy number
from Reproduce Traces.

Theory
Traces which meet the conditions set up in this process can be
included or excluded from following processes. The trace
selection applies to all processes until terminated by another
ELSEIF, an ELSE, or an ENDIF. Trace selection is by any
primary and secondary trace header values or ranges.

71SeisSpace Reference

End If
End If terminates an IF conditional flow.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
IInput Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Tips and Recommendations
IF statements can be nested 10 deep.
Caution: Using panel tools, such as F-K Filter, within an IF
statement can cause the data to be improperly sorted. To avoid
this problem, add an Inline Sort after the termination of the IF
statement.

Parameters
There are no parameters in an ENDIF statement. The trace
selection is performed in the preceding IF or ELSEIF
conditions. Upon reaching the ENDIF, all traces are processed

72SeisSpace Reference

as in a normal flow. In the case where the IF statements are
nested, the ENDIF moves control back up one level.

Theory
This flow can include ELSEIF and ELSE conditional
statements. Upon reaching the ENDIF statement, the
conditional restrictions on traces no longer apply. From the
ENDIF statement onwards, all traces are processed through
tools in the processing flow.

73SeisSpace Reference

End Split
END SPLIT terminates a SPLIT conditional branch.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
IInput Requirements
Required Headers

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Tips and Recommendations
IF and SPLIT statements can be nested 10 deep. Use the Flow
Graph view tab in the Flowbuilder to verify that flow control is
as you intend

Parameters
There are no parameters in an END_SPLIT statement. The trace
selection is performed in the preceding SPLIT conditions. Upon
reaching the END_SPLIT, all traces in the current conditional
branch are destroyed. In the case where the SPLIT statements
are nested, the END_SPLIT moves control backup one level.

Theory

74SeisSpace Reference

If
If allows conditional trace processing and flow branching.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Tips and Recommendations
Trace selection is by any primary and secondary trace header
values or ranges. IF statements can be nested 10 deep.
Caution: Using panel tools, such as F-K Filter, within an IF
statement can cause the data to be improperly sorted. To avoid
this problem, add an Inline Sort after the termination of the IF
statement.

75SeisSpace Reference

Parameters
Trace selection mode
Select whether to Include or Exclude the traces in the list for
following processes.

Select Primary trace header word
Select a header word from the Trace Headers window to use as
the primary key for specifying the IF conditional values. If you
have used Reproduce Traces for parameter testing, then you
can use Repeat Number as the header word key.

Select Secondary trace header word
Select an optional header word from the Trace Headers window
to use as the secondary key for specifying the IF conditional
values.

Specify trace list
Enter a list of traces to include or exclude or the copy number
from Reproduce Traces.

Theory
Traces which meet the conditions set up in this process can be
included or excluded from following processes. The trace
selection applies to all processes until terminated by another
ELSEIF, an ELSE, or an ENDIF. Trace selection is by any
primary and secondary trace header values or ranges.

76SeisSpace Reference

Inline Sort
Inline Sort sorts data based on specified trace header words.
The tool is designed to perform efficient parallel sorts of input
datasets in a network parallel environment.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
Typical headers are SOURCE, CDP, RECEIVER, OFFSET, or
CHAN. However, you can sort on any header.

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Use Inline Sort and an IF, ELSE, ENDIF block (selecting the
primary header word SORT_RUN) to create two datasets sorted
within themselves. You can split this flow into two separate

77SeisSpace Reference

flows if there is not sufficient buffer space for two consecutive
Inline Sorts.
Disk Data Input
ELSE
Disk Input <- Unsorted Data
Inline Sort
IF (MODE = Include, Primary header word = SORT_RUN)
Disk Output -> First Sort Data
ELSE
Inline Sort
Disk Output -> Second Sort Data
ENDIF

Tips and Recommendations
Cache size allocation
Inline Sort uses a disk and memory cache on each node to store
input data while performing a sort. The use of distributed cache
and data can make sorting more efficient, but can make the
allocation of cache for the sort more problematic.
In a single node sort, if the cache is made as large as all the
input data, it is possible to sort the data from any input order to
any output order. In the case of a distributed cache, the total
cache size for all nodes will need to be larger than the input
dataset size since the data may not be evenly distributed
between the nodes.

Example
In the case of a two-node sort, there are 1000 traces input and a
cache of 500 traces is allocated for each node. If 700 traces are
read by the first node and only 300 by the second node, then it
will not be possible to store all the data in cache at once and do
a complete sort.
As a general rule, the disk cache for each thread (or node)
should be larger than a simple division of the required cache

78SeisSpace Reference

between the nodes. How much larger depends on the sort
required, the number of nodes, and the distribution of the input
data between the nodes.
Inline Sort automatically attempts to calculate an efficient
memory cache size for the sort. It is possible to override this
memory cache allocation and force all the cache to be in
memory and none on disk. It is much more efficient if this can
be done since the tool will not need to read/write traces to disk.

Parameters
Number of traces in disk buffer for each thread
Enter the number of traces required in the disk buffer for each
thread (or joblet) in order to sort the input dataset. This
parameter may differ depending on the size of the input dataset,
the input sort order, the output sort order, the distribution of the
input dataset between the nodes, and the number of threads (or
nodes) used in executing the job.

Do you want to specify memory cache buffer size?
If ‘No’, the tool will attempt to allocate an efficient memory
cache size based on the disk cache size and the available
memory on the node. If ‘Yes’, a parameter will be shown to
allow the memory cache size to be specified.

Number of traces in memory buffer for each thread
This parameter only appears if ‘YES’ is selected for specifying
memory cache buffer size. Specify the size of the memory
cache in units of traces. If the specified size is greater than or
equal to the DISK cache size, then only memory cache will be
used and not disk cache will be allocated.

Number of traces per output sorted ensemble
SeisSpace passes data as complete ensembles and all ensembles
output from a tool must be the same size. The maximum size of
any ensemble in a sort should be specified here to avoid the
large ensembles being split. The extra traces in an ensemble
which does not have so many contributors are marked as NULL

79SeisSpace Reference

traces. This parameter should be set as large as the maximum
output ensemble size, but should not be larger. If it is set too
large, more NULL traces will be passed and stored than is
required.

Sort Keys
You must have at least two sort keys but more can be added. To
add a sort key, click Add. Select a trace header and accepted
values for that header. Specify the primary sort key.
The following example shows four data sort keys:
ILINE_NO
XLINE_NO

: 1-100
: 10-40 : ensemble number changes here

OFFSET

: 250.0 – 5000.0

GEO_COMP

:1

This extracts geophone component 1, at offsets 250 to 5000 into
common crosslines. Ensembles contain all the offsets with
geophone component 1 at each crossline within each inline. If
the offset spacing is 50 meters and the offset range is fully
filled, there is a maximum of 96 traces per ensemble.

Need a standard header word?
Select Yes to choose a header from a pulldown list of standard
header names. Select No to enter a header name.

Standard header to use as sort key
If Yes, select a sort key from the list of standard headers.

User-defined header to use as sort key
If No, enter the header name to use as the sort key.

Sort key values
Enter the values to use to sort the header values for this sort key.
An asterix, *, specifies using all values sorted to increasing
order. See Syntax in Disk Data Input for examples of this
parameter.

80SeisSpace Reference

Is this the key where ensemble number changes?
Select the primary sort key to define an ensemble.

Theory
This process buffers traces to disk or memory as they pass
through a flow, and then reads them back in the order you
specified, and passes them along in the flow. Generally, the size
of the buffer can be much smaller than the entire dataset.
Traces with a NULL primary key are omitted from the sorted
output. The job.output file reports the number of NULL traces.

81SeisSpace Reference

Join
Join merges separate "pipes" of data within a SeisSpace flow. It
may be used to combine data from multiple input tools or to
merge data processed in Split or If subflows.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
This tool passes multiple types.

Required Format
Datasets must all be stacked or unstacked.

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Coming into Join, datasets must have the same Primary Sort
key. Since SeisSpace does not currently support sorting on input
or in in-line sort, datasets should be prepared in ProMAX and
sorted on the same Primary Key. If separate pipes of processing
are being merged in SeisSpace, these pipes should not reorder
or recombine ensembles.

Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
There are no parameters to Join. Use the Flow Graph display to
verify that pipes of separate subflows come together at the Join

82SeisSpace Reference

tool. Any processing tools following an input tool, but before
Join, will apply only to that data pipe. Use the "Flow Graph" tab
on the Flowbuilder to verify the module connections and data
flow.

Theory

83SeisSpace Reference

Reproduce Traces
Reproduce Traces duplicates traces to use for testing
parameters. It reproduces groups of traces or individual traces.
Groups of traces are reproduced for each input group and
individual traces are reproduced on a trace-by-trace basis.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers
REPEAT. This header is used in IF conditional statements to
control the flow of the repeated trace.

WorkFlow
Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
Number of copies of each ensemble
Enter the number of times to copy each input ensemble.

84SeisSpace Reference

Split
Split allows conditional trace processing and flow branching.
Based on user criteria, traces are selectively passed through
either or both of the output ports.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
Any primary and secondary trace header values or ranges.

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Split statements can be nested ten deep and must be matched by
a corresponding End_Split. Traces meeting the conditions
setup in this process can be included or excluded from
following processes for either of the output ports.
Trace selection applies to all processes until terminated by an
End_Split. Upon reaching the End_Split statement, all traces
in the current conditional branch are destroyed. Use the Flow
Graph display to verify that the default (left) port is connected
to the tools which should process data selected by Split.

85SeisSpace Reference

Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
Default pass?
Select Yes to pass traces which meet the selection criteria to the
default output port. Select No to drop these traces from the
default output port

Alternate Pass?
Select Yes to pass traces which meet the selection criteria to the
alternate output port. Select No to drop these traces from the
alternate port. Use the Flow Graph display to verify that this
alternate (right) port is connected to the tools which should
process data selected for it.

Split Keys submenu
Click the Add button to define more selection headers. Toggle
the display state of the selection criteria with the Hide/Show
button.

Name of trace header
Select a header for which to specify split criteria.

86SeisSpace Reference

Selection range
Enter a wildcard, ranges, increments and/or single values of the
selected header. Examples include:
*
2
100-5000(100)
12.5-37.49
1,10,25

Theory

87SeisSpace Reference

Velocity

88SeisSpace Reference

Velocity Auto Picker
Velocity Auto Picker creates a velocity table by
automatically picking semblance panels.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
VEL.

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
The SeisSpace version of the velocity autopicker does not
require a precomputed velocity analysis like the version in
ProMAX.

Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
Source of velocities
Select the source of your velocities from the following choices:
Database selects velocities from Database table.
File selects velocities from file system.
TypeIn specifies velocities by typing in gate parameters.

89SeisSpace Reference

Path to the reference stacking velocity table file
For File, enter the fully-qualified table file name.

Select reference stacking velocity table
For Database, select the reference stacking velocity table from
the database. The table type.is STACKING_VEL.

Specify reference stacking velocity function(s)
For TypeIn, start typing to bring up the editor. Enter the
velocity table gate parameters.

Bounds on picked velocities
Select how to specify the velocity bounds from the following
choices:

Residual specifies residual moveouts in ms.

MIN_MAX specifies minimum and maximum velocities.

Errors specifies errors relative to reference velocity.

Offset of residual moveouts
If Residual, enter the offset in same distance units as velocity.
The default is 1000.

Select minimum velocities from Database table
If MIN_MAX, select the minimum velocities from the
following:

File select minimum velocities from file system.

Typein specifies minimum velocities by typing in
values

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Source of minimum velocities
If File, enter the Path to the minimum velocity table file
(enter the fully-qualified table file name) or Select
minimum velocity table.
If Typein, enter the minimum velocity function(s). Start
by typing to bring up editor.

Select maximum velocities from Database table
If MIN_MAX, select the maximum velocities from the
following:

File select maximum velocities from file system.

Typein specifies maximum velocities by typing in
values.

Source of maximum velocities
If File, enter the Path to the maximum velocity table
(enter the fully-qualified table file name) or Select
maximum velocity table.
If Typein, enter the maximum velocity function(s). Start
by typing to bring up editor. Enter values in this format: 06000,1000-6000,2000-7000.

Output velocity table path
Select an output file from the menu.

Select an output table dataset from the database
Select an output table from the list. The table type is
STACKING_VEL.

Inline coordinate (ILINE_NO) of first location to pick
Enter the ILINE_NO coordinate of one corner of picked cube of
velocities. The default is 0.

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ILINE_NO interval between picked velocity functions
Enter an ILINE_NO coordinate interval between functions in
cube of velocities. The default is 1.

Inline coordinate (ILINE_NO) of maximum location to pick
Enter the ILINE_NO coordinate of far corner of picked cube of
velocities. The default is the maximum value.

Number of functions to pick in the inline direction
(ILINE_NO)
Enter the number of inline functions to pick. The default is 1.

Crossline coordinate (XLINE_NO) of first location to pick
Enter the XLINE_NO coordinate of one corner of picked cube
of velocities. The default is 0.

XLINE_NO interval between picked velocity functions
Enter an XLINE_NO coordinate interval between functions in
cube of velocities. The default is 1.

Crossline coordinate (XLINE_NO) of maximum location to
pick
Enter the XLINE_NO coordinate of far corner of picked cube of
velocities. The default is the maximum value.

Number of functions to pick in the crossline direction
(XLINE_NO)
Enter the number of crossline functions to pick. The default is
1.

Time interval in ms between independent velocity picks
A value no finer than 100 ms is recommended.

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Maximum time in milliseconds to pick a velocity
Enter 0 for this value to equal that of the incoming data.

Minimum velocity to be scanned
Do not make the magnitude smaller than necessary or precision
and efficiency will suffer. Use negative numbers for reverse
moveout. The default is 1400.

Maximum velocity to be scanned
If in doubt, choose a much larger value than necessary. In this
case, the efficiency will not suffer. Use negative numbers for
reverse moveout. The default is 20000.

Number of velocities to be scanned
A value of 31 is recommended. Larger values are unnecessary
(and costly) because residual moveouts are sampled equally.
The default is 31.

Subsample the output Picks to facilitate hand-editing
Select Yes to output a decimated version of the picked function
at each input semblance location. The subsampling removes all
picks that are not required to define the shape of the function.

Time in milleseconds at which mute reaches maximum
offset
Allows you to specify the mute time at the maximum offset.

Theory
Semblance data generally have local maxima representing a
high in stack response. Velocity Auto Picker picks functions
that maximize the summation through the semblance values in
multiple directions simultaneously, given an input guide
function and a positive and negative percentage search range
relative to the guide.

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The program first constructs a hypercube of the semblance data
as a function of X, Y, T0 and moveout. A surface is picked
through the cube for moveout as a function of X,Y and T0. This
surface is optimized globally, for all positions, at once, to
maximize the sum of the sliced semblances. The surface is also
constrained to be smooth in all directions, according to the your
sampling.
The constraints are hard ranges of minimum and maximum
velocities relative to the reference function. The constraints are
specified as percentages of the reference velocity function.The
edges of this window are more important than the reference
velocity function it’s based upon since the program will
optimize the velocity within the window.
The picker further constrains the picked moveout to be smooth
in all spatial directions. This constraint is necessary to insure
good picks for noisy gathers. You can force the program to
honor your guide function at early times by specifying the
minimum time to pick velocities parameter. In addition, if your
data has the header word WB_TIME set, then you can keep
your reference function above the water bottom with the keep
reference velocities above water bottom parameter.
The program does not directly constrain Dix interval velocities.
Lateral velocity changes over a cable length will shift inner
offsets relative to outer offsets. The best stacking velocity is far
from an RMS velocity. Applying the Dix equation will produce
unreasonable interval velocities.
Velocity Auto Picker avoids wild picks by using a global
optimization. The picked functions result in a smooth surface
that slices through all the X, Y, and T0 values. There is no need
to seed the solution for individual gathers because all gathers
are optimized simultaneously.
Vertical smoothness can be controlled by the Time interval in
milliseconds between independent velocity picks parameter.
The smoothing over time is approximately five times the length
of this sampling interval. If you have dense reflections with high
signal to noise, then you may want to reduce the default
smoother. If you have sparse primaries and interbed multiples,
you may want to increase the default smoother so that picks will
not attempt to fit both types of events.

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The spatial smoothness of your output picks are directly
controlled by the spatial sampling of your input semblance. The
smoothing distance is approximately twice this spatial sampling
interval. If you sample your input semblances twice as densely
(half the sampling interval), then you will cut the smoother in
half and double your spatial resolution. As you attempt to
increase your resolution, you will also increase your sensitivity
to noise. Smoothing also allows “good” gathers to improve the
results of their “noisier” neighbors.
If you want to increase smoothness by analyzing fewer
semblance panels, then you should composite semblances
rather than discard them. The autopicker will composite for you
if you decrease the settings of the “Maximum number of
functions to a pick along an inline” and “...along a crossline”
parameters. Semblances will be composited internally until they
are reduced to the maximum number of positions for each
direction.
You only need to create supergathers to get a full set of offsets
and adequate fold to analyze. You should composite semblances
from multiple CDPs: rather than create supergathers from many
CDPs. Semblances are always positive numbers and can be
summed safely over a range of CDPs. Supergathers, however,
will stack destructively when reflections show significant dip
over the CDP.
Unlike traditional manual velocity picking, the Velocity Auto
Picker does not just use strong reflectors. The picked surfaces fit
the reflectors at all points, not just the output points. The output
is sampled and decimated so that linear interpolation can
successfully reconstruct the picked surfaces. This approach of
picking surfaces allows many small reflections to contribute as
much, or more, than a few strong reflectors. The output
positions are intended to be as sparse as possible so they can be
edited easily.

How does it work?
We first construct a hypercube of semblance as a function of X,
Y, T0, and moveout. We pick a surface that slices through the
cube for moveout as a function of X, Y, and T0. The surface is
optimized globally, for all positions at once, to maximize the
sum of sliced semblances. The surface is also constrained to be
smooth in all directions, according to the user's sampling.

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How is it constrained?
Constraints are hard ranges of minimum and maximum
velocities relative to the reference function. Currently the user
specifies these constraints as percentages. (Hidden in the menu
are also options to specify perturbations in units of velocity, or
to specify global min. and max functions.)
The picker constrains picked moveouts to be smooth in all
spatial directions. In fact this constraint is essential for the extra
redundancy necessary to pick good functions for noisy gathers.

Can I constrain interval velocities?
There are currently no direct constraints on Dix interval
velocities. Lateral velocity changes over a cable length will shift
inner offsets relative to outer offsets. The best stacking velocity
is far from an RMS velocity. Applying the Dix equation will
produce unphysical interval velocities. We do plan to add a Dix
constraint eventually.

How are wild picks avoided?
VAP is a global optimization. Functions are picked as a smooth
surface that slices through all X, Y, and T0 values. There is no
need to seed the solution for individual gathers because all
gathers are optimized simultaneously.

Why are picks not on strong reflectors?
The algorithm picks surfaces that fit reflections at all times, not
just at the output points. The output is regularly sampled and
decimated so that linear interpolation can successfully
reconstruct the picked surfaces. By picking surfaces, we allow
many small reflections to contribute as much, or more, than a
few strong reflections. The output positions are intended to be
as sparse as possible so that the user can easily adjust them by
hand.

References
Toldi, J. L. Velocity analysis without picking. Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University,
1985.
Toldi, J. L. Velocity analysis without picking. Geophysics, 54(2):191-199, 1989.

96SeisSpace Reference

Zhang, L. Automatic picking and its applications. SEP, 70:275-292, 1991.

97SeisSpace Reference

Migration

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3D Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration
3D Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration performs a time
migration of prestack seismic data. In areas of irregular bin fold
coverage, it provides an alternative to DMO plus commonoffset F-K migration with optional stack and F-K demigration.

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [References] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
The location of the source and receiver of each trace is taken
from the header words SOU_X, SOU_Y, REC_X and REC_Y.
Its offset is read from the AOFFSET header word.

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers
The header words ILINE_NO, XLINE_NO, CDP_X, CDP_Y,
OFFSET, and AOFFSET are set to appropriate values after
migration. SOU_STAT, REC_STAT and TOT_STAT are
replaced by zeros if present in the input trace headers. Each
image set requested is assigned a sequential number in a new
IMSETN header field. The header entries DS_SEQNO and
PSTMSNAP are created for optional checkpoint snapshots. The
NMO_APLD header entry is created if not already there and
flagged to facilitate subsequent processing. In addition, new
header entries FOLDCOMP and PANL_VEL are created,
depending upon what migration outputs are requested.
These migrated headers allow you to copy the supergathers to a
new ProMAX line and extract geometry from the them. With

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this option, you can process and analyze the migrated gathers
while taking full advantage of the database.

WorkFlow
Since SeisSpace does not have a geometry database as ProMAX
does, the tool Specify CDP Bin Grid must be included in any
flow with 3D Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration. Parameters
can be pulled automatically from the associated ProMAX LIN
Bin grid definition.
The 3D Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration parameters break
into the following four categories:

Resource usage only; these have no geophysical impact
Number of CPUs
Maximum Image Output
Run Type
Checkpoint the migration?
Restart from Checkpoint?
Maximum Preprocessed Traces
Maximum Image Traces
Maximum Number of Cache Blocks

Geophysical quality
Table with RMS Velocity parameters
All Preprocessing Parameters

Output image; consider these for job distribution
All Show Image Set parameters

Combined resource usage and geophysical quality
Apply Antialias
Migration Direction

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Aperture Limit Type parameters
Image Gather Type parameters
Acquisition Footprint

Resource Usage only parameters

Estimating Resource
To estimate disk space needed, use the following estimates:
Total Disk Space = Velocity + Σ (Image Sets [+ Mutes])
Each of these terms is, in turn, one or more 3D grids. The
(maximum) size of such a grid, is, in bytes,
4 * N1 * N2 *N3
where N1, N2, and N3 are the dimensions of the grid rounded up
to a multiple of 8. For dimensions use:

Velocity:
N1=NT, the number of output samples
N2=Number of Inlines in the input geometry
N3=Number of Crosslines in the input geometry

Image Set:
N1=NT
N2=Number of Inlines in the Image Set definition
N3=Number of Crosslines in the Image Set definition

Mute:
N1=NT/24
N2=Number of Inlines in the Image Set definition
N3=Number of Crosslines in the Image Set definition

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Finally, before summing the total disk space, multiply each
image set size by the product of the number of offset bins and
the number of velocity bins requested for the set and double that
if checkpointing is enabled.
The Total Disk Space is less if one of the compression options
is used. If 16 bit compression is enabled, divide by 2. If 8 bit
compression is used, divide by 4. RMS distortion-limited
compression will, in general, provide even more compression
than 8 bit compression.
You should be aware of the potential need for extended scratch
space. Refer to Extended Scratch Space in the System
Administration manual for a complete description of the
extended scratch space setup and requirements.

Checkpoint and restart
Checkpoint and restart are important features of this migration
process not only for resource protection during a long job but
also to facilitate effective imaging quality control and parameter
updates.
Always run production work with checkpointing. The overhead
is very small compared to the time savings of restarting a job
after a failure. Particularly in a distributed environment, where a
node may crash or lose contact with the network, checkpointing
is a crucial fallback. Each node keeps track of the header of the
last trace it migrated before saving its current image to a set of
backup files. While this does require extra disk space, it allows
you to restart the job with the Restart from Checkpoint flag
turned on. With the flag on, the data already migrated is read in
much less time than a restart from the beginning. On restart, the
already migrated data is processed at about 5 Mb/sec as each
compute node checks data headers to find its restart point, while
remigrating proceeds at about 0.2Mb/sec.
This migration can run in parallel on a multiple CPU sharedmemory platform or distributed on a multi-node cluster,
permitting faster job throughput.

Monitoring long jobs
Snapshot migration at each checkpoint allows you to quality
control a running job. However, snapshot generation can

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interfer with the checkpoint process, so their use is not
recommended for production runs. When you select Yes, you
can feed the traces with DSEQNO=1 into Disk Data Output.
This saves the final migration output. Follow this IF block with
a second IF block and select a line (as an example, line 75) to
feed into Trace Display. As each new snapshot is generated,
Trace Display receives a newer copy of line 75. You can then
monitor the image quality as the migration proceeds. However,
Trace Display stalls the job if a second snapshot is generated
before you click Forward. When you are satisfied that the
migration is proceeding correctly, click Exit/Continue to allow
Trace Display to step aside without interfering with the
migration.

Example
While not practical in large production runs, snapshots can be
useful during testing to check progress of data contribution to
the output image. The following images are of part of an inline
(AGC applied), 4 hours apart, as data accumulates into the
output image. As backup copies are made during each
checkpoint, the current image is written to the output file,
incrementing the header PSTMSNAP. There is some overhead
incurred in writing to output and the output dataset is multiplied
in size by the number of snapshots made.

Part of an inline (AGC applied); each panel is 4 hours apart

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Sizing Output Cache
This process is a one-pass procedure, requiring each input trace
to make all possible contributions to all relevant output images
when it is read. There is a trade off between output image space
cache vs. input trace data cache. When possible, it is best to size
the output image area(s) to fit in memory. This is accomplished
in one or both of the following ways:

Increase the Maximum Cache Size parameter. By using
the disk space usage formulas for uncompressed data given
in the previous section, you can determine the cache size
needed to hold the entire image set in memory. The image
under construction is managed with CTK blocks, each of
which is 2 kilobytes of data when uncompressed. When
using compression, the actual size of a cache block is less
than 2 kilobytes, allowing a larger iamge to fit in the cache
designated.

Break large jobs into smaller jobs. For example, compute
one quarter of the image set offset range per job. This
yields two benefits: it allows you to get past 2 gigabyte
memory limits by running multiple jobs, and it provides
multiple caches, reducing cache contention. Similarly, you
can break up a full-offset output run into multiple pieces,
say every fourth inline, and merge them back together in
postprocessing.
If you cannot fit the entire image set into cache by one or both
of the above methods, reduce the I/O load and elapsed runtime,
by increasing Maximum Preprocessing Traces parameter.
Each doubling of this number cuts the I/O by a factor of 2. The
amount of memory required for these preprocessed input traces
is given by the formula:
Memory = 4 * MaxPrep * NT * Nbands
where:
MaxPrep=Max. Prep. Traces menu setting
NT=Number of samples per trace
Nbands =Number of Alias Bands menu setting(1 if no
antialiasing)

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Cache and disk access in this migration have been carefully
designed to make the performance degrade gracefully, rather
than in sizable discrete jumps, if the image set does not fit
entirely in cache.

Geophysical Quality parameters
Input data should not have any sort of gain applied to it. See
Preprocessing parameters.

Output image parameters
The Image Set Parameters, along with Trace length, define the
output image dimensions. All contributing input data are
migrated into the volume. That is, the output image definition
does not delimit the input data. Compute time is proportional to
image size, allowing some overhead for reading and rejecting
noncontributing data. For example, running a single job on 64
cluster nodes to produce a 1200x1500 trace output volume is
only slightly faster than running four 16-node jobs, each
reading the entire dataset and imaging 300x1500 traces. In
planning a migration, balance the risk of running a single job on
a large number of nodes (with the possibility of having to restart
from checkpoint if a single node fails) against the overhead of
breaking an output image into smaller blocks and running
several jobs on fewer nodes.
An image is internally distributed by passing every Nth output
location to the Nth node. This allows a more constant utilization
of the CPUs with shot or even offset plane ordered input
compared to swath division of the output image. With swath
division, some nodes sit idle until they read data contributing to
their portion of the image.

Using Image Gathers to Identify Stretch Mute on Aperture
The following figures show part of an inline through the SEG
Salt synthetic, migrated with 10%, 20%, 40% and 1000%
stretch mute. Pairs of offset and image gathers at the indicated
crosslines, migrated with the same range of percent stretch
values, show the use of image gathers to identify the impact of
stretch mute on aperture. (Moveout is not perfect because a
smooth velocity field was intentionally used. No mute was
applied to the gathers before stacking.)

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10%

20%

40%

1000%

Flatter events (first gather set below) are not moved far in
migration, so a narrow aperture is adequate.
10%

20%

40%

1000% 10%

20%

40%

1000

The first 4 gathers are the Offset gathers followed by 4 image
gathers. The second set show steeply dipping and/or high
velocity contrast horizons require a slightly wider aperture.
Notice that the event at 800 ms does not appear on the 10 and
20% gathers. On the 40% image gathers it appears at longer
image offset. This indicates a longer source-image pointreceiver distance while smeared across all offsets on the

106SeisSpace Reference

standard offset gather.

The third set shows a similar horizon at 1600ms, as well as
several shallower steep events that originate closer to the image
point.

The fourth set shows conflicting events at 1800ms – one nearly
flat, the other migrated in from further away.

Defining Offsets for Image Gathers
The binning parameters define the offsets of the image gathers,
as well as the maximum offset of data to be included in the
migration. The SeisSpace menu contains a comment line,
indicating how the parameters will be interpreted. Each trace is
a sum of all migrated traces within that offset bin, so migrating
to16-fold or 64-fold offset or image gathers, then stacking,
should produce identical results as selecting Full Offset Image
Traces to Image Gather Types. The additional runtime
required to create gathers is 5-20%, depending on output fold.
More significantly, memory, scratch, and output disk space
requirements are fold times those required for an output stack.

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Migrating a complete volume to very high fold gathers (>30) is
not recommended, as it provides no more detailed information
and requires significantly more scratch and output disk space.
Compression becomes an important consideration if the image
size for each node is close to its available cache space.

Image velocity scans
You can output image velocity scans at all selected surface
locations for subsequent inspection and analysis of imaging
velocity and anisotropy parameters. For a full-offset image run,
this is a migration equivalent to CVS Stacks. The velocity scan
can also be applied when generating image gathers as well.

Sparse subset limiting
Sparse subset limiting of the image area allows you to compute
and output images on a coarse subset of the image area, for
example every 10th inline or crossline. It can be used to select
coarsely-spaced migration velocity gather output locations.

Combined resource usage and geophysical quality parameters

Operator Antialiasing
Operator Antialiasing is a process whereby the flanks of the
migration summation operator are selectively filtered to reduce
or eliminate aliasing artifacts due to spatial sampling. Zerooffset migration of a horizontal bed provides a simple insight
into this process.
For purposes of quality output, the antialiasing option is
implemented using an approach that is one of the more
expensive algorithms from the reference literature. You are well
advised to assess whether you really need antialiasing during
initial parameter testing
By default, antialiasing increases the amount of memory
needed for preprocessed traces by a factor of 10. See
Determining When to Apply Antialiasing to decide if you need

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antialiasing during initial parameter testing.
Alias Image

True Image

Discretely-sampled
Reflection

In the above diagram, the curved lines represent the summation
path of a hyperbolic migration operator. The thick dotted
horizontal line is a sampled flat bed reflection arrival. The
imaging operation sums along hyperbolic paths (with some
weights) and places the output at corresponding the hyperbola
apex. We see that:

lower summation curve sums several adjacent coherent
samples together to produce a sample of the true image
overlying the input reflection.

upper summation curve happens to intersect the reflection
in a couple of separated points, producing a fainter alias of
the reflector displaced above the true image. Such
phantoms build up a ringy precursor to the true reflector
image.

To antialias these operators, theory says to make their sloping
flanks fatter in order to capture both peaks and troughs of the
reflection wavelet as the summation operator crosscuts the
event. The operator then sums destructively across multiple
adjacent samples, attenuating or eliminating the alias
image.When enabled, the antialias option does this, judiciously
lowering frequency content where needed to suppress aliasing.
By default, antialiasing is not enabled because it is often
unnecessary for initial parameter analysis runs and can add
significantly to run time.

Determining when to apply antialiasing
Applying antialiasing is expensive and the runtime very
parameter dependent. The process refers to the edges of the
migration operator and not to insufficiently dense acquisition
geometry. Test to determine if your data requires antialiasing,
and expect a runtime increase of 50-150%.

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The figure below shows a comparison of 3 spikes, migrated first
without and then with antialiasing. The operator is truly aliased,
so antialiasing minimizes the blockiness of the upper edges.

If not really needed, antialiasing will effectively apply a lowpass filter. The next figures show the first second of data, again
migrated without and with antialiasing, along with their power
spectra. The migration operator was not originally aliased, so
antialiasing just produced a mixed-looking, lower frequency
shallow section. In many cases, applying correct aperture limits
avoid the need to antialias the migration operator. Very steep
dips or sharp velocity contrasts in the shallow section with
certain acquisition geometries would require antialiasing

Without Antialias

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With Antialias

Aperture
Aperture is the most important factor affecting performance.
Full 3D Kirchhoff migration throughput is proportional to the
number of traces in its summation aperture which is in turn
proportional to the square of the aperture radius. Thus,
reducing the Image Location Distance aperture by a factor of
two, yields a nearly four-fold speed increase. If you need to
image steep dip, be careful about reducing the aperture too
much. In general, the default stretch mute aperture is a logical
first guess at a practical aperture, but it is quite possible to gain
an order of magnitude improvement by imposing Maximum
Image Distance cutoffs. It is therefore quite beneficial to
include this setting in initial coarse grid parameter test, reducing
it as much as possible without sacrificing the quality of the
migration output.

Compression
This process offers compression of internal and selected output
files. However, this offers both advantages and disadvantages.
On the plus side:


Compression saves significant disk space
Reduces I/O time
Increases program throughput

On the minus side:

111SeisSpace Reference

compression is lossy. That is, it does not retain every bit of
data accuracy

Your judgement is needed for selecting the RMS distortion
setting to balance compression against image fidelity.

Because some experimentation is necessary to determine
acceptable levels of distortion, the default is not to enable
compression in order to retain as many bits of accuracy as
possible. However, because of its significant benefits in saving
space and run time, you are strongly urged to use it, especially
for large migrations.

Block Moveout
Block Moveout calculates the exact NMO at every Nth sample
defined in Block Moveout Step. NMO times between those
times are linearly extrapolated using the input trace sampling
interval for Uniform Block Moveout Sampling or 1/Nth of the
actual time interval to the next NMO calculation point for
Stretched Block Moveout Sampling. Using the default step
size of 8 samples decreases runtime by 2-5 times compared to
computing NMO times at every trace sample, but can decrease
the accuracy. Moveout window boundaries can be filtered out
with a postmigration Bandpass Filter.

Exact
Interpolated
Exact

Exact

I - Image point

Block NMO step

112SeisSpace Reference

Examples of Block Moveout types
The following images show stacks of gathers generated with No
Block Moveout, Uniform and Stretched Block Moveout, all
at 40% stretch. The horizontal striping in the Uniform version is
more obvious in the next images, where the Uniform and
Stretch BMO stacks have been subtracted from the stack
without BMO. The RMS amplitudes of the differences shown
are 25% and 5%, respectively. They are much more severe on
this synthetic than they would be on real data with a range of
amplitudes and noise. Also, a new option has been added
recently to randomly vary the start times of BNMO, minimizing
the visual striping. Selected gathers are shown in the bottom
image. Runtime using Uniform BMO is about 60% of that with
no Block Moveout. Stretch BMO saves about 40%.

No Block Moveout, Uniform Block Moveout, Stretched Block Moveout

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Difference of Uniform and Stretch BMO subtracted from Stack without BMO

Two sets of gathers showing No, Uniform, and stretch Block Moveout

How Block Moveout Determines Migration Velocities
Examples of the differences between Uniform percentage
velocities, Uniform percentage slowness and Uniform
percentage sloth:
Assume a constant velocity model of 2000 m/s, a minimum
velocity percentage of 80, a maximum velocity percentage of
120 and the number of velocity scans is 3:

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Uniform percentage velocities
The migration determines what velocities to migrate in the
following way:
1.

Find percentages:
80% of 2000m/s = 1600, 120% of 2000 m/s = 2400

2.

Find the difference between velocity range:
2400-1600 = 800

3.

Find increment between scans:
800/(number of scans-1) = 800/(3-1) = 400

4.

Determine the velocities to migrate with:
1600 m/s (80% of 2000 m/s)
2000 m/s (1600 + 400)
2400 (1600 +400+400)

Uniform percentage slowness
The migration determines what velocities to migrate in the
following way:
1.

Find percentages:
80% of 2000m/s = 1600, 120% of 2000 m/s = 2400

2.

Invert the velocities:
1/1600=6.25e-4, 1/2400=4.17e-4

3.

Find the difference between the 1/velocity range:
6.25e-4 - 4.17e-4 = 2.08e-4

4.

Find increment between scans:
2.08e-4/(number of scans-1) = 2.08e-4/(3-1) = 1.04e-4

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5.

Determine all of the 1/velocities:
1/1600 = 6.25e-4
6.25e-4 - 1.04e-4 = 5.21e-4
5.21e-4 - 1.04e-4 = 4.17e-4

6.

Invert the 1/velocities from previous step. These are the
velocities used in the migration:
(1/6.25e-4) = 1600 m/s
(1/5.21e-4) = 1920 m/s
(1/4.17e-4) = 2400 m/s

Uniform percentage sloth
The migration determines what velocities to migrate in the
following way:
1.

Find percentages:
80% of 2000m/s = 1600, 120% of 2000 m/s = 2400

2.

Invert and square the velocities:
1/(1600**2)=3.91e-7, 1/(2400**2)=1.74e-7

3.

Find the difference between the 1/velocity range:
3.91e-7 - 1.74e-7 = 2.17e-7

4.

Find increment between scans:
2.17e-7/(number of scans-1) = 2.17e-7/(3-1) = 1.09e-7

5.

Determine all of the 1/(velocities**2):
1/(1600**2) = 3.91e-7
3.91e-7 - 1.04e-7 = 2.82e-7
2.82e-7 - 1.04e-7 = 1.74e-7

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6.

Take the square root and invert the 1/(velocities**2) from
the previous step. These are the velocities used in the
migration:
(1/3.91e-7**1/2) = 1600 m/s
(1/2.82e-7 **1/2) = 1883 m/s
(1/1.74e-7 **1/2) = 2400 m/s

Processing Requirements
Input data requires the following requirements and velocity
field for proper migration:

Input data traces should have valid source and receiver
coordinates.

Input data should be corrected to final flat datum. For best
results, ensure that SOU_STAT and REC_STAT statics are
present in the input headers. They are used in the migration
to adjust traveltimes in order to account for actual source
and receiver elevations and/or depths.

Input velocity field must be supplied with the same datum
as the input data. Velocity Manipulation can be used for
converting between various datums.

Input is most often in Shot, CDP or common offset order.
However input can be sorted in any order.

Input data cannot be NMO or DMO-corrected. Such
gathers result in an improper migration.

Input data should not have any gain applied to it. If scaling
such as a T**n scaling or conventional True Amplitude
Recovery (dB/sec correction) has been applied, an inverse
scaling can be applied in the migration. See Preprocessing
parameters.

Since SeisSpace does not have a geometry database as
ProMAX does, the tool Specify CDP Bin Grid must be
included in any flow with 3D Prestack Kirchhoff Time
Migration. Parameters can be pulled automatically from
the associated ProMAX LIN Bin grid definition.

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Tips and Recommendations
Parameters
Number of CPUs
Enter the maximum number of CPUs to use simultaneously in
each joblet. If not specified, the program uses about half the
number of available CPUs on the machine on which the joblet is
running. If the machine that the joblet is running on has two
CPUs, Landmark recommends entering 2 rather than spawning
two joblets on that machine, each with 1 CPU.

Source of velocities
Select Database or File.

Select RMS velocity table
This appears if Database to Source of velocities. Select an
RMS velocity table by navigating to the associated ProMAX
area/line database.

Path to the RMS velocity table file
This appears if File to Source of velocities. Enter a path and file
name for the RMS velocity file or click the browse button to
navigate to the file in the file system. This option would only be
used if working with no associated ProMAX area/line. The file
selected should be an XXXXXXXXTVEL file, representing a
standard ProMAX 3D RMS velocity table.

Maximum Image Output Time (ms)
Enter the maximum time in ms to output. The default, 0, retains
the trace length of the input data.

Image Sets Section
Select up to nine image sets to define and migrate onto with just
one pass through the input data. An image set can be thought of
as the output of the migration. All of the image sets are output

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to the same file. They can be separated by selecting on the
header word, IMSETN.

Image Set Show/Hide/Add
Click Show to display the image set definition submenu. Click
Add to create a new image set definition. Highlighting an
Image Set by selecting its name in the left column allows you to
set parameters for that image set. Once displayed, Hide will
collapse the Image Set submenu.

Minimum Output Inline
Enter the first inline number for this image set.

Maximum Output Inline
Enter the last inline number for this image set.

Inline Output Sampling Interval
Enter the desired inline number increment for this output set.
The default is 1. Example:
A value of 3 would output every third inline.

Minimum Output Xline
Enter the first crossline number for this image set.

Maximum Output Xline
Enter the last crossline number for this image set.

Xline Output Sampling Interval
Enter the desired crossline number increment for this output set.
The default is 1. Example:
A value of 3 would output every third crossline.

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Apply Antialias?
Select Yes to apply antialiasing. Filters are applied to the data to
eliminate possible spatial and temporal aliasing at the cost of
increasing the run time by a factor of 1.5-2.5. See Advanced
Features for additional fine tuning of parameters. Select No to
not apply antialiasing.
The suggested values for antialiasing spacing ensure
interpretability of the resulting 3D volume, regardless of the
coarseness of the trace spacing. If you simply want a subset of
the inlines (gathers) for velocity analysis, set the antialias back
to normal inline spacing.
Anit-alias application can be further refined with parameters
visible when Show Advance Features? (below) is set to Yes.

Nominal Inline Antialias Spacing
This appears if Yes to Apply Antialias. Enter the distance in
ft./m between crosslines along the inline axis. Start with a value
that is the distance between crosslines multiplied by the
Crossline Output Sampling Interval. For example:
If the distance from inline 1 to inline 2 is 20m and you
are migrating to every other inline, enter 20x2 or 40m.

Nominal Crossline Antialiasing Spacing
This appears if Yes to Apply Antialias. Enter the distance in
ft./m between inlines along the crossline axis. Start with a value
that is the distance between inlines multiplied by the Inline
Output Sampling Interval. For example:
If the distance from crossline 1 to crossline 2 is 20m
and you are migrating to every third crossline, enter
20x3 or 60m.
If the output appears over-filtered reduce this and the
previous values by half.

Migration Direction
Select one or more of the following aperture limiting
techniques:

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No Restriction migrates input traces from any direction.

Crossline Migration Only performs independent 2D
migrations for every crossline. If used in conjunction with
offset-binned output gathers, a significant amount of outof-plane artifacts are removed. This is useful preprocessing
for 2D migration velocity analysis.

Inline Migration Only performs independent 2D
migrations for every inline. This is a convenient method for
independently migrating each of the sail lines in a 2D
marine survey without having to set up multiple 2D
migration flows. Only traces with the same inline bin
number contribute to an inline migration.

Aperture Limit Type
Select one or more of the following aperture limiting
techniques:

Not Aperture Limited performs no aperture limiting.
While not practical for production work, this option can be
useful for aperture testing.

Image Location Distance contributes only traces within a
specified radius of the surface location directly about the
image point. The distance limit may be based on input
midpoint, source or receiver, or both source and receiver
coordinates and may vary with time, based on mute tables
for inline and crossline controls.

Stretch Mute supplies a maximum stretch, in percent, and
limits the summation aperture size to avoid trace stretching
above this limit. This is the default.

Maximum Dip does not migrate dips above a given value.
This value does not exactly correspond with true dip in the
subsurface due to the straight ray approximation used in
the time migration. In general, the straight-ray calculation
underestimates subsurface dip.

External Mute is best used to define an upper surface
above which no image is computed. In conjunction with
Maximum Image Output Time, a target-oriented

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reservoir image can be produced with significant runtime
savings.

Distance Limit Measure
These appear if Image Location Distance to Aperture Limit
Type. Choose which input coordinates the image distance is
based upon: CDP, source or receiver or source and receiver.

Use time variable distance tables?
This appears if Image Location Distance to Aperture Limit
Type. Choose No to specify cylindrical fixed limits, Yes,
rectangular and select time vs offset mute tables to define
aperture limits in inline and crossline directions or Yes,
elliptical to round the corners of the rectangular boundary.

Minimum Aperture Distance
Maximum Aperture Distance
These appear if Image Location Distance to Aperture Limit
Type and No to Use time variable. Enter the Minimum
Aperture Distance and Maximum Aperture Distance of traces to
include.
For Example:
Map View
S2

R2

S4

R4
R1
S1

S3

S - Source
R - Receiver
R3
- Image point
- Minimum Aperture Distance
- Maximum Aperture Distance

Only S1-R1 are
migrated into the
image point since
both the source and
the receiver are
within the minimum
and maximum
aperture.
All other S-R pairs
have at least one
member outside of
the aperture, and
are not used in the
migration of this
image point.

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Note: In general, you should only set the Maximum Aperture
Distance, leaving the minimum at zero.

Source of inline distance mute table
Inline distance limit mute table
or Inline distance limit table file path
Source of crossline distance mute table
Crossline distance limit mute table
or Crossline distance limit table file path
These appear if Image Location Distance to Aperture Limit
Type and Yes to Use time variable. Choose whether to select
ProMAX mute tables, defining inline and crossline aperture
limits, from an associated ProMAX area/line or with explicit
file paths.

Maximum Stretch Mute
This appears if Stretch Mute to Aperture Limit Type. Enter
the maximum trace stretch to allow in the migration aperture.
The default is 30.0%, allowing a for stretch factor of 1.3.

Maximum Dip Limit
This appears if Maximum Dip to Aperture Limit Type. Enter
the maximum dip limit. The default value is 90˚.

Source of mutes
Mute table
or Mute table file path
These appear if External Mute to Aperture Limit Type.
Choose whether to select a ProMAX mute table from an
associated ProMAX area/line or with an explicit file path. This
aperture control should only be used to limit the start time of the
migration. The mute table must have two entries: two different
offsets with the same mute time.

Acquisition Footprint
Select the acquisition footprint type for keeping track of the
number of times each output sample has a sample migrated onto
it. The reciprocal of this migration fold is taken to create a fold

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compensation trace. Where the fold is zero, the fold
compensation trace contains a 1.

No Footprint Compensation performs no acquisition
footprint compensation.

Migration Fold Compensation applies scaling to the
migrated traces to compensate for the irregularities in the
shooting geometry. Use in cases where there are moderate
variations in CDP coverage especially stratigraphic
settings.

Acquisition footprint is used in most stratigraphic settings or in
areas with moderate variations in CDP coverage due to cable
drift or in typical land shooting.

Image Gather Type
Select one of the following gather types:

Full offset Image Traces outputs a one trace gather
containing one migrated trace at each image location
combining all offsets of all input traces within the
migration aperture, or stack on the fly. This is the default.

Sou-Rec Offset Limited Gathers outputs standard time
migrated gathers. Each gather contains multiple migrated
traces with each trace combining traces within the
migration aperture from specific offset ranges specified
below:
Map View
S1

R1
I

The migrated output of trace
S1-R1 is binned into a trace
based on the distance
between S1-R1. This is
typically the offset.

S - Source
R - Receiver
I - Image point
- S-R offset (Sou-Rec Offset Limited Gather)

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Sou-Img_Loc-Rec Offset Limited Gathers outputs a set
contains multiple migrated traces with each trace
combining traces within the migration aperture from
specific source-to-image location-to-receiver distance
ranges specified below.
Map View
S1

R1

The migrated output of trace
S1-R1 will be binned into a
trace based on the distance
between S1- The image point
- R1.

I
S - Source
R - Receiver
I - Image point
- Sou-Img_Loc-Rec Offset Limited Gather
This gather type provides more sensitivity for aperture QC
because it is not limited to the maximum offset on the recording
cable.

Minimum Offset Bin Center
This appears if one of the Limited options to Image Gather
Type. Enter the center of the first output offset bin. All traces
with this AOFFSET header value plus or minus the Offset Bin
Interval contribute to the first offset image trace in an output
gather. The corresponding output trace header contains the
center offset for the bin in the OFFSET and AOFFSET header
fields.

Maximum Offset
This appears if one of the Limited options to Image Gather
Type. Enter the maximum offset to process. Offset bins of size
given by the Offset Bin Interval are defined up to this
maximum offset.

Offset Bin Interval
This appears if one of the Limited options to Image Gather
Type. Enter the offset bin interval contributing to each output
trace in a migrated gather.

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Output Supergathers?
Select Yes to output a rectangle of image traces around each
location in the grid specified above. The trace header SG_CDP
will be set to the CDP number of the center of each supergather
rectangle.

Supergather Example Combing 5 Inlines and 3 Crosslines

Inlines to combine
This appears if Yes to Output Supergathers. Enter the number
of inlines to combine in a supergather. This value must be an
odd number. Overlapping supergathers are allowed.

Crosslines to combine
This appears if Yes to Output Supergathers. Enter the number
of crosslines to combine in a supergather. This value must be an
odd number. Overlapping supergathers are allowed.

Replace Set Name
Enter up to a 15 characters description of this image set. This
option is particularly useful when running multiple image sets.
Entering a new value for this will change the value for the
image set which appears in the left pane of the submenu. It will
not have any effect on the migration output or headers. For
example:
Two image sets are being migrated, one that only
outputs inline 20 and one that outputs crossline 100. If
the first image set name is replaced with ’Inline 20’ and

126SeisSpace Reference

second is replaced with ’Crossline 100’, it becomes
much clearer what is being migrated than the duplicate
default names of ’Image Set’.

Job Parameters

Run Type
Select the migration run to use from the following options:

Normal (safe) performs the migration, making sure not to
write over any checkpointing or scratch files for earlier
migrations in this line. If these files are found, the job
terminates and gives you a chance to: Rerun the
migration with Restart option turned on and restart from
the checkpoint file, Rerun the migration in Normal
(overwrite) mode, and then run the migration in Normal
(safe) mode.

Normal (overwrite) performs the migration, overwriting
any checkpointing of scratch files from earlier migrations
in this line.This is good if files still exist from a previous
run of the same flow. Migration image files are not deleted
from scratch after a job completes, to safeguard against
possible errors during output.

Cleanup removes all leftover scratch files remaining from
a completed run of the same flow. After running in this
mode, you can rerun the migration in Normal(Safe) mode
to safely migrate your data.

Recover output uses files saved in scratch to construct
normal output from a job which failed in finalization.

Checkpoint the Migration?
Select Yes to periodically save the migration. This option is
useful if one or more compute nodes crashes or has disk
problems; you can restart the migration from the last saved
checkpoint, instead of from the beginning. Select No to not
checkpoint the process.
Example:

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A migration failed after 4 days of what should have
been a 5 day migration, but it was checkpointed every
12 hours. Instead of having to start at the beginning and
wait another 5 days for a final result, the migration can
be restarted from the last checkpoint and be completed
within 1 day, losing at most 12 hours of computer wall
clock time and however much time is required to reread
the input data to the point at which the last checkpoint
occurred.

Hours Between Checkpoint?
Appears if Yes to Checkpoint the migration? Enter the
number of hours between checkpoints. This is the amount of
time between backup copies of the migration.

checkpoint directories
Appears if Yes to Checkpoint the migration? Enter a path for
the checkpoint directories or click the browse button to navigate
to a directory.

Snapshot migration at each checkpoint?
Appears if Yes to Checkpoint the migration? Select Yes to
send a copy of the checkpointed image data to the output trace
stream each time the job is checkpointed. The trace header
DS_SEQNO is set to 1 for the first snapshot and increments by
1 for each new snapshot. Select No if you do not want to
snapshot the partially-migrated images at each checkpoint.
This option allows you to quality control a long job. When you
select Yes, you can feed the traces in DSEQNO=1 into Disk
Data Output. This saves the final migration output. Follow this
IF block with a second IF block and select a line (as an
example, line 75) to be fed into Trace Display. As each new
snapshot is generated, Trace Display receives a newer copy of
line 75. You can then monitor the image quality as the
migration proceeds. However, Trace Display stalls the job if a
second snapshot is generated before you click Forward. When
you are satisfied that the migration is proceeding correctly, click
Exit/Continue to allow Trace Display to step aside without
interfering with the migration.

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Restart from checkpoint?
Select Yes to restart the migration from an existing checkpoint
file. Select No if you do not want to restart from an existing
checkpoint file.

Show Advanced Features
Toggle between Yes and No to see or hide the advanced feature
parameters.

Debug Print Level
Enter a value for the debug level. 0 is the default and disables
debug printout. A value of 1 is helpful to provide assurance that
the job is proceeding normally. A value of 2 or higher turns on
extensive diagnostics (typically of interest only in diagnosing a
repeatable problem).

Show Velocity parameters
Select Yes or No to see or hide the velocity parameters.

Scan Velocity Type
This appears if Yes to Show Velocity parameters? Select the
velocity scan type. This parameter defines whether and how a
range of constant scale factors are applied to the input migration
velocities to produce multiple output traces at each image
location. The options are:

No Scan does not perform velocity scanning. This is the
default.

Uniform percentage velocity scales migration velocities
by uniformly-spaced percentages.

Uniform percentage slowness scales migration slowness,
that is reciprocal velocities, by uniformly-spaced
percentages. This option gives more velocity scans in the
lower velocities where more velocity resolution is needed.

Uniform percentage sloth Migration sloth, that is
reciprocal velocity-squared, are scaled by uniformly-

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spaced percentages. This option gives more velocity scans
(than even the uniform percentage slowness) in the lower
velocities where more velocity resolution is needed.

Velocity Scan Start (%)
This appears if anything other than No Scan is chosen for
Scan Velocity Type. Enter the initial percentage velocity for
velocity scanning.

Velocity Scan End (%)
This appears if anything other than No Scan is chosen for
Scan Velocity Type. Enter the final percentage velocity for
velocity scanning.

Number of velocity scans
This appears if anything other than No Scan is chosen for
Scan Velocity Type. Enter the number if velocity scans to
output. The default outputs a three traces at each location.
The program creates traces with a the header word PANL_VEL
containing the velocity percentage used to image that trace.
This header word is used to sort the data after migration and
pick a composite velocity percentage field using Screen
Display.

Show Antialias parameters?
Input data are broken into several frequency band packets and
antialias filtered based on the frequency content in each packet
and the inline/crossline spacing. By breaking the data into
frequency packets and antialiasing each packet individually,
high frequencies are kept as much as possible at the expense of
larger memory requirements.

Number of Alias Bands
This appears if Yes to Show Antialias parameters? Enter the
number of alias bands. Input data is linearly broken up to the
maximum frequency into this number of alias bands before
antialiasing filters are applied. More bands yields to a more

130SeisSpace Reference

accurate answer at the cost of run time. You can enter up to 10
bands. This is the default. The more bands, the better the
results, but run time will likely increase due to memory
tradeoffs required to store the extra bands.

Maximum Frequency
This appears if Yes to Show Antialias parameters? Enter the
maximum frequency to apply antialias filters. The default 0 is
the Nyquist frequency of the input data.

Show Preprocess parameters?

Amplitude/Phase Correction
This appears if Yes to Show Preprocess parameters? Select
the correction from the following options:

3D Phase Correction applies a full differentiation to the
input. This is required for 3D migration by Kirchhoff
theory and is the default.

2D PhaseCorrection applies a half differentiation to the
input. Use this when running inline or crossline migration
only. You should also use this when imaging a narrow
swath of data.

No Phase Correction disables the correction for this
migration step. Select this if you have already applied
specialized phase processing of the input data that included
the necessary Kirchhoff 3D differentiator.

Note: Amplitudes produced by each option should not be
expected to be of comparable magnitude.

Noisy Trace RMS Threshold value
This appears if Yes to Show Preprocess parameters? Enter the
maximum RMS threshold value for rejecting noisy input traces.
Entering 0 defaults to no RMS threshold check. A trace is
considered too spiky to be included in the migration when the
maximum amplitude of the trace exceeds the trace RMS
amplitude multiplied by this factor.

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Time-Power gain removal constant
This appears if Yes to Show Preprocess parameters? Enter a
positive constant to remove a previously applied time power
T**n gain where n is the entered value. Enter 0 for no
correction scaling applied.

dB/sec gain removal constant
This appears if Yes to Show Preprocess parameters? Enter a
positive constant to remove a previously applied dB/sec gain
10**(nT/20) where T is time in seconds and n is the entered
value. Enter 0 for no correction scaling applied. Use 6.0 if True
Amplitude Recovery defaults were previously applied.

Show scratch disk parameters?
These parameters define the way multiple scratch directories
are used and the type of data compression used for the scratch
files created during the migration (and later automatically
removed at completion).

Scratch file layout policy
This appears if Yes to Show scratch disk parameters? Select
from Largest space, Sequential fill, and Round Robin.


Largest space places the file in the scratch directory with
the largest amount of free space.
Sequential Fill writes to each scratch directory until it is
filled.
Round Robin puts each new file into a different scratch
directory, if space permits.

Compression type
Select the compression type from the following options:

No Compression retains as much amplitude and structural
accuracy as possible at the cost of using the most disk
storage space. This is the default.

16 Bit internal compresses each 32 bit floating point
number into a 16 bit quantity for storage on disk.

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8 Bit internal rescales and compresses each 32 bit floating
point number into an 8 bit quantity for storage on disk.

RMS distortion controls the amount of compression by a
specified RMS distortion. This option generally provides
the most compression.

Maximum Compression Distortion
This appears if RMS distortion to Compression type. Enter
the allowable distortion in dB. Bigger numbers compress the
data more, but run the risk of losing information. The default is
-36 dB. Example:
An RMS distortion value of -24dB, allowing
decompression errors of about 1 part in 256, will
compress the scratch files more than a value of -36 dB,
which forces decompression accuracy to 1 part in 4096.

Show Block Moveout parameters?
Block Moveout calculates the exact NMO at every Nth sample
defined in Block Moveout Step. NMO times between those
times are linearly interpolated using the input trace sampling
interval for Uniform Block Moveout Sampling or 1/Nth of the
actual time interval to the next NMO calculation point for
Stretched Block Moveout Sampling. Using the default step
size of 8 samples decreases runtime by 2-5 times compared to
computing NMO times at every trace sample, but can decrease

133SeisSpace Reference

the accuracy. Moveout window boundaries can be filtered out
with a postmigration Bandpass Filter.

Exact
Interpolated

Block NMO step

Exact

Exact

I - Image point

Block Moveout Type (Image set number)
Select the block moveout type from the following options:

No Block Moveout does not apply block moveout. This
gives the most accurate answer, but takes 2-5 times longer
to run.

Uniform Block Moveout Sampling is the fastest option.

Stretched Block Moveout Sampling is the default and
provides a balance between speed and accuracy.

Block Moveout Step (Image set number)
This appears if Uniform Block Moveout Sampling or
Stretched Block Moveout Sampling is selected as the Block
Moveout type. The larger the number, the faster the migration,
but with less accurate results. Entering 1 is equivalent to not
using Block Moveout. The default is 8.

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Remaining parameters

Maximum Preprocessed Traces
Select the number of traces to read into memory at one time.
For migrations where the output is small, values such as 5000
increases CPU scalability, and also increases memory usage.
For migrations with a large output, such as those where the
image sets will not fit completely into memory, increase the
Maximum Number of Cache Blocks and break a large job
into multiple smaller jobs. That is, breaking the offset range for
image gathers into three or four pieces and merging the results
in a postprocessing step.

Maximum Image Traces
Enter the number of traces in a sliding window over the image
sets. Increasing this parameter requires more memory
resources. In general, increasing this parameter beyond its
default value of 16 has little impact on performance. A
maximum of 64 recommended.

Minimum Aperture Window Length (ms)
Traces with little live data that would contribute to the output
location can be skipped, saving compute time. Enter the
threshhold of contributing data required to perform the
migration calculations.

Inter-process Trace Buffer Size
Enter the number of traces to transfer between cooperating
joblets at a time. The default is 96 traces. Smaller values use
less memory but require more communication overhead. If your
performance is uneven, experiment with this parameter. 96 is a
reasonable number where 1 is way too small and 1000 is
probably too large.
This parameter has no effect, if data is being read and passed on
by the input tool in Broadcast mode. (See Disk Data Input or
SEG-Y Input, as appropriate.)

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Maximum Cache Size MB
Enter the maximum number of megabytes allocated for cache to
reduce program I/O. The default is 1000Mb of memory. Ideally,
the entire output image for each node would fit within this
cache. If this is not possible, the portion of the image in
memory will be written out to disk and a different portion read
in as the input data contributes to different parts of the image.
Enter as much memory as can be made available to the
mgiration to minimize image i/o and maximize cpu efficiency.

Theory
This prestack imaging process sums input traces within a usercontrolled aperture to form output image traces. The summation
uses NMO-like curves (with additional weighting) calculated
from a vertically and laterally-variant RMS velocity field in
time, VRMS(x,y,t). Generally, time migration is used for
smoothly varying velocity fields and moderately complex
structure. For typical Gulf of Mexico compactional gradients of
up to 0.5 sec1, this provides a very good approximation for dips
up to 55o and preserves more steeply-dipping energy for
subsequent residual moveout and anisotropic stacking analysis.
In migration, each subsurface image location of interest is
treated as a diffracting point of unknown amplitude. With an
assumption of small perturbations, reflections behave linearly
and a continuous reflector is well approximated as a tightly
spaced sequence of point diffractors. Kirchhoff migration
estimates these diffracting amplitudes by correlating (with some
appropriate scaling and filtering) the input data with an
analytically-calculated estimate of the diffraction that would
appear if that particular subsurface image point contained a
diffractor of unit strength. Such estimates are good when most
of the reflected or diffracted energy for a given image point is
captured on a well-sampled grid back at the surface. When
these assumptions break down, imaging can significantly
degrade by both aliasing (coarse sampling) and acquisition
footprint (missing and/or irregular sampling) artifacts.
Additionally, too small of a migration aperture (used to reduce
noise and improve turnaround) can discard needed reflected
energy and further degrade image quality.

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References
Al-Dajani, A.F., Tsvankin, I. and Toksöz, N., 1998, Nonhyperbolic reflection moveout for azimuthally anisotropic media: 68th Annual Internat. Mtg., Soc. Expl.
Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, Session:ST2.3.
Biondi, B., 1998, Kirchhoff imaging beyond aliasing: Stanford Exploration Project
Report 97, 13–34.
Black, James L. and Egan, Mark S., 1988, True-amplitude DMO in 3-D: 58th
Annual Internat. Mtg., Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, 88, Session:S17.3.
Chang, H., VanDyke, J., Solano, M., McMechan, G.A. and Epili, D., 3-D prestack
Kirchhoff depth migration: From prototype to production in a massively parallel
environment: Geophysics, 63, no. 2, 546–556.
Duquet, B., Marfurt, K.J., Dellinger, J., 1998, Efficient estimates of subsurface illumination for Kirchhoff prestack depth migration: 68th Annual Internat. Mtg., Soc.
Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, Session: SP2.4.
Gray, S.H., 1998, Speed and accuracy of seismic migration methods: NSF Mathematical Geophysics Summer School, Stanford University, August 3–21,
http://sepwww.stanford.edu/etc/sam_gray/sam_gray.pdf.
Hale, D., 1991, A nonaliased integral method for dip moveout: Geophysics, 56, no.
6, 795–805.
Harlan, W.S., 1995, Flexible seismic traveltime tomography applied to diving
waves: Stanford Exploration Project Report, 89, 145–166.
Lumley, David E., Claerbout, Jon F. and Bevc, Dimitri, 1994, Anti-aliased Kirchhoff
3-D migration: 64th Annual Internat. Mtg., Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded
Abstracts, 94, 1282–1285.
Meinardus, H., Nieto, C., Chaveste, A., and Castañeda, J., 2000, Efficient, targetoriented 3-D prestack depth migration in two steps: The Leading Edge, 19(2),
138–144.
Vermeer, G., 1990, Seismic wavefield sampling: a wave number approach to
acquisition fundamentals: Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, 120 p.
Wu, Y., 1998, Migration response and trace weighting for 3-D irregular
seismic surveys: 68th Annual Internat. Mtg., Soc. Expl. Geophys.,
Expanded Abstracts, 1558, Session: ST4.8.

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3D Prestack Kirchhoff Curved-Ray Time Migration
3D Prestack Kirchhoff Curved-Ray Time Migration
performs a time migration, including curved-ray adjustments,
of prestack seismic data. In areas of irregular bin fold coverage,
it provides an alternative to DMO plus common-offset F-K
migration with an optional stack and F-K demigration.
3D Prestack Kirchhoff Curved-Ray Time Migration differs
from 3D Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration only in its
application of the curved-ray adjustments using an eta table.
Please refer to the 3D Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration
documentation for all parameters not listed below.

[Workflow] [Parameters] [Known Problems]
WorkFlow
Preparation of an eta table may be done using the ProMAX
module Stratified Earth Effective Eta, which uses an interval
velocity in time and post-NMO mute in calculating a time- and
space-varying effective eta by fitting an anisotropic formula.

Parameters
Source of ETAs
Select Database or File.

Select ETA table
This appears if Database to Source of ETAs. Select an ETA
table by navigating to the associated ProMAX area/line
database.

Path to the ETA table file
This appears if File to Source of ETAs. Enter a path and file
name for the ETA file or click the browse button to navigate to
the file in the file system. This option would only be used if
working with no associated ProMAX area/line. The file selected

138SeisSpace Reference

should be an XXXXXXXXTETA file, representing a ProMAX
3D table.

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Archive/Restore

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Archive Project
Archive Project writes a SeisSpace project to an archive disk
file for backup purposes. There are options to select flows or
datasets only, purge flows (clean to last few versions), and/or
remove files after the archive process completes successfully.

[Workflow] [Parameters] [Known Problems]
WorkFlow
Like ProMAX, SeisSpace uses ctar to archive and restore.
Archive Project should be run from within the project or
subproject to be archived. The file archive_list.txt containing
the ctar command and arguments, as well as the complete
listing of files archived, will be written to the SeisSpace project
directory.

Parameters
File path for the disk archive file
Enter a fully qualified path to an output file. This path must
begin with a "/" or the menu will report an error.

Archive all flow folders?
Select Yes to archive all flow folders, instances and log files.
Select No to skip all flow folders.

Purge flow folders to this many versions
This appears if Yes to Archive all flow folders. The default
value of 0 retains flows as they are. Any other integer will retain
that many of the most recent flow instances and associated job
log files.

Archive all seismic files?
Select Yes to archive all datasets or No to skip all data.

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Delete any empty flows or datasets?
Select Yes to clean up empty project components or No to retain
and archive them. Empty datasets, etc may be useful in project
skeletons or tutorials.

Remove files after archive?
Select Yes to automatically remove the selected project
components after they are archived. If the entire project is being
archived, the project folder will remain, containing only the
archive flow and output listing. The advantage of doing this
automatically rather than manually are:

No files are removed unless the archive is completely
successful, and
The archive flow listing remains, providing a record of
where the data went.

Verbose listing of files?
Select Yes to list all project files or No to report a summary
only.

Fail on any archiving errors?
Select Yes to fail on error or No to archive what can be archived
and report errors to the output listing.

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Restore Project
Restore Project reads an archive disk file, restoring a
SeisSpace project from backup. There are options to choose
whether flows and/or datasets are read from the archive and
where data is located when restored.

[Workflow] [Parameters] [Known Problems]
WorkFlow
Like ProMAX, SeisSpace uses ctar to archive and restore.
Restore Project should be run from within the project or
subproject to which the archive will be restored. This will most
often be a new project, containing only the restore flow, but
could be an existing, populated project, to which files will be
added from the archive.

Parameters
File path for the disk archive file
Enter a fully qualified path for the input archive file.

Type of operation
Select between:


Restore restores to disk from the archive.
Simple List lists the contents of the archive.
Header Dump dumps the archive file header, containing
date created and size of archive.

Restore flow folders?
This appears if Restore to Type of operation. Select Yes to
restore all flows from the archive.

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Restore seismic files?
This appears if Restore or Dest List to Type of operation.
Select Yes to restore all seismic datasets from the archive.

VFS for seismic?
This appears if Yes to Restore seismic files or Dest List to
Type of operation. Choose a VFS definition from those
associated with the current SeisSpace Data Home. A user with
SeisSpace Administrator privileges can use the Admin tool
from the main SeisSpace toolbar to add or modify existing VFS
definitions and associations.

Seismic dataset restoration method
This appears if Yes to Restore seismic files. Select from:

Most Space: This default writes seismic files into the
member of the selected VFS with the most space.
Round-robin: Restore files to each disk in the VFS
member list. If a disk fills up, it is dropped from the list and
the restore continues in other available partitions.

Disable checking for available disk space?
This appears if Restore or Dest List to Type of operation.
Select No, the default, to not write files to directories unless
there is adequate room for the files. Select Yes to disable this
feature, because some devices, such as mass storage devices,
and some combinations of hardware will erroneously detect low
disk space.

Ignore checksum errors?
Select Yes to ignore checksum errors. Checksum errors occur
when the contents of a restored file do not match. The error is
probably indicative of a hard error reading the disk file. If you
are forced to override the default and use this parameter, you
should check for lost or corrupted files.

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Verbose listing of files?
Select Yes to list all project files restored or No to report a
summary only.

Fail on any archiving errors?
Select Yes to fail on error or No to restore what can be restored
and report errors to the output listing.

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Miscellaneous

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Process Cleanup
Process Cleanup

[Input] [Output] [Workflow] [Tips] [Parameters]
[Theory] [Known Problems]
Input Requirements
Required Headers
Any primary and secondary trace header values or ranges.

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output Headers

WorkFlow
Tips and Recommendations
This tool must be the first in the flow or alone in a flow.

Parameters
Just testing?
Select Yes to test this tool. If Yes, no processes will be killed.

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Verbose?
Select Yes to list the processes that are killed. The default is
Yes.

Clean up all processes?
Select Yes to kill all processes that you own on the machine(s)
where this job is submitted. The default is No.

Clean up all SeisSpace processes?
Select Yes to kill all recognized SeisSpace processes that you
own. The default is No.

Clean up SeisSpace Exec processes?
Select Yes to kill all SeisSpace Exec processes that you own.
The default is Yes.

Clean up SeisSpace FlatFileDbManagers?
Select Yes to kill all SeisSpace FlatFileDbManager processes
that you own. The default is No.

Clean up SeisSpace WorkManagers?
Select Yes to kill all SeisSpace WorkManager processes that
you own. The default is No.

Clean up SeisSpace NetDirAdmins?
Select Yes to kill all SeisSpace NetDirAdmin processes that
you own. The default is No.

Clean up all ProMAX processes?
Select Yes to kill all recognized ProMAX processes that you
own. The default is Yes.

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Clean up pvmd processes?
Select Yes to kill all pvmd processes that you own. The default
is No.

Kill commands that start with
Enter a string to kill all commands that you own that start with
the string. The default is NONE.

Kill commands that contain
Enter a string to kill all commands that you own that contain
this string. The default is NONE.

Theory

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Test Data Difference

[Input Requirements] [Output] [Workflow]
[Tips and Reccomendations] [Parameters] [Theory]
[Known Problems]
IInput Requirements
Required Headers
Any primary and secondary trace header values or ranges.

Required Format

Assumptions

Output
Output number of traces per ensemble should be twice the
input.

WorkFlow
Tips and Recommendations
Buffer should be big enough for several ensembles of both
datasets.

Parameters
Theory

150ProWESS Reference

A
Amplitude
Threshold Amplitudes 57
D
Data Input/Output
Disk Data Input 13
Disk Data Output 19
SEG-Y Input 3
Disk Data Input 13
Disk Data Output 19
Display
Trace Display 60
Trace Display Label 64
E
ELSE 67
ELSEIF 69
End If 71
End Split 73
ENDIF 84
F
Flow Control
ELSE 67
ELSEIF 69
End If 71
End Split 73
ENDIF 84
IF 74
Inline Sort 76
Join 81
Reproduce Traces 83
SPLIT 84
I
IF 74
Inline Sort 76
J
Join 81
R
Reproduce Traces 83
S
SEG-Y Input 3
SPLIT 84
T
Threshold Amplitudes 57
Trace Display 60
Trace Display Label 64

151ProWESS Reference

V
Velocity
Velocity Auto Picker 88
Velocity Auto Picker 88