Aircraft System

Reverse thrust
- Clamshell (hot stream)
 large metal plates are deflected hydraulically into the jet
efflux, changing its direction by about 135 degrees.
 The materials need to be heat resistant due to the operating
environment
- Cascade (Cold stream)
 Consists of a system of blocker doors, which is hydraulically
deflected into the direction of the fan airflow. The airflow
then escapes through the rearward facing cascade vanes,
exposed by a translating sleeves moving rearward
What is fly-by-wire
- Electronically managed flight control system, which uses the
computers to make aircraft easier to handle while enhancing the
safety
- It replaces the mechanical linkage between the cockpit control
and control surfaces by lighter electrical wires, instead of using
the mechanical cables ad pulleys in the conventional control
system
- At the heart of the system are computers that convert the pilot’s
commands into electrical impulses and determine how to move
the actuators at each control surface to provide the expected
response.
- Commands from the computers are input without pilot’s
knowledge to stabilize the aircraft.
Describe the fly-by-wire system on B777
- The primary flight control system supplies manual and automatic
aircraft control in pitch, roll, yaw and protection against
overstressing, stalling, overspeed
- Position sensors on the control column, rudder pedal and
speedbrake lever convert movement into electrical signals which
are sent to each of the four ‘black boxes’ called actuator control
electronics (ACEs)
- The signals from these ACEs are then sent to the three primary
flight computers (PFCs).
- The PFCs then receives information from other aircraft systems
regarding the airspeed, outside air data, attitude, angle of attack,
engine thrust.
- Modified signals are then sent back to the actuator control
electronics and from there are sent to the hydraulic actuators to
move the control surfaces
Describe the two-way digital bus in B777
 The two way digital bus has been adopted as a new industry
standard, ARINC 629, which permits the airplane system and

This further simplifies the assembly and saves weight. As the forward airspeed increases. For the engine it feel likes the air velocity represents a force that opposes thrust. the associated computers to communicate with one another through a common wire path instead of separate one way wire connections.  The hot.  The pressure increase across each stage is comparatively small so that a number of stages are required to produce the necessary pressure. followed by one ring of stationary blades (stator). while increasing reliability through reduction in the amount of wires and connectors Describe the EGPWS on B777  It displays the potentially threatening terrain and gives audible alert upto one minute in advance of the possible terrain conflict. pressurized air from the compressor then enter the combustion chamber and mixed with a steady stream of fuel and ignited. while air velocity at the exhaust remains constant. The difference of the two velocities decreases as the airspeed increases. instead of the traditional 10 to 15 seconds in the previous systems  It features the proprietory digital terrain map. the air velocity at the intake increases too. What is intake momentum drag? The thrust produced by a stationary aircraft is called the gross thrust. One stage of compressor consists of a ring of rotating blades (rotor).  The expanding exhaust flow from the combustion chamber channels throught the stationary guide vanes that direct the flow into the turbine blades. The rotating blades propel the air through the stator blades with a resultant increase in pressure.  The air continues to expand as it flows through the convergent duct of the jet pipe and exhaust from the engine as high speed jet. which is continuously compared to the aircraft position data with navigation system.  The turbine rotates under the force of the airflow impinging on the turbine blades and in turn rotates the compressor via the connecting shaft. This is called intake momentum draw and it decreases overall thrust with increase in airspeed What is Ram Effect? . How does jet engine works?  Air is first drawn by the compressor into the engine intake.

as. for avoiding the overstressing the engine on startup. RPM fluctuation What is auto igniters? In order to guard against possible flame out upon a compressor stall or disrupted airflow. benefit less from ram effect? What is the use of Exhaust Gas Temperature? It is the gas temperature at the turbine. leading to a separation of airflow over the compressor blades in the same way as over the aerofoil. mass of airflow. Foreign object damage 2. Worn. accelerating or decelerating and cruising. The measurement is taken by probes close to the turbine and it is displayed in the cockpit on the EGT gauge. An increase in EGT 3. dirty or contaminated compressor components 3. pressure ratio and rpm. Can be caused by: 1. What is Compressor surge? Surge is a phenomenon where the airflow through the compressor becomes choked and sometimes reverses in direction. Engine vibration 4. The thrust loss due to intake momentum drag. Thus. Why high bypass turbo fans experience more in take momentum drag. more or less equals the thrust gained by ram effect. the angle of attack of the compressor blades exceeds the critical angle of attack. leading to a larger mass of air per unit volume.As the forward speed increase. It is an important parameter . They are automatically turned on to provide spark into the combustion chamber. Aircraft operation outside of the engine design envelop. High EGT for a short time may destroy the turbine. it is identified . jet thrust is considered to be more or less constant as speed varies. What is compressor stall? It is a disruption or breakdown of airflow within the compressor. stagnation pressure at the engine intake increases too. Auto ignitors may b used. Excessive EGT for a long time may shorten engine’s life. if one of these gets disturbed. Thrust loss 2. Compressor stall can be identified by: 1. As the compressor is designed to perform ideally under a specific angle of attack.

Reservoir . .When a selection is made at the control valve.Possible flame out. . .At the same time. through the jack.It supplies a reserve of hydraulic fluid and compensate for minor leakage in the system and provides a storage space for the returning fluid . .Most larger aircraft will have a pump driven by the aircraft engine called the Engine Driven Pump . the control valve connects the returning fluid to the common return hence controlling the displaced fluid at the same time.It directs the fluid from the hydraulic pump to the end connection of the jack selected in order to move the jack in the desired direction. where the air is relieved and normal engine operation is restored.The hand pump draws fluid from the reservoir and direct it to the control valve.It may be mechanically operated by the pilot or electrically operatred .An instantaneous noise. Describe the simple hydraulic system.Large increase in EGT. Jack or actuator . Control Valve . that fluid is being used to convert. Bleed air valves are fitted at some compressor stages. the hydraulic pressure into the mechanical energy. .A normal jack has two end connections through which hydraulic fluid is fed under pressure from a control valve.This piston is fined with seals which prevent the hydraulic fluid from leaking from one side of the piston to the other.Used to convert hydraulic pressure into mechanical energy . First the later compressor stages stalls. . This in turn causes a further expansion of the air up to the first compressor stage.Comprises of a cylinder in which is fitted with a piston and piston rod or ram. causing airflow to decrease. . Most aircraft hand pumps are double acting type to ensure a continuous flow is provided. fluid is then drawn by the pump from the reservoir Pump. The hand pump is designed to give a continuous flow of fluid. It takes place at low rpm and triggered by air attempting to expand from the combustion chamber towards the compressor.by: . in order to relieve the excessive pressure.

therefore burning more fuel at a lower temperature and pressure. . During the start of the engine.Distributor  Guide the high energy voltage to the correct spark plug through one of the high tension leads  As each cylinder fires every two revolution of the crankshaft.  A breaker contact in the primary coil circuit interrupts the flowing current and this interruption causes the magnetic field to collapse thereby generating a very high voltage in the secondary coil. When the engine fires and runs idle the impuse coupling detaches.Components:  Magneto  Distributor  High tension leads  Two spark plugs per cylinder .Magneto  Use a strong magnet rotating inside a coil  The magnetic field generates a voltage in the coil which is transformed into a higher voltage by a secondary coil with much more windings than the primary coil. . reducing the time required for the fuel charge to burn.It is a small turbine that is installed in an aircraft and used as an emergency hydraulic or electrical power source.It generates power from the airstream by ram pressure due to the speed of the aircraft What is Magneto Ignition? . the crankshaft rotates very slowly (around 120RPM) and the magnetos at 60RPM. which each plug having a separate magneto system  Provide redundancy should a magneto fail  Better engine performance Twin sparks provide two flame fronts within the cylinder. Impulse coupling: a device used to retard the ignition timing to almost at TDC and an acceleration of the magnet in the magneto. What is Ram Air Turbine? .- Some control valves have a neutral selection which provides a facility to be able to stop the jack in any desired position. the rotor in the distributor must rotate at half the crankshaft speed - - Self contained ignition system Each cylinder has two spark plug. .  This peak voltage is then conducted to the spark plugs by the distributors and high tension leads.