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Z-MAP Plus

Reference
Guide

Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide


2003 Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 161328

October 2003

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide

2003 Landmark Graphics Corporation


All Rights Reserved Worldwide
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Landmark Graphics Corporation
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P.O. Box 42806, Houston, Texas 77242, USA
Phone: 713-839-2000
FAX: 713-839-2401
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Note
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a
commitment by Landmark Graphics Corporation. Landmark Graphics Corporation assumes no responsibility for any
error that may appear in this manual. Some states or jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer of expressed or implied
warranties in certain transactions; therefore, this statement may not apply to you.

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Contents

Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide


Introduction
Z-MAP Plus Overview ........................................................................................

Guide Purpose and Organization ...............................................................

Documentation .............................................................................................

Z-MAP Plus Interface .........................................................................................

Using the Primary Windows ........................................................................

Z-MAP Plus System Window .................................................................

Z-MAP Plus Xterm Window ....................................................................

Z-MAP Plus Window ...............................................................................

Shortcut Icons .........................................................................................

Workflow Icons .......................................................................................

Starting Z-MAP Plus ..........................................................................................

Starting Z-MAP Plus from OpenWorks ......................................................

Starting Z-MAP Plus from the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu ...................

Setting Up an Alias for the StartUp Command ..........................................

10

Using Environment Variables ................................................................

10

Understanding MFDs, ZGFs, and OpenWorks ................................................

11

Visualizing MFDs and ZGFs ........................................................................

11

Purpose and Use of MFDs ...........................................................................

11

Purpose and Use of ZGFs ...........................................................................

12

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Introduction continued
OpenWorks ........................................................................................................

13

Overview of OpenWorks ..............................................................................

13

Z-MAP Plus Connection to OpenWorks .....................................................

14

Starting Z-MAP Plus with an OpenWorks Connection ........................

14

Selecting input Files from OpenWorks .................................................

15

Saving Files to the OpenWorks Project ................................................

16

Typical Workflows ........................................................................................

17

Using Z-MAP Plus with OpenWorks for the First Time ............................

19

Defining Projects and Interpreters .............................................................

20

Integrating with Other Products .......................................................................

22

SeisWorks ..........................................................................................................

24

StratWorks .........................................................................................................

26

Stratamodel ........................................................................................................

27

TDQ .....................................................................................................................

28

PetroWorks ........................................................................................................

29

New Features in the 2003.12 Release ..............................................................

30

New Icons .....................................................................................................

30

Opening SeisWorks Horizons as Grids .....................................................

30

True Color .....................................................................................................

30

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File Menu Options


Overview .............................................................................................................

31

Options in the File New Menu ..........................................................................

32

Session .........................................................................................................

32

Master File ....................................................................................................

33

Graphics File (ZGF) ......................................................................................

34

Basemap .......................................................................................................

34

Picture Name, AOI Types, and Scale Types .........................................

36

AOI from Grid, Data, Picture, or Contours ...........................................

37

AOI from User Input; Offsets, and Scale AOI .......................................

38

Projection Parameters ............................................................................

39

Cross Section ...............................................................................................

45

Picture Name ...........................................................................................

46

AOI from Horizons, Baseline .................................................................

46

Horizons (Grid Files) ..............................................................................

46

Baseline (Vertex File) .............................................................................

46

Line Number ............................................................................................

47

AOI from Existing Picture ......................................................................

47

AOI from User Input ................................................................................

47

Horizontal and Vertical Minimums and Maximums .............................

47

Offsets and Scale ....................................................................................

47

Open Menu Options ..........................................................................................

48

Session .........................................................................................................

48

MFD Open/Close ..........................................................................................

48

ZGF Open/Close ...........................................................................................

49

Picture Open .................................................................................................

49

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File: Open continued


SeisWorks .....................................................................................................

50

Seismic Project Selection Dialog Box ..................................................

51

Import from SeisWorks Dialog Box ......................................................

52

Mapping Files Section ............................................................................

57

MFD Output Section ...............................................................................

58

OpenWorks Output Section ...................................................................

59

Using the File Manager .....................................................................................

60

Working with File Manager ..........................................................................

61

File Manager Icons .................................................................................

62

Other Ways to Execute Commands in the File Manager ....................

63

Directory Pane ..............................................................................................

65

File Listing Pane ...........................................................................................

66

File Detail Pane .............................................................................................

67

Save Session As Command .............................................................................

68

Saving Parameters to a Session File .........................................................

68

Save As Command ............................................................................................

70

ASCII (Export) ...............................................................................................

70

File ............................................................................................................

70

Format File ..............................................................................................

71

Format Name ...........................................................................................

71

Output Name & ID Characters ...............................................................

72

CPS-1 File .....................................................................................................

73

ZGF Flat File .................................................................................................

74

ASCII File Format for ZGFs ....................................................................

74

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File: Save As continued


SeisWorks File ..............................................................................................

85

Seismic Project Selection Dialog Box ..................................................

85

Transfer Grid to Seismic Dialog Box ....................................................

86

Info ......................................................................................................................

89

Master File Directory ....................................................................................

90

Report ......................................................................................................

91

Type of File to Display ............................................................................

92

Match on Characters ..............................................................................

92

File Listing ....................................................................................................

93

Input File ..................................................................................................

94

Listing Type, Records, and Output File ................................................

94

Fields to List (Ordered Selection) .........................................................

96

Column Headings and Widths ...............................................................

99

Windowed Data ....................................................................................... 100


Grid Listing ................................................................................................... 101
Data Statistics .............................................................................................. 104
Select Data File ....................................................................................... 104
Select Field .............................................................................................. 104
Grid Statistics ............................................................................................... 105
Select Input Grid ..................................................................................... 105
File/Picture Information ............................................................................... 105
Input Graphics File ................................................................................. 105
Information Specifications ..................................................................... 106
Graphics File Summary ............................................................................... 107
List CPS-1 File .............................................................................................. 107

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File continued
Directory Paths .................................................................................................. 108
MFDs ............................................................................................................. 110
ZGFs .............................................................................................................. 111
Data Files ...................................................................................................... 112
Session Files ................................................................................................ 112
Format Files .................................................................................................. 114
Color Tables ................................................................................................. 115
Macro Files ................................................................................................... 115
Import ................................................................................................................. 116
ASCII (Import) ............................................................................................... 117
Before You Start to Import ASCII Data ................................................. 119
Input and Output Files for the Import Option ....................................... 120
If You Have a Format File ....................................................................... 121
If You Have a Format Description ......................................................... 121
If You Do Not Have a Format File .......................................................... 122
Grid File to MFD/OW .................................................................................... 129
Disk File to ZGF ............................................................................................ 130
CPS-1 File to MFD ........................................................................................ 131
Print Menu Options ........................................................................................... 131
CGM ............................................................................................................... 132
Graphics File Name ................................................................................ 134
Picture Name ........................................................................................... 134
Unit Type ................................................................................................. 134
Graphics Features .................................................................................. 134
Picture: W and H ..................................................................................... 134

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File: Print: CGM continued


Plot Parameters ...................................................................................... 135
Queue Plotter and Plotter Name ............................................................ 136
Create CGM Disk File CGM File Name .................................................. 136
Other .............................................................................................................. 137
Select Graphics File ............................................................................... 138
Select Picture .......................................................................................... 138
Plot Parameters ...................................................................................... 138
Choose Features to Plot ........................................................................ 139
Copy Menu Options ........................................................................................... 140
Copy Files ..................................................................................................... 140
Input File .................................................................................................. 141
Output File Name and Master File ......................................................... 141
Copy Pictures ............................................................................................... 142
Input Graphics File ................................................................................. 143
Input Picture ............................................................................................ 144
Output Graphics File .............................................................................. 144
Output Picture ......................................................................................... 145
Features Division .................................................................................... 145
Features to Copy .................................................................................... 145
Rename Menu Options ...................................................................................... 146
Rename Files ................................................................................................ 146
Input File .................................................................................................. 147
Output File Name and Master File ......................................................... 147
Rename Pictures .......................................................................................... 148
Input Graphics File ................................................................................. 149

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File: Rename: Rename Pictures continued


Input Picture ............................................................................................ 149
Output Picture ......................................................................................... 149
Delete Menu Options ......................................................................................... 150
Delete Files ................................................................................................... 150
Delete Pictures ............................................................................................. 151
Select Graphics File ............................................................................... 152
Select and Delete Pictures ..................................................................... 152
Compressing Files ............................................................................................ 153
Compressing Master Files .......................................................................... 153
Input/Output Master File ........................................................................ 154
Compressing Graphics Files ...................................................................... 155
Select Input/Output Graphics File ......................................................... 156
Exiting from Z-MAP Plus ................................................................................... 156

Edit Menu Options


Overview ............................................................................................................. 157
Graphics Editor .................................................................................................. 158
Undo Last Feature ........................................................................................ 159
Redo Last Deleted Feature .......................................................................... 159
Delete Features ............................................................................................ 159
Delete Elements of a Feature ...................................................................... 160
Edit Selected Features ................................................................................. 161
Editing Procedures ................................................................................. 162
Select Graphics Features ....................................................................... 163
Edit Text ................................................................................................... 165

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Edit: Graphics Editor: Edit Selected Feature continued


Delete Text ............................................................................................... 166
Change Parameters ................................................................................ 166
Edit Lines ................................................................................................. 167
Edit Markers ............................................................................................ 169
Edit Area .................................................................................................. 173
Edit All Features ........................................................................................... 173
Data Editor ......................................................................................................... 174
Points ............................................................................................................ 175
Cursor Move ............................................................................................ 175
View/Edit .................................................................................................. 176
Area Edit .................................................................................................. 176
Undo ......................................................................................................... 178
Delete ....................................................................................................... 178
Undelete ................................................................................................... 178
Create Point ............................................................................................. 179
Select File ................................................................................................ 180
Select Fields ............................................................................................ 180
Display Parameters ................................................................................ 181
Autoset Parameters ................................................................................ 183
Contours, Faults, Lines ............................................................................... 185
Reshape Contours .................................................................................. 185
Break ........................................................................................................ 187
Extend ...................................................................................................... 188
Break & Extend ....................................................................................... 189
Smooth .................................................................................................... 189

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Edit: Data Editor: Contours, Faults, Lines continued


Undo Last Edit ........................................................................................ 190
Delete ....................................................................................................... 190
Undelete ................................................................................................... 190
New Line .................................................................................................. 190
Contour Value Edit ................................................................................. 191
Point Edit ................................................................................................. 191
Select Files .............................................................................................. 191
Display Parameters ................................................................................ 191
Autoset Parameters ................................................................................ 192
Grid Nodes .................................................................................................... 194
Change Values ........................................................................................ 194
Interpolate Values ................................................................................... 194
Area Edit .................................................................................................. 195
Select File ................................................................................................ 196
Post Values ............................................................................................. 196
Selective Post ......................................................................................... 198
Create Data ................................................................................................... 198
Regrid ............................................................................................................ 201
Select Data .................................................................................................... 205
Update Files .................................................................................................. 206
Cancel Edit .................................................................................................... 207
Color Overview .................................................................................................. 208
Color Table ......................................................................................................... 209
The RGB Color System ................................................................................ 209
HLS Color System ........................................................................................ 210

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Edit: Color Table continued


Description of the Color Table Display ...................................................... 211
Description of the Edit Color Table Dialog Box ........................................ 212
Status/Prompt ......................................................................................... 213
Set Color Mode RGB or HLS .................................................................. 213
Edit ........................................................................................................... 213
Display ..................................................................................................... 214
Copy ......................................................................................................... 214
Interpolate ............................................................................................... 214
Read ......................................................................................................... 216
Write ......................................................................................................... 216
Update picture dynamically ................................................................... 217
Saving the Changes to the Color Table ................................................ 217
Color Indices ...................................................................................................... 218

Features
Overview ............................................................................................................. 219
Basemap (Basemap Features Dialog Box) ..................................................... 223
Basemap Features Buttons ......................................................................... 225
Cross Section .................................................................................................... 226
Cross Section Features ............................................................................... 226
Horizons .................................................................................................. 226
Map Features ................................................................................................ 232
Overlay Pictures ................................................................................................ 233
Input Graphics File ....................................................................................... 235
Input Picture ................................................................................................. 235

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Features: Overlay Pictures continued


Output Graphics File .................................................................................... 235
Output Picture .............................................................................................. 236
Overlay Parameters ..................................................................................... 236
Division of Features on Overlay ............................................................ 237
Features to Overlay ................................................................................ 237
Contouring ......................................................................................................... 238
Overview of Contouring Options ................................................................ 238
Contour ......................................................................................................... 239
Contour Old .................................................................................................. 240
Input File (Grid or Contour) ................................................................... 241
Constraint (Faults or Polygon) .............................................................. 241
Contouring Parameters, Output Name ................................................. 241
Curve Drawing and Labeling Parameters ............................................. 243
Contour Report ....................................................................................... 245
Fast Contour ................................................................................................. 246
3D Fishnet Plot ............................................................................................. 246
Shaded Relief ............................................................................................... 247
Contouring the Brightness Grid to Obtain the Shaded Relief Map .... 249
Color Table .............................................................................................. 250
Color Scale ................................................................................................... 251
Lines ................................................................................................................... 252
File (Drawing Lines Using File) ................................................................... 253
Select Data .............................................................................................. 253
Fields to Post .......................................................................................... 253
Line Drawing Parameters ....................................................................... 254

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Features: Contouring: Lines: File (Drawing Lines Using File) continued


Symbol Parameters ................................................................................ 260
Vary Symbol Size Parameters ............................................................... 265
Labeling Parameters .............................................................................. 267
Data Units/Clip Mode .............................................................................. 268
Cursor (Drawing Lines with the Cursor) .................................................... 269
Contours .................................................................................................. 269
Faults ....................................................................................................... 269
Polylines .................................................................................................. 269
Line Parameters ...................................................................................... 270
Drawing Lines and Line End Options ................................................... 270
Text ..................................................................................................................... 271
File (File Text) ............................................................................................... 272
Key (Key Text) .............................................................................................. 273
Keyboard ................................................................................................. 273
Key & Cursor ........................................................................................... 274
Cursor Only ............................................................................................. 274
Below Last ............................................................................................... 274
Grid Nodes ......................................................................................................... 275
Post Grid Data Dialog Box .......................................................................... 275
Grid .......................................................................................................... 275
Posting Parameters ................................................................................ 275
Labeling Parameters .............................................................................. 276
Polygons ............................................................................................................ 277
Color-filled Polygons ................................................................................... 277
Lease Polygon Drawing ............................................................................... 278

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Features: Polygons continued


Shaded Polygons ......................................................................................... 279
(X,Y,Z) Point Data .............................................................................................. 280
Post Data Dialog Box ................................................................................... 280
Select Data Button Select DATA Dialog Box .................................... 280
Fields to post Button Ordered Selection Dialog Box ....................... 280
Symbol Parameters Button Symbol Parameters Dialog Box .......... 280
Labeling Parameters .................................................................................... 288
Field Parameters ..................................................................................... 288
Labeling Rate .......................................................................................... 289
Color Fields ............................................................................................. 290
Data Units/Clip Mode ................................................................................... 290
Data Units ................................................................................................ 290
Clip to Border Mode ............................................................................... 290
Deviated Wells ................................................................................................... 291
Deviated Well Files ....................................................................................... 293
Select Data .................................................................................................... 294
Top/Bottom Fields to Post .......................................................................... 294
Top/Bottom Symbol Parameters ................................................................ 294
General Symbol Parameters .................................................................. 295
Choose Symbol Code Field ................................................................... 296
Choose Select Field ................................................................................ 296
Choose Color Field for Symbol Color ................................................... 297
Vary Symbol Color Parameters ............................................................. 297
Z-table to Vary Symbol Color ................................................................ 298
Choose Size Field for Symbol Size ....................................................... 298

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Features: Deviated Wells: Top/Bottom Symbol Parameters continued


Vary Symbol Size Parameters ............................................................... 299
Choose Z-field to Vary Symbol Size ..................................................... 300
Z-table to Vary Symbol Size ................................................................... 300
Top/Bottom Labeling Parameters ............................................................... 300
Field Parameters ..................................................................................... 300
Labeling Rate .......................................................................................... 301
Color Fields ............................................................................................. 301
Well Trace Line Mode/Scale Mode .............................................................. 302
Use Primary Line Parameters for Which Lines .................................... 302
Type of Line Scale .................................................................................. 303
Well Trace Parameters ................................................................................. 303
Primary Line Parameters ....................................................................... 304
Choose Color Field for Line Color ........................................................ 306
Vary Line Color Parameters ................................................................... 306
Choose Z-Field to Vary Line Color ........................................................ 307
Z-Table to Vary Line Color ..................................................................... 307
Vary Line Pattern Parameters ................................................................ 308
Choose Z-Field to Vary Line Pattern ..................................................... 309
Z-Table to Vary Line Pattern .................................................................. 309
Choose Select Field ................................................................................ 309
Secondary Line Parameters .................................................................. 310
Well Trace Fields to Post ............................................................................. 312
Well Trace Symbol Parameters ................................................................... 312
General Symbol Parameters .................................................................. 312
Choose Symbol Code Field ................................................................... 314

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Features: Deviated Wells: Well Trace Symbol Parameters continued


Choose Select Field ................................................................................ 314
Choose Color Field For Symbol Color .................................................. 314
Vary Symbol Color Parameters ............................................................. 314
Choose Size Field for Symbol Size ....................................................... 316
Vary Symbol Size Parameters ............................................................... 316
Choose Z-field to Vary Symbol Size ..................................................... 317
Z-table to Vary Symbol Size ................................................................... 317
Well Trace Labeling Parameters ................................................................. 318
Well Trace Scale Field ................................................................................. 318
Well Trace Scale Parameters ...................................................................... 319
Data Units/Clip Mode ................................................................................... 320
2D Seismic ......................................................................................................... 321
Post Seismic Line Data Dialog Box ............................................................ 321
Data .......................................................................................................... 322
Z-field ....................................................................................................... 322
Shotpoints to Post .................................................................................. 322
Labeled Shotpoints (Shotpoint Number) .............................................. 325
Labeled Shotpoints (Z-values) .............................................................. 327
Labeling Parameters and ZNON ............................................................ 330
Line Name Parameters ........................................................................... 331
Select Lines to Post ................................................................................ 332
Symbol Color Parameters ...................................................................... 335
3D Seismic ......................................................................................................... 338
Input Data Requirements (Fields and Sorts) ............................................. 339
Post Seismic Data Menu .............................................................................. 340

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Features: 3D Seismic: Post Seismic Data Menu continued


Seismic Data ........................................................................................... 340
Choose Fields ......................................................................................... 341
Shotpoints to Post .................................................................................. 343
Shotpoint Labels (Shotpoint Number) .................................................. 345
Shotpoint Labels (Z-value) ..................................................................... 346
Line Name Parameters ........................................................................... 348
Track Line Parameters ........................................................................... 349
3D Survey Name Parameters ................................................................. 351
3D Survey Line Parameters ................................................................... 353
General Posting Parameters .................................................................. 355
Select Data to Post ................................................................................. 356
Modulation Parameters .......................................................................... 359
Symbol Size Range Creation Parameters ............................................ 360
Edit Z-Range Values ............................................................................... 362
Edit Symbol Size Range Values ............................................................ 362
Surveys (Canadian) ........................................................................................... 363
Create DLS/NTS Picture .............................................................................. 364
Post DLS & NTS Surveys ............................................................................ 365
Create & Post DLS Picture .......................................................................... 366
Create & Post NTS Picture .......................................................................... 366
NAD 27NAD 83 Datum Shift ...................................................................... 367
Post Township/Section Range (DLS) ......................................................... 367
Post National Topo. Survey (NTS) .............................................................. 368
Projection Box ................................................................................................... 369

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Features continued
Picture Assembly .............................................................................................. 370
Select Graphics File ..................................................................................... 370
Select Picture ............................................................................................... 370
Select Features ............................................................................................. 370
Cutline, Division ........................................................................................... 371
Create Frame ................................................................................................ 371
Modify Frame ................................................................................................ 372
Delete Frame ................................................................................................. 374

View Menu Options


Overview ............................................................................................................. 375
Display List ........................................................................................................ 376
Zoom In ............................................................................................................... 377
Canceling an Ongoing Redraw Operation ................................................. 377
Zoom Out ............................................................................................................ 378
Window ............................................................................................................... 379
Pan ...................................................................................................................... 380
Re-display .......................................................................................................... 381
Full Display ........................................................................................................ 382
Auto Display ....................................................................................................... 383
Switch Screens .................................................................................................. 384

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Modeling
Overview ............................................................................................................. 385
Shared Gridding Parameters ...................................................................... 388
Control Grids ................................................................................................ 389
Data Hulls ...................................................................................................... 390
Setting the Radius of the Ball used to Create the Convex Hull .......... 391
Search Radius .............................................................................................. 392
Extrapolation Distance ................................................................................ 392
Refinements .................................................................................................. 393
Flexing Parameters ...................................................................................... 393
Point Gridding Plus ........................................................................................... 394
Overview ....................................................................................................... 395
Point Gridding Plus Support Utilities ......................................................... 398
Using Point Gridding Plus ........................................................................... 399
Fault Processing ..................................................................................... 400
Fault Geometry ....................................................................................... 400
Profile Contouring and Point Gridding Plus ........................................ 400
Using Point Gridding Plus with Vertical Separation Faults ................ 401
Point Gridding Plus Parameters ................................................................. 401
Basic Tab ...................................................................................................... 401
Input Files ................................................................................................ 402
Gridding Parameters .............................................................................. 404
Output Panel ........................................................................................... 413
Advanced Tab ............................................................................................... 413
Smoothing Panel .................................................................................... 413
Other Controls Panel .............................................................................. 414

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Modeling: Point Gridding Plus: Advanced Tab continued


Pre-Computed Fault Polygon File ......................................................... 418
Other Outputs Tab ....................................................................................... 418
Expanded Fault Panel ............................................................................ 419
Fault Filled Panel .................................................................................... 419
ZNON Filled - Optional Panel ................................................................. 420
Data Used in Gridding - Optional Panel ................................................ 420
Additional Fields Tab ................................................................................... 421
DZ/DX Field .............................................................................................. 421
DZ/DY Field .............................................................................................. 421
GRADIENT-WEIGHT Field ...................................................................... 421
Data Type ................................................................................................. 421
Algorithms Requiring Additional Parameter Dialog Boxes ..................... 422
Isopach Parameter Options ................................................................... 423
Bounded Range Parameters Options ................................................... 424
Kriging Algorithm - Parameter Options ................................................ 425
Point Gridding .................................................................................................... 430
Overview ....................................................................................................... 431
Control Points .............................................................................................. 432
Z-field ............................................................................................................ 432
Faults ............................................................................................................. 432
Output Grid Name and Algorithm ............................................................... 432
Output Grid Name ................................................................................... 432
Output Grid Master File .......................................................................... 433
Algorithm Choices .................................................................................. 433
Boundary Tolerance ............................................................................... 435

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Modeling: Point Gridding: Output Grid Name and Algorithm continued


Compression Factor ............................................................................... 435
Type of Data ............................................................................................ 436
Primary Parameters ..................................................................................... 437
Minimum and Maximum X and Y Coordinates ..................................... 438
X and Y Gridding Increments ................................................................ 438
Minimum and Maximum Z-values ......................................................... 439
Search Radius ......................................................................................... 439
Control Grid Usage ................................................................................. 439
Secondary Parameters ................................................................................ 440
X Expand and Y Expand ......................................................................... 441
Type of Weighting ................................................................................... 441
Minimum Total Points ............................................................................ 441
Desired Points Per Sector ...................................................................... 442
Minimum Number of Sectors ................................................................. 443
Extrapolation Distance ........................................................................... 443
Flexing Parameters ...................................................................................... 444
Type of Flexing ....................................................................................... 445
Cutoff ....................................................................................................... 446
Number of Refinements ......................................................................... 446
Number of Flex Passes .......................................................................... 446
Control of Passes ................................................................................... 446
Smoothness Modulus ............................................................................ 447
Control Grid .................................................................................................. 447
Select Additional Fields ............................................................................... 448
DZ/DX Field .............................................................................................. 448

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Modeling: Point Gridding: Select Additional Fields continued


DZ/DY Field .............................................................................................. 448
Z-weight Field .......................................................................................... 448
Data Distribution Statistics ......................................................................... 448
Contour Gridding ............................................................................................... 451
Overview ....................................................................................................... 452
Contour Gridding Algorithm .................................................................. 452
Contours ....................................................................................................... 452
Contour Data Format ................................................................................... 453
Faults ............................................................................................................. 454
Output Grid Name and Error Check Parameters ....................................... 455
Select Output Type ................................................................................. 455
Output Grid Name ................................................................................... 455
Output Grid Master File .......................................................................... 455
Name of Error-Check Contour File ........................................................ 456
Contour File Master File ......................................................................... 456
Break Contour Distance ......................................................................... 456
Close Contour Distance ......................................................................... 456
Primary Parameters ..................................................................................... 457
Minimum and Maximum X and Y Coordinates ..................................... 457
Grid Increment ........................................................................................ 457
Minimum and Maximum Grid Values .................................................... 458
ZNON Value ............................................................................................. 458
Number of Search Lines ........................................................................ 458
Search Radius ......................................................................................... 459
Extrapolation Distance ........................................................................... 460

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Modeling: Contour Gridding: Primary Parameters continued


Name of Intersection Point File ............................................................. 460
Master File for Point File ........................................................................ 460
Flexing Parameters ...................................................................................... 461
Type of Flexing ....................................................................................... 461
Cutoff ....................................................................................................... 461
Number of Flex Passes .......................................................................... 461
Control of Passes ................................................................................... 462
Smoothness Modulus ............................................................................ 462
Use CTOG Intersection Points? ............................................................ 462
Use Contour Constraints? ..................................................................... 463
Upper/Lower Surface Bias and Multiplier Parameters ........................ 463
Upper Surface Bias ................................................................................. 464
Lower Surface Bias ................................................................................ 464
Upper Surface Multiplier ........................................................................ 464
Lower Surface Multiplier ........................................................................ 464
Profiles .......................................................................................................... 465
Z-Field (Profiles) ........................................................................................... 466
Control Points .............................................................................................. 466
Z-Field (Control Points) ............................................................................... 466
Trendform Gridding ........................................................................................... 467
Understanding Trendform Gridding ........................................................... 468
What is a Form Grid ................................................................................ 468
Trendform Gridding Algorithm .............................................................. 469
Gridding Bias .......................................................................................... 470
Faults in Trendform Gridding ................................................................ 470

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Modeling: Trendform Gridding: Understanding Trendform Gridding continued


Recommendations .................................................................................. 470
Using Trendform Gridding .......................................................................... 471
Trendform Gridding Parameters ................................................................. 472
Trendform Gridding Tab ........................................................................ 472
Other Outputs and Controls Tab ........................................................... 474
Viewing Results ............................................................................................ 474
Example 1. Applying Trendform to Attribute Modeling ............................ 475
Example 2: Applying Trendform to Stream Channel Contours ............... 476
Line Gridding Plus ............................................................................................. 477
Line Gridding Plus Gridding Parameters ................................................... 478
Data Hull Polygon File Name and MFD Location ................................. 478
Fault-cut Line File Name and Location ................................................. 478
Output Type ............................................................................................. 479
Distance Between Point to Cut Line ..................................................... 479
Control Grid Usage ................................................................................. 480
X and Y Grid Increments ........................................................................ 480
X Min, X Max, Y Min, Y Max, Z Min, Z Max ............................................ 481
Hull Data Value ........................................................................................ 482
Radius (for CONCAVE HULLs) .............................................................. 482
Extrapolation Mode ................................................................................ 483
Extrapolation Distance ........................................................................... 484
Minimum Number of Fault Crossings ................................................... 484
Gridding Extrapolation Limit Method ................................................... 484
Number of Refinements ......................................................................... 484
Type of Flexing ....................................................................................... 484

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Modeling: Line Gridding Plus Parameters continued


Smoothness Modulus ............................................................................ 485
Type of Flexing ....................................................................................... 485
Number of Flex Passes .......................................................................... 485
Control of Passes ................................................................................... 486
Cutoff ....................................................................................................... 486
Report Type ............................................................................................. 486
Line Gridding ..................................................................................................... 487
Overview ....................................................................................................... 487
Line Gridding Algorithm ........................................................................ 489
Line File ......................................................................................................... 490
Line Z-field .................................................................................................... 490
Faults ............................................................................................................. 490
Output File Name(s) & Types ...................................................................... 491
Select Output Type ................................................................................. 491
Output Grid Name ................................................................................... 492
Output Grid Master File .......................................................................... 492
Fault-cut Line Output File Name ........................................................... 492
Fault-cut Line Output Master File .......................................................... 492
Primary Parameters ..................................................................................... 493
Minimum and Maximum X and Y Coordinates ..................................... 493
X and Y Gridding Increments ................................................................ 493
Minimum and Maximum Z Values ......................................................... 494
ZNON Value ............................................................................................. 494
Search Radius ......................................................................................... 495
Break Line Distance ............................................................................... 495

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Modeling: Line Gridding: Primary Parameters continued


Extrapolation Mode ................................................................................ 495
Extrapolation Distance ........................................................................... 496
Flexing Parameters ...................................................................................... 496
Type of Flexing ....................................................................................... 497
Cutoff ....................................................................................................... 497
Number of Refinements ......................................................................... 497
Number of Flex Passes .......................................................................... 497
Control of Passes ................................................................................... 498
Smoothness Modulus ............................................................................ 498
Use Created Points in Flexing ............................................................... 498
Upper/Lower Bias and Multiplier Parameters ...................................... 499
Upper Surface Bias ................................................................................. 499
Lower Surface Bias ................................................................................ 500
Upper Surface Multiplier ........................................................................ 500
Lower Surface Multiplier ........................................................................ 500
Trend Fit Gridding ............................................................................................. 501
Overview ....................................................................................................... 502
Select Input File ............................................................................................ 502
Z-Field (for Data Input) ................................................................................. 503
Output Grid Name, Primary Parameters .................................................... 503
Output Grid Name ................................................................................... 503
Output Grid Master File .......................................................................... 504
Number of Terms .................................................................................... 504
Minimum and Maximum X and Y Coordinates ..................................... 505
X and Y Gridding Increments ................................................................ 505

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Modeling: Trend Fit Gridding: Output Grid Name, Primary Parameters continued
Minimum and Maximum Z Values ......................................................... 505
Input Grid (Blocking) Parameters ............................................................... 506
X and Y Block Factors ............................................................................ 506
Mean Information Display ...................................................................... 506
Residual Display ..................................................................................... 506
Trend Surface Grid ............................................................................................ 507
Using Trend Surface Gridding .................................................................... 508
Factors Affecting Trend Gridding Accuracy ........................................ 508
Block Averaging ..................................................................................... 512
Output Grid Parameters ......................................................................... 512
Limiting Z Values .................................................................................... 513
Boolean Grid ...................................................................................................... 515
Constant Grid ..................................................................................................... 516
Polynomial Grid ................................................................................................. 517
User-Defined Filter ............................................................................................ 519
Flexing ................................................................................................................ 520
Major Types of Flexing ................................................................................ 521
Effects of Flexing on Surface Form ............................................................ 522
Set FLEXING Parameters Dialog Box ......................................................... 523
Input Grid ................................................................................................. 523
Faults ....................................................................................................... 523
Output Grid Name, Mask Use ................................................................ 523
Flexing Parameters ................................................................................. 524
Control Points ......................................................................................... 529
Z-field (Control Pts) ................................................................................ 530
Grid .......................................................................................................... 530
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Operations
Overview ............................................................................................................. 531
Calculator ........................................................................................................... 536
Introduction to the Calculator ..................................................................... 538
Grid Operations ................................................................................................. 539
Single Grid Operations ................................................................................ 540
Input Grid ................................................................................................. 540
Operation ................................................................................................. 541
Output Grid Name and Constant Value ................................................ 543
Faults ....................................................................................................... 543
Dual Grid Operations ................................................................................... 544
Grid A and B ............................................................................................ 545
Operation ................................................................................................. 545
Output Grid Name, ZNON, and AOI ....................................................... 547
Antilog Base 10 (from Grid) ........................................................................ 548
Blank Grid ..................................................................................................... 549
How Blank Grid Works ........................................................................... 550
Input Grid ................................................................................................. 550
Select Polygon File ................................................................................. 550
Output Name and Parameters ............................................................... 550
Resample Grid .............................................................................................. 552
How Resample Grid Works .................................................................... 553
Input Grid ................................................................................................. 553
Select Faults ............................................................................................ 553
Output Grid Name and Parameters ....................................................... 554

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Operations: Grid Operations continued


Grid to Data ................................................................................................... 555
Input Grid ................................................................................................. 556
Output Data & Field Name, Conversion Rate ....................................... 556
Data Operations ................................................................................................. 558
Single Data Operations ................................................................................ 560
Input Data ................................................................................................ 561
Input Field ................................................................................................ 561
Operation ................................................................................................. 561
Output Data, Constant Value ................................................................. 563
Dual Data Operations ................................................................................... 565
Input Data ................................................................................................ 566
Input Field A and B ................................................................................. 567
Operation ................................................................................................. 567
Output Field ............................................................................................. 568
Field Type (if New Output Field) ............................................................ 568
Output Data, ZNON ................................................................................. 568
Antilog Base 10 (from Data) ........................................................................ 569
Blank Data ..................................................................................................... 570
How it Works ........................................................................................... 571
Input Data ................................................................................................ 571
Input Field ................................................................................................ 571
Polygon File ............................................................................................ 571
Output Field ............................................................................................. 571
Output Names and Parameters ............................................................. 572
Grid to Data ................................................................................................... 572

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Operations: Data Operations continued


Data Selection (Select Dialog Box) ............................................................. 573
Select Dialog Box Buttons ..................................................................... 574
Data Type ................................................................................................. 575
Output File ............................................................................................... 576
Output MFD ............................................................................................. 576
Source File .............................................................................................. 576
Edits to Perform ...................................................................................... 576
Input Edit Parameters ............................................................................. 577
Merge Data .................................................................................................... 617
Rules for the Input Files ......................................................................... 618
Specifying Merge Operation Parameters ............................................. 619
Range Editing ............................................................................................... 624
Input Data ................................................................................................ 625
Output File, Edit Type and Scope ......................................................... 625
Select Fields ............................................................................................ 627
Range Edit Field Mins and Maxs ........................................................... 627
Text Field for Scope Definition .............................................................. 628
Rotate Data ................................................................................................... 628
Applications ............................................................................................ 629
Input Data ................................................................................................ 629
Output Data Name, Parameters ............................................................. 629

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Operations: Data Operations continued


Sort Data ....................................................................................................... 631
How the Sort Data Operation Works ..................................................... 632
Input Data ................................................................................................ 632
Sort Fields ............................................................................................... 632
Output Name ........................................................................................... 632
Field Operations ........................................................................................... 633
Copy Only Selected Fields, Copy Original Fields
and Add Additional Fields ..................................................................... 633
Input File .................................................................................................. 635
Output File Name and Master File ......................................................... 635
Select Fields to Copy (Ordered Selection) ........................................... 636
Select Fields to Add ............................................................................... 637
Field Parameters for Added Fields ....................................................... 637
Output Field Names ................................................................................ 638
Output Field Types ................................................................................. 638
Output Field Format Descriptors .......................................................... 639
Output Field ZNONS ............................................................................... 640
Rename Fields ........................................................................................ 641
Overview .................................................................................................. 642
Input File .................................................................................................. 642
Output File Name and Master File ......................................................... 642
Fields to Rename .................................................................................... 643
Output Field Names ................................................................................ 643
Delete Fields ............................................................................................ 644
Input File .................................................................................................. 645

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Operations: Data Operations: Field Operations continued


Output File Name and Master File ......................................................... 645
Fields to Delete ....................................................................................... 645
Geophysical Operations ................................................................................... 646
Append X-Y to Seismic Time File ............................................................... 647
Grid to Seismic Lines Converter ................................................................ 648
Migration, Reverse Migration ...................................................................... 649
Time Horizon Grid ................................................................................... 649
Velocity Grid ............................................................................................ 650
Time Horizon Faults ............................................................................... 650
Velocity Faults ........................................................................................ 650
Control Points ......................................................................................... 650
Output Files ............................................................................................. 651
Migration Parameters ............................................................................. 651
Control Point X-field ............................................................................... 652
Control Point Y-field ............................................................................... 652
Output Z-field .......................................................................................... 652
Mistie Reduction .......................................................................................... 653
Input File Name ....................................................................................... 653
Input Z-field ............................................................................................. 654
Adjustment Desired? .............................................................................. 654
Output File Names and Master File ....................................................... 655
Hold Specific Line(s) Fixed .................................................................... 655

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Operations: Geophysical Operations continued


Seismic Data Thinning ................................................................................. 656
Input File .................................................................................................. 657
Output File, Algorithm, Parameters ...................................................... 658
X Field ...................................................................................................... 659
Y Field ...................................................................................................... 660
Shotpoint Field ........................................................................................ 660
Segment ID Field ..................................................................................... 660
Line Name Field ...................................................................................... 660
Horizon Name Field ................................................................................ 660
Area Name Field ...................................................................................... 661
Windowed Thinning Fields .................................................................... 661
Scale/Bias Line or Area ............................................................................... 662
Input File .................................................................................................. 663
Output File, Algorithm, Parameters ...................................................... 663
Line Name Field ...................................................................................... 664
Area Name Field ...................................................................................... 664
Scale/Bias Field ...................................................................................... 664
Normalized Interval Velocity (Data) ............................................................ 664
Normalized Interval Velocity (Grid) ............................................................ 665
Faults .................................................................................................................. 667
Balancer ........................................................................................................ 668
Calculate Fault Fields .................................................................................. 669
Dip Symbol Generator ................................................................................. 670
Migrator ......................................................................................................... 671
Profiler ........................................................................................................... 673

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Operations: Faults continued


Shrinker ......................................................................................................... 674
Remaining Operations ...................................................................................... 675
Back Interpolation ............................................................................................. 677
BACK INTERPOLATION Dialog Box Options ............................................ 679
Select Input Grid ..................................................................................... 679
Select Faults ............................................................................................ 679
Select Input Data ..................................................................................... 679
Output Z-field .......................................................................................... 679
Output Name, Strategy ........................................................................... 680
File Conversion .................................................................................................. 681
Converting a Control Point File to a Contour File ..................................... 683
Converting a Vertex File to a Contour File ................................................ 683
FILE CONVERSION Dialog Box Options .................................................... 683
Input File .................................................................................................. 683
Output Name, Type, Conversion Parameters ...................................... 683
X Field ...................................................................................................... 685
Y Field ...................................................................................................... 685
Z Fields .................................................................................................... 685
Line Segment Field ................................................................................. 685
Line Name Field ...................................................................................... 685
Horizon Name Field ................................................................................ 685
Shotpoint Field ........................................................................................ 685

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Operations continued
Coordinate Transformations ............................................................................ 686
Spheroid ........................................................................................................ 689
Projection ...................................................................................................... 689
Defining Where Projection Surface and Spheroid Intersect ............... 691
TRANSFORM COORDINATES Dialog Box Options .................................. 692
Input File .................................................................................................. 692
Set Direction of transformation ............................................................. 692
Input Y/Latitude Field ............................................................................. 692
Input X/Longitude Field .......................................................................... 692
Output Name and Transformation parameters .................................... 692
Set Projection for Transformation ........................................................ 693
Transformation Coordinates (Overwrite Fields) ............................................. 700
Lat/Lon (DMS) to Decimal Degrees .................................................................. 701
DEGREES, MINUTES, SECONDS CONVERSION Dialog Box Options .... 702
Input File .................................................................................................. 702
Output File, Algorithm, Parameters ...................................................... 702
DMS Latitude Field ................................................................................. 703
DMS Longitude Field .............................................................................. 703
Latitude Field .......................................................................................... 703
Longitude Field ....................................................................................... 703
Line Generalization ........................................................................................... 704
LINE GENERALIZATION Dialog Box Options ............................................ 705
Input File .................................................................................................. 705
Output File, Algorithm, Parameters ...................................................... 706
Z Field ...................................................................................................... 709

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Operations: Line Generalization Dialog Box continued


Segment ID Field ..................................................................................... 709
Line Name Field ...................................................................................... 709
Horizon Name Field ................................................................................ 709
Line Resampling ................................................................................................ 710
Line Resampling Dialog Box Options ........................................................ 711
Data Type ................................................................................................. 711
Files .......................................................................................................... 711
Output File ............................................................................................... 711
Output MFD ............................................................................................. 712
Resampling and Propagation ................................................................ 712
Resampling Parameters ......................................................................... 712
Propagation Parameters ........................................................................ 725
Choose Fields ......................................................................................... 728
Line Identification Parameters .............................................................. 730
Surface Intersection .......................................................................................... 735
Surface Intersection Dialog Box Options .................................................. 736
Input Grid 1 .............................................................................................. 736
Input Grid 2 .............................................................................................. 736
Output Vertex File ................................................................................... 736
Output Vertex File Master File ............................................................... 736

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Macros
Overview ............................................................................................................. 737
User Macros .................................................................................................. 737
Quick-look ..................................................................................................... 738
Graphics ........................................................................................................ 739
Operations .................................................................................................... 739
Geophysics ................................................................................................... 740
Utilities .......................................................................................................... 740
Execute Macro ................................................................................................... 741
Fill in Macro Parameter Defaults ................................................................ 742
View Parameter Panels, Change/Assign Parameter Values .................... 742

CARM
Overview ............................................................................................................. 743
Volumetrics ........................................................................................................ 745
How Volumes Are Computed ...................................................................... 746
Volumetrics Report ...................................................................................... 747
Volumetrics Dialog Box Options ................................................................ 749
Input Grid ................................................................................................. 749
Select Faults ............................................................................................ 750
Select Vertex File .................................................................................... 751
Output Name and Parameters ............................................................... 751
Reservoir Envelope Volumetrics ..................................................................... 760
Surface Correction ............................................................................................ 761

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CARM continued
Water Saturation Averaging ............................................................................. 762
Requirements for Performing Water Saturation Averaging ..................... 763
Water Saturation Averaging Dialog Box Options ..................................... 764
Formation Grids (Formation Structure) ................................................ 764
Porosity Curves ...................................................................................... 765
Water Saturation at OWC ....................................................................... 765
Elevation at OWC .................................................................................... 765
Intermediate Grid Porosity Increment .................................................. 766
Intermediate Grid Height Increment ...................................................... 766
Intermediate [Check] Grid Output File Name ....................................... 766
Intermediate Grid Master File ................................................................ 766
Average Water Saturation Output File Name ....................................... 766
Average Water Saturation Output Master File ..................................... 766
Area/Depth Plot .................................................................................................. 767
Quick Volumetrics (2 Polygons) ...................................................................... 769
Quick Volumetrics (40 Polygons) .................................................................... 770

Tools
Overview ............................................................................................................. 771
Spawn Unix Process ......................................................................................... 772
System Window ................................................................................................. 773
Raise .............................................................................................................. 773
Log Output .................................................................................................... 773
Always On Top ............................................................................................. 773

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Tools continued
Process Logging ............................................................................................... 774
Logging Option ............................................................................................ 775
Log File Name ............................................................................................... 775
System Switches ............................................................................................... 776
Parameter Unlocking Mode ......................................................................... 776
Diagnostic Messages Displayed ................................................................. 777
Display Picture When Opened .................................................................... 777
Graphics Background Mode ....................................................................... 778
Units .............................................................................................................. 778
Graphics Window Configuration ................................................................ 778
Confirm Exit .................................................................................................. 778
Iconify Console on Macro Execution ......................................................... 779
OW Sort Order ................................................................................................... 779
Sort Hierarchically by Key Fields ............................................................... 779
Sort By Date .................................................................................................. 780
SIL Debug Print Switch ..................................................................................... 780

Appendix A. Graphics Feature Codes


Graphics Feature (Segment Type) Codes ....................................................... 781

Appendix B. File and Field Codes


Data File Type Codes ........................................................................................ 785
Data Field Type Codes ...................................................................................... 787

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Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line Patterns


Introduction ........................................................................................................ 791
Working with Well Symbols ........................................................................ 791
Editing Well Symbols in the OpenWorks Environment ...................... 791
Editing Well Symbols in the Standalone Environment ....................... 792
Font Types ......................................................................................................... 801
Line Patterns ...................................................................................................... 802

Appendix D. Color Editing


Introduction ........................................................................................................ 803
Terminology .................................................................................................. 804
Color Concepts in Z-MAP Plus ......................................................................... 804
RGB Color System ....................................................................................... 805
HLS Color System ........................................................................................ 805
RGB Color System vs. HLS Color System ................................................. 807
Color Table ......................................................................................................... 808
Printing Color ............................................................................................... 809
Color Representation Section ............................................................... 810
Color Index Section ................................................................................ 811
Color Table and the COLORWHEEL.ZGF Graphics File ..................... 812
Default Changes ..................................................................................... 812

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Appendix E. Import/Export
Transferring Data In or Out of an MFD ............................................................ 827
Introduction .................................................................................................. 827
Common Terms ...................................................................................... 828
Import/Export File Format ................................................................................. 829
Beginning and Ending Symbols ................................................................. 829
Comment Symbols ....................................................................................... 830
History Symbols ........................................................................................... 830
File Description Parameters ........................................................................ 831
General File Description Parameters .................................................... 831
Non-Grid File Parameters ...................................................................... 832
Grid File Parameters ............................................................................... 833
Field Description Parameters ..................................................................... 834
Example ................................................................................................... 834
Non-Grid Field Description Parameters ............................................... 834
Grid Field Description Parameters ........................................................ 839
Parameters for Line 1 ............................................................................. 839
Parameters for Line 2 ............................................................................. 842
Parameters for Line 3 ............................................................................. 843
Lattice Field Description Parameters ................................................... 844
Parameters for Line 1 ............................................................................. 844
Parameters for Line 2 ............................................................................. 846
Format File ......................................................................................................... 847
Examples ...................................................................................................... 847
Non-Grid Examples ................................................................................ 847
Grid Examples ......................................................................................... 849

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Appendix E: Import/Export continued


Structuring Files for Transfer into a Master File ............................................ 850
Introduction .................................................................................................. 850
File Structures .............................................................................................. 851
How Grids are Formatted ....................................................................... 851
Importing ASCII Files Into Z-MAP Plus and OpenWorks ............................... 860
Disk File to MFD/OW .................................................................................... 860
Grid File to MFD/OW .................................................................................... 861
Other Tools ................................................................................................... 861
Example 1:
Loading an ASCII Dataset into OpenWorks ASCII (Import) ..................... 862
Example 2:
Loading ASCII Grid to OpenWorks with Grid File to MFD/OW ................ 863

Appendix F. State Plane Codes


State Plane Projection Codes ........................................................................... 865

Appendix G. Mapping and Cartographic Projections


Overview ............................................................................................................. 871
Map Properties ................................................................................................... 872
Shapes .......................................................................................................... 872
Areas ............................................................................................................. 872
Distances ...................................................................................................... 873
Directions ...................................................................................................... 873

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Appendix G: Mapping and Cartographic Projections continued


Control Parameters ........................................................................................... 874
Input Dataset ................................................................................................ 874
Direction of Projection ................................................................................. 874
Forward Projection ................................................................................. 874
Inverse Projection ................................................................................... 874
Map Projections ................................................................................................. 875
Projections .................................................................................................... 877
Cylindrical Projections ................................................................................ 879
Conic Projections ......................................................................................... 881
Planar Azimuthal Projections ..................................................................... 881
Other Projections ......................................................................................... 881
Descriptions of Z-MAP Plus Map Projections ........................................... 882
Descriptions of Blue Marble Map Projections ........................................... 888
Reference Spheroid ..................................................................................... 893
State Plane Coordinate System .................................................................. 896

Appendix H. Customized Title Blocks


Introduction ........................................................................................................ 897
Contents of This Appendix ......................................................................... 897
Logo and Title Block ......................................................................................... 898
Understanding LOGOFILEs .............................................................................. 899
Example LOGOFILE ..................................................................................... 900
Using LOGOFILEs ............................................................................................. 900

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Appendix I. Auxiliary Files


Auxiliary Files for Z-MAP Plus ......................................................................... 901
Files in Your Home Directory ...................................................................... 901
Files That Affect Z-MAP Plus Sessions ................................................ 901
Files That Dont Affect the Operation of Z-MAP Plus .......................... 903
External Runtime Application Files That Everyone Uses ........................ 904

Glossary
Z-MAP Plus Glossary ........................................................................................ 905

Index ....................................................................................................................

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Introduction

Z-MAP Plus Overview


Z-MAP Plus offers the most advanced software system for interpretive
surface and fault modeling and mapping available in the exploration and
production business today. Z-MAP Plus provides leading-edge tools for
the contemporary geoscientist while preserving the power of the classic
products, including Z-MAP, B-MAP, and Z-EDIT. ZCL, the macro
language on which Z-MAP Plus is built, provides flexibilityas well as
powerful modeling and mapping tools for supplementing the
capabilities of the Z-MAP Plus user interface.

Guide Purpose and Organization


This guide has reference information about the menu options in
Z-MAP Plus, organized to match the Z-MAP Plus window menus and
the free-standing menus. The Gridding, Data Modeling and Mapping
documentation begins with an explanation of the science behind the
operations. You will often want to use the data-dependent default
values. When you want to use custom settings, use the guides
descriptions of the parameter values. Overview workflows, tables, and
selected screen captures supplement the text to help you understand how
to use each option.

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Documentation
The Z-MAP Plus documentation set includes the following PDF-format
documents.

Z-MAP Plus User Guide Introductory information about


gridding, MFDs, ZGFs, workflows, and many commonly used
procedures.

Macro Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL Reference


information about the Landmark-supplied macros.

Z-MAP Plus Utilities Reference Guide Reference information


about the Z-MAP Plus utilities: Pointset Builder, Flowlines/
Orthogonal Contours, Overpost Resolution (New), Source Priority,
Hardcopy, Hardcopy Batch, and Convert a ZGF to a DXF.

Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide (this document) Reference


information about Z-MAP Plus menus and optionsorganized to
match the Z-MAP Plus menu structure. Appendixes contain
information about topics that include: codes for graphics features,
files, fields, symbols, fonts, line patterns, state planes; formats for
import and export files, basics about color systems, mapping
projections, auxiliary files, and customizing title blocks.

Z-MAP Plus Installation and Configuration Guide System


administration information for installing the Z-MAP Plus product
suite, such as Z-MAP Plus, ZCL, and utilities, plus detailed license
management information.

ZCL Operators Manual, Volumes 1 and 2 Process definitions


and parameter requirements for ZCL processes, which you can
customize and use to expedite workflows.

Z-MAP Plus Release Notes Summaries of new features,


outstanding issues, and essential notes.

Pointset Builder Reference Guide Information about the


Pointset Builder utility, which you can use to extract OpenWorks
data and create pointsets from it (x,y,z data files).

Pointset Builder Release Notes Installation and other important


information about Pointset Builder.

Browser-based online help is also available for tabbed dialog boxes. To


display browser-based help about the parameters in a tabbed dialog box,
click the Help button in the dialog box.

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Z-MAP Plus Interface


This section describes how to use different components in the
Z-MAP Plus interface. This section explains how to perform these
tasks:

Use the primary Z-MAP Plus windows.

Recognize the types of dialog boxes.

Use common features of Z-MAP Plus dialog boxes.

Using the Primary Windows


When you start Z-MAP Plus, three windows appear:

Z-MAP Plus window (with the display area embedded or separate)

Z-MAP Plus System window

Z-MAP Plus xterm window


These three windows must remain open while you use Z-MAP Plus.
You can iconify these windows, but do not close them. They contain the
primary menu options, provide useful information (help and program
output reports), and display graphics.
Do Not Close or Kill the Z-MAP Plus xterm Window

Never use the kill window or Close option to remove the Z-MAP Plus xterm
window from your monitor. This window must remain active during the
Z-MAP Plus session, or serious problems will result.

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Z-MAP Plus System Window


The Z-MAP Plus System window accompanies the main Z-MAP Plus
window and is used to display nearly all program output and session
events. Some examples include:

gridding and contour reports

file directories, listings, and statistics

error messages
Watch This Window.
Messages appear to let
you know when one
process is finished and
you can continue to the
next.

Z-MAP Plus Xterm Window


The Z-MAP Plus xterm window may display output from Z-MAP Plus
processes or error messages. However, session events and most error
messages typically appear in the Z-MAP Plus System window.
Z-MAP Plus Window
The Z-MAP Plus window has three major components:

The menu bar is located at the top of the window. Click any menu
name to display a drop-down list of options.

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The display area is the primary working area for graphics. Maps
and cross sections appear in this area. You can resize the display
area. The image readjusts automatically to fill the available space,
while maintaining the maps aspect ratio. This means the
relationship between the x and y coordinates is consistent. You can
detach the display area from the menu bar and display these two
elements on separate monitors.

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The status area is located below the display area. Watch the status
area for helpful prompts and parameter values for current
processes.

The following illustration shows the menus in the Z-MAP Plus menu
bar.

Z-MAP Plus Menu Structure

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Inactive Options

The Edit and View options are initially inactive and appear dimmed. These
options control the display of graphics. The options become active if you attach
or create a graphics file.

Shortcut Icons

The graphical toolbar shown on the left contains


shortcuts to graphical functions, most of which have a
menu option counterpart. In most cases, the option
executes as soon as you click the icon button.

Zoom In
Window
Zoom Out

View
functions

Full Display
Re-display

Display List
Pan
Color Table

Edit
functions

Color Indices
Raise System
Window
Toggle
Background
Color

Tools
functions

The graphical toolbar contains these icon buttons:


Zoom In (page 377)
Window (page 379)
Zoom Out (page 378)
Full Display (page 382)
Re-display (page 381)
Display List (page 376)
Pan (page 380)
Color Table (page 209)
Color Indices (page 218)
Raise System Window (page 773)
Toggle Background Color (page 778)
Process Interrupt (page 377) No menu
counterpart
Undo (page 159)
Redo (page 159)

Process
Interrupt

Available only on toolbar


No menu counterpart

Undo

Edit Graphics Editor


functions

Redo

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Workflow Icons
The icons in the workflow toolbar are shortcuts to some frequently used
functions. The icons are organized from left to right in a rough
approximation of a typical Z-MAP Plus workflow.
Attach ZGFs

Picture Open

Basemap
Features

Point Gridding
Plus

Save to
SeisWorks

Attach
MFDs

Master File Directory

File Manager

Contouring

Calculator

Open
SeisWorks Data

Each icon has a menu option counterpart:

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Icon Name

Corresponding Menu Option

Attach MFDs

File Open MFD Open/Close (page 33)

Attach ZGFs

File Open ZGF Open/Close (page 34)

Master File Directory

File Info Master File Directory (page 93)

Picture Open

File Open Picture Open (page 49)

File Manager

File Manager (page 60)

Basemap Features

Features Basemap (page 223)

Point Gridding Plus

Modeling Point Gridding Plus (page 394)

Contouring

Features Contouring Contour (page 238)

Calculator

Operations Calculator (page 536)

Open SeisWorks Data

File Open SeisWorks (page 50)

Save to SeisWorks

File Save As SeisWorks File (page 85)

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Starting Z-MAP Plus


Once Z-MAP Plus is properly installed and configured, you can start
the program by using either of the following interfaces:

OpenWorks Command Menu

Z-MAP Plus Command Menu


The remainder of this topic describes how to use these methods.
Meaning of the Term <install_dir>
In the following discussion, <install_dir> refers to the pathname to your
Z-MAP Plus installation. For example, if you install Z-MAP Plus in the directory
/home/user/ZMAPPlus, <install_dir> indicates your unique pathname /home/user.
In this example, the full pathname to the ZMAPPlus start-up script is
/home/user/ZMAPPlus/sh/ZMAPPlus.

Starting Z-MAP Plus from OpenWorks


1.

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From the OpenWorks Command Menu, select Applications


Z-MAP Plus. The Z-MAP Plus Command Menu appears.

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2.

You can now select Z-MAP Plus or a related application from the
Applications menu of the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu.

Running Multiple Z-MAP Plus Sessions

You can run only one Z-MAP Plus session at a time from a single working
directory.
Although you can display multiple OpenWorks Command Menus that are
each set to read different databases, Z-MAP Plus does not allow
concurrent access to its parameter file (LASPRM.ZCL). To run multiple
Z-MAP Plus sessions simultaneously, you must reset the WORKGROUP
environment variable to another directory.

Starting Z-MAP Plus from the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu


If you operate in an X Windows environment, but do not use
OpenWorks, you can display the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu and
start Z-MAP Plus from an xterm window.
To display the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu from an xterm window,
enter the following command, where <install_dir> is the path to the
Z-MAP Plus installation directory:
<install_dir>/ZMAPPlus/sh/ZMAPPlus
The Z-MAP Plus Command Menu appears. Select Z-MAP Plus or a
related application from the Applications menu.

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Setting Up an Alias for the StartUp Command


To make the start-up commands easier to remember and use, add them
as aliases to your .cshrc file.
Add the following line to your .cshrc file. (The change takes effect the
next time you log into your Unix account.)
alias ZMAPPlus <install_dir>/ZMAPPlus/sh/ZMAPPlus

You can now display the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu by entering:
ZMAPPlus

Using Environment Variables


You can enable or disable environment variables, according to your
preferences and depending on whether you use OpenWorks. (For more
information about environment variables, see Appendix A.
Environment Variables for Mapping Products in the Z-MAP Plus
Installation and Configuration Guide.)

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Understanding MFDs, ZGFs, and OpenWorks


Master File Directories (MFDs) and Z-MAP Graphics Files (ZGFs) are
the primary system-level files that contain Z-MAP Plus data and
pictures. If you run Z-MAP Plus concurrently with OpenWorks, you can
read and write grids, pointsets, and faults directly to the OpenWorks
database.
This topic reviews the structure of MFDs and ZGFs, as well as some
basic principles about the OpenWorks database.

Visualizing MFDs and ZGFs


To understand how MFDs and ZGFs operate, think of them as filing
cabinets that keep different types of information organized.
MFDs manage types of data, such as:

control points

grids

faults

lineal features

text
ZGFs manage picture files, including these elements:

maps

cross sections

three-dimensional displays

Purpose and Use of MFDs


Remember these important points about using MFDs:

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At amy one time, you can have a maximum of four MFDs attached
to a Z-MAP Plus session.

Z-MAP Plus automatically provides an additional scratch MFD


that contains temporary or intermediate files. The contents of the
scratch MFD are deleted if you create an MFD, attach an MFD,
detach an MFD, or exit from Z-MAP Plus.

A single MFD can store multiple occurrences of the many


supported file types.

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Each file in an MFD is composed of one or more fields.


MFDs can contain more than 60 different field types.

The files and fields stored in an MFD have no naming conventions.


File names have a 24-character limit, and field names have a
20-character limit.

An MFD has no size limit. It grows automatically when you add


data to it.

Z-MAP Plus creates a lock file (named mfd-name.LCK), which


prevents multiple users from simultaneously using the same MFD.
The lock file is automatically deleted if you exit from Z-MAP Plus
or if you detach the locked MFD. (If you exit from Z-MAP Plus
improperly, the lock files may not be deleted. In this case, you
must remove the lock file manually to regain access to the locked
MFDs.)

You can set MFDs to allow only read-only access, which permits
multiple users to use the MFDs, but prohibits anyone from adding
files to them. Lock files are not created for read-only MFDs.

Changing an MFD from read/write to read-only is system


dependent. Use the appropriate system command to change the file
protection for MFDs (for example, chmod 444 filename.MFD).

Purpose and Use of ZGFs


Remember these important points about ZGFs:

You can have only one ZGF attached to a Z-MAP Plus session at
any one time.

ZGFs have a hierarchal structure, which facilitates graphical


editing.
One ZGF can store multiple pictures.
Each ZGF picture consists of one or more features, such as a
border, border labels, contours, and posted control points.
Each feature consists of one or more of four graphical
components. These components are lines, text, symbols, and
polygons. For example, the contours feature has a line
component (contour lines) and a text component (contour
labels).
Each component has one or more attributes, such as line style,
text font, and color.

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ZGFs have no size limit. They grow automatically as you add


pictures or add features to existing pictures.

You typically create ZGFs to accompany the data in a particular


MFD, and you give ZGFs names that are similar to the
corresponding MFD. For example, you might create
PROJECT-X.ZGF to accompany PROJECT-X.MFD.

OpenWorks
If you use OpenWorks with Z-MAP Plus, Z-MAP Plus has a direct
connection with the data stored for the OpenWorks project. You do not
need to perform special import and export operations to retrieve and
send data to OpenWorks. This topic contains a brief overview of
OpenWorks, and examines the connection between OpenWorks and
Z-MAP Plus.

Overview of OpenWorks
OpenWorks is a computer environment built on a comprehensive
exploration and production database. You can use various OpenWorks
utilities to import, export, manage, and display data.
An Oracle relational data structure sits at the foundation of OpenWorks.
The Oracle database is composed of tables that group related
information. OpenWorks stores four kinds of data that you can use in
Z-MAP Plus:

Pointsetssimilar to Z-MAP Plus DATA files. They contain X, Y,


and Z-VALUE fields.

Gridssimilar to Z-MAP Plus GRID files. They are evenly


distributed points that are estimates of an attribute over an area.

Faultssimilar to Z-MAP Plus FALT files. They are fault


polygons or lines associated with a surface in OpenWorks.

Deviated Well Tracesdeviated well traces are read-only.

All Z-MAP Plus operations can be performed using data from either the
traditional binary MFD data files, or using data directly from the
OpenWorks database.

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You can use MFDs with the OpenWorks database in the following
ways:

If you use the OpenWorks database as a central repository, you can


use MFDs as temporary storage project databases.

To optimize data access and retrieval speeds, you can copy data
from OpenWorks to an MFD for temporary storage.

The MFD datatypes (such as DATA and FALT) are stored with the data
so Z-MAP Plus can filter the data for display in dialog boxes.
The instructions in this section assume that your project data is already
loaded into the OpenWorks database. For more information about data
loading, see the OpenWorks Geodata Loading guide.

Z-MAP Plus Connection to OpenWorks


If you run Z-MAP Plus concurrently with OpenWorks, you can
establish connectivity between them. This topic describes:

starting Z-MAP Plus with an OpenWorks connection

selecting input files from OpenWorks

saving output files to OpenWorks


Starting Z-MAP Plus with an OpenWorks Connection
When you start Z-MAP Plus, the program automatically detects whether
or not the OpenWorks environment is available. If it is, Z-MAP Plus
asks you to select a project, and then an interpreter for the project, if one
is not already selected.

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Once you select a project and interpreter, the Z-MAP Plus Command
Menu reflects the settings, as shown in the following example:

Selecting input Files from OpenWorks


You can perform Z-MAP Plus functions that use pointsets, grids, and
faults using data from either the traditional binary MFD data files, or
directly from the OpenWorks database.
When you are performing a function that can use data from OpenWorks,
and you have an OpenWorks connection with data available, your input
dialog box appears as shown in the following example:

The upper part of the dialog box refers to data stored in a Z-MAP Plus
MFD. The lower part of the dialog box lists all the available grids in the
current OpenWorks project. The column headings are described in the
following table:

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Column

Explanation

Geo Name

Cross references the selected stratigraphic unit.

Geo Type

Defined as a stratigraphic unit, fault, or surface.

Data Set Name

Ties a file back to a given pointset. Defaults to the first letter of


the data type followed by the date and time and the first part of
the input file.

Attribute

A qualitative variable describing physical characteristics.

Type

References the type of data.

Interpreter

Ties a pointset to an interpreters initials.

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If you use a function in Z-MAP Plus that requires faults or pointsets, the
input dialog box is similar, except that faults and pointsets are shown as
options instead of grids.
Saving Files to the OpenWorks Project
You can use functions that output pointsets, grids, and faults to store
data directly in the OpenWorks project. These functions include an
OpenWorks option for Output MFD, as shown in the following
example.

Once you select OpenWorks for output, the OW button next to the
Output File Name option. When you click the OW button, the following
dialog box appears:

With this dialog box, you can fill out the information that OpenWorks
requires to properly store your grid, pointset, or fault data in the
database. This dialog box uses default values based on the input
parameters specified.

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Once stored in the database, you have immediate access to the data. the
previous dialog box showed an example of storing a pointset in the
OpenWorks database. As you can see from the following picture, the
pointset becomes immediately available as potential input for a gridding
operation.

Gridding Point Gridding Plus Control Points

Typical Workflows
There are really no typical workflows for Z-MAP Plus. How you use
this versatile program depends on your data, your objectives, and your
work style. You might consider the approaches suggested in the
following diagram and adapt them when you are ready. This work flow
assumes that you have already created the project and loaded data into
the database.

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Workflow for a
Comprehensive
Z-MAP Plus
Session

Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide

Select a project and establish an interpreter.


Set the interpreter/source priority.

Evaluate well data and make a list of all wells of special interest
(for example, those with a particular log suite).

Create a pointset consisting of multiple fields using the wells available


in the current well list.

Create a map that shows well locations of the current poinset.

Produce a grid of one of the pointset fields.

Contour the grid using color-filled contours

Edit the contours of the grid to incorporate interpretation and recontour

Grid and contour a lower surface

Calculate isochore values using grid operations

Grid and contour a lower surface

Calculate isochore values using grid operations

Create Gas-Oil contact and Oil-Water contact grids

Calculate hydrocarbon reserves for the oil and gas zones

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Using Z-MAP Plus with OpenWorks for the First Time


Once your project has been created and the data is loaded into the
OpenWorks database, you are ready to start Z-MAP Plus. The first time
you work with a particular project in Z-MAP Plus, you must do the
following:

Select the project.

Create an interpreter designation for yourself in that project.

Select the current interpreter.

Establish a prioritized list of interpreters.


You can accomplish these steps in several ways. One approach is shown
in the following workflow.
Workflow for Starting the Initial Session
Start OpenWorks.

Create an interpreter, using the


Interpreters Tool.

Start Z-MAP Plus.

Select an project and interpreter from


the popup list.

Create a prioritized list of interpreters


using the Source Priority tool.

When you start subsequent sessions with the same project, fewer steps
are required. You already have an interpreter designation in the project,
and your prioritized list of interpreters remains in effect.

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Defining Projects and Interpreters


At the beginning of each session, you are required to select a project, and
an interpreter. You can make both selections with the OpenWorks
Project Status tool. If you do not, you are prompted to select a project
and an interpreter when you start the Z-MAP Plus application.
What Is a Project?
A project is a logical collection of data. Assuming that you have created
a project and have loaded your well data, all you have to do is select a
project from a list of the available projects on your system.
For information about creating projects, see the OpenWorks Data
Management guide. For information about data loading, see the
Geodata Loading guide.
What Is an Interpreter?
So that several people can work in the same project and use each others
interpretations without corrupting them, OpenWorks assigns
interpreters initials to such data as:

surface and fault picks and profiles

pointsets

grids
For example, if you pick Top A, other interpreters can see the pick and
use it to create gridded surfaces. However, only you can alter the pick.
If no interpreters are defined in a project, the interpreter LGC is
automatically created and selected as the current interpreter.

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Users and Interpreters


A user is a login account. Users own interpreters. For instance, when you
log on, you can create several interpreters, giving each different initials.
All of these interpreters are owned by you and no one else can edit the
data created by any of these interpreters.
Users are given browse, interpret, or management access to a project by
the project owner. Interpreters have the same access level as the user
who created them.

Browse lets you view data in the database but you cannot edit it.
Interpret lets you add your own data, edit it in, and delete it from
the database.
Management lets you edit data created by anyone working in the
project. Generally only a project manager has this level of access.
Changing the Owner of an Interpreter Designation

To change an interpreter (and all of its associated data) from one user account
to another, do as follows:
1. Log in with the user account to which you want to change the interpreter.
2. In the Interpreters tool, delete the interpreter.
3. Add the same interpreter initials. The user account you are logged into is
now listed as the current owner.

Sources and Interpreters


A source is a set of identifying initials that was loaded with the data into
the database. Generally, source refers to a commercial data source such
as PI or Dwights (DWI). An interpreter is a person on the system who
has access to the project.
You can view and use data from a source. If you want to edit it, you must
create an interpreter with the same initials as the source (create an
interpreter designated DWI if you want to edit Dwights data, for
example). In effect, you take possession of the data.
All data sources are listed in the Set Interpreter/Source Priority dialog
box. Sources are not listed in the OpenWorks Interpreters dialog box
because they are not interpreters, they are just sources of data. For more
information about setting interpreter source priority, see the
Z-MAP Plus Utilities Reference Guide.

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Integrating with Other Products


Z-MAP Plus is integrated with other Landmark products in three ways:

OpenWorks database Z-MAP Plus can read grid, fault, and


pointset data that other applications write to the OpenWorks
database or that are loaded into the database with OpenWorks
utilities. You can save Z-MAP Plus data to the OpenWorks
database for use by other applications.

MFDs The MFD is the storage device for all types of data files
that Z-MAP Plus uses and some data files that other Landmark
applications use. Z-MAP Plus can write data to MFDs and read it
from them.

ZGFs ZGFs store Z-MAP Plus maps as graphics files.

This topic covers the means of integrating data between Z-MAP Plus
and the following Landmark applications:

SeisWorks Geophysical interpretation application that


interprets horizons and faults.

StratWorks Geological interpretation application that


correlates well logs, builds cross sections, models faults, and
makes maps.

Stratamodel Reservoir modeling application that uses grids


and well log data to populate the cells of a 3D model, to perform
operations and calculations on the model, to extract and
manipulate attribute data, and to animate it for simulations.

OpenVision 3D Viewer Landmarks 3D visualization


application. Provides access to OpenWorks, SeisWorks,
Z-MAP Plus, StratWorks, Wellbore Planner, Gocad and Sierra
modeling applications. OpenVision allows simultaneous data
corrections from any number of applications and creates a
visualization environment for multiple data types.

TDQ Application that moves data easily between SeisWorks


and StratWorks or Z-MAP Plus by creating velocity models that
convert time surface grids or faults to depth surface grid or faults,
and vice versa.
Setting Compatible Depth Type and Depth Units

To create grids in Z-MAP Plus that you can export to TDQ, you must set
the Depth Type and Depth Units so that TDQ can recognize the output
grid.

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PetroWorks a petrophysical interpretation application that


displays and edits well logs, performs environmental corrections,
and generates crossplots, histograms, and reports.

Z-MAP Plus Integration With


Other Landmark Products

Z-MAP Plus
Grid, contour, and edit surfaces.
Perform surface and data operations

Pointset Builder

OpenWorks Oracle Database


Access and store pointsets of data
ranging from well picks to production data.
Access and store grids and faults shared
by various Landmark applications.

StratWorks
Use grids created with advanced
Z-MAP Plus gridding algorithms.
Access zone attribute grids.

PetroWorks
Access zone attributes created from
calculated logs for gridding in Z-MAP Plus.

SeisWorks
Access pointsets, grids, horizons,
faults, and shot points.

Stratamodel
Transfer MFD grids, pointsets, and faults.

TDQ
Access grids and polygons.

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SeisWorks
pointsets, well
traces,
centerline faults,
fault polygons,
horizons/grids

Z-MAP Plus

OpenWorks
database

MFD

grids, pointsets,
well traces,
centerline faults,
fault polygons

grids, pointsets,
centerline faults,
fault polygons,
horizons
(converted to grids)

Save in
database

SeisWorks

Open in
Z-MAP Plus

Of the data types SeisWorks can export, Z-MAP Plus can use the
following ones:

Horizon files Data from seismic interpretation in SeisWorks


2D/3D.
SeisWorks/2D exports x, y, z, line names, and shotpoint numbers.
SeisWorks/3D exports x, y, z, line number, and shotpoint number.
SeisWorks 3D LIne Names

Shotpoint values imported into Z-MAP Plus do not match the seismic
survey line names in SeisWorks 3D surveys. The shotpoint values refer to
the 3D Line Number value.

Z-MAP Plus is designed to work with data output from SeisWorks


2.3 or later. Z-MAP Plus treats data from earlier versions of
SeisWorks as point data.

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Fault Heave Data is stored in the FALT data type and includes
fault heave or fault throw information associated with the horizon.
This file contains the following fields: x, y, segment ID, delta z
throw, and fault gap (heave).

Computed Contour Dataset is generated by the SeisWorks


mapping software using triangulation or gridding algorithms. On
export, this file is separated into three pieces: control point data,
shotline data, and fault polygons.
Control points file contains isolated data points, such as well log
picks, and includes x, y, and z values. (You can use the data in this
file as an Additional Well Control File in Z-MAP Plus.)
Shotline points file contains shotline data created by sampling the
horizon file in SeisWorks and includes x, y, z, and line name.
(Because this file does not contain shotpoint identification,
Z-MAP Plus can only read the contents as well data.)
Fault polygons file contains polygons that were either hand drawn
or calculated from fault heaves by the SeisWorks software and
includes x, y, and segment ID.

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Fault Segment files contain all assigned and unassigned fault


segments in the working project and are stored in one DATA file.
The file has the following format: x, y, z, segment ID, and fault
plane number.

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StratWorks
Z-MAP Plus
maps
grids
pointsets
well traces
centerline faults
fault polygons

grids

pointsets
centerline faults
fault polygons

OpenWorks
database

MFD

ZGF

pointsets
centerline faults
fault polygons
grids
pointsets
well traces
centerline faults
fault polygons

grids

maps
StratWorks

You can use files produced in Z-MAP Plus to do the following in


StratWorks:

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contour grids
display grid profiles along any section
perform grid operations, such as multiplying an isopach grid by a
porosity grid
produce hardcopy

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Of the variety of data that StratWorks can export, Z-MAP Plus can use
the following:

Pointsets, which are stored in a DATA file type in the MFD,


include control points and are stored as x, y values, well ID, and
one z value.

Fault polygons, which are stored in a FALT file type in the MFD,
include (x, y, and segment ID) and are created with the StratWorks
MapView editing function.

Regular fault data, which is stored in a FALT file type in the


MFD, includes (x, y, segment ID, heave, and vertical separation)
and is created from information stored with the fault polygons and
associated fault cuts.
The fault polygons and center line fault files are given the same
name, except that the latter is preceded by cline.

Stratamodel
Z-MAP Plus

grids
OpenWorks
database

well traces

data file

MFD

grids
read only
well traces

Stratamodel

You can exchange grids and pointsets between Stratamodel and


Z-MAP Plus through MFDs. You can exchange well data directly
through data files.
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TDQ
Z-MAP Plus
Set Depth Type
Set Depth Units

grids
centerline faults

OpenWorks
database

grids
fault polygons

data file

grids
fault polygons
grids
centerline faults

TDQ

You can import data from or export data to TDQ through the
OpenWorks database, or exchange grids and fault polygon data directly
through data files.
TDQ sees only depth or time grids, all other grid types are invisible. Be
sure you set the Depth Type and Depth Units by using the OpenWorks
Grid Output Specification dialog box.

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PetroWorks
In addition to the data you can write to and read from the OpenWorks
database, you can import reservoir production parameter data the
PetroWorks Summation module generates. Examples of reservoir
production parameter data include net pay and net reservoir rock, which
PetroWorks saves as zone attributes and stores in the OpenWorks
database. You can import this data from OpenWorks into an MFD and
use it to create grids and contour maps in Z-MAP Plus. (For more
information about PetroWorks, see the PetroWorks User Guide set.)
Z-MAP Plus

grids
pointsets
well traces
MFD

OpenWorks
database
reservoir
production
parameters
grids
pointsets
well traces

PetroWorks

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New Features in the 2003.12 Release


New Icons
Three shortcut icons have been added to the top of the Z-MAP Plus
window and one icon has been updated to be more recognizable:

File Manager To start the File Manager, click the new


File Manager icon (or select File Manager in the Z-MAP Plus
window). Use the File Manager to quickly copy, move, and delete
virtually any type of file you create in Z-MAP Plus. You can also
use the File Manager to compress MFDs and ZGFs.

Open SeisWorks Data To display the dialog box for opening a


SeisWorks horizon as a grid, click the new Open SeisWorks Data
icon (or select File Open SeisWorks in the Z-MAP Plus
window).

Save to SeisWorks To display the dialog box for saving grids


as SeisWorks horizons, click the new Save to SeisWorks icon (or
select File Save As SeisWorks File in the Z-MAP Plus
window).

Open Picture To display the dialog box for opening a picture,


click the newly designed Open Picture icon (or select File
Open Picture Open in the Z-MAP Plus window).

Opening SeisWorks Horizons as Grids


If you open SeisWorks horizons as grids in Z-MAP Plus, you now select
the horizons to import in much the same way you would select horizons
in SeisWorks. You can also filter or search the horizon list by using the
wildcards *, ?, and [ ]. (For more information, see SeisWorks starting
on page 50.)
The dialog box for saving grids as SeisWorks horizons also has search
and filter capabilities for managing the horizon list (as described in
SeisWorks File starting on page 85).

True Color
Z-MAP Plus now displays images in true color, no matter which
platform you use, provided your system is set to display true color.
When you print images or save them as CGM files, a standard 256-color
palette is still used.

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File Menu Options

Overview
Use File menu options in the Z-MAP Plus window to manage
Z-MAP Plus files in the following ways:

New Create Master File Directories (MFDs), session files,


maps, and cross sections (page 32).

Open Attach existing MFDs and a Z-MAP Graphics File


(ZGF) to the current session. Open session files, pictures, and
SeisWorks horizon files (page 48). You can reopen saved session
files to restore session settings.

Manager Start the File Manager utility (page 60). Use the File
Manager to cut, copy, paste, move, delete, and rename member
files in MFDs, pictures in ZGFs, Systems files, and OpenWorks
files. You can also compress and rename MFDs and ZGFs.
(Equivalent to the File Manager icon.)

Save Session As Save session settings (page 68). You can


reopen session files later to reload the saved settings.

Save As Save MFD contents as ASCII, CPS-1, or ZGF Flat


Files (page 70). Save grids as horizons for use in SeisWorks
(page 85).

Info Display information in the system window (page 89)


about the following elements: file directory, file listing, grid
listing, data statistics, grid statistics, file or picture, graphics file
summary, and list of CPS-1 files.
Directory Paths Set directory paths (page 108). These settings
determine which directories are searched to create lists of available
filessuch as MFDs and ZGFs you can attach.

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Import Import various types of data into Z-MAP Plus and save
the data in an MFD or ZGF (page 116).

Print Print a picture to a CGM or other file type (page 132).

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Copy Copy (page 141), rename (page 147), and delete


(page 151) files and pictures. (Equivalent to the Copy,
Rename MFD/ZGF, Rename File/Pictures, and Delete icons in
the File Manager.)

Compress Compress MFDs and ZGFs (page 154). (Equivalent


to the Compress MFD/ZGF icon in the File Manager.)

Exit Exit from Z-MAP Plus (page 157).

Options in the File New Menu


Session
To create a blank session file (parameter file), select File New
Session. The CREATE a BLANK Session File dialog box appears.
Enter a name in the Enter Name for Blank Session File box. If you use
an existing file name, the original file is overwritten.
To create the blank session file, click OK. The next time you select
File New Open Session to display the SELECT Session File
dialog box, the session file name appears in the list. If you select a blank
session file, all the parameter settings revert to the default values.
Session File Extensions

Parameter files have the extension .ZCLPARMS. (Use all capitals or all lower
case for the extension, but do not use mixed case.) If you do not add the
extension, the program adds it automatically when you click OK. (For more
information about session file extensions, see page 68.)

For information about the target directory for the blank session file, see
Location for Saving Session Files on page 69.

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Master File
Select File New Master File (MFD) to display the CREATE
MASTER FILE dialog box, which you use to create a Master File
Directory (MFD). In the CREATE MASTER FILE dialog box, set the
parameters described in the following text.
Saving Scratch File Contents

Note that if you create an MFD, it is automatically attached to the current


session. Attaching or detaching an MFD causes the contents of the scratch file
If you want to save the scratch file contents, use an existing MFD to do this
before you create the MFD.

Enter New Master File Name


Enter the name of the new Master File Directory (MFD) in the Enter
New MASTER FILE Name box. The fully qualified name (full path
terminated by the file name and extension) can be a maximum of 79
characters long and cannot contain blank spaces. MFDs have the
extension .MFD, which can be all upper case or all lower case. If you do
not add the extension, the program adds it automatically when it creates
the file.
If you do not enter a destination path, the MFD is saved in the output
path specified in the MFDs tab of the Directory Paths dialog box. If no
MFD output path is specified in the Directory Paths dialog box, the file
is saved in your home directory.
Internal Master File Name
The internal MFD name is the name that represents the MFD in lists,
such as a list for selecting a destination MFD for saving a file.
Optional: To use a file name other than the one you specified as the new
MFD name, enter a name in the Internal Master File Name box. The
file name can be a maximum 24 characters long and can contain internal
blanks. The default name is the new MFD name.
Internal MFD Names in MFD Copies

If you use your computer's operating system command to copy an MFD as


another file with a different name, both files have the same internal MFD name.

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Graphics File (ZGF)


If you select File New Graphics File (ZGF), the Specify New
GRAPHICS FILE name dialog box appears, which you use to create a
Z-MAP Graphics File (ZGF). As soon as you create a ZGF, it is
automatically attached to the current session. Specify the new ZGF file
name, as described in the following text.
New Graphics File Name
Enter the new ZGF name in the Enter New GRAPHICS FILE Name
box. ZGF file names must have the following characteristics:

Fully qualified name (full path terminated by the file name and
extension) is no longer than 79 characters
No internal blank spaces
Terminated with the extension .ZGF or .zgf
If you do not add the extension, the program adds it automatically
when it creates the file.

If you do not enter a destination path, the ZGF is saved in the output path
specified in the ZGFs tab of the Directory Paths dialog box. If no
Directory Paths: ZGFs output path is specified, the file is saved in your
home directory.
Graphics File Header
This field is obsolete.

Basemap
Select File New Basemap to display the NEW MAP Creation
dialog box, which you use to create a new basemap. The following
workflow shows the main steps.

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Select File New


Basemap

Click the first button, Picture Name, AOI Types and Scale Types.
Specify parameters in the Picture NAME, AOI & Scale Type dialog box.

Existing data,
picture, contours

Define AOI
from...

User input

Enter X and Y minimums and maximums

Select AOI from grid, data, picture contours

Enter values for map offsets and scale

Select AOI type

A list of data files or pictures appears AOI

Select a file/picture from list

Yes

Is this a
projected
map?

No

Select projection parameters

Select source for projection

Activate projection

Apply

Save and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window

New Basemap Workflow

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Picture Name, AOI Types, and Scale Types


Click the Picture Name, AOI Types and Scale Types button in the
NEW MAP Creation dialog box to display Picture NAME, AOI & Scale
Type dialog box. You must specify a name for the new map, an AOI
type, and a scale type.
Enter New Picture Name
In the Enter New Picture Name box of the Picture NAME, AOI &
Scale Type dialog box, specify a map name. The name can be a
maximum of 64 characters long and can contain blank spaces.
AOI (Area of Interest) Type
Click the AOI Type button box in the Picture NAME, AOI & Scale
Type dialog box. Select an AOI type from the drop-down list. The AOI
type controls how the map coordinates are defined. The choices for this
parameter are:

XY (default value) Use a Cartesian (rectilinear, Northing/


Easting) coordinate system. No projection information is stored
with the map, so the map scale must be in UnitsPerInch.
Note that a map with an XY AOI type can be a projected map, but
the projection data is not stored with the map. If you place data on
the map that is in a coordinate reference system, the map is
projected, even though the AOI borders are rectilinear and you
cannot post latitude and longitude labels at the borders.

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XY PROJECTED Use a Cartesian (rectilinear, Northing/


Easting) coordinate system. Projection information is stored with
the map, so the scale can be of the type UnitsPerInch,
MapToGround, or Absolute. The AOI border is parallel to northing
and easting, so the borders are rectilinear.

LATLONGPROJECTED Use explicitly specified projection


parameters to display the map. Define the map edges in terms of
latitude and longitude. Projection information is stored with the
map, so the map scale can be of the type UnitsPerInch,
MapToGround, or Absolute. The AOI border is parallel to latitude
and longitude, so it is curved.

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Scale Type
You must set a scale for drawing the map so it corresponds
proportionally with real world distances. Use the Scale Type option to
specify how you plan to set the scale. You define the actual scale
measurements when you specify the AOI.
Click the Scale Type button in the Picture NAME, AOI & Scale Type
dialog box. From the drop-down list, choose an option to use as a basis
for the map scale:

UNITSPERINCH (default value) Use map units per inch.

ABSOLUTE Use map units per data.

MAPTOGROUND Use different types of units, such as feet


and centimeters.

AOI from Grid, Data, Picture, or Contours


You must specify an AOI for the new map, either by using the AOI from
existing data or by explicitly specifying AOI parameter values.
To use exiting data to specify the AOI, click the AOI from Grid, Data,
Picture, or Contours button. The Select AOI Source TYPE dialog box
appears, which you use to select an existing grid, data file, picture, or
contour file to use as the source of the AOI.

Grid From the Select AOI Source file dialog box that appears,
select a grid to use as the AOI source.

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Data From the Select AOI Source file dialog box that appears,
select an AOI source either an MFD dataset (from the top list)
or a DATA file (from the bottom list).

Picture From the Select AOI Source GRAPHICS FILE dialog


box that appears, select one of the available pictures to use as the
AOI source. The dialog box closes immediately and the Select
AOI SOURCE PICTURE File dialog box appears. In this dialog
box, select one of the listed features to use as the basis for the AOI.

Contours From the Select AOI Source file dialog box that
appears, select a contour file to use as the AOI source.

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AOI from User Input; Offsets, and Scale AOI


To specify the AOI from explicit values, click the AOI from User
Input; Offsets, and Scale AOI button. The Limits, Offsets, and Scale
dialog box appears, which you use to specify parameters for the AOI.
Specify the following values:

X and Y Minimums and Maximums Minimum and


maximum X and Y coordinates.

Top Top offset area of the map, in plotter units (in./cm.).

Bottom Bottom offset area of the map, in plotter units (in./cm.).

Left Left offset area of the map, in plotter units (in./cm.).

Right Right offset area of the map, in plotter units (in./cm.).

X Scale and Y Scale Formulas for the X scale and Y scale,


calculated as follows:
X maximum X minimum
X scale = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------desired number of inches or centimeters in X
Y maximum Y minimum
Y scale = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------desired number of inches or centimeters in Y

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Projection Parameters
You must specify projection parameters for the map. Click the
Projection Parameters button to display the Set up a Projection dialog
box. Use this dialog box to create projections for the new map from one
of the following sources:

a data file

an existing picture

user input

state plane
Projection from DATA or PICTURE
To use the projection from an existing data file or map, click the
Projection from DATA or PICTURE button. The Select Projection
Source Type dialog box appears, which you use to select the data file or
picture whose projection information you want to use. Click one of the
following buttons to display the appropriate list:

DATA Click the DATA button. From the Select PROJECTION


Source from DATA File dialog box that appears, select a
projection source either an MFDs dataset (from the top list) or
a specific DATA file (from the bottom list.) Choose a dataset or
DATA file that contains the appropriate projection information.

PICTURE Click the PICTURE button. From the Select


Projection Source GRAPHICS FILE dialog box that appears,
select the ZGF that contains the target picture. The dialog box
closes and the Select PROJECTION Source from PICTURE File
dialog box appears, which you use to select the picture that has the
projection you want to use.

Projection from user input


To define a projection explicitly, click the Projection from user input
button in the Set up a Projection dialog box. The Projection Parameter
SETUP dialog box appears. You must specify the following values:

type of projection Projection Code button (next topic)

reference spheroid Spheroid button (page 41)

projection-specific parameters Projection Parameters button


(page 42)

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Projection Code
To use a projection code to define the projection, click the Projection
Code button in the Projection Parameter SETUP dialog box. Select a
projection code from the list of codes that appears. The projection can
be Cylindrical, Conic or Planar Azimuthal. The available projections are
listed in the following text. For a complete description of each available
projection, see Map Projections on page 875.
Unlocking Parameters When Changing Projections

Landmark highly recommends that you unlock parameters before you change
projections in order to prevent AOI incompatibility.
.

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Spheroid
Once you select a projection code, select a spheroid code. Each spheroid
code corresponds to a reference spheroid a theoretical geometric
figure whose dimensions closely resemble the dimensions of the earth
for a particular area.
Click the Spheroid button in the Projection Parameter SETUP dialog
box. The Select Spheroid CODE list appears, which you use to choose
a defined reference spheroid or to select the USER-DEFINED option
and specify custom axes for the spheroid. Spheroid options are shown in
the following illustration.
For a complete description of each of the reference spheroids (including
the dimensions for the semi-major axis and the semi-minor axis of each
one), see Reference Spheroid on page 893. The program uses the two
axes to calculate the ellipticity for the map projection.
.

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Projection Parameters
Once you select a projection code and spheroid, click the Projection
Parameters button in the Projection Parameter SETUP dialog box to
display the Set Projection Parameters dialog box appears. The Set
Projection Parameters dialog box contains parameters required for the
specified projection. The parameters are context-specific, and may
include the following options:

Unit Code

Unit Factor

Reference Latitude

Latitude Scale Factor

Reference Longitude

Longitude Scale Factor

False Northing and False Easting

Central Meridian

Mapping Across the Dateline


Unit Code
You can choose the units of measurement for the projection from the
Unit Code list, unless you are using a UTM Projection (in which units
are always defined in meters). The available units of measurement may
include these options: USER-SUPPLIED, METERS, FEET, YARDS,
INCHES, KILOMETERS, NAUTICAL MILES, STATUTE MILES,
and US SURVEY FEET.
Unit Factor (units/meter)
You can enter a value in the Unit Factor box to custom define the
number of units if you set the Unit Code to USER-SUPPLIED.
User-supplied units are defined as units/meter, and the default value is
1.0000.
Reference Latitude (Standard Parallel)
Reference Latitude, or Standard Parallel, is a parallel of latitude used as
a control line to compute a map projection.
Latitude Scale Factor
The Latitude Scale Factor is a multiplier for reducing a distance
obtained from a map by computing the scale to the actual distance on the
datum of the map. For all projections using only one scale factor, the
Longitude Scale Factor is used. The Latitude Scale Factor is used only
for the Polyconic projection.

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Reference Longitude
Reference Longitude, or Central Meridian, is the line of longitude
located at the center of a projection on which the projection is generally
based.
Longitude Scale Factor
The Longitude Scale Factor is a multiplier for reducing a distance
obtained from a map by computing the scale to the actual distance on the
datum of the map. For example, applying a scale reduction along the
central meridian of a transverse Mercator projection creates two lines of
true scale on either side of the central meridian.
False Easting
A value assigned a central meridian of a coordinate system to avoid the
inconvenience of using negative coordinates.
False Northing
A value assigned to the origin of Northings, or grid coordinates to avoid
the inconvenience of using negative coordinates.
Central Meridian
The line of Longitude located at the center of a projection on which the
projection is generally based. This parameter is also known as the
Reference Longitude.
Mapping Across the Dateline
Select whether or not the map crosses the international dateline. This is
a theoretical 180th meridian, the regions to the east of which are counted
as being one day earlier in their calendar dates than regions to the west
of the line.
Projection from STATE PLANE
The State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) is used as a standard for
geodetic mapping across the United States and its territories. This
system which is used by the United States Geologic Survey (USGS),
dictates the parameters used by the projections.
NAD27 and NAD83 Projection Systems
Z-MAP Plus now explicitly supports both NAD27 and NAD83
coordinates and provides a means of converting latitude/longitude
coordinates between the two datums.

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In general, a geodetic datum is determined by direct measurement of the


earths surface in a specific area. In the cases of NAD27 and NAD83,
the area in question is North America.
A complete horizontal datum consists of the following elements:

all of the parameters necessary to define a particular coordinate


system

a set of control points whose geometric relationships are known,


either through measurement or calculation.
For many years, the standard of reference for latitude/longitude
coordinates for North America were the measurements made for
NAD27.
Due to the improvements in measurement equipment and techniques, a
new datum for North America has been determined: NAD83 also
known as WGS84 (World Geodetic Survey of 1984).
Since NAD27 was the reference for over 50 years, there is an enormous
amount of data that will need to be converted to the NAD83 reference.
This is the problem that is now addressed in Release 2.0.
State Plane Units of Measure

Units used by the NAD27 state plane projection system are in U.S. survey feet.
Units used by the NAD83 state plane projection system are in metric units.

If you click either NAD27 or NAD83, a list appears that consists of all
50 states, Samoa, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and the Old and New
regions for Michigan. Select the option you want.
Select Region
A list of regions associated with the selected state appears. Depending
on the state, regions are listed as East, West, North, South, Central, or
by number, such as Region 1, Region 2, and Region 3.
Activate Projection
Select this option to activate the currently defined projection
parameters. These parameters remain in effect until you select the
Deactivate Projection option or reactivate and change the current
projection parameters by reselecting the Activate Projection option.
Deactivate Projection
Select this option to deactivate a projection when you wish to generate
a picture using northing/easting parameters.

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Cross Section
Select File New Cross Section in
the Z-MAP Plus window

Enter new picture name

Determine AOI source

Horizons, baseline

AOI from existing picture

AOI from user input

Select horizon AOI parameters

Select AOI graphics file

Enter x,y minimums


and maximums

Select AOI source picture


Select AOI
horizon (grid) files

Select AOI baseline file

Select grid file

Select line number


on baseline file

Enter values for map offsets and scale

Apply

Save and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window

Cross Section Workflow

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To create a new cross section, select File New Cross Section. A


cross section displays the intersection of one or more stacked surfaces
with a vertical plane or several joined vertical planes which are
positioned along a specified baseline. Cross Sections show the spatial
relationship between surfaces and surface variations which might be
overlooked on conventional contour maps. The surfaces displayed come
from grid surfaces that have been generated in the Gridding option. For
example, a cross section can be useful for checking multiple grids to
ensure that they do not overlap.
To create a cross section, you must satisfy two requirements:

Name the cross section.

Specify how to define the area of interest (AOI) or map limits.


Picture Name
Enter the name of the new cross section. You can use a maximum of 24
characters to assign a descriptive and meaningful name. You can
include blanks in the name.
AOI from Horizons, Baseline
Cross sections are made from grids. The grids used for the cross section
as well as the line depicting the cross section coverage, need to be
selected in order for the Area of Interest (AOI) to be calculated.
Horizons (Grid Files)
A cross section can be composed of a maximum of ten horizons. The
horizons are displayed on the cross section based on grid surfaces.
The input grids are used to calculate the AOI when the option executes.
Baseline (Vertex File)
The vertex file should be composed of a set of x,y points in the baseplane
of the input grids, which when connected by line segments, marks the
baseline for the cross section. This baseline is the source for all possible
points where cross-section values must be computed. Closely spaced x,y
points along the baseline are the locations where the surface values are
computed. The baseline can be a single line segment or composed of two
or more line segments which connect a series of points, such as a set of
well locations.

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Line Number
If a file contains more than one line, enter the line number to use as the
baseline.
AOI from Existing Picture
You can define the area of interest (AOI) by finding another cross
section with an appropriate AOI.
You can use this option to define the cross section AOI by using the AOI
of an existing cross section. The ZGF you select is used to build a list of
available pictures you can select. The list of available ZGFs reflects the
ZGFs in the specified ZGFs: Directory Paths (described on page 111).
If the needed ZGF is not listed, check the directory path settings.
In the list of pictures that appears, select a cross section to use for
determining the AOI of the new cross section.
AOI from User Input
Once you have selected the desired horizons, and selected the baseline
to use, select the AOI from User Input option. The program will display
the defaults for the horizontal and vertical axes limits. You may then use
this dialog box to define the maps offsets and the vertical and horizontal
scales.
Horizontal and Vertical Minimums and Maximums
The horizontal axis limits are defaulted as the length of the baseline with
the horizontal minimum set to zero. The vertical axis limits are defaulted
to cover the range of all the Z-values in the selected grids.
To draw the cross section with the same horizontal scale as a contour
map, the horizontal axis scale must be the same as the X and Y scales
used to generate the contour map.
Vertical variation can be exaggerated by making the vertical axis scale
smaller than the horizontal axis scale.
Offsets and Scale
Specify the area above, below, to the left, and to the right of the border
that you want to reserve for map labels and other information.

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Open Menu Options


Use the options in the File Open menu to open these types of files:

Session Open a session file to restore parameter settings from a


previous Z-MAP Plus session or revert to default parameter values
(if you have saved a blank session file).

MFD Open/Close Open (attach) or close (detach) up to four


Master File Directories (MFDs).

ZGF Open/Close Open (attach) a Z-MAP Graphics File


(ZGF). If you attach a ZGF, any ZGF that was previously attached
is automatically detached (closed).

Picture Open Display a list of all maps and cross sections in


the attached ZGF.

SeisWorks Open a horizon file (created in SeisWorks) as a grid.

Session
Select Open Session to display the SELECT Session File dialog box,
which you use to select and open a .ZCLPARM (or .zclparm) file.
Parameter values are reset from the selected file.
The SELECT Session File dialog box contains a list of the previously
created parameter files contained in the directories specified in the
Session tab of the Directory Paths dialog box. If the list is empty, check
the settings in the Directory Paths dialog box, as described on page 112.

MFD Open/Close
You can select MFDs to open or close from a list of the MFDs located
in paths specified by the Directory Paths for Master Files setting. (For
more information about this setting, see Directory Paths on
page 108.)
You can have a maximum of four MFDs attached to a session at a time.
If you select more than four MFDs to attach, only the first four are
attached, and an error statement appears in the system window.
Attach MFDs Icon

Clicking the Attach MFDs icon is equivalent to selecting the MFD Open/
Close menu option. The Attach MFDs icon is located at the top of the
Z-MAP Plus window:

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A scratch file is also attached to each program run. Temporary files


(files that you need for intermediate steps) may be written to the scratch
file, but these files are deleted when the program is stopped. In order for
a file to be saved, it must be written to an MFD or to OpenWorks.
Attached MFDs appear on the list in reverse color. To detach an MFD,
select the highlighted file.

ZGF Open/Close
Select Open Graphics File to attach a graphics file (ZGF) and
automatically detach the currently attached ZGF. The program searches
for all ZGFs in the directories specified by the Directory Paths setting.
Attach ZGFs Icon

Clicking the Attach ZGFs icon is equivalent to selecting the ZGF Open/Close
menu option. The Attach ZGFs icon is located at the top of the Z-MAP Plus
window.

As soon as you select a file, the list disappears and the selected file is
attached. You can attach only one graphics file at a time.

Picture Open
Select Open Picture Open to select a picture (map or cross section)
you want to view and modify. If the picture you want is not listed in the
dialog box that appears, check the status area to verify that the
appropriate ZGF is attached. Once you select a picture, the status area
displays the picture name.
Picture Open Icon

Clicking the Picture Open icon is equivalent to selecting the Picture Open
menu option. The Picture Open icon is located at the top of the Z-MAP Plus
window.

If this is the first time you have selected the File Open
Picture Open option, the Edit and View menus are inactive. Once you
select or create a map or cross section, these menus are activated and no
longer appear dimmed.
If the Tools System Switches Display Picture When Opened
option is set to Yes, the selected map or cross section is drawn
automatically. If not, you must select View Full Display or click the
Full Display icon.

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SeisWorks
If you use Z-MAP Plus with OpenWorks, you can import and
automatically grid SeisWorks horizons (.hzd, .hts, or .hzd_glb files) so
they are accessible in Z-MAP Plus.
To open a SeisWorks horizon as a grid in Z-MAP Plus, click the Open
SeisWorks Data icon or select File Open SeisWorks in the
Z-MAP Plus window.
Two dialog boxes are associated with the SeisWorks Open option:

Seismic Project Selection The first dialog box that appears,


which you use to specify the SeisWorks project that contains the
horizons you want to import (next topic).

Import From SeisWorks The follow-up dialog box, which you


use to select the input horizons and specify the output files and
settings (page 86).
Context-Sensitive Help for This Task

Browser-based help (with complete information about the parameter settings)


is available for this operation. To display the browser-based help, perform one
of these actions:
Click the Help button in the Seismic Project Selection dialog box or Transfer
Grid to Seismic dialog box, or
Select the Help Help option and navigate to the topic.

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Seismic Project Selection Dialog Box


If you click the Open SeisWorks Data icon or select File Open
SeisWorks, the Seismic Project Selection dialog box appears. You use
this dialog box to select the source seismic project, horizon domain, and
target location for the saving the horizon file.

To begin the import process, select a seismic project in the Seismic


Project Selection dialog box by following these steps:
1.

Required: In the 3D Seismic Projects or 2D Seismic Projects list,


highlight the name of the seismic project that contains the horizon
file you want to import as a grid.

2.

Specify the domain in which the horizon was saved: Select either
the Time or Depth radio button in the Domain area. (The program
does not perform time-to-depth or depth-to-time conversions.)

3.

Required: Specify the type of location for saving the new grid by
selecting the MFD or OpenWorks radio button in the Output area.

4.

Click OK.
The Seismic Project Selection dialog box closes. The Import From
SeisWorks dialog box appears immediately in either MFD mode
or OpenWorks mode, depending on the specified Output setting.

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Import from SeisWorks Dialog Box


As soon as you click OK in the Seismic Project Selection dialog box,
the Import From SeisWorks dialog box appearseither in MFD or
OpenWorks mode, depending on the Output setting specified in the
Seismic Project Selection dialog box.

Import From
SeisWorks
dialog box,
configured to
save a horizon to
an MFD and
automatically
generate a grid.

Use the Import from SeisWorks dialog box to specify which horizons to
import, the types of output to create, and the conversion settings.
The Import from SeisWorks dialog box contains three sections:

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Horizons next topic

Mapping Files page 57

OpenWorks Output or MFD Output page 58

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Horizons Section
The Horizons section of the Import from SeisWorks dialog box contains
the following options:
Select Horizons
Required: Create a list of one or more horizons to import. The seismic
line data in horizon files will be converted and stored in the specified
MFD or in the OpenWorks project as one or more DATA files. A
separate DATA file is created for each selected horizon. (Separate files
may also be created for the various types of output you select.)
Click the Select Horizons: List button and use the Multiple Horizon
Selection dialog box that appears for selecting horizons to importin
much the same way you would select horizons if you were working in
SeisWorks. The Horizon Choices list contains all the horizons in the
selected seismic project. For 3D seismic projects, the listed file types are
.hzd or .hts files. In 2D seismic projects, the listed files are of type
.hzd_glb.
To create a horizon list from scratch, move one or more horizons to the
Horizon Selection list (on the right side of the dialog box) by clicking
horizon names in the Horizon Choices list, then clicking the top arrow
icon between the two lists. The selected horizon names move to the
Horizon Selection list and the values in the counter boxes above both
lists are updated.
To automatically select the horizons in a previously saved list, click the
Open List button. In the Horizon Set File Open dialog box that appears,
complete the following steps:
1.

Select a horizon list (.hst) file to use from the list.

2.

Select the Append or Replace radio button to specify which items


are highlighted in the Horizon Choices list:

Append Adds the list's horizons to the group of already


highlighted items.

Replace Highlights only the horizons from the list. (Clears


the selection of any already highlighted horizons that are not
on the list.)

The selection mode affects which horizons are highlighted in the


Horizon Choices list. Horizons you have already moved to the list
are unaffected.
To view the contents of a list, highlight it and click the View
button.

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Selecting Multiple Items You can accumulate a group of items


to move simultaneously by clicking items one at a time. You
cannot use the Control or Shift key to add items to the selected
group. To clear a selection, click a highlighted item. You can move
items to the Horizon Selection list as a group, or build the list
gradually. Items in the Horizon Selection list appear in
alphabetical order.
3.

When you finish selecting a list and display mode, click OK.

Searching and Filtering in the List

To restrict the contents of the Horizon Choices list of the Multiple Horizon
Selection dialog box, use the standard Search/Filter String box at the top of
the dialog box. In the string, you can use the wildcards * (all characters), ? (any
single character), and [ ] (multiple terms) as described in the following
examples:
*

Searching for test* locates the first horizon name that begins with test.
Filtering for test* restricts the list contents to show only horizon names that
contain the string test. The string test*depth finds horizon names that begin
with test, end with depth, and have any characters in between.

The string test? will find a horizon named test2, but not one named test22,
because the wildcard ? represents a single character.

[ ] The string test[hrz,HRZ]* finds horizon names that begin with testhrz or
testHRZ.
The string test[a,b.c] finds horizon names that begin with testa, testb, or testc.
The string test* ?hrz *2 finds horizon names that begin with test, end with 2,
or consist of a single character followed by hrz.

Saving the Current List To save the current Horizon Selection list,
click the Save List button. In the Horizon Set File Save dialog box that
appears, enter a new list name or select a list file to overwrite.
How the Converted Data Is Stored

Horizon files contain seismic line data and are stored in the target MFD as
DATA type files. A separate file is created for each horizon. The new DATA files
retain the name of the original horizon with .DAT appended to the end of the file
name. The data file contains the following fields:
X

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Line Name

Z Value

Shotpoint Number

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Converting Large Horizons

Converting a large horizon can be time-consuming (for example, a horizon


interpreted on 1,000 lines). To expedite the operation for an extremely large
horizon, decimate the horizon and convert it to a dataset in SeisWorks before
you import it. To learn how to do this, see the SeisWorks Convert Horizon to
Map Points option described in the SeisWorks/3D Horizon Interpretation
guide.

Line / Trace References and Increments (3D Only)


If you are importing horizons from a 3D project, the Line Reference,
(Line Reference) Increment, Trace Reference, and (Trace Reference)
Increment boxes appear under the Select Horizons: List button.

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Line Reference The Line Reference box specifies the number


of the first line to import. (By default, each horizon is imported
from the first line.) To eliminate some lines, use the arrows to
change the value incrementally.

Trace Reference The Trace Reference box specifies the


number of the first trace to import. (By default, each horizon is
imported from the first trace.) To eliminate some traces, use the
arrows to change the value incrementally.

Line Reference: Increment and Trace Reference: Increment


You can use the Increment boxes to thin the seismic data
imported. By default, the Increment values are set at 1, so the data
is not thinned. Use the arrows to adjust the value to the number of
lines or traces you want to omit. For example, if the Line
Reference value sets the import to begin at line 110 and the Line
Reference: Increment value is set to 20, the imported file
contains lines 110, 130, 150, 170, and so on. The other lines are
omitted.

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Variable Shift and Constant Shift (2D Only)


If you are importing horizons from a 2D project, the Variable Shift and
Constant Shift radio buttons appear under the Select Horizons: List
button.

If you select the Variable Shift radio button, variable shifts are
applied to the horizons before the file is imported.

If you select the Constant Shift radio button, the constant shift
currently active for the seismic project is applied to the horizons
before the file is imported.
Output Options
The lower part of the Horizons section of the Import from SeisWorks
dialog box contains options for specifying the types of output to
generate.

Select all the check boxes that correspond to output types you want to
generate. You must select at least one output type. The output options
are described in the following text:

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Output as Control Points and Output ZNONS To generate a


control points file from the horizon data, select the Output as
Control Points check box. To include trace locations for
uninterpreted areas in the horizon, also select the Output ZNONs
check box. You can use this setting to output all the x,y
coordinates of uninterpreted or partially interpreted horizons. All
trace locations are output, so uninterpreted locations are given a
ZNON (null) value.

Generate Grid To create a grid file each imported horizon file,


select the Generate Grid check box. When you click the Apply or
OK button, the system window reports which grids were created.

Output Fault Heaves (Fault Center Lines) To import all the


fault heave files associated with the horizon data, select the
Output Fault Heaves (Fault Center Lines) check box. Fault
heave information is derived from the fault heave entries in the
OpenWorks database and are written to a series of regular
Z-MAP Plus fault files. Each regular fault file contains the heave
information for a specific horizon and is named for the horizon
with a FALT designation.

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Distinctions Between Heave in SeisWorks and Z-MAP Plus

In SeisWorks, heave is measured along seismic lines instead of perpendicular to


the fault strike, as in Z-MAP Plus. For this reason, heaves from SeisWorks are
always greater than or equal to the actual heave. The throw is always less than
or equal to the vertical separation. If the difference is constant, you can edit the
imported file in the Z-MAP Plus Calculator (accessible by selecting
Operations Calculator).

Mapping Files Section


The Mapping Files section of the Import from SeisWorks dialog box
contains the following options.

Output Fault Segments


To convert the fault segments into a DATA file, select the Output Fault
Segments check box. All the fault segment data in the current project is
imported into a single fileyou cannot select which fault segments to
convert. The format of the output file is:
X Y Z
SegmentID
Fault Plane Number
All points in a segment share the same ID. All segments assigned to a
given plane have the same fault plane value. Unassigned segments have
a fault plane value of zero (0).
Alternate Method for Importing Faults

You can also convert a fault plane to a horizon in SeisWorks (Faults Convert
Fault to Horizon) before you import it to Z-MAP Plus. This approach enables
you to separate the fault plane data from the sum total of project fault plane data.

Output Points and Fault Polygons


To save mapping file data as control points, shot lines, and fault
polygons, select the Output Points and Fault Polygons check box,
then click the List button. In the Multiple Point and Fault Polygon
Selection dialog box that appears, select one or more mapping files (.dts
files) to import, then click OK.

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The contents of a SeisWorks mapping file are separated by data type and
written to three files during the conversion. All three file types are
named after the original .dts file name. For example, if you import a
mapping file named lowsand, the following three Z-MAP Plus files are
generated:
New File Extension

File Type

File Format

.dtsCpnt

control points

X, Y, Z

.dtsShot

shot lines

X, Y, Z, Line Name

.dtsFalt

fault polygon

X, Y, SegID

Shot point numbers are not imported, but you can use shot lines files to
perform line gridding or to post lines on basemaps.
Output Manual Contours
To import data from SeisWorks manual contour files (.mcf) into a
Z-MAP Plus CNTR file, select the Output Manual Contours check
box and click the List button.
MFD Output Section
If you displayed the Import from SeisWorks dialog box in MFD mode,
the dialog box contains an MFD Output section, which has the following
options.

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Flip Z Values (Simulate TVDSS) To multiply positive time


values by -1, select the Flip Z Values (Simulate TVDSS) check
box. This operation does not convert time to depth, but flips time
values so they have negative values that simulate true vertical
depth subsea values.

Output MFD The name on the Output MFD button specifies


which attached MFD is used for storing the imported file(s). To
change this value, click the Output MFD button, and select an
option from the drop-down list. The list contains the scratch file
and all the attached MFDs.

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OpenWorks Output Section


If you display the Import from SeisWorks dialog box in OpenWorks
mode, the dialog box contains an OpenWorks Output section, which has
the following options.

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Flip Z Values (Simulate TVDSS) Select this radio button to


multiply positive time values by -1. This operation does not
convert time to depth, but flips time values so they have negative
values that simulate true vertical depth subsea values.

Geo Type To specify a Geo Type for the output, click the
Geo Type button and choose a value from the drop-down list. The
list contains all the Geo Types associated with the current
OpenWorks project. The Geo Type is typically a geologic
characterization, such as STRAT UNIT (stratigraphic unit).

Geo Name Use the Geo Name box to specify a geo name value
for the imported data. To enter one of the standard values, click the
Geo Name button and select one of the standard values from the
drop-down list. To use a custom value, highlight or double-click
the default value (UNKNOWN) and enter a value from the
keyboard. In OpenWorks, the geo name refers to a geological unit.

Depth Type Displays the currently specified depth type


either measured depth (MD) or simulated true vertical depth
subsea. You cannot change the Depth Type value directly. To
change this value, select or clear the Flip Z Values radio button.

Depth Units Displays the depth units setting specified for the
OpenWorks project. You cannot change the Depth Units value
directly.

Grid Name If you select the Generate Grid check box, the
Grid Name box becomes active, enabling you to specify a name
for grids you create from the imported data. The default name is
UNKNOWN. To overwrite an existing name, click the Down arrow
and select a name from the drop-down list. To specify a unique
name, edit the name displayed in the Grid Name box. The Grid
Name list contains all the grids in the current OpenWorks project.

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Using the File Manager


Use the File Manager to cut, copy, paste, move, delete, and rename
MFD member files, ZGF pictures, systems files, and OpenWorks files.
You can also compress and rename MFDs and ZGFs in this dialog box.
To display the Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box, select File
Manager in the Z-MAP Plus window or click the File Manager icon.
Icon bar
Tabs
File Listing
pane
Directory
pane

File Detail
pane

Pane size
controls

Buttons

In the File Manager, you can easily manage almost every type of file you
create in Z-MAP Plus. Macro files (.ZCLMAC files) are the exception.
You can use File Manager to manipulate the following file types:
OpenWorks, MFDs, ZGFs, .FMT, .TBL, .ZEQ, and DATA files.
The remainder of this topic describes the components of the
Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box. For detailed information about
File Manager operations and tabs, use the context-sensitive help system
accessible by clicking the Help button in the Z-MAP Plus File Manager
dialog box.

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Working with File Manager


The Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box contains the following
elements:
Icon toolbar (top) Click an icon to immediately execute actions
(Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete, and Compress) or display a dialog box for
executing actions (Rename MFD and Rename Field). Options are
context-specific, and appear dimmed if they are unavailable. To activate
icons, choose a tab and highlight a directory or MFD name in the left
pane or a file name in the right pane.
Directory Pane (left) View the currently accessible directories or
MFDs. Depending on the tab displayed, the directories reflect the top
level of the current OpenWorks project, scratch file, attached MFDs,
ZGFs contained in the attached MFDs, or system files. If you select an
MFD or a directory below the upper-level directory, the component files
appear in the File Listing pane (in the upper right section of the dialog
box).
File Listing Pane (upper right) View the names of the files or
pictures in the directory or MFD that is currently selected in the
Directory pane.
File Detail Pane (lower right) View details about the file currently
selected in the File Listing pane (except for system files, which display
no information). For example, use this pane to view information about
a files range or size.
Close Button Close the Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box.
Help Button Display the browser-based help window, with the home
File Manager topic shown as the entry point to the help system.
Warning: Immediate Command Execution

Be careful when you perform operations in the File Manager.


The Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box does not contain an OK or Apply
buttonalmost all commands execute immediately. The exceptions are
Rename MFD and Rename Field, which display dialog boxes for completing
their operations.
For example, if you delete a picture from a ZGF in the File Manager, the picture
is immediately removed from the file system. You cannot automatically undo
the deletion; and you can no longer access the deleted picture.

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File Manager Icons


The Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box contains several shortcut
icons for executing operations quickly. The icons are
context-sensitivethey are active only if the operation is appropriate to
the current context. Active, available icons are clear-looking (as shown
below). Inactive icons are dimmed.

Rename MFD/ZGF

Cut

Compress MFD/ZGF

Rename File/
Picture

Delete
Copy

Paste (shown in
inactive state)

If you position the cursor over an icon, its name appears. All the icons
have counterpart options in MB3 menus.
How the Cut, Copy, and Paste Operations Work Together

The Paste icon becomes active only after you perform a Cut or Copy operation.
In fact, the Cut and Copy operations are not executed until the Paste operation
is performed. Once you click the Paste icon after performing a Cut, the file
disappears from its original location. If you select another file in the File Listing
pane after you perform a Cut or Copy operation and the follow-up Paste
operation, the Cut or Copy operation is canceled. File Manager has no
"clipboard" storage.
You can paste files into a ZGF or MFD only if you have write access to the file.
If the ZGF or MFD is read-only, you can see and attach the file, but you cannot
add any data to it.

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Other Ways to Execute Commands in the File Manager


Mouse Button Three (MB3) Menu Commands
Icon operations are also accessible through MB3 menu options. As with
the shortcut icons, MB3 options are context-sensitive, so only the
options appropriate to the current tab and context are available. The
following example shows the options available if you click MB3 in the
File Listing tab. (The Paste option is inactive in this example.)

MB3 menu for the File Listing tab

Selecting Multiple Files in the File Listing Pane


In the File Listing pane, you can select multiple files to cut, copy, paste,
or delete as a group.
To select a single file Click the row that contains the file name.
To select a group of noncontiguous files Press <CTRL> as you
select file names.
To select a group of contiguous files Click the first row in the
selected range of rows, then press <Shift> as you click the last row in
the range.

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Drag-and-Drop
Use drag-and-drop to move or copy files from the File Listing pane to
the directory tree. You can drag-and-drop the following file types to
these locations:

MFD component files to a different MFD, or

A selected picture to a different ZGF.


Limitations on Drag-and-Drop Operations

The following limitations apply to drag-and-drop operations:


You cannot drag-and-drop files into OpenWorks.
You cannot move or copy data into an inappropriate directory type. For
example, you cannot copy or paste a picture into an MFD.
You cannot drag files into a read-only ZGF or MFD.

To drag-and-drop files in the File Manager, follow these steps:


1.

Select the MFDs or ZGfs tab in the Z-MAP Plus File Manager
dialog box. The selected tab appears in front.

2.

In the Directory pane (at the left), select an MFD or ZGF. The
selected MFD or ZGFs contents appear at the upper right.

3.

In the File Listing pane (upper right corner of the dialog box),
highlight the names of the items you want to move or copy.

4.

Perform one of these actions:

5.

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Moving Position the cursor over the highlighted item(s),


press MB1, and drag to the target MFD or ZGF in the
Directory pane. In move mode, the cursor appears as an arrow.

Copying Drag the item(s) as you would for moving, but


hold down the Control key as you drag. In copy mode, the
cursor appears as a rectangle with a + (plus symbol) above it.

When you reach the target ZGF or MFD icon, drop the item(s) by
releasing the mouse button (and the Control key, if you are
dragging in copy mode).

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Directory Pane
The Directory pane is the tree display at the left side of the Z-MAP Plus
File Manager dialog box. The Directory pane display changes as you
switch tabs, to display the related objects at the highest level of the file
system.
If you select an icon in the Directory pane, the items contents are listed
in the File Listing pane at the dialog boxs upper right.
The following table describes the contents of the Directory pane for each
tab:
Tab

Directory Pane Contents

OpenWorks

When you first select the OpenWorks tab, the tree is collapsed and
only the current project folder icon is visible. If you select the
project folder icon, the tree expands to show the project
subdirectories. To display the contents of a subdirectory in the File
Listing pane, select the subdirectory folder icon. (For example,
subdirectory contents may include faults, grids, contour sets,
control points, polylines, deviated wells, and lattices.)

MFD

Each attached MFD is represented by a folder icon. To display the


MFDs contents in the File Listing pane, select the MFD icon.

ZGF

All ZGFs in the defined directory paths are listed (not just the
currently attached ZGF). Each ZGF is represented by a folder
icon. To display a ZGFs pictures in the File Listing pane, select
the ZGF icon.

System

All directories that contain system-generated files are displayed.


This list of directories is derived from the File Directory Paths
setting. To display the system files in a directory, in the File
Listing pane, select the system directory icon.

If you select an MFD or ZGF in the Directory pane, the Compress and
Rename MFD/ZGF icons become active, enabling you to display a
dialog box for compressing or renaming a selected MFD or ZGF.
Compressing Files from the File Menu

You can also display the dialog box for compressing an MFD or ZGF by
selecting an option in the File Compress menu (as described starting on
page 154).

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File Listing Pane


The horizontal pane at the upper right displays the file names from the
active directory selected in the Directory pane. If the ZGF tab is
selected, the File Listing pane displays the names of the ZGFs pictures.
If the OpenWorks tab is selected and you select a subdirectory, the
subdireectorys component files are listed. Each row in the File Listing
pane represents information about a single file or picture.
Column headings change depending on the type of directory displayed.
For example, column headings for MFDs are: Name, Type, Size, and
Date. The following example detail show the column headings for ZGF
picture files:

To select a file or picture in this pane, click the row once with MB1.
Triangle Map is the selected picture in the sample above. When you
have selected an OpenWorks, ZGF or MFD, the File Detail pane
becomes active and displays information about the selected file or
picture. The Rename File, Cut, Copy, Paste (after a Cut or Copy
operation), and Delete icons also become active when a file is selected
in this pane.
Sort File Lists
You can sort any of these file lists by the column headings. Each column
heading is on a toggle button. Click the column heading button you want
to use to sort and the information is rearranged in either descending or
ascending order.
OpenWorks files are initially displayed in the order set by using the
Tools OW Sort Order option.
Resize Columns in File Listing
You can resize the column widths in the File Listing dialog box by
clicking MB2 on the boundary line between the columns and dragging
the boundary line. To resize columns, the cursor must be located over
table boundary lines, not column heading boundary lines.

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File Detail Pane


The horizontal bottom right pane is called the File Detail pane. The File
Detail pane displays useful information about the file or picture that is
highlighted in the File Listing pane. The type of information in the File
Detail pane varies depending on the type of file currently selected. The
following example shows the information for the Triangle Map picture.
:

The File Detail pane is inactive if you select a system file.


Resizing Panes
Resize
icon

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To resize the height of the panes in the Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box,
use the small square Resize icon between the panes. Drag the Resize icon up or
down with any mouse button until the panes are the appropriate height.

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Save Session As Command


To save the current parameter values to a session file (parameter file),
select File Save Session As. The SAVE Session to Session File
dialog box appears.

Saving Parameters to a Session File


In the SAVE Session to Session File dialog box, specify a name for the
parameter file in the Enter New Project Session File Name box. If you
use an existing file name, the original file is overwritten.
Once you save a session file, the next time you select File New
Open Session to display the SELECT Session File dialog box, the
session file name appears in the list. If you select the saved session file,
the parameter settings from the saved session are restored.
Important Facts About Session File Extensions

Parameter files have the extension .ZCLPARMS. (You can use all capitals or
all lower case letters for the extension, but not mixed case.) If you do not add
the extension, the program adds .ZCLPARMS automatically when you click
OK.
If you enter a non-standard extension, a warning message appears in the
system window (similar to the following example).
BRINKLEY.XYZ - HAS A NON-STANDARD EXTENSION
FILE HAS BEEN NAMED: - BRINKLEY.XYZ.ZCLPARMS
In this situation, the file is saved as renamed on most systems.
You can load a parameter file only if it has a .ZCLPARMS or .zclparms
extension. Otherwise, the file is not included n the SELECT Session File list.
If you use an existing file name (for example, Brinkley.ZCLPARMS) and
specify the extension in the opposite case (for example, Brinkley.zclparms),
the original file is not overwritten. A copy of the file is saved with the
specified extension.

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Location for Saving Session Files


The session file is saved by default in the directory specified as the
output path in the Session tab of the Directory Paths dialog box. If no
output path session files is specified, the session file is saved in your
home directory (the directory you used to start Z-MAP Plus).
You can specify a custom location by entering a fully qualified file
name, as shown in the following example:
/me/prj1/w_texas/BRINKLEY.ZCLPARMS
or specify a location starting from your home directory, as shown in this
example:
ProjMapping/BRINKLEY.ZCLPARMS
(In this example, the session file is saved in the ProjMapping directory
located under your home directory.)

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Save As Command
You can use the File Save As options to save Z-MAP Plus data in
disk filesmaking the data accessible in other Landmark programs.
The Save As options are:

ASCII (Export) Copies data from a component file in an MFD


to an ASCII file (next topic).

CPS-1 File Copies the contents of one internal file in an MFD


to a CPS Save file. CPS Save files are binary files that you can use
with the CPS-1 mapping program (page 73).

ZGF Flat File Copies the contents of a ZGF to a formatted


ASCII file (page 74).

SeisWorks File Saves one or more grids as SeisWorks horizon


file(s) (page 85). (Corresponds to the Save to SeisWorks icon.)

ASCII (Export)
Use the ASCII (Export) option to save a file from an attached MFD as
a formatted ASCII file. You most often use this option to make data
available for import to other programs, but you can also use it to convert
data between file types. (In most cases, however, you can perform
file-type conversions by using the Operations File Conversion
option.)
You have a choice of formats for the output file: Use either a previously
created format or automatically generated formats (derived from the
formats of the source file fields). You can also automatically create
formats for grids. Additionally, you can include a format description
header at the top of the output file. Files created with automatically
generated formats and introductory format description headers can be
re-imported into Z-MAP Plus in their original form.
To use the ASCII (Export) option as the first step in converting data
between file types, use the default values to create the export file and
include a format description header at the top of the file. Edit the file
type specified in the header and use the edited format to import the file.
(For more information, see Appendix E. Import/Export on page 827.)
File
From the list of files that appears, select a file to transfer to a formatted
disk files. You can export any file stored in an MFD.

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Format File
A list of formatted disk (ASCII) files whose names end with .FMT or
.fmt appears.
Definition of Terms: Format File and Format Name

Format is a description of a particular dataset. This description can be placed at


the top of a data file in a format group, or in a format file. The format consists
of a set of parameters, some of which describe the general nature of the data file
(File Description Parameters), and others which describe each field of the data
file (Field Description Parameters).
A format file is a disk file which contains one or more formats. Each of these
formats is identified by a format name.
A format name can be a maximum of 40 alphanumeric characters long. Names
may need to be long if the format file contains multiple formats. Each format
description needs a unique format name. The format name identifies which
format you want to use in a format file. If you assign an existing format name
and give it to a new format description, the newly named format overwrites the
existing format in the format file.

The format file is a standard text file consisting of one or more formats.
A format is a series of lines describing what is to be exported and in what
format. Each field that is to be output is described in the format. To learn
more about the format (format group in ZCL), see Appendix E. Import/
Export on page 827 or Import on page 116. You do not need a
format file to export a Z-MAP Plus file. The format can be created
automatically.
If your format file is not listed, make sure the Format tab of the
Directory Paths dialog box points to its location.
Format Name
From the list of formats that appears, select the format that defines the
the output file and the fields included in the file.

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Output Name & ID Characters


This option allows you to specify the name of the file to be exported,
whether format information is placed on top of that file, and what
characters are used in that format.
The group ID or format ID character is used to define the beginning and
end of the format information that goes on top of the output file when
Header is selected.
Output Disk File Name
Enter the name of the formatted disk (ASCII) output file. The fully
qualified name (full path terminated by the file name and extension) can
be a maximum of 79 characters long, cannot contain blank spaces, and
should follow the conventions appropriate for a text file created with
your operating system.
If you do not enter the full destination path, the file is written to the
Directory Output Path for Data Files. The default location is the
directory you were in when you started Z-MAP Plus. If you do not enter
an extension, the program adds the .DAT extension when it creates the
file. (For example, if you enter the file name LISTING, the name is
changed to LISTING.DAT.)
Include Information Header on File
Controls whether a format is placed on top of the output file. The format
can be automatically created using information in the file to be exported
or can be selected from a file of previously created formats (*.fmt or
*.FMT).
Since this format contains all information about the file and its columns
of values, it is commonly referred to as an Information Header. Also
since this is a format it can be used by the Import option to import this
or any other file having similar form. Possible choices for this parameter
include:

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Header (default value) Place the format used to export the file
on top of the output file.

No Header Do not place the format on top of the output file.

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Group ID Character
The group ID or format ID character is used to define the beginning and
end of the format information that goes on top of the output file when
Header is selected. The default character is @.
For a discussion of what formats and the group ID character are, see
Appendix E. Import/Export on page 827 or Import on page 116.
Comment ID Character
The comment ID character is used to identify lines of text that are treated
as comments if the header format is used to import a file. The default
character is !. When the header format is generated automatically,
comments describing the date and time and file from which it was
created are output to the header. If an existing format is used, whatever
comments it contains are output to the header.
For a discussion of what formats and the comment ID character are, see
Appendix E. Import/Export on page 827 or Import on page 116.
History ID Character
The history ID character is used to identify lines of text that are stored
as history information if the header format is used to import a file. When
the format is generated automatically, no lines of history are output to
the header. If an existing format is used, whatever history information it
contains is output to the header. The default character is +.
For a discussion of what formats and the history ID character are, see
Appendix E. Import/Export on page 827 or Import on page 116.

CPS-1 File
Use the CPS-1 File option to execute the EXPORT-CPS-FILE macro.
This macro exports a member file from an MFD to a CPS SAVE file.
You can export an original or extended file.
For more information about this macro, see the Help
Online Manuals Macros Manual EXPORT-CPS-FILE or
the Macro Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL.

Macro Name

EXPORT-CPS-FILE

Macro Type

.ZCLMAC

Purpose

This macro exports a member file out of an MFD to a CPS SAVE file.
You can export an original file or an extended file.

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Description

As input, you must specify a member file of the type GRID, DATA,
VERT, FALT, or CNTR.

Results

A CPS SAVE file on the requested file name

ZGF Flat File


You can use the ZGF Flat File option to save ZGF information as a flat
ASCII file. To do this, this option executes the EXPORT-ZGF-FILE
macro. The rest of this topic explains the format of the ASCII file.
ASCII File Format for ZGFs
This topic describes the specified interchange format for records, as well
as the overall file format, of the ASCII file that describes a ZGF.
Output from the ZGF to ASCII file transfer process is always in plotter
units. Each record is 100 bytes long, with a fixed format. Command
records have a $ in column 1, followed by the record type in columns 2
and 3, and command-dependent data in the remainder of the record.
Non-command records supply additional data for the command
immediately preceding them. They have no constant information and
are identified solely by their column number in the file. Non-command
records occupy columns 1100, with more specific column assignments
for each field. See Non-Command Records on page 84.
Command Record Types
There are 25 command record types that can be divided into four
categories:

header

group

primitive

modal
Unless otherwise specified, all angles are in decimal degrees from the
positive x axis; all x and y are in drawing units ($DU, either REAL or
PLOT); heights and line parameters are in plot units.

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Header Record
Each picture has a header record. ZGF flat files have 16 types of header
records, described in the following table.
Record
Type

Column

Format

Description

$AX

13
410
1125
2630

A3
A7
F15.0
F15.0

$AX axes
unused
semi-major axis
semi-minor axis

$BN

13
410

A3
A7

$BN boundary
boundary type; one of:
GEO
lat/long
BNDING rectilinear
minimum latitude
minimum latitude
maximum latitude
maximum longitude
minimum x
minimum y
maximum x
maximum y
projection system zone

$CL

$CO

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1120
2130
3140
4150
5160
6170
7180
8190
9194

F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
I4

13
410
1120

A3
A7
F10.0

2130

F10.0

3140

F10.0

4150

F10.0

13
410
1120
2130
3140
4150
5160
6170
7180
8190

A3
A7
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0

$CL cut line


unused
left offset; distance in plot units of the left cut
line from the minimum x
right offset; distance in plot units of the right
cut line from the maximum x
bottom offset; distance in plot units of the
bottom cut line from the minimum y
top offset; distance in plot units of the top cut
line from the maximum y
$CO constants
unused
standard parallel (least)
standard parallel (greatest)
reference latitude
scale factor along reference latitude
reference longitude
scale factor along reference longitude
false easting
false northing

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Record
Type

Format

Description

$DM

13
4

A3
I1

$DM dimension
number of dimensions for plot; for now 2
(two-dimensional) is the only valid
number

$DU

13

A3

$DU drawing units; coordinate system, one


of:
REAL (see real units, $RU)
PLOT (see plot units, $PU)

$GR

13
4100

A3
A97

$GR grid
type of grid, one of:
UTM projection (see $PR) must be
TRANSVERSE MERCATOR
STATE PLANE
USER

$OR

13
410
1120
2130

A3
A7
F10.0
F10.0

$OR map origin


unused
x in real units
y in real units

$PN

13

A3

$PN picture name, for example, start a new


picture. Must be first record of each picture,
with other header records as subgroups
name of picture

$PR

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Column

4100

A97

13
4100

A3
A97

$PR projection
projection type, one of:
ALBERS EQUAL AREA
AMERICAN POLYCONIC
AZIMUTHAL GNOMONIC
AZIMUTHAL ORTHOGRAPHIC
AZIMUTHAL STEREOGRAPHIC
BIPOLAR OBLIQUE CONIC CONFORMAL
CASSINI-SOLDNER
SINGLE PARALLEL LAMBERT
DOUBLE PARALLEL LAMBERT
MODIFIED POLYCONIC
NEW ZEALAND MAP GRID
GENERAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR
OBLIQUE TRANSVERSE MERCATOR
STANDARD MERCATOR
UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR
VAN DER GRINTEN I

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Record
Type

Format

Description

A3
A2

$PU plot units


plot units, one of:
IN inches
MM millimeters
CM centimeters
M meters

A3
A7
F10.0

$RO rotation
unused
rotation angle. For now, this value is always
0.0.
$RU real units
real units for projected coordinates, one of:
IN inches
FT feet
YD yards
MI miles
NM nautical miles
M meters
KM kilometers
US user-supplied
units factor, units per meter

$PU

13
45

$RO

13
410
1120

$RU

13
45

A3
A2

620

F15.0

$SC

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Column

13
410
1120

A3
A7
F10.0

$SC scale
unused
scale, absolute ratio between real and plot
coordinates, ignoring units

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Record
Type

Column

Format

Description

$SH

13
4100

A3
A97

$SH spheroid
spheroid type, one of:
USER-DEFINED
AIRY 1858
AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL
BESSEL 1841
CLARKE 1858
CLARKE 1866
CLARKE 1880
EVEREST 1830
FISCHER 1960
FISCHER 1968
GHANA NATIONAL
GRS-80
HAYFORD 1909
HELMERT
HOUGH 1956
INTERNATIONAL
IUGG 1967
IUGG 1975
KAULA 1961
KRASSOVSKY 1940
MALAYAN EVEREST 1830
MERCURY
MERCURY MODIFIED
SOUTH AMERICAN 1969
WGS-72 1972
WGS-84

$ZN

13

A3

$ZN zone, only needed when $GR (grid) is


UTM or STATE PLANE
projection system zone

4100

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Group Record
Group records mark the start of a particular category of records (for
example, contours and well data). The next occurrence of a group record
closes the previous group, so groups cannot be nested. The three types
of group records are described in the following table.
Record
Type

Column

Format

Description

$CR

13
45
610

A3
A2
A5

$CR contour
unused
contour type. For now, this is always ZYCOR.

$WL

13
410
1118

A3
A7
A7

$WL well data


unused
well type, one of:
DEVIATED (two $SY symbols in group)
BOTTOM (one $SY symbol in group)

$GE

13

A3

$GE generic; anything that is not contour or


well data

Primitive Record
Primitive records are used to describe information about four types of
graphics features. Graphics primitive records contain information about
hidden tags, including LGB type codes, lines, symbols, and text. Each
of the four primitive record types is explained in the following table.
Record
Type
$HT

Column

Format

Description

13

A3

46

I3

$HT hidden tag; used for various types of


information, including LGB type codes; can
be followed by continuation records number of
characters; if more than 94, the string
continues in column 1 of the next record
alphanumeric string

7100
$PL

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A94

13

A3

A1

510
1120

A6
I10

$PL polyline; contains point strings for line


drawing; can be followed by point records C if
this polyline is a continuation of the previous
line; otherwise, blank unused count of the
number of points following on point records

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Record
Type
$SY

$T

Column

Format

Description

13
49
10
1120
2130
3140
4150
5160

A3
I6

$SY symbol drawing information


symbol code
unused
x location
y location
unused
angle; always 0.0
height

13

A3

46

I3

710
1120
2130
3140
41100

F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0

A3
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
A60

$T text drawing information; can be


followed by continuation records containing
more characters, number of characters; if >60,
the string continues in column 1 of the next
record (a continuation record)
unused
x location
y location
unused
text

Special $HT records store information for these types of data:

color table

text color

line color

marker (symbol) color

polygon fill color

colorfilled polygon

clipping window
These records are explained in the following topic.

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Color Table
Immediately following the picture name record is a $HT record that
defines the color representation table.

$HT 30 NO COLOR TABLE shows that the picture has no color


representation table associated with it.

$HT994 COLOR TABLE precedes records that contain integer


codes for the color representation table. The integer codes can be
decoded into floating point RGB values by the following method:
%Blue = (ICODE/1048576) / 1023
%Green = (MOD(ICODE/1024), 1024) / 1023
%Red = (MOD(ICODE,1024)) / 1023
The color codes can be read with the FORTRAN format
((9(8I12/1,/) starting on the first line following the $HT record.

Codes for Controlling Color


You can control the colors assigned to an individual graphic element on
a ZGF picture by editing color indices for that particular element. The
following table contains information about the color code, purpose, and
FORTRAN format for graphic elements.
Graphic
Element

Code

Changes

Text

$HT 30ZGTSTC

Changes the color of all text until you


enter another color index for the graphic
element.

Line

$HT 30ZGTSLC

Changes the color for all lines until you


enter another color index for this graphic
element.

Marker/Symbol

$HT 30ZGTSMC

Changes the color of symbols until you


enter another color index for the graphic
element.

Polygon Fill

$HT 30ZGTSFC

Changes the color of polygon area. Used


in conjunction with the code identifying
each of the polygons present on the ZGF
picture.

For each of the four elements in the table above, the FORTRAN format
is 1x,13.

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Colorfilled Polygon
This color code identifies the polygon whose index is being set. It has
the following format:
$HTNNNZGTCUL
where NNN is an integer from 1 to 999 that represents a colorfilled
polygon. It is read with the following FORTRAN format, where
ICOLOR is the color index. NPTS is the number of vertices on the
polygon, and ZMIN and ZMAX are not used.
READ (LTEMP, 750) ICOLOR, ZMIN, ZMAX, NPTS
750 FORMAT (20X, I10, 2F15.5, 7X, I3)

The polygon vertices following are read with the format (10F10.0).
Each hidden tag can have a maximum of 40 points stored. Larger
polygons are stored in a series of $HT groups.
Clipping Window
This code determines whether the posted graphics on the ZGF picture
are clipped. You can use this code to limit posted graphics to a given
areafor example, to keep contours inside the map border or to limit
posted border labels to a small area outside the map border. The code
has the following format:
$HTNNNZGTWND
where NNN is an integer from 1 to 999 that flags the activated or
deactivated status of a clipping window for posted graphics. It is read
with the following FORTRAN format:
READ(LTEMP,210)MODE, NUMVTX, IPLOT
210 FORMAT (14X, I1, 1X, I15, 1X, I10)
READ(LTEMP,230)(XCORS(I),YCORS(I),I=ISTART,IEND)
230 FORMAT (14X, 8F10.0)

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MODE value += 1 to activate the clipping window, with no


drawing outside the window, or 0 to deactivate the current window.

NUMVTX is the number of vertices in the clipping window. For the


current applications, this value is always 2. The two vertices
represent two corners of a rectangular clipping window. All
graphics are clipped to this window as long as it is active.

IPLOT is not currently used and can be ignored.

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Modal Record
Modal records set parameters for lines or text, as described in the
following table.
Record
Type
$LF

$TX

Column

Format

Description

13
49

A3
A6

10

A1

$LF line parameters


line type, one of:
DASH use columns 2150
HASH use columns 2140
SOLID
S if the next record is a symbol record ($SY),
giving the symbol to spot at every data point
(with joining lines between); otherwise, blank
line weight, in plot units; one of:
1/200 (regular)
2/200 (bold)

1120

F10.0

2130
3140
4150

F10.0
F10.0
A10

hash length, in plot units


hash spacing, in plot units
hash direction, one of:
LEFT
RIGHT

2130
3140

F10.0
F10.0

length of dash, in plot units


length of space, in plot units

14
56
726

A3
A7
A7

27

A1

$TX text parameters


unused
font, one of:
ZYCOR PLAIN
ROMAN SIMPLEX
ROMAN COMPLEX
ITALICS
DUPLEX
justification, one of:
L left
R right
C center
unused
angle
height

2830
3140
4150

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A3
F10.0
F10.0

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Non-Command Records
Two types of records are not commands: continuation and point records.
A continuation record can only occur immediately following a hidden
tag ($HT), text ($T), or another continuation record. It is FORTRAN
format A100 and uses columns 1100.
A point record can occur only immediately after a hidden tag ($HT), text
($T), or continuation record, and follows this format:
Column
110
1120
2130
3140
4150
5160
6170
7180
8190
91100

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Format
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0
F10.0

Descriptio
n
first x
first y
second x
second y
third x
third y
fourth x
fourth y
fifth x
fifth y

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SeisWorks File
If you run Z-MAP Plus with OpenWorks, you can save grids as horizons
for use in SeisWorks. To begin this operation, click the Save to
SeisWorks icon or select Save As SeisWorks File in the
Z-MAP Plus window.
To complete this operation, you use the following two dialog boxes:

Seismic Project Selection (next topic)

Transfer Grid to Seismic (page 86)


Context-Sensitive Help for This Task

Browser-based help (with complete information about the parameter settings)


is available for this operation. To display the browser-based help, perform one
of these actions:
Click the Help button in the Seismic Project Selection dialog box or Transfer
Grid to Seismic dialog box, or
Select the Help Help option and navigate to the topic.

Seismic Project Selection Dialog Box


If you click the Save to SeisWorks icon or select Save As
SeisWorks File in the Z-MAP Plus window, the Seismic Project
Selection dialog box appears.

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1.

Required: In the 3D Seismic Projects list or 2D Seismic Projects


list, highlight the name of the seismic project to use as the
destination for the horizon file. You must make a selection in one
of these lists.

2.

Domain Select the Time or Depth radio button to designate


whether the OpenWorks project data is saved in the time or depth
domain. (Z-MAP Plus does not perform any time-to-depth or
depth-to-time conversions.)

3.

Output Select the OpenWorks or MFD radio button to


designate whether to save the output in the current OpenWorks
project or in an MFD (which you specify later). (The option you
select determines whether the follow-up dialog box appears in
MFD or OpenWorks mode.)

4.

Click OK to save the settings, close the dialog box, and display the
follow-up dialog box the Transfer Grid to Seismic dialog box.

Transfer Grid to Seismic Dialog Box


The Transfer Grid to Seismic dialog box appears automatically when
you click OK in the Seismic Project Selection dialog box. The Transfer
Grid to Seismic dialog box contains two sections:

Grid Selection

Horizon Specification

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Grid Selection
Grid Required: Specify the name of the source grid to convert to a
horizon. Click the Grid: Select button to display a list of grids in
currently attached MFDs or in the current OpenWorks project.
Highlight the name of the grid you want to convert. The dialog box
closes immediately. You return to the Transfer Grid to Seismic dialog
box, which displays the name of the selected grid file in the Grid box.
Fault To include the data from a fault file associated with the target
grid, click the Fault: Select button. Use the Select A Fault File dialog
box that appears for specifying the fault file. The Select A Fault File
dialog box displays a list of all the faults in the attached MFDs and in
the OpenWorks project. Highlight the name of the associated fault
whose data you want to include. The dialog box closes immediately.
You return to the Transfer Grid to Seismic dialog box, which displays
the name of the selected fault file in the Fault box.
Horizon Specification Pane

Reference Datum Shift You can edit the Reference Datum


Shift value to shift the datum point for the horizon you are about to
create. Shifting the datum for the entire grid before you convert the
horizon saves a lot of time. The value you specify in the Reference
Datum Shift box is added to every node value in the grid.
If you enter a Reference Datum Shift value, remember which
domain (time or depth) the grid is in, or you may encounter
problems in the output horizon file. No unit conversion is
performed (such as feet-to-meters or seconds-to-milliseconds).

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Flip Z Values (Simulate TVDSS) To simulate true vertical


depth subsea values, select the Flip Z Values (Simulate TVDSS)
check box. This sets the program to multiply positive values by -1.
This operation does not actually convert time to depthit flips
the time values by giving them a negative value.

Horizon Required: Specify the name of the new horizon or use


the default name (Exported_Grid.) To specify a custom name,
enter a name directly in the Horizon box or click the Horizon:
Select button and select an existing file name from the Select A
Horizon Name dialog box that appears. In the dialog box, you can
select an existing file name to overwrite, or select a name, then edit
it. Once you click OK in the Select A Horizon Name dialog box,
the dialog box closes and the specified name appears in the
Horizon box.

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Searching and Filtering in the List

To restrict the contents of the horizon list of the Select A Horizon Name dialog
box, use the standard Search/Filter String box at the top of the dialog box. In
the string, you can use the wildcards * (all characters), ? (any single character),
and [ ] (multiple terms) as described in the following examples:
*

Searching for test* locates the first horizon name that begins with test.
Filtering for test* restricts the list contents to show only horizon names that
contain the string test. The string test*depth finds horizon names that begin
with test, end with depth, and have any characters in between.

The string test? will find a horizon named test2, but not one named test22,
because the wildcard ? represents a single character.

[ ] The string test[hrz,HRZ]* finds horizon names that begin with testhrz or
testHRZ.
The string test[a,b.c] finds horizon names that begin with testa, testb, or testc.
The string test* ?hrz *2 finds horizon names that begin with test, end with 2,
or consist of a single character followed by hrz.

When you finish specifying the source grid name, target horizon name,
and any other options you want to use, click OK or Apply in the
Transfer Grid to Seismic dialog box. If you specified an existing horizon
name, a confirmation message box appears and asks if you want to
overwrite the original file. Once the file is created, a message appears in
the system window.
Merged SeisWorks Projects

Although Z-MAP Plus treats the projects that comprise a merged SeisWorks
project as separate, you can still save a grid to the merged SeisWorks project
(such as a 2D3D project). For example, save the grid to the 2D project
component, then use the same output horizon name to save the grid to the 3D
project component. You can view and interpret the two output files as a single
horizon in a SeisWorks merged session.

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Info
Use the File Info options to view information about Z-MAP Plus
files, grids, and graphics.
The options include:

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Master File Directory Displays information about files on the


currently attached OpenWorks files, MFDs and the scratch file.

File Listing Displays the contents of any nongrid file in the


currently attached OpenWorks files, MFDs and the scratch file.

Grid Listing Displays the contents of a grid on the screen.

Data Statistics Generates data statistics on a field for any


currently attached data file.

Grid Statistics Generates grid statistics for any currently


attached grid file.

File/Picture Information Generates a report describing the


contents of a graphics file.

Graphics File Summary Enables you to execute the


ZGF-SUMMARY macro, which generates a report for each
picture in the graphics file (ZGF).

List CPS-1 File Enables you to execute the LIST-CPS-FILE


macro, which lists the contents of a CPS SAVE file.

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Master File Directory


Use the File Info Master File Directory option to display
information about files in the currently attached OpenWorks files,
MFDs, and scratch file. In the FILE DIRECTORY dialog box that
appears, you can control the amount of information to display by
making selections for the Report and Type of File to Display settings,
as shown in the following illustration.

Type of File to Display List in File Directory Dialog Box


To search for file names that match a specified text string, use the
Match on Characters box. Once you click OK, the report appears in
the Z-MAP Plus System window.
Master File Directory Icon

The Master File Directory icon (located at the top of the Z-MAP Plus window)
corresponds to the File Info Master File Directory option.

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Report
Report choices refer to the extent of information you would like
presented about the files listed. The Summary option tells you how may
records are allocated for the scratch file and for each MFD, and how
many of the (allocated) records have been used. The Partial option lists
the following information about each file: When the file was created, the
number of fields, the number of words per record, the number of data
records, and the minimum and maximum X and Y Coordinates. In
addition to the information in the Partial listing, the Full option lists the
field name, the data type, the default format, the first word, the number
of words, and the ZNON value for each field.
File
Type
DATA

Full Report

Partial Report

Summary
Report

name of the file


date and time created
number of fields
number of words per
record
minimum and
maximum x,y
coordinates

file name
data type
MFD
size

name of the file


date and time created
minimum and
maximum x,y
coordinates
X and Y gridding
intervals
number of grid rows and
columns
minimum and
maximum surface
values
surface range
null data value
data collection radius
X and Y direction for
data collection
expansion

file name
data type
MFD
size

GRID

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name of the file


date and time created
number of fields
number of words per
record
minimum and maximum
x,y coordinates
field names
data type of each field
default format
first word
number of words
ZNON (null or missing
data) value

name of the file


date and time created
minimum and maximum
x,y coordinates
X ad Y gridding
intervals
number of grid rows and
columns
minimum and maximum
surface values
surface range
null data value
data collection radius
X and Y direction for
data collection
expansion

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Type of File to Display


You can display All of the files or only files of a particular type (for
example, GRID or VERT). Available file types include:

GRID
DATA
CNTR
FALT
VERT
TEXT
TRIA
XSEC

grid
data
contour
fault
line
text
trilat triangulation lattice
cross section

WLOG
DWEL
MCRO
LSLT
LPST
SSEC
CELL
PCEL

well log
deviated well
macro
selected line name
posted line name
seismic section
block-centered cell
point-centered cell

Match on Characters
Use this feature to enter a character string to match to the first characters
in a file name. The File Directory utility lists all the matching file names
in the currently attached OpenWorks files, MFDs and scratch file.
This feature matches the first characters in the first word of a file name.
You can enter one or more unique characters to view the data or grid
statistics for a subset of the available files.
For example, if you enter W, file directory information appears in your
process window for all files that start with W.
Unix is Case-Sensitive

Unix names are case-sensitive. You must enter capitalize characters correctly.

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File Listing
Select File Info File Listing.

Select input file.

Enter listing type, output file title, lines, and records.

Select fields to list in display order.

Enter Fortran format.

Enter column names and widths.

Apply and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window.

File Listing Workflow


File Listing displays the contents of any nongrid file in the currently
attached OpenWorks files, MFDs and scratch file. The default behavior
is to list all records and all fields, but you can select which fields are
listed. You also have control over output format, and which lines of the
file to start and end the listing on. You can use values in a field as upper
and lower limits (window) for defining records to be listed, and can use
Line or Area name to select records for listing. The list that is generated
appears in the system window.
Limitation on Number of Words Displayed

The File Listing option displays no more than 100 words that match the input
criteria. If more than 100 words are available, an error message in the system
window informs you of the number of words left out.

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The File Listing menu contains of the following options:

Input File

Listing Type, Records, and Output File

Field Formats

Column Headings and Widths

Windowed Data Fields

Windowing Parameters
Input File
Select the file to list.
Listing Type, Records, and Output File
Use this dialog box to specify whether you want to create an automatic,
full, or partial listing of files. The File Listing option also enables you to
specify the file title, output file, lines per page, and which records are
affected by the partial listing constraints.
Listing Type
Use the Listing Type parameter to control whether the listing is
automatically generated, and, if not automatically generated, which
method to use for subsetting the listed records. Possible choices include:

Automatic (default value) List all records and all fields of the
dataset. The Automatic listing uses the print formats stored with
each field of the file, unless you have just changed the formats in a
previous listing. If you have changed the print formats in a
previous listing, Automatic file listing uses the changed formats.
While in Automatic file listing, you cannot select fields, formats,
column headings and widths. You also cannot window data fields.

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Full List all the records, but maintain control over which fields
are listed and their format.

Line Name List all records whose names in the Line Name
Field match the name you enter in the Line/Area Name parameter.
You control which fields are listed and their format.

Area Name List all records whose names in the Area Name
Field match the name you enter in the Line/Area Name parameter.
You control which fields are listed and their format.

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Window List all records whose values in the fields selected for
windowing fall inside specified minimum and maximum values for
those fields. You can use the intersection of a maximum of ten
window fields. You control which fields are listed and their format.

Exception List all records whose values in the fields selected


for windowing fall outside specified minimum and maximum
values for those fields. You can use the intersection of a maximum
of ten window fields. You control which fields are listed and their
format.

Enter Listing Title


Enter the title you want to print on the top line of the output listing. The
title can be a maximum of 80 characters long; include capitals, lower
case letters, or both; and contain blank spaces.
Enter Listing Output File
Enter the name of the formatted disk (ASCII) output file that will
contain the listing. The fully qualified name (full path terminated by the
file name and extension) can be a maximum of 79 characters long,
cannot contain blank spaces, and should follow the conventions
appropriate for a text file created with your operating system.
If you do not enter the full path for the output file, the file is saved in the
output path specified in the Data tab of the Directory Paths dialog box.
If no Directory Paths: Data output path is specified, the default location
becomes the directory you were in when you started Z-MAP Plus
(called the home directory).
If you do not enter an extension for the file name, the program adds the
.DAT extension when it creates the file. (For example, if you enter the
file name LISTING, the name is changed to LISTING.DAT.
Line/Area Name
Enter a Line name or Area name. This name may be up to 40 characters
long, contain internal blanks, and should match some of the names used
in the Line or Area Name field in the file to be listed. All records having
a name in the line or area name field that match this name are listed. The
first line or area name field in the file is used for the comparison.

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Lines Per Page


Enter the number of lines to print on each page. This parameter causes
a new page to be printed and the column headings for each field to be
printed at the beginning of the page. There is no apparent upper limit to
the number of lines per page (that is, the listing completely fills pages
with output until this limit is reached).
Starting Record
Enter the sequential number of the first record that you want to appear
in the listing. All earlier records are ignored.
Ending Record
Enter the sequential number of the last record that you want to appear in
the listing. All following records are ignored. The default is the last
record on the file.
Fields to List (Ordered Selection)
The ordered selection dialog box is required if you have the option of
determining the order in which field labels or symbols are posted, or the
order in which fields are printed in a report. The ordered selection dialog
box has two panes.
The left pane contains the Source List, which contains the fields from
the input data file. The right pane is the Destination List. If you click a
field name in the Source List, the field appears in the Destination List
and is set to appear in the output file. The order of the fields on the
Destination List determines the order of the fields in the output file.
The Ordered Selection dialog box contains three buttons: Append,
Delete, and Insert. These buttons affect only the fields in the
Destination List. You can add (append), delete, and change the order of
(insert) the fields in the Destination List. You typically use the Append
button when you select fields to place in the output file. Append is the
default mode. You can have only one mode selected at a time.
Append
To place a field on the Destination List, the Append button must be
depressed. Simply click the fields you want on the output file. They
appear on the Destination List (default value).

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Delete
You can delete any field in the Destination list. With the Delete button
depressed, click the fields you want to delete from the output file.
Insert
To use the Insert button, pick a field in the Destination List and click
the button. The currently selected field in the Source List is inserted
above the targeted field in the Destination List.
Field Formats
Enter the print format to use for each selected field. The print formats
are specified in FORTRAN format notation. The defaults are taken from
the width and number of decimal places specified for each field in the
file being listed. The default values are usually acceptable. However, if
you want a specific look for each column, you must change the default
formats.
Valid FORTRAN format notation includes:
Character Field (A Format) Use the number of words, the letter A,
then the maximum number of characters allowed in the column. The
number of characters must be a multiple of four. The text in an A format
field is left justified.
Example:
Text in field (13 characters) =
FORTRAN format
=
Output
=
Column positions
=

Base of Muddy
4A4
Base of Muddy
----------------

Numeric Field (F Format) Use the letter F (floating point format)


followed by the maximum number of characters allowed in the column,
a period, and the maximum number of decimal places you want to the
right of the decimal. The text in an F field is right-justified.
Recommendation for Leading Blank Space

On most systems, it is preferable to leave an empty space for the sign (positive
or negative) even if all values in the field are positive.

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Example:
Number in field
FORTRAN format
Output
Column positions

= 4398.455
= F10.4
=
4398.4550
= ----------

Numeric Field (E Format) Use the letter E (scientific notation)


followed by the maximum number of characters allowed in the column,
a period, and the total number of significant digits you want to display.
The field should be at least seven characters wider than the number of
significant digits. The text in an E field is right justified. For most cases,
the G format is preferred.
Example:
Number in field
FORTRAN format
Output
Column positions

= 4392.455
= E15.5
=
.43925E+04
= ---------------

Example:
Number in field
FORTRAN format
Output
Column positions

= 4392.455
= E15.3
=
.439E+04
= ---------------

Example:
Number in field
FORTRAN format
Output
Column positions

= 4392.455
= E15.7
=
.4392455E+04
= ---------------

Numeric Field (G Format) Use the letter G (general) followed by


the maximum number of characters wide the column is to be, a period,
and the maximum number of significant digits you want to display. The
field should be at least seven characters wider than the number of
significant digits. The G format prints much like the F format if the
number of digits fits; otherwise, G format prints like the E format. The
text is right-justified if no exponent is printed in the column.

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Example:
Number in field
FORTRAN format
Output
Column positions

= 4392.455
= G15.5
=
4392.5
= ---------------

Example:
Number in field
FORTRAN format
Output
Column positions

= 4392455000000000.0
= G15.3
=
.43925E+04
= ---------------

Example:
Number in field
FORTRAN format
Output
Column positions

= - 0.0000000004392455
= G15.7
=
-.4392455E-07
= ---------------

Column Headings and Widths


Use this dialog box to specify the title and width of each field column.
The first items on the dialog box are column headings (titles). The
default for each heading is the name of the field that is to be listed in that
column.
The last items on the dialog box are the column heading widths. The
default widths are the maximum number of characters specified in the
field format parameter.
Heading for Column
Enter the title you want to appear at the top of each column (field) of the
listing. This title may be up to 20 characters long and contain internal
blanks. If there are more letters in the title than the column is wide, then
Z-MAP Plus breaks the title at spaces and stacks the words one above
the other. If there are no spaces in the title then the ending letters are
truncated.
These column headings appear at the top of each page. The default for
each heading is the name of the field listed in the column.

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Heading Width for Column


Enter the number of characters wide the column heading is to be when
printed on the listing. This is an integer of any size (If negative, the
absolute value is used. If real, the decimals are truncated).
The default width is the maximum number of characters specified in the
field format parameter. This default is almost always the value you
should use. Anything larger or smaller causes the column heading to be
smaller or larger than the data column. The affect is to shift all of the
subsequent column headings off center for the columns they represent.
If you want more space for the header then change the maximum
number of characters in the field (field format).
Windowed Data
Up to ten fields can be windowed when selecting records to be listed.
Windowing on a field means that a maximum and minimum value is
selected for a field and if that fields values fall either inside those limits
(Listing Type = Window) or outside those limits (Listing Type =
Exception), the data record associated with those values are listed.
When more than one field is used, the records listed are the intersection
of the windowsthat is, a record must be found in all windows.
Select Input Fields (Ordered Selection)
See Fields to List (Ordered Selection) on page 96.
Select Field MINs and MAXs
Enter the minimum and maximum value that defines the bounds for
each field you selected to window on. If nothing is entered, all values in
the field are inside the window (for example, default is MIN and MAX
of the field).
Only those records whose window fields value falls inside these limits
(Listing Type = Window) or outside these limits (Listing Type =
Exception) are listed. If several window fields are used, only those
records that have value in every Min Max window are listed.
Maximum (for named field)
Enter the maximum value to be used when defining a window for values
in this field.

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Grid Listing
Select File Info
Grid Listing

Select input grid

Select
listing
type

Grid listing

Printer contour

Enter Fortran format

Set printer positions


and contour levels

Both
Specify all grid listing
and printer contour
parameters

Select labeling mode


Enter listing output file

Set windowing
parameters?

Yes
Enter minimum and maximum
row and column values

Apply

Save and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window

Grid Listing Workflow

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Grid Listing displays the contents of a grid on the screen. The fields and
their associated values are listed. You control the names of columns and
the order in which values are displayed. File Listings and Grid Listings
can also be routed to an ASCII file.
Use Grid Listing to perform these tasks:

List and view grid values.

Create a printer contour of the grid.

List grid values and create a printer contour.


You can display the grid report to the monitor or save it as a disk file.
The Grid Listing menu contains of these options, discussed in the
following topics:

Input Grid

Listing Type, Format

Windowing Parameters
Input Grid
Select an grid to be listed from the list of grids that appears.
Listing Type, Format
Use this selection to specify:

how the grid is displayed (Listing Type)

the FORTRAN format of the listing

whether to label the rows and columns of the printer listing

the number of printer positions or printer contour levels

the minimum contour value to display

the contour interval for the printer

the name of the listing output file


Listing Type
Use this parameter to choose how the grid is displayed.
The options are:

Grid Listing Print only the grid report.

Printer Contour Print only the contours using print characters.

Both Print both the grid listing and the printer contour.
Printing the grid listing to an output disk file is optional. However, the
listing is always displayed to the screen.

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Format
For each field you have selected to list, you should specify the print
format. This parameter is expressed in FORTRAN format notation. (See
the discussion on FORTRAN format notation under Field Formats on
page 97.)
Labeling Mode
This parameter refers to labeling rows and columns, and is needed when
the listing type is Grid Listing. There are two options:

do not label the rows and columns of the gridonly output the
grid node values
label the rows and columns of the grid

Number of Printer Positions


This parameter must be supplied when the listing type is Printer
Contour. The number of print positions across the top has a range
between 1 and 132.
Number of Printer Contour Levels
This parameter must be supplied when the listing type is Printer
Contour. The number refers to the number of contours, and the range is
0100.
Minimum Contour Level
This parameter must be supplied when the listing type is Printer
Contour. The parameter asks for the minimum contour interval to begin
printing.
Contour Interval
This parameter must be supplied when the listing type is Printer
Contour. The parameter refers to the interval between adjacent contours.
Enter Listing Output File Type, Format
This parameter asks for the name of the Listing Output File. Since this
output file is a disk file and not a Z-MAP Plus file, you should observe
the naming conventions of your computers operating system. The
listing is written to this file.

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Windowing Parameters
Use the Window capability to look at a part of the grid instead of the
entire grid. As mentioned earlier, minimum and maximum row and
column numbers are used to determine the limits of the windowed area.
You can select the grid size by identifying:

the top edge of the window (minimum row number)

the bottom edge of the window (maximum row number)

the left edge of the window (minimum column number)

the right edge of the window (maximum column number)


Minimum Row
Refers to the top edge of the window (minimum row number).
Maximum Row
Refers to the bottom edge of the window (maximum row number).
Minimum Column
Refers to the left edge of the window (minimum column number).
Maximum Column
Refers to the right edge of the window (maximum column number).

Data Statistics
You can generate data statistics for a field in any currently attached data
file. The statistics you can display include number of Y locations and
ZNONs, minimum and maximum X-, Y-, and Z-values, the range, mean,
standard deviation, and root mean square of the Z-values, and the fields
ZNON value.
Select Data File
From the list of non-grid files presented, select the file that contains the
field you want to use as input for displaying data statistics.
Select Field
From the list of fields presented, select a field to use as input for
displaying data statistics.

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Grid Statistics
You can generate statistics for any available grid. The statistics you can
generated include X and Y grid increment, number of rows, number of
columns, ZNON nodes, real-valued nodes, maximum and minimum X,
Y, and Z values, and the range, mean, standard deviation, root mean
square, and relative variance of the Z values. In addition, some of the
data collection parameters used during gridding are provided.
Select Input Grid
A list of Grids on the currently attached MFDs, OpenWorks database,
and the scratch file is presented. Point to and click the grid for which you
want statistics to be calculated. As soon as you select a grid, the statistics
are calculated and results appear in the Z-MAP Plus xterm window. Use
the scroll bar to the right of the window to review the data.

File/Picture Information
A report is generated describing the contents of a graphics file. The
report indicates the number of pictures on the file. For each picture, the
report includes name, X and Y limits and ranges, map scale, plot
dimensions in inches, and what graphics features are on the picture. You
can control how much of this information is displayed for each picture
and whether the output is written to a formatted disk file.
Input Graphics File
From the list of ZGFs that appear, select the ZGF whose contents you
want to view. The list of ZGFs reflects the contents of the directories
specified in the ZGFs tab of the Directory Paths dialog box. If the file
you want is not listed, check the Directory Path settings.

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Information Specifications
Use this dialog box to control whether picture headers (summary
statistics) and picture element (graphics features) lists appear in the
report. You can also specify the name of a file on for writing the output.
Show Picture Headers
Controls whether the picture header is output to the listing. The header
includes X and Y limits and ranges, map scale, and plot dimensions in
inches. Possible choices for this parameter include:
Show Headers (default value) Display the header information for
each picture on the graphics file.
Dont Show Headers Do not show the header information for each
picture.
Show Picture Divisions
Controls whether a list of graphics features is generated. Possible
choices for this parameter include:
Show Divisions (default value) Display a list of graphics features
for each picture on the graphics file.
Dont Show Divisions Do not display a list of graphics features for
each picture.
Enter ZGF Information Output File
Enter the name of the formatted disk (ASCII) output file that will
contain the graphics file information. The length of the fully qualified
name (full path terminated with the file name and extension) is limited
to approximately 50 characters. In ZCL, the fully qualified name can be
a maximum of 79 characters long, cannot contain blank spaces, and
should follow your operating systems text file conventions.
If you do not enter the full path for the output file, the file is saved in the
output path specified in the Data tab of the Directory Paths dialog box.
If no Directory Paths: Data output path is specified, the default location
becomes the directory you were in when you started Z-MAP Plus
(called the home directory).
If you do not enter an extension for the file name, the program adds the
.DAT extension when it creates the file. (For example, if you enter the
file name LISTING, the name is changed to LISTING.DAT.

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Graphics File Summary


To execute the ZGF-SUMMARY macro, select File Info
Graphics File Summary, and specify parameters with the EXECUTE
MACRO: ZGF SUMMARY dialog box that appears. The
ZGF-SUMMARY macro generates a report for each map or cross
section in the specified ZGF.
For more information about this macro, see the Help
Online Manuals Macros Manual ZGF-SUMMARY or see the
Macro Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL.

Macro Name

ZGF-SUMMARY

Macro Type

.ZCLMAC

Purpose

The ZGF-SUMMARY macro generates a report for each map or cross


section in the specified ZGF. The report includes:

name of the picture (map or cross section)

area of interest details

a list of the features (graphic segments) in the file

projection information

Description

You are asked to specify a graphics file.

Results

A printout in the system window that contains information about the


pictures in the ZGF.

List CPS-1 File


Enables you to execute the LIST-CPS-FILE macro, which lists the
contents of a CPS SAVE file. For more information about this macro,
see the Help Online Manuals Macros Manual
LIST-CPS-FILE or the Macro Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus /
ZCL.

Macro Name

LIST-CPS-FILE

Macro Type

.ZCLMAC

Purpose

This macro lists the contents of a CPS SAVE file.

Description

You are asked to input a CPS SAVE file.

Results

A listing of the contents of the CPS SAVE file.

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Directory Paths
Select File Directory Paths in the
Z-MAP Plus window

Specify directory paths or


use only the default, home directory

master
files

graphics
files

data
files

session
files

format
files

color
tables

macro
files

Specify up to four directory paths for input files and


one directory path for output files

Click OK and return to


Z-MAP Plus window

Workflow for Setting Directory Paths


Use the Directory Paths dialog box to select directories to be searched
when the program looks for the following types of files:

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Master File Directories (MFDs)


Z-MAP Graphics Files (ZGFs)
data files
session (parameter) files
format files
color tables
macro files

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All files found during searches are used to build lists of files for you to
select from when running Z-MAP Plus options. The output paths tell
Z-MAP Plus where to write files it creates.
Importance of Using Standard Extensions

To enable the program to find the appropriate files to display in dialog box lists,
the file names must have the correct extension. Throughout this section, note the
file extensions required for each file type. Extensions are preceded by a dot (.),
as in MFD, .ZGF, .DAT, .ZCLPARMS, .FMT, .TBL, .GRIDMAC, .OPERMAC,
.PICMAC, .UTILMAC, and .SYSMAC.

The Directory Paths dialog box is easy to use. In each tab, click the
Browse button to locate directories you need and highlight the
directories.

To build a directory path, select the appropriate tab for the file type (for
example, MFDs or ZGFs). You can specify a maximum of four input
paths, each pointing to a different directory. For all file types (except
macro files) you can also specify an output path, a location for writing
files. The default input and output paths point to the current directory
(the directory you were in when you started Z-MAP Plus, represented
by the dot slash ( ./ ) symbol.
Click the Browse button beside each path to bring up the Select a
Directory dialog box. Use this dialog box to specify a path.
Click the Apply to all button beside each path to copy that directory
path to all tabs in the dialog box. This is helpful if the project files are
stored in common directories.
Comprehensive HTML Help is available for this topic by clicking the
Help button in the lower right corner of the Directory Paths dialog box.
The remainder of this section defines the file types listed on the tabs.

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MFDs
Z-MAP Plus processes require various types of data. Examples of data
types include:

control point data (DATA)

contour data (CNTR)

fault traces (FALT)

line data (VERT)

textual data (TEXT)

grid values (GRID)

deviated well data (well tracks) (DWEL)

Trilat Triangulation Lattice (TRIA)

cross section (XSEC)

seismic section (SSEC)

well log traces (WLOG)

format files (FMT)

color tables (TBL)

point-centered cell table (PCEL)

block-centered cell table (CELL)


A Master File Directory (MFD) is a disk file that contains a collection
of datasets. Z-MAP Plus uses MFDs when listing appropriate data types
for a given process, and writes the results of a Z-MAP Plus process to
an output data file. Like input data files, output data files are stored in
MFDs.
MFDs store data of all types, except for Graphics Segment Types.
Graphics Segment Types or Graphics Features are components of
pictures. Pictures are stored on Z-MAP Graphics Files (ZGFs).
Once you specify Directory Paths that point to MFDs, the MFDs in
those directory paths (with write permissions) are available to be
attached to your current session.

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ZGFs
Graphics files store pictures used by Z-MAP Plus. Pictures are a
collection of graphics features (or graphics segment types), such as
borders, contours, control point symbols, seismic line segments,
user-defined polygons, and labels. Some operations give you the option
of treating all the graphics features in a picture as a single feature, or of
keeping the individual features separate so you can manipulate them
individually.
The ZGFs tab of the Directory Paths dialog box instructs the program
which locations to search for the graphics files that will be accessible in
Z-MAP Plus. You can set paths to many graphics files, but you can only
have one ZGF attached to the session at a time. If you select Open
Graphics File, the list that appears contains all the ZGFs found in the
specified directory paths for ZGFs. Select the ZGF you want to attach.
The new selection immediately overrides any previous selection.
Automatic Link to OpenWorks ZGFs

Z-MAP Plus automatically adds a path to the OpenWorks picture area for the
current project if you are connected to OpenWorks and if there is a blank line in
your ZGF Directory Paths settings. This is designed to facilitate access to
OpenWorks files. To eliminate this automatic connection, fill all four paths with
other paths or the same path multiple times.

Pictures you create or edit during a Z-MAP Plus session are stored in the
attached ZGF. To display pictures stored in another ZGF, select
Open Graphics File, and select the appropriate ZGF.
In the ZGFs tab of the Directory Paths dialog box, you can specify a
maximum of four input paths and one output directory path. You do not
need to specify any paths unless you want to use ZGFs that are not in
your home directory (or you want to save ZGFs in a custom location). If
you use a common location to define one of the input and output paths,
in later sessions it will be easier to find the ZGFs you create.
Naming Conventions

The program searches only for graphics files that end in .ZGF or .zgf, so you
must use one of these extension when name graphics files. Otherwise, the ZGFs
are inaccessiblethey do not appear in dialog box lists.

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Data Files
Directory Paths for Data Files allows you to build up to four input
directory paths and one output directory path for data (ASCII) files.
A directory path tells Z-MAP Plus which directories to search when
looking for data files. You need not build any paths since the default
input and output paths point to your current directory (directory you
were in when you started Z-MAP Plus). However, if the data files you
want are not on your current directory, you must build a path to point to
them. You should probably make one of the input paths the same as the
output path so you can easily locate newly created DATA files the next
time you start Z-MAP Plus.
Importance of Using a Standard Extension

The program searches only for DATA file names that end in .DAT or .dat, so it
is very important to use this convention. Otherwise, the DATA files do not
appear in dialog box lists and are not accessible in Z-MAP Plus.

Session Files
Z-MAP Plus processes offer a range of session (parameter) choices for
users. Many processes can execute using defaults once the user selects
the input data for that process. Required parameters either have a gray
background or are indicated by a gray square surrounding the parameter
entry area. As users increase their desire to shape the outcome of a
process such as gridding or contouring, they can supply more of their
own data. Users can also try different sorts of constraints on a process to
explore different interpretations of their data.
Session files store parameter settings entered during a Z-MAP Plus
program run. Parameter settings include information such as which
MFDs and which ZGF you have attached, the Area of Interest of all your
pictures, and the values you last entered for Flexing Parameters.

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Z-MAP Plus stores all parameter settings for your current session into
the LASPRM.ZCL and LASPRM.ZCL2 files. Each time you click the
OK, Apply and Save buttons in a dialog box that is not associated with
a macro, parameter settings are written to one of the LASPRM files. If
you do not load a saved session file for your current session,
Z-MAP Plus restores the parameter settings by using the LASPRMS
files.
LASPRMS Corruption

If you experience unexpected program termination, exit Z-MAP Plus, delete the
LASPRM.ZCL and LASPRM.ZCL2 files, and restart the program.

You may want to create specialized session files. If you have more than
one project, you may want to create a session file for each of them. With
project-based session files, you can set up gridding and modeling
parameter values to reflect the different geologic structures in various
areas. You also might want to save a session that yielded a certain
interpretation, and create another session file to compare the way
different parameters affect the result of a process. If you are not getting
the expected results, you may occasionally want to create a blank
LASPRMS file and start parameter definition all over.
Naming Conventions

The program searches only for files that end in .ZCLPARMS or .zclparms, so
you must name your files with this extension.

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Format Files
The Directory Paths dialog box can point to format files that have been
saved (or exist as external diskfiles). Format files describe the general
nature of the each data type, the fields in the data file, and the
configuration of the rows and columns. Here are a few of the more
common ways to create and use format files in Z-MAP Plus:

Use any ASCII editor such as vi, ed, or emacs to create a format
file. The field descriptions required by a format file vary depending
on the data type. For a description of the required fields for a
format file, and how to construct a format file, see Structuring
Files for Transfer into a Master File on page 850. Appendix D
provides examples of format files for all major data types.

Use the File Import Disk File to MFD/OW option to create


a format file interactively. The Examine/Prepare Input File allows
you to mark all the necessary fields and save their format to a file.

Include the format description at the top of the data file you wish
to import or export.

The Format Files option allows you to build up to four input directory
paths and one output directory path for format files. A directory path
tells Z-MAP Plus which directory to search when looking for format
files. You need not build any paths, since the default input and output
paths point to your current directory (directory you were in when you
started Z-MAP Plus). However, if the format files you want are not on
your current directory, you must build a path to point to them. You
should probably make one of your input paths the same as your output
path so that a newly created format file can be found in the next
execution of Z-MAP Plus.
Naming Convention for Format Files

Z-MAP Plus searches only for files with an .FMT or .fmt extension, so you
must use this convention when you name format files.

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Color Tables
A color table defines the color of each feature in a picture, such as the
picture contours, border, seismic line symbols, or well symbols. The
color tables associated with pictures you create or import into
Z-MAP Plus are external disk files.
.

Naming Convention

The program searches only for color table files that have the extension .TBL or
.tbl, so use one of these extensions when you name color table files.

To create custom color tables, use the Edit Color Tables Write
option.
To enable the program to locate specific color table files, specify their
paths in the Color tab of the Directory Paths dialog box. You can specify
a maximum of four input directory paths and one output directory path
for color tables. The input directory paths instruct the program which
directories to search for color tables.
You are not required to specify any color table paths unless you put
custom color tables in a location other than the default location (the
directory you used to start Z-MAP Plus). The program does not require
an input path to find the default color table.If you make one of the input
paths the same as the output path, it will be easy to find newly created
color tables in the next Z-MAP Plus session.

Macro Files
A macro is a sequence of processes that are packaged to be executed as
a group. You can call many ready-to-execute macros directly from
Z-MAP Plus. You can also use the Z-MAP Command Language (ZCL)
to create custom macros. The Macro Reference Manual for
Z-MAP Plus / ZCL contains essential information about pre-defined
macros.
You can use the Macros tab of the Directory Paths dialog box to specify
a maximum of four input directory paths, which the program searches
when it creates macro lists to display in dialog boxes. You typically do
not need to specify macro paths the default path is the home directory
(the directory you were in when you started Z-MAP Plus). If you save
macro files to a different directory, specify the path that leads to them.
If you select Macros User Macros in the Z-MAP Plus window,
Z-MAP Plus searches the macro file directory input paths. Macros in
these paths are listed and become available for execution.

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Import
Use the File Import options to make data from other applications
accessible in Z-MAP Plus.
The following list shows the Import options, along with brief
descriptions of their results:

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ASCII (Import) Transfer a formatted disk (ASCII) file into a


specified Master File Directory (MFD) or into OpenWorks (next
topic).

Grid File to MFD/OW Create a format group (based on your


specifications), which you can use to import a grid file (page 130).

Disk File to ZGF Converts a flat graphics file into a graphics


file usable in Z-MAP Plus (page 131).

CPS-1 File to MFD Enables you to import a CPS SAVE file


into an MFD (page 132).

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ASCII (Import)
Select File Import from the
Z-MAP Plus window.

Select a disk file for import.

Yes

Does data have a


format group (a
data description)?

No

Examine/prepare input file.

format file

Is format group in
a format file or at
top of data file?

top of data file


Describe columns in input
dataset.

Save format group to a


format file.

Select the format file.

Select format name. .

Assign output file name.

Save and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window.

ASCII (Import) Workflow

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You can use the ASCII (Import) option to copy a formatted disk
(ASCII) file into an MFD. Once in the MFD, the data is available for use
in other Z-MAP Plus operations. Formatted files can have a maximum
width of 250 characters and can contain any number of lines (or physical
records).
Formatted files can also have any number of logical records (described
in the following paragraph). The maximum number of physical records
in each logical record is 10.
Physical and Logical Records It may be helpful to think of a logical
record as all the information associated with an x,y location. One x,y
location (logical record) can have 50 fields (or columns) of information.
The fields require several lines (physical records) to hold their values,
so a file may have several physical records for each logical record. To
import a formatted file, you must describe the position of each field
value in each physical record of the logical record.
To describe the input data to Z-MAP Plus, you use a format. A format
is a description of the general shape of the input data (such as number of
lines and number of physical records per logical record) and of each data
column to be copied (such as field name, field type, and beginning and
ending position in the file). The format can be:

located at the beginning of the data,

taken from an existing format file, or

interactively built during the import process


If the format is interactively built, it is stored in a format file for reuse.
You can use previously built formats to import data with a similar
format.

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Before You Start to Import ASCII Data


For specific examples of how to format different data types in preparation for
importing them into an MFD, see Appendix E. Import/Export on page 827.

Determine the Format Situation with Respect to the Data. The options
you need to use depend on your situation. The main file/format
parameters are:

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Disk File In The disk file that contains the data you want to
import into an MFD.

Disk File Out The disk file you have imported into an MFD. It
is the data you imported. A format description may have been
added to this file. The file name you assigned is the name of the
member file you created in an MFD.

Format File You either have an existing format file to use for
importing the disk file, or you construct one on-the-fly.

Format Name You can name the format contained in the


format file. If the format you want to use already exists, select its
name. Do not give the same format name to two different format
groups (data descriptions) in a single format file. Format group
names must be unique.

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Input and Output Files for the Import Option


The two required parameters for importing an ASCII file are Select a
Disk File for Input and Output Name. Regardless of the format of the
data you are importing, you must select a data file to import and give it
a name. The data file uses the specified name when you import it and
store in an MFD.
The disk files contain the data. The format file and format description
contain information about how the data is structured, enabling the
program to import the data and add it to an MFD.
Select a Disk File for Input
From the list that appears, select a disk file to use as input when the
option executes. The list contains formatted disk (ASCII) files with the
extension .DAT or .dat. If the file you want to use does not have the
correct extension, rename it.
Output Name
Use the Output Name dialog box to name the output file and output
MFD. Enter the name of the Output File in the box. Use the popup menu
to choose the output MFD.
Output File Name
Enter the name of the file to create in the target MFD. The name can be
a maximum of 24 characters long and can contain internal blanks.
Output Master File
When you click the parameter box, a popup dialog box appears, listing
the MFDs and a scratch file attached to your run. Select the MFD to use
for writing the output file.

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If You Have a Format File


If you have a format file that describes the structure of the data to import,
follow these steps:
1.

Select a Disk File for Input (Import).

2.

Go directly to Select a Format File and select the format file to


use.

3.

Select a Format Name.

Select a Format File


A list of formatted disk (ASCII) files whose names end with .FMT or
.fmt appears. Select the format file to use.
Definition of Terms: Format File vs. Format Name

Format is a description of a particular dataset. You can place this description at


the top of a data file in a format group, or in a format file. The format consists
of a set of parameters, some that describe the general nature of the data file (file
description parameters), and others that describe each field of the data file (field
description parameters).
A format file is a disk file that contains one or more formats. Each format is
identified by a format name. A format name can be up to 40 alphanumeric
characters long. It is necessary because a format file can store one or more
formats. Each format description needs a unique format name. The format name
identifies the format in a format file you want to use. If you assign a format
name you have already used, and give it to a new format description, the newly
named format overwrites any format with the same name in the format file.

If the needed format file is not listed, make sure the Format tab of the
Directory Paths dialog box is set to locate the format files on your
system.
Select a Format Name
Select a format name from the list that appears. For a discussion of what
formats contain, see Appendix E. Import/Export on page 827.
If You Have a Format Description
If you have a format description, place it at the head of the data file. The
program reads the format description as it imports the disk file. You
Select a Disk File for Input, then supply an Output Name.

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If You Do Not Have a Format File


You can create the format file for many data types interactively. Choose
the Input Disk File, then display the Examine/Prepare Input File dialog
box. When you have described the format field parameters, you select
the Action option Save Format. The Save Format dialog box appears,
and asks you to name the format file and the format.
If the data you are importing cannot have a format created for it
interactively (for example, grid data), you must create your own format
description. For information about creating format descriptions for the
major data types, see Appendix E. Import/Export on page 827.
Interactive Format Description with the Examine/Prepare Input File
Preparing the input file for formatting requires you to perform up to four
functions at approximately the same time: data preview display, control
data display, enter values for field parameters, and implement line
disposition. Four dialog boxes appear during Examine/Prepare Input
File, each of them dedicated to one of the four functions.

Use the Data Preview Window to mark a field for format


definition.

Use the Data Display Control Options menu to scroll data to the
left, right, up, down, top, and bottom. You can also increase and
decrease the number of lines per record.

Use the Line Disposition dialog box to designate a line as a


comment line or a history line.

Use the Field Parameters dialog box to enter parameter values for
the format file.
Examine/Prepare Input File
Use this selection to describe the format of the data. This format is used
to import the data and is stored as a format file under a name you
specify. If you click Examine/Prepare Input File, two dialog boxes
appear: the Data Preview Window and the Data Display Control
Options menu.
If you already have a usable format file, do not create a format file.
Specify the existing format by clicking the Select a Format File button.
To end the process of defining format settings, click the Done button in
the Data Display Control dialog box. To abort the description process,
click the Cancel button.

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Turning File Formats Off

If the file you select to examine appears in reverse color, a format file is active
and is describing the file (possibly incorrectly). To deactivate the format file,
click Select A Format File and select the No Format option.

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Z-MAP+ Data Preview Window

If you click the EXAMINE/PREPARE INPUT File button in the


IMPORT FILES dialog box, a preview box (the ZMAP+ data preview
window) appears and shows the contents of the selected file. The Data
Display Control Options dialog box also appears, which you can use to
manipulate the display.
The preview box displays the first 20 lines of the selected file and the
left 80 characters of each line. A column on the left indicates which
physical record each line represents in the logical record. Z-MAP Plus
initially assumes each logical record has only one physical record, so the
values in the left column are ones. To change this, click the Increase
Lines-per-record button in the Data Display Control Options dialog
box. The left column also indicates whether a line is a comment or
history record. To designate a line as a comment or history record, click
the line in the left column. The Line Disposition dialog box appears.
Select the action to take, as described in the Line Disposition topic that
follows.
To control the movement of the preview box over a formatted disk file,
click the Left, Right, Up, Down, Top, and Bottom buttons in the Data
Display Control Options dialog box (as described in Data Display
Control Options Menu on page 126).

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You define the position and other information about a column of data
(field) by using the cursor. First identify a column of values to describe.
In a line that contains one of the values, select the far left position of the
value (including blanks). Hold down the left mouse button and move the
cursor to the right until it is positioned where you want the value to end,
then release the mouse button. The included area and all equivalent
values in other records are highlighted. These value slots (in reverse
color) are entries in that field when the Z-MAP Plus file is created. The
cursor can also sweep from right to left to highlight values.
Once you mark a column of values with the cursor, the Field Parameters
dialog box appears. This dialog box allows you to name and describe
that field. If what is highlighted in black is not what you want to be part
of this field, click the Cancel button on the Field Parameters dialog box
and re-highlight the column. Once you have named the field and have
changed other parameters, click the OK button to accept them. To
change parameter settings for a field after you apply the settings, click
the highlighted area, and the Field Parameters dialog box for that field
appears again.

Repeat the format defining process for all values you want to be fields
in the Z-MAP Plus file. You need to define only the data you want to
import. You can define data in any order, not necessarily left to right.
When you finish defining, select Save Format from the Action list.

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Line Disposition
This dialog box appears when you click a number in the column on the
left side of the Z-MAP Plus Data Preview Window. It allows you to
place a special character in front of particular lines in the input data file.
These characters cause the line to be treated either as a comment (which
the program ignores), or as history (which is stored with other
descriptive information about the imported file).

Do Nothing
Does nothing and returns you to the Data Display Control and Data
Preview windows.

Treat Selected Line as Comment


Clicking this button places an exclamation mark in the first line of the
file. All the characters of that line are shifted to the right one character,
so no information is lost. The exclamation mark identifies the line as a
comment, which the program should ignore when importing the data.
This if very useful if unrelated lines are in the file. For example, several
lines at the top might describe the contents of the file.

Treat Selected Line as History


Clicking this button places a plus sign (+) in the first line of the file. All
the characters of that line are shifted to the right one character, so no
information is lost. The plus sign tells Z-MAP Plus that this line is to be
written into the history area of the imported files header.
Data Display Control Options Menu
This menu allows you to move the preview window over your formatted
disk file and to define the number of lines (physical records) per x,y
location (logical record). While defining formats, you interact with this
menu, the Z-MAP Plus Data Preview Window, and the Field Parameters
dialog box simultaneously. Functions in this dialog box include:

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Left causes the data preview window to move left across the data
until it reaches the left most column. The window moves 20
columns at a time.
Right causes the data preview window to move right across the
data until it reaches the right most column. The window moves 20
columns at a time.

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Up causes the data preview window to move up through the data


until it reaches the uppermost line. The window moves 10 lines at
a time.
Down causes the data preview window to move down through the
window until it reaches the lowermost line. The window moves 10
lines at a time.
Top causes the data preview window to move to the top of the
data.
Bottom causes the data preview window to move to the bottom of
the data.
Increase Lines-per-record allows you to increase the number of
lines (physical records) of data that are to represent one x,y
location (logical record). The default minimum value is 1 and the
default maximum value is 10.
Decrease Lines-per-record allows you to decrease the number of
lines (physical records) of data that are to represent one x,y
location (logical record). The default minimum value is 1 and the
default maximum value is 10.
Done temporarily saves the format descriptions used when the
import operation is complete. Once you: 1) highlight each data
column destined to be a field and 2) provide descriptive
information about the fields, clicking the Done button saves the
settings temporarily. These settings are discarded if you do not
click Apply before you terminate the import procedure.
Cancel discards any specified format descriptions and returns you
to the Import menu.

Field Parameters
Use this dialog box to define characteristics of the field created with the
data you highlighted in the data preview window. Field characteristics
include type, name, decimals, ZNON value, internal storage format, and
sort index. In addition, the dialog box also lets you define the type (such
as DATA or CNTR) for the file to be imported.

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You can use the first eight options in this dialog box to describe each
data field you highlight. The following table describes the choices
available for these options.
Available
Choices

Default

Description

FIELD TYPE

Over 70 possible
field types

Calculated based
on work flow

Click FIELD TYPE button to select from a


list of available field types.

FIELD NAME

Any alphanumeric
character string

FIELD TYPE

Fill in a text string up to 20 characters in


length.

INPUT DECIMAL
PLACE

Any integer

0 if left blank

Used only when data contains no decimal.


Inserts a decimal by counting over from the
right-justified position.

ZNON VALUE

Any real number

.1E+31

Enter a real number value well outside the


range of data values.

ALPHA ZNON

Any alphanumeric
character string

blank

Enter a character string. (Converted to the


numeric ZNON VALUE for real number
fields when you apply the import process).

PRINT WIDTH

Any integer, but the


practical limit is 14

SIGNIGICANT
DIGITS + 6, but
not less than 10

The print width that is used when exporting


or listing this field of data. Should be at least
(SIGNIFICANT DIGITS+6).

SIGNIFICANT
DIGITS

Any integer, but the


practical limit is
eight.

Width of
highlighted field

Specified the number of significant digits


retained when exporting or listing this field.
Most real number fields are single precision,
preserving only eight significant digits.

SORTING INDEX

0 - 10

Allows you to include a hierarchical sort


index with the field when importing, if the
file is already sorted. Does not sort the file.

Option

File Type
Select the type of file to create. All valid nongrid file types are available.
If you are importing a grid, you must build a format file outside of
Z-MAP Plus and select it by clicking the Select a Format button in the
Import Files dialog box (as described in Appendix E. Import/
Export on page 827).

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Action
Select one of the following actiosn to perform:

Continue (default value) Use this option to define more fields.

Save Format Use this option when you finish defining fields,
want to save the format and continue with the import operation.
Use this dialog box to save the format you have just built.
Required input values are the name of the format file (data
description) and name of the format in that file. The format file
name cannot contain blanks, and the format name cannot contain
commas.

Format File Name Specify the name of the ASCII disk file to
use for storing the format group.

Format Name Enter the name of the format to create. This


name can be a maximum of 40 characters long and can contain
internal blanks. The format name cannot contain commas. It is
necessary to name the formats because you can put more than one
format on one format file. In Z-MAPs Command Language (ZCL)
these are sometimes called Format Groups, since each represents a
group of formats that describe a file.
If you try to write a format to the format file with a name that is
already on the file, Z-MAP Plus asks you to enter a new name. If
you want to reuse that name you must exit Z-MAP Plus and delete
the old name and format from the file. In the format file the first
line of the format begins with an at sign (@). Find the @ that is
followed by the name you want to reuse. Delete that line and all
the lines after it until you reach the next @. Do not delete that @.
You can then return to the import option and save the format under
that name.
If you have defined comments in the file, you must also specify a
new data file name that contains the data file with comment
markers.

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Delete Field Use this option to change a previously defined


field. You can redefine the fields width or any of its other
parameters.

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Grid File to MFD/OW


Use the Grid File to MFD/OW option to execute the IMPORT-GRID
macro. A format group is created, based on the information you supply.
The format group can be used to import the grid dataset.
For more information about this macro, see the Macro Reference
Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL.

Macro Name

IMPORT-GRID

Macro Type

.ZCLMAC

Purpose

Based on the information you supply, a format group is createdwhich


can be used to import the grid dataset. The macro saves the format
group in a separate dictionary file, which overwrites a file that has the
same file name. The grid dataset is in a separate disk file.

Description

You are prompted to specify the following values:

file name of the input grid dataset


external file name and group name for the format group
File and Field Descriptor parameters
name of the GRID file to create

For more information about File and Field Descriptor parameters, see
the appropriate appendix of the ZCL Operators Manual or see the
Z-MAP Plus Reference Manual.
Results

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A GRID file on an MFD.

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Disk File to ZGF


Use the Disk File to ZGF option to execute the IMPORT-ZGF-FILE
macro. This macro converts a flat graphics file into a graphics file that
is usable in Z-MAP Plus.
For more information about this macro, see Help
Online Manuals Macros Manual IMPORT-ZGF-FILE or see
the Macro Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL.

Macro Name

IMPORT-ZGF-FILE

Macro Type

.ZCLMAC

Purpose

This operation converts a flat graphics file to a ZGF.

Description

Specify these input values:

a flat graphics file

the full path name for the new ZGF

Results

A usable graphics file.

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CPS-1 File to MFD


The CPS-1 File to MFD option allows you execute the
IMPORT-CPS-FILE macro. This macro imports a CPS SAVE file into
an MFD.
For more information about this macro, see Help
Online Manuals Macros Manual IMPORT-CPS-FILE or the
Macro Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL.

Macro Name

IMPORT-CPS-FILE

Macro Type

.ZCLMAC

Purpose

This macro imports a CPS SAVE file into an MFD. If the file is an
extended file, the information in the header is read and used. If it is not
an extended file, you are asked to enter the header information.

Description

You are asked to specify the following input values:

a CPS SAVE file

name of the output file

Results

A CPS SAVE file on the requested file name.


There is no need to import data from OpenWorks to Z-MAP Plus. If
OpenWorks is installed and available, the data files stored in the
database appear in the data selection dialog boxes.

Print Menu Options


The Print menu contains two options for plotting a picture:

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CGM Use the CGM option to run hardcopy jobs in the


background while running Z-MAP Plus (next topic).

Other If you choose the Other option, you must exit from
Z-MAP Plus, then start the hardcopy process by selecting
Utilities Hardcopy or Hardcopy Batch from the Z-MAP Plus
Command Menu (page 138).

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CGM
Select File Print in the
Z-MAP Plus window.

Select Plot a Picture (CGM).


Select graphics file.

Select picture to make scaled plot, CGM file, or hardcopy plot.


Select graphics features to plot.

Set parameter values for picture width, height, and offset.


Set parameter values for width, height, scale, factor, number of copies, rotation, and cutline.

Yes
You must create a CGM file
and/or select a plotter.

Are you running


Z-MAP Plus with
OpenWorks plot
queuing?

No
Select radio button to create
CGM file.

OK

OK

A report on the CGM file


appears in the system
window.

A report on the CGM file


appears in the system
window.

Return to Z-MAP Plus window.

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Plot a Picture (CGM) Workflow


Plot a Picture (CGM) allows you to create hardcopy pictures without
exiting Z-MAP Plus. You can save plots as CGM for printing later, or
send them to the Landmark Queuing System while you continue with
the session. Plot a Picture (CGM) runs in the background and does not
interrupt your work.

Plot a Picture (CGM)


You can specify choices or values for the following:

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graphics file name and picture name


plotter units expressed as inches or centimeters
graphics feature(s) to plot
dimensions and offset of the plot
scale factor
number of copies, rotation, and cutline
plotter name and queue
plotter dimensions
option to create a CGM file

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Plot a Picture (CGM) allows you to perform multiple plotting jobs as


well as multiple copies of the same plot. A picture can be plotted on any
plotter that is linked to OpenWorks.
The Z-MAP Plus Plot a Picture, or Scaled Plot, capability can now
generate a CGM file. The CGM file option lets you write the picture to
a file in CGM format instead of sending the picture to a plotter
immediately. When this button is depressed, the CGM option is active.
Graphics File Name
From the list of graphics files that appears, select a graphics file and
click OK. This file is used to build a list of accessible pictures. The list
of ZGFs reflects the content of the directories specified in the ZGFs tab
of the Directory Paths dialog box (as described on page 111). If the file
you want is not listed, check the directory path.
Picture Name
From the list of pictures that appears, select a picture, and click OK. Part
or all of this picture is used when the option executes.
Unit Type
Unit Type refers to plotter units. Click to indicate whether your plotter
units are expressed in inches or centimeters.
Graphics Features
If you click the raised box, another dialog box appears, which lists the
graphics features of the selected picture. Select the picture features to
plot. Select All, Select None, or select individual features.
Picture: W and H
This is the actual size of the picture minus any offset areas you have
built into the plot. If the plot size is 37 x 37 plotter units (in./cm.), and if
you ask for a 1 unit offset all around the picture, the Picture W (width)
is 35 and H (height) is 35.

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Plot Parameters
Plot Parameters include these elements:

offsets

plot dimensions

scale factor

number of copies

rotation of the picture on the plot

cutline
Offsets
Enter a value for the Left, Right, Top and Bottom Offset areas. The
offset is the area around the picture which is not part of the picture. An
offset is a sort of margin around the picture.
Width, Height of the Plot
Indicate how large you would like the plot to be. You are specifying the
height and width of the plot.
Scale Factor
This option can increase or decrease the size of your picture.
Enter a percentage to use for scaling the plot size. For example, a scale
factor of 300 percent for a 10 x 11 plot creates a 30 x 33 plot.
Number of Copies
Indicate the number of copies you want. The default number of plots/
copies is 1.
Rotate
By depressing the Rotate radio button, you can rotate the picture relative
to the orientation of the plot. The default is NO (raised button).
Cutline
A cutline is a line which can be used to trim the plot. It is optional.

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Queue Plotter and Plotter Name


Controls which plotter device the plot is drawn on. Possible choices for
this menu depend on the devices available at your installation. Click the
parameter input box and a popup menu shows which devices your
systems administrators have attached to Z-MAP Plus.
If you wish your plot to be printed as soon as it can (if plots of other
users waiting), depress the Queue Plotter button. You must select from
a list of plotters if you wish to queue for plotting.
To write your picture out to a file as a CGM, leave the Queue Plotter
button raised. Submit your plot to the queue when you are ready to
plot it.
Create CGM Disk File CGM File Name
To convert the picture to a CGM and write it out as a file, click the
Create CGM button. Make sure the Queue Plotter option is not selected
or the CGM will go to the plotter. Assign a name to the CGM file.

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Other
Select File Print in the
Z-MAP Plus window.

Select graphic file.


Select picture to plot.
Enter number of copies to plot.
Use cutline?
Select plotter device type.
Set scale factor.

Yes

Plot
specified
features?

Plot only selected features.

No
Plot only cleared features.

All
Plot all features.

Apply

Return to Z-MAP Plus window.

When you exit Z-MAP Plus, you are asked if you want to plot the
picture immediately.

Plot a Picture (Other) Workflow

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This hardcopy method requires that you supply the parameter values for
hardcopy. The plot a picture parameter file is used to create a plot. If the
you do not want to create a hardcopy at this time, the parameter file is
stored. It is used to create a plot when you select HDBAT.
Select Graphics File
Select a ZGF from the list that appears. The pictures in this file are
available for printing. The list reflects the directory contents as specified
in the ZGFs tab of the Directory Paths dialog box (described on
page 111). If the ZGF you want is not listed, check the directory path
settings.
Select Picture
Select a picture from the list that appears. Part or all of this picture is
used when the option executes.
Plot Parameters
Use this dialog box to select a plotter device and to indicate whether to
plot all or selected features. The Plot Parameters dialog box also enables
you to specify these options:

number of plots
scale factor for adjusting plot size
whether the cutline is included

Number of Copies
Enter the number of copies of the picture you want. The default is 1.
Use Cutline
Controls whether a cutline is drawn on the plot. Possible choices for this
parameter are:
No Cutline (default value) Do not draw a cutline on the plot.
Cutline Draw a cutline on the plot.

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Device Type
Controls which plotter device is used. Possible choices for this menu
depend on the devices available at your installation. Click the parameter
input box and a popup menu shows which devices your systems
administrators attached to Z-MAP Plus.
Scale Factor
Enter a number to use for scaling the size of the plot. The dimensions of
the plot are multiplied by this number to determine the final size of the
plot. For example, a scale factor of 3 for a plot that is 10 inches by 11
inches would create a plot 30 inches by 33 inches. Similarly, if the scale
factor were 0.5 the plot would be 5 inches by 5.5 inches.
Plot Specified Features
Controls whether:

all features are to be plotted


selected features are to be plotted
selected features are not to be plotted

Possible choices for this parameter include:

All (default value) Ignore which features have been selected,


plot all of them.

Yes Plot only the selected features.

No Plot only the features that have not been selected.

To select which features are or are not plotted, select the Choose
Features to Plot option.
Choose Features to Plot
A list of features on the picture is presented. Point to and click the
features you wish to plot or not to plot (depends on how you have set the
Plot Specified Features switch). The selected features appear as white
letters on a black background. You can toggle the features on and off
until you are ready to plot. Clicking Apply stores the current settings.

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Copy Menu Options


Use the File Copy options to copy files and pictures.
The options include:

Copy Filescopies one file at a time.

Copy Picturescopies pictures from one graphics file to another.

Copy Files
Select File Copy in the
Z-MAP Plus window.

Select input file.

Enter output file name and select MFD.

Select to copy or not to copy file history.

Apply

Confirmation of rename fields procedure


appears in system window.

Save and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window.

Copy Files Workflow

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You can copy existing files of any type from OpenWorks files, an
attached MFD, or the scratch file to any other attached MFD or to the
scratch file. The new file name be different from the old name even if
you are saving it in a different MFD. If you use the same name, the copy
occurs, but a warning message appears and tells you to copy the file with
the same name to another MFD.
The copy files command works on only one file at a time. If you want to
copy almost all of the files in one MFD to a new MFD, this is not the
way to do it. Instead, use the Unix system copy command to copy the
entire MFD, then use the File Delete Files option to delete
unwanted files from the new MFD.
Input File
Select an input file from the list of files that appears.
Output File Name and Master File
Use this dialog box to specify the name for the new file, the MFD to use
for storing it, and whether file history is carried along to the new file.
Output File Name
Enter the name of the file to be created; this name may be up to 24
characters long and may contain internal blanks. If you do not supply
this name, a forward slash is added to the old file name (for example, old
name TOP OF MUDDY, new default name /TOP OF MUDDY).
Output File Master File
When you click the parameter box, a popup dialog box appears and lists
OpenWorks, the MFDs, and the scratch file attached to your session.
Select the MFD or other destination to use for writing the output file.
Copy File History
The Copy File History parameter enables you to copy history
information from the original file to the new file. File history describes
what has happened to a file (for example, how the file was created, its
parameter settings, and files used). The history can potentially go back
many generations. Possible choices for this parameter include:

Copy History Copy the history as it appears in the original file


and add this copy event to that file.

Do Not Copy (default setting) Do not copy the history from the
original file, instead make this copy event the first item in the files
history.

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Copy Pictures
Select File Copy in the
Z-MAP Plus window.

Select input graphics file.


Select input picture.
Select output graphics file.
Enter output picture name.

Yes

Maintain features
division on copied
picture?

No
Select single feature
Copy all features simultaneously.

Maintain division
Select features to copy.

Apply

To verify, select an output ZGF, then an input picture


The copied picture should appear in the list.

Save and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window.

Copy Pictures Workflow

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You can copy pictures from one ZGF to another. You can copy all or
some of the picture features. You can combine the copied features into
one graphics feature (LGB or Logical Graphics Block) or preserve them
as individual features. You can create a new ZGF to store the copied
picture.
Differences Between Copying and Overlaying Pictures

In the Overlay Pictures operation, the destination picture already exists, but
the Copy Pictures operation creates the destination picture.
Overlay Pictures can change AOI or scales. If you overlay contours from a
1:4000 scale map onto a map with a scale of 1:2000, the overlaid contours
are rescaled. Copy Pictures does not make these scale adjustments.
Overlay pictures can be used to send (overlay) features on a map with a
different AOI.
Copy works on all features. Overlay works on selected features inside the
map AOI.

Input Graphics File


For the Input Graphics File value, select the ZGF that contains the
picture you want to copy from the list of ZGFs that appears. The first
option listed is Use Current Graphics File (the attached ZGF). The list
also contains the other ZGFs specified in the ZGFs tab of the Directory
Paths dialog box. If the file you want is not in this list, check the
directory paths.
The selected ZGF is used to build a list of available pictures.

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Input Picture
From the list of pictures that appears, select the picture you want to
copy. Part or all of this picture is used when the option executes.
Output Graphics File
From the list of ZGFs that appears, select a ZGF to use for saving the
copy. You can use the current ZGF or another existing ZGFor you can
create a ZGF to use. The list of available ZGFs reflects the contents of
the directories specified in the ZGFs tab of the Directory Paths dialog
box. If the needed ZGF is not listed, check the ZGF directory path
settings.
New Graphics File
Use this dialog box to name a new ZGF for storing the copied picture.
New Graphics File Name
Enter the name of the new ZGF for storing the picture copy. The full
path (with the file name and extension of .zgf or .ZGF) must not be more
than 65 characters long. The file name can contain blank spaces, and
must follow the file naming conventions for your operating system.
If you do not enter the full destination path, the file is written to the
Directory Output Path for Graphics. The default location is the directory
you were in when you started Z-MAP Plus. If you do not enter an
extension, the program adds the .ZGF extension when it creates the file.
(For example, if you enter the file name MARROW, the name is changed
to MARROW.ZGF.)

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Output Picture
Use this dialog box to specify the name for the copied picture.
Picture Name
Enter the name of the picture to be created. The name can be a maximum
of 64 characters long and can contain internal blanks.
Features Division
This dialog box allows you to combine individual graphics features
(contours, text, lines, etc.) into one graphics feature (for example, Index
Map) when a picture is copied. For most purposes you want to Maintain
Division of the features. Graphics features, sometimes referred to as
Logical Graphics Blocks (LGB), can be manipulated easily (deleted,
copied, etc.) when they are distinct features. When they are combined
into one graphics feature, that manipulation capability is lost. However,
because they are now one graphics feature they can be copied, deleted,
and so on as a single unit, which also has advantages.
Division of Features on Copy
Controls whether graphics features maintain their division or are
combined into one graphics feature (for example, Index Map). Possible
choices for this parameter include:

Maintain Division (default value) Maintain the features (such


as contours, text, and lines) as they are in the original picture.
Single Feature Combine the features into one graphics feature.

Features to Copy
A list of features appears. All features printed with black letters on a
white background WILL be copied. Features printed with white letters
on a black background will not be copied. If you point to and click a
feature, the feature is switched from white-to-black or black-to-white.
Once all of the features are set appropriately, click OK and the settings
are stored.

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Rename Menu Options


You can use the File Rename options to rename files and pictures.
The options include:

Rename Files Renames any type of file contained on the


attached MFDs or scratch file.

Rename Pictures Renames one picture at a time.

Rename Files
Select File Rename in the
Z-MAP Plus window.

Select input file.

Enter output file name and select MFD.

Select to copy or not to copy file history.

Apply

Confirmation of rename fields procedure


appears in system window.

Save and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window.

Rename Files Workflow

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You can rename files of any type contained in the attached MFDs or
scratch file. A renamed file is actually a copy of the old file saved under
a new name, followed by deletion of the old file. Because Rename is
done this way, it can be thought of as a Move with the ability to rename
during the move.
Input File
From the file list that appears, select an input file to use.
Output File Name and Master File
Use this dialog box to specify the new name for the file, the MFD to use
for storing it, and whether file history is carried along to the renamed
file.
Output File Name
Enter the new name for the file. This name may be up to 24 characters
long and may contain internal blanks. If you do not supply a name, a
forward slash is added to the old file name (for example, old name TOP
OF MUDDY, new default name /TOP OF MUDDY). If you enter a name
identical to the old one, Z-MAP Plus executes correctly, but you gain
nothing except to reposition the file to the end of the MFD.
Output File Master File
When you click the parameter box, a popup dialog box appears, which
lists the attached MFDs and the scratch file for the session. Select the
MFD to use for saving the output file.
Copy File History
Use this parameter to carry history information contained in the original
file along to the renamed file. File History describes what has happened
to a file (for example, how that file was created, parameter settings, and
files used). The history can potentially go back many generations.
Possible choices for this parameter include:
Copy History Copy the history as it appears in the original file and
add this Rename event to that file.
Do Not Copy (default value) Do not copy the history from the
original file, instead make this Rename event the first item in the files
history.

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Rename Pictures
Select File Rename in the
Z-MAP Plus window.

Select an input ZGF.

Select a picture to rename.

Enter the output picture name.

Apply.

To verify, select the input ZGF again. The renamed picture


should appear in the list immediately.

Save and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window.

Rename Pictures Workflow


You can rename one picture at a time. This process does not do a copy
and rename but actually changes the name in the graphics files internal
directory. Therefore, the execution is very fast.

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Input Graphics File


When you rename picture(s) in a ZGF, you can select the currently
attached ZGF or any other ZGF located in the specified ZGF directory
paths. The name of the currently selected graphics file appears in the
Z-MAP Plus window status area.
From the list of ZGFs that appears, select the file that contains the
picture you want to rename. The first option in the selection dialog box
is Use Current Graphics File. The dialog box lists all the ZGFs in the
directory paths specified in the Directory Paths: ZGFs dialog box. If the
needed file is missing from the list, check the Directory Path settings.
Input Picture
As input, you can select the currently displayed picture or any other
picture in the selected input ZGF. The name of the current picture
appears in the Z-MAP Plus window status area.
From the list of pictures that appears, select the picture to rename. The
first option in the selection dialog box is Rename Current Picture. The
dialog box also lists all the pictures in the currently attached ZGF.
Output Picture
Use the Output Picture dialog box to specify a new name for the picture.
Picture Name
Enter a new name for the picture. The fully qualified name (full path
terminated by the file name and extension) can be a maximum of 79
characters long and can contain blank spaces. If you do not give the
output picture a new name, an error message appears. Each picture in a
graphics file must have a unique name.

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Delete Menu Options


You can use the File Delete option to delete files and pictures saved
on an MFD. To delete files and pictures stored in OpenWorks, you must
use OpenWorks utilities such as Map Data Manager.
The options include:

Delete Files Delete files from a list of files on the currently


attached MFDs and scratch file.

Delete Pictures Delete pictures from a graphics file.

Delete Files
Select File Delete from
the Z-MAP Plus window.

Select file(s) to delete.

OK

Confirm delete by checking list and clicking


OK again

Confirmation of delete file procedure appears.

Second OK returns you to the


Z-MAP Plus window.

Delete Files Workflow

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A list of files on the currently attached MFDs and scratch file is


presented. Select the files you wish to delete. Files selected for deletion
appear as white letters on a black background. You can toggle these files
on and off until you are ready to delete.
Clicking OK causes the Delete option to execute. However, before it
deletes, the files are redisplayed one more time with those to be deleted
still in black background. Clicking OK again causes the deletion to take
place. A list of the deleted files appears in the system window.

Delete Pictures
Select File Delete in the
Z-MAP Plus window.

Select input file.

Select picture to delete.

OK

Check list and OK again to confirm deletion.

Confirmation of deletion appears in system


window.

Save and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window.

Delete Pictures Workflow

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This option allows you to delete pictures from a graphics file. Many
pictures can be deleted in one execution of Delete Picture. A verification
dialog box is presented to give you a second chance before deletion
occurs.
Select Graphics File
From the list of ZGFs that appears, select the ZGF that contains the
picture to deleteyou can select the currently attached ZGF (Use
Current Graphics File option) or any other ZGF in the list. (The name
of the currently selected graphics file appears in the Z-MAP Plus
window status area.)
The selection list contains all the ZGFs specified in the ZGFs tab of the
Directory Paths dialog box. The file you select is used to build the list of
pictures available for deletion. If the appropriate ZGF is not listed,
check the directory path settings.
Select and Delete Pictures
You can delete one or more pictures from a graphics file. One option is
to delete the currently active picture. The name of the currently active
picture appears in the Z-MAP Plus window status area.
A list of pictures in the selected graphics file appears. Point to and click
the pictures to delete. Pictures selected for deletion appear as white
letters on a black background. You can toggle these pictures on and off
until you are ready to perform the deletion. Clicking OK causes the
Delete option to execute.
Confirm Deletion(s)
Before the deletion occurs, the picture list is redisplayed and shows the
pictures selected for deletion in a black background. Clicking OK again
executes the deletion. A list of the deleted files appears in the
Z-MAP Plus System Window.

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Compressing Files
Compressing Master Files
Use the File Compress Master File (MFD) option to compress
any unused space that has accumulated in an MFD.
As you add data to an MFD, the file increases in size automatically. If
you delete data, however, the MFD does not automatically decrease in
size. The next time you add data, the data is written to a vacated part of
the MFD, provided the empty space is large enough to accommodate the
data.
If you delete several data files from an MFD, the MFD is likely to
contain a lot of wasted space. To reclaim unused space, compress the
MFD. Compressing is especially helpful for archiving MFDs that may
contain a lot of unused space.
By compressing an MFD, you actually copy its data to a new file. You
are asked to specify a name for the new MFD, but the file retains the
original internal name. To perform the compression operation, your
system must have enough available space for the new compressed copy.
Once the compression operation is complete, detach the old MFD from
the Z-MAP Plus session and delete it (at the operating system level). If
you do not perform these follow-up steps, the compression operations
results in even more wasted space.
Compressing Files in the File Manager

You can also display the dialog box for compressing an MFD or ZGF by
clicking the Compress MFD/ZGF icon in the Z-MAP Plus File Manager
dialog box.

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Input/Output Master File


A list of the attached MFDs appears. You are asked to select the MFD
to be compressed and specify a name for the new compressed MFD.
Input Master File
If the needed MFD is not listed, you need to select File New
Master File and attach the appropriate MFD. If the needed MFD is not
listed, check the MFDs tab of the Directory Paths dialog box.
Output Master File Name
When you supply the name for the new, compressed MFD, it is
essential that the name is different from the input MFD. Otherwise, the
old MFD is overwritten. The name of the new, compressed MFD can be
a maximum of 65 characters long, cannot contain internal blanks, and
should follow the appropriate naming conventions for your system. The
name should be a word you choose followed by a period and the letters
MFD (or mfd). If you do not add the extension, the program adds it
automatically.
Warning: Rename After Compressing

It is essential that the new, compressed MFD have a different name from the
input MFD. Otherwise the old MFD is overwritten.

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Compressing Graphics Files


Use the Compress Graphics File option to compress space previously
occupied by deleted pictures or features. When pictures or features of
pictures are deleted from a graphics file, the graphics file does not shrink
in size. If you write another picture or add more details to old pictures
on that graphics file, it first uses that freed up space before going after
new space and increasing the total size of the graphics file. If you have
deleted many more pictures or features than you have added since the
deletions, then a lot of unused space accumulates in the graphics file.
This option enables you to get rid of that space.
Compressing a ZGF automatically copies all the pictures from one ZGF
to a new version of the file. You must have enough space available to
create the duplicate file. At the beginning of the process, you are asked
to name the new file. The name you specify is an external namethe
new file has the same header (internal name) as the old one.
Once the compression operation is complete, delete the original ZGF at
the system level. If you do not delete the original, uncompressed version
of the ZGF, you actually lose disk space instead of gaining it.
Warning: Check the ZGF Before Deleting

It is a good practice to check the first and last picture in a new ZGF before you
delete the old ZGF.

Compressing is helpful when you are archiving graphics files and


suspect they have a lot of unused space.
Compressing Files in the File Manager

You can also display the dialog box for compressing an MFD or ZGF by
clicking the Compress MFD/ZGF icon in the Z-MAP Plus File Manager
dialog box.

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Select Input/Output Graphics File


Select the ZGF to compress and specify a name for the new compressed
ZGF.
Select Input Graphics File
From the list that appears, select the ZGF you want to compress. The
listed ZGFs reflect the contents of the directories specified in the ZGFs
tab of the Directory Paths dialog box.
Output Graphics File Name
Specify a name for the new compressed ZGF a name that is different
from the input ZGF name. Otherwise, the old ZGF is overwritten. (It is
best to verify the validity of the compressed version of the ZGF before
you discard the original file.)
The name can be a maximum 65 characters long (for the full path, file
name, and extension). The file name cannot contain internal blanks and
must follow the file naming conventions for your operating system. The
name is composed of an alphanumeric string of your choosing, followed
by the extension .ZGF or .zgf. If you do not add the extension, the
program adds it for you when it creates the file.
Importance of Using the Correct Extension

It is essential that the new, compressed graphics file have a different name from
the original ZGF, or the original ZGF is overwritten.

Exiting from Z-MAP Plus


To end the Z-MAP Plus session, select the Exit option from the File
menu.

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Edit Menu Options

Overview
Use the Edit menu options in the Z-MAP Plus window to perform the
following actions. (Edit menu options are active only if a picture is
selected.)

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Graphics Editor (page 158) Delete or modify graphic


elements (features) from the currently active picture.

Data Editor (page 174) Edit and create data files in the
Edit/Create Data dialog box.

Color Table (page 209) Show the current Color Table display
and the Edit Color Table dialog box, which you use to open, save,
copy and edit color tables.

Color Indices (page 218) Display a list of graphic elements


and modify the colors or color table cells associated with the
elements.

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Graphics Editor
Use the Graphics Editor options to delete or modify graphic elements in
the current map or cross section. The edits affect only the display. Data
files are not modified.

The Graphics Editor options include:

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Undo Last Feature Delete the most recent feature added.


You must run this option immediately after you add a feature (such
as title block, text, or contours).

Redo Last Deleted Feature Restore the feature deleted with


the Undo Last Feature option.

Delete Features Permanently remove features from the


current map or cross section.

Delete Elements of a Feature Delete feature elements from


the current map or cross section. (For example, feature elements of
contours include lines, text, symbols, and polygons.)

Edit Selected Features Change parameters (such as color,


position, size, font, and wording) for feature elements in the
current map or cross section. You can edit the parameters of the
selected features (such as contours, text, and faults). This option is
useful for editing a single feature on a complicated map.

Edit All Features Change parameters (such as color, position,


size, font, and wording) for feature elements in the current map or
cross section. You can edit the parameters of the any features on
the map or cross section. This option is useful for changing several
features during a single editing operation.

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Undo Last Feature


Immediately removes the most recent feature added (such as text or
contours). Available only if no other operation has been executed since
the feature was added.
As soon as you select this option, the feature is deleted. No dialog box
appears. To reverse this action, immediately click Redo Last Deleted
Feature.
An icon for this option appears in the graphics toolbox on the left side
of the main window:

Redo Last Deleted Feature


Restores the feature just deleted with Undo Last Feature, provided no
other operation was executed since deletion.

Delete Features
Deletes all or some of the features in the current picture (such as text or
contours). A list of features will be presented for you to select from.
When you have chosen the features to delete, the selected features will
be deleted.
If you execute this option and then change your mind about what was
deleted, you can get all of the just deleted features back, if you go
immediately to Undelete Last Deleted Feature. Do not perform any
other procedure. Selecting Undelete Last Deleted Feature will restore
what was deleted, as long as no other options were executed between
deletion and undeletion.

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Delete Elements of a Feature


Deletes elements of all or some of the features that are on the current
picture. Each feature can have four elementspolylines, text strings,
markers (symbols), and color-filled polygonsalthough all elements of
a feature may not be displayed on the current picture. You can select
several features and delete the same element from all of those features.
A list of features appears. Select the features you want to change. A list
of the four elements appears automatically with all elements selected
(highlighted). Click to clear the elements you want to preserve;
highlighted elements will be deleted from the active features. For
example, suppose you posted seismic data on the map with shotpoints
(markers), track lines (polylines), and text to label the shotpoints. To
delete the track lines between the shotpoints, delete elements for posted
line data and delete the polylines. This is quicker than deleting all the
seismic data, then reposting it on the map.
Select Element Types
Select the elementspolylines, text strings, markers (symbols), and
color-filled polygonsyou want deleted from the previously selected
features. You can toggle these elements on and off until you are ready
to delete them. Clear the elements you want to preserve; all highlighted
elements will be deleted from the active features.
To restore the just-deleted elements, you must go directly to Undelete
Last Deleted Feature. Selecting Undelete Last Deleted Feature will
restore what was deleted as long as no other option was selected
between deletion and undeletion.

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Edit Selected Features


Enables you to change parameters such as color, position, size, font,
wording, etc., for any feature on the current picture. Only features
(contours, text, faults, etc.) that you select are available to have their
elements edited. Because only the selected features are active, this
option is good for modifying one item from a complicated area of the
map when it would be difficult to identify that item if all features were
active. The default for Edit Selected Features is to edit all elements
from all features.
Edit All and Edit Selected Dialog Boxes

Edit All Features and Edit Selected Features use exactly the same dialog
boxes and parameters.

Enter from Edit on


Z-MAP Plus main menu

Select graphics features to be available for editing

Select item with cursor or action to perform

Undo last edit

Wrong item
found

New editing
parameters

Cancel edit
session

Select item and


action

OK & return to
Z-MAP Plus main menu
Edit Selected Features Workflow

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Editing Procedures
On selecting Edit Edit Selected Feature, you are first given the
opportunity to choose which features will be available for editing in this
session. The Select Item menu appears and you have the following
options:

Select Item with Cursor

Pick a Menu Option


Normally, you will go directly to the picture and select the feature you
want to modify.
Editing the First Feature
To Select Item with Cursor, move the cursor arrow to the graphic feature
you want to modify or delete. Once selected, the feature will blink off
and then back on. Depending on the type of feature you select, one of
four dialog boxes will appear:

Edit Text
Edit Lines
Edit Markers (Symbols)
Edit Area (color-filled areas)

When Edit Text or Edit Markers appears you will be able to select
Move, Copy, Delete, or Change Parameters. When Edit Lines or Edit
Area appears, you will be able to select Delete or Change Parameters. If
you want to change the position of a line, then go to Edit Edit/
Create Data.
You can select the appropriate action from the menu that appears. If you
choose Change Parameters, another dialog box will appear with all the
attributes of the feature displayed. Make the desired changes and once
the edit has taken place, the Select Item menu and prompt will appear
again. If you did not like the edit, then select Undo Last Edit. If you want
to abort all the edits made since entering this Edit option, then select
Cancel Edit Session.

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Editing the Second Feature


After you edit and the Select Item menu and prompt reappears, you can
continue to edit picture features. If you select a feature of the same type
as the previous edit, the same change is applied to the second feature.
That is, if you deleted the first feature, the second feature is
automatically deleted. This enables you to apply the same edit to a large
number of features with a minimum number of keystrokes.
To apply a different edit action, click the New Editing Parameters
button before you select the item to edit. This causes the appropriate edit
dialog box (such as Edit Text or Edit Line) to appear once you select the
item. Follow by selecting an editing option. If you happen to select the
feature before you click the New Editing Parameters button, click the
Undo Last Edit button. The feature reverts to its previous state.
If you select a feature and the wrong element is identified, click the
Wrong Item Found button. This causes the program to locate and edit
the next closest feature of the same type. If the right feature is found,
continue editing. You can perform the search twice. If you click the
Wrong Item Found button a third time, the following prompt appears.

Select Graphics Features


A list of map features appears. All items are highlighted (selected).
Clear the selection for any features you do not want to edit. When you
click OK in the dialog box, the Select Item dialog box and the following
prompt appear.

The Select Item dialog box has four options:

Undo Last Edit

Wrong Item Found

New Editing Parameters

Cancel Edit Session

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Undo Last Edit


Undo Last Edit will return the modified feature to its previous condition
(i.e., if you perform two edits on a feature, the second edit will be
undone, returning the feature to its condition after the first edit).
Wrong Item Found
If you click the Wrong Item found button, the program locates and
edits the feature closest to and of the same type as the selected feature.
The initially selected feature is returned to its original form. If the right
feature is found, then continue editing. If not, then select Wrong Item
Found again. This search will be done twice. The third time you select
Wrong Item Found the following message appears:

If you cannot find the feature, try to select the feature again, window in
to make it easier to find, or re-enter Edit, Edit Selected Features and
select only the graphics feature you want to modify.
New Editing Parameters
To prevent the previous edit action from being applied to the next
selected picture element, select New Editing Parameters. The select
item with the cursor or pick a menu option prompt appears. Select a
feature. An appropriate edit dialog box (i.e., Edit Text, Edit Line, etc.)
will appear. Select an editing option.
If you selected the feature before selecting New Editing Parameters, and
wanted to change the edit action, then select Undo Last Edit. The
element will be changed back to its previous form. Now select New
Editing Parameters, then select the item and apply the editing action.
Cancel Edit Session
If you click the Cancel Edit session button, you cancel all the edits
made since you entered the Edit option. If you only want to abort the last
edit, select Undo Last Edit.

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Edit Text
You can display the Edit Text dialog box from Edit All Features and
Edit Selected Features. Use the Edit Text dialog box to move, copy,
delete, and change parameters (such as size, color, and font) of the text
you have selected. You return to the Select Item menu after the edit is
performed.
Move Text and Copy Text
Use the Move Text option to move text to a different position. You can
enter x,y coordinates for the new position or use the cursor to select a
position.
Use the Copy Text option to place a copy of a text string in the picture.
You can enter x,y coordinates for the text position or use the cursor to
select a position.
Key In Location
Key In Location enables you to enter the x,y coordinates for the new
position of the selected text. This x,y position refers to the lower left,
lower right, or center of the text as specified when this text was last
placed on the picture.

New X-Location and New Y-Location (Plotter Units) To


move or copy selected text, enter numbers that represent the x and
y values of the desired destination. This is measured in plotter
units
(in./cm.) from the lower left corner of the plot (established by the
lower X-offset and left Y-offset).

Location Mode Location Mode enables you to define the part


of the text positioned in a new location. You select a new location
by clicking mouse Button 1 with the cursor in the appropriate
position.
Text Justification Use this parameter to control where text
is positioned relative to a new location point you select. The
options for this parameter are:
Lower Left (default setting) Positions the text so that its
lower left corner is at the new location point.
Lower Right Positions the text so that its lower right corner
is at the new location point.
Center Positions the text so that its center (vertical and
horizontal center) is at the new location point.

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Delete Text

Delete Text Removes the selected text immediately and returns


you to the Select Item menu.
To restore the deleted text, click Undo Last Edit in the Select Item
dialog box. The deleted text is restored, provided nothing else has
been done since the deletion.

Change Parameters
Click the Change Parameters button to display a dialog box for
changing any of the following attributes for the currently selected text
string: Angle of rotation, font, height (size), color, and the text string.

Rotation To rotate the currently selected text string, enter a


number for the angle of rotation, measured counterclockwise from
the horizontal plane (where zero = horizontal). The text string
rotates from the point (lower left, lower right, or center) currently
selected as the reference point for posting the text.

Font This parameter controls which font (typeface) is used to


display the text. The choices are shown at left.
Height Enter a value in plotter units (in./cm.) to define the
height of the text.

Color To select the text color, enter the color index number or
click the color button.
To select the color index from the color table, enter a number from
0 to 255.
Click the button next to the Color box, and the Select a Color
Index dialog box appears. Select the color you want from the color
buttons. Use the scroll bar to see other color indices and their
associated colors.
If the color table is the default Z-MAP Plus color table, the first
eight color indices and their associated colors are as shown in the
following table.
Color Index
0
1
2
3
4
5

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Color
Background color (usually black)
Foreground color (usually white)
Red
Green
Blue
Cyan

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Color Index
6
7
8

Color
Magenta
Yellow
Orange

To look at the color table settings for the current picture, select
View Color Color Table.

String New text can be entered to replace the text you have
selected. This may be up to 80 characters long and may contain
internal blanks. You can use upper and lowercase characters with
all fonts except Plain.

Edit Lines
Use the Edit Lines dialog box to delete or change the parameters of the
selected line (such as line type, color, and symbol).
Delete Line Segment
Delete Line Segment will delete the portion of the line you have
selected. No dialog boxes are displayed when this happens.
If you change your mind and do not want to delete this portion of the
line, select Undo Last Edit on the Select Item dialog box and the line will
be restored. The Undo procedure only works if nothing else has been
selected since the deletion.
Change Parameters
Use the Change Parameters option to specify the line pattern, color,
length, spacing, and direction of hachures; length and spacing of dashes;
type and height of the posted symbols; each line vertex; and the weight
of bold lines.

Line Pattern Line Pattern controls what pattern is used to draw


a line. Select a pattern from the popup menu.

Line Color To select a color for displaying the line, use one of
these methods:
Color Index Value Enter a color index value from 0 to 255
to select the color.
Color Button Click the color button. In the Select a Color
Index dialog box that appears, select a color from the standard
palette. To see other color indices and their associated colors
use the scroll bar.

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To see the first eight color indices and colors in the default
Z-MAP Plus color table, see page 172.
To see the current pictures color table settings, select View
Color Color Table.

Hachure Length To set the length of hachures, enter a value in


plotter units (in./cm.). The default hachure length is .05 cm.

Hachure Spacing Enter a value in plotter units (in./cm.) to set


the spacing along the line between hachures. This defaults to 0.5
cm. This will control how close together the hachures are placed.

Hachure Direction Hachure Direction controls which side of


the line the hachures are drawn. To determine which side of the
line is being referred to, the program looks at the way the line data
is stored. It begins from the first point on the line and draws
hachures either to the right or left of the point. Possible choices for
this parameter include:
Right (default) Hachures are drawn on the right side of the
line when moving along the line in the order the line vertices
were entered.
Left Hachures are drawn on the left side of the line when
moving along the line in the order the line vertices were
entered.

Dash Length Enter a value in plotter units (in./cm.) to set the


length of the line (dash) portion of the dashed line. This defaults to
a value of 1.

Dash Spacing Enter a value in plotter units (in./cm.) to set the


length of the space (gap) portion of the dashed line. This defaults
to a value of 1.

Symbol Code To replace the current symbol, enter the number


of the new marker (symbol) you want to use. This defaults to a
value of 1.
The following table shows some standard symbol code numbers
and their associated symbols.
Symbol (Marker) Code Symbol

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No Symbol

Plus

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Symbol (Marker) Code Symbol


3

Square

Circle with a dot in it

X with horizontal line top and base

X with vertical line left and right side

X with lines all four sides

Diamond

Triangle

10

Asterisk

26

Dry Hole

28

Gas Show

30

Gas

48

Oil

50

Oil and Gas

60

Oil Show

62

Oil and Gas Show

For examples of the markers in the extended set used in


Z-MAP Plus, see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line
Patterns on page 791.

Symbol Height You can enter a value in plotter units (in./cm.)


that will define the height of the symbol. This defaults to 0.07 cm.

Line Weight (Multiple of Plain) You can enter the number of


plain (single) lines that are drawn side-by-side to create a bold
line. This defaults to 2 and can range from 2 to 8.

Edit Markers
In the Edit Markers dialog box, choose Move, Copy, Delete, and
Change Parameters (such as size, color, and symbol) for the currently
selected Marker (symbol).
Move Marker and Copy Marker
Use the Move Marker option to select a new position for the selected
marker by entering x,y coordinates. Use the Copy Marker option to enter
x,y coordinates for the position of a copy of the selected marker.

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Key In Location Enter the x,y coordinates for the selected


markers new position.

New X-Location and New Y-Location (Plotter Units) To


move or copy a selected marker, enter numbers that represent the x
and y values of the desired destination. This is measured in plotter
units (in./cm.) from the lower left corner of the plot (established by
the lower X-offset and left Y-offset).

Delete Marker
To delete the selected marker, select the Delete Marker option. The
deletion occurs immediately.
To restore the deleted marker, click the Undo Last Edit button in the
Select Item dialog box. This only works if nothing else has been selected
since the deletion.
Change Parameters
Change Parameters enables you to specify the marker type (symbol
code), its size, and color.
Marker Type
To replace the current marker symbol, enter the number of the new
marker you want to use. This defaults to 1.
Some standard symbol code numbers and their associated symbols
include:
Symbol (Marker) Code

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Symbol

No Symbol

Plus

Square

Circle with a dot in it

X with horizontal line top and base

X with vertical line left and right side

X with lines all four sides

Diamond

Triangle

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Symbol (Marker) Code

Symbol

10

Asterisk

26

Dry Hole

28

Gas Show

30

Gas

48

Oil

50

Oil and Gas

60

Oil Show

62

Oil and Gas Show

For examples of the markers in the extended set used in Z-MAP Plus,
see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line Patterns on page 791.

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Marker Size
You can enter a value in plotter units (in./cm.) which defines the size of
the Marker. This defaults to 0.07 cm.
Marker Color
To select the color for displaying the marker, use one of these methods:

Color Index Value Enter a color index value from 0 to 255 to


select the color.

Color Button Click the color button. In the Select a Color


Index dialog box that appears, select a color from the standard
palette. To see other color indices and their associated colors use
the scroll bar.

The following table shows the default Z-MAP Plus color tables first
eight color index values and their associated colors.
Color Index

Color

Background color (usually black)

Foreground color (usually white)

Red

Green

Blue

Cyan

Magenta

Yellow

Orange

To see the current pictures color table settings, select View Color
Color Table.

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Edit Area
Use the Edit Area dialog box to delete or change the color of the
currently selected area.
Delete Fill Area
Delete Fill Area immediately changes the selected color-filled area to
the background color.
To restore the deleted fill area, select Undo Last Edit in the Select Item
dialog box. The restoration takes effect only if you have not performed
any other action since the deletion.
Change Parameters
Use the Change Parameters setting to delete or change the color in the
currently selected area.
Fill Color
To select a color to use to display the Fill Color marker, enter the color
index number or click the color button. To select the color index from
the color table, enter a value from 0 to 255.
If you click the color button next to the entry field, the Select a Color
Index dialog box appears. Select a color in the Select a Color Index
dialog box. To see other color indices and their associated colors, use the
scroll bar.
To see the default Z-MAP Plus color tables first eight color indices and
their associated colors, see the table on page 172.
To see the current pictures color table settings, select View Color
Color Table.

Edit All Features


Use the Edit All Features option to change parameters for a feature in
the current picture (such as color, position, size, font, and wording).
The Edit All Features and Edit Selected Features options use the same
dialog boxes and parameters. For descriptions of the dialog boxes and
parameters, see Edit Selected Features on page 161.

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Data Editor
The Data Editor displays the Edit/Create Data dialog box. This dialog
box enables you to edit and create data files. You can see the changes
you are making to the data file reflected in the picture displayed. Any
data in the Area of Interest (AOI) of the present picture and on the
attached MFDs or OpenWorks can be edited. Both data used to create
the currently displayed picture and data not used to create the picture (on
attached MFDs or OpenWorks) can be edited.
In order to begin editing or creating data, you must have a picture
currently active. If one is not active, you may select to work on an old
picture or create a picture.
You can select the files you want to edit, or you can allow the program
to select the data files on which your current picture is based. Each file
used to create the current picture will automatically be selected.
Unless you cancel the editing session, the results of the editing session
are reflected in the MFD and ZGF. The following types of data can be
edited or created:

Control Points

Seismic Data

Contours

Faults

Profiles

Vertices (Line Inflection Points)

Grid Node Values


These edit/create data files are stored in the specified MFD or in the
OpenWorks project.
Any feature on your current picture can be altered. The program creates
a set of data during each execution of contouring, posting, and lines. The
changes to the current picture will be stored on the graphics file you
designate.
Save Often During Data Editing

It is very important to save your work often when editing, especially when
during extensive editing sessions. It is very easy to corrupt an MFD during
complex editing sessions; so SAVE OFTEN!

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Points
Using your cursor on the currently displayed picture, you can edit
control point data, such as Well Data and Seismic Data. You may
window, pan or zoom in on any point while editing.
Options include:

Cursor Move

View/Edit

Area Edit

Undo

Delete

Undelete

Create Point

Select File

Select Fields

Display Parameters

Autoset Parameters
Cursor Move
Use the Cursor Move option to graphically reposition one or more
control points in your currently displayed picture.
If you select Cursor Move, the Cursor Move dialog box appears,
followed by the prompt:
SELECT POINT TO MOVE OR DISMISS
Select a control point to move by clicking it. A dialog box appears,
followed by the prompt:
INPUT NEW X,Y LOCATION
Position the cursor at the target location for the control point and click.
The control point automatically moves to the new location. The Cursor
Move dialog box and the SELECT POINT TO MOVE OR DISMISS
prompt appear. You can reposition another control point or exit the
Cursor Move mode by selecting OK. The changes you made to your
data file during the editing session are saved automatically when you
close the Edit/Create Data menu.

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View/Edit
Use the View/Edit option to edit values of points along the currently
selected line. If you select a point, all the points data values are
displayed. You can then perform a keyboard edit on any of the points
values.
The following prompt appears:
SELECT POINT TO EDIT OR DISMISS
Once you select a point, a dialog box appears and reports current
information about the selected control point. If you have selected to edit
certain fields of information (under Select Fields), only those fields are
displayed. You can change the value for any field that appears, then
click OK to save the edits, or click Cancel to close the dialog box
without saving changes. The selected control point is highlighted during
editing.
Area Edit
When Area Edit is selected, you can edit all of the control points in an
area that you specify. Area Edit can edit all points inside or outside a
polygon or the current view (portion of the picture currently displayed).
Area Edit has the following capabilities:

deletion of points
blanking (converting to ZNON) all, one, or currently selected
Z-fields
change one Z-field to a constant value

These features are particularly useful when you are trying to set all of
the control points in an area to a constant, such as a ZNON. For example,
you may have the end of a seismic line that has totally invalid time
values, and you want to set all of the shotpoints equal to ZNON in order
to create a reasonable grid despite the bad values.
There are several options under Area Edit:

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Select Polygon File


Select Polygon
Create Polygon
Current View
Parameters
Edit Field
Select Point File

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Select Polygon File


You can select a polygon as the area to edit from an existing file in the
MFD or OpenWorks project, or you can create a polygon by using the
cursor in the map display.
Select Polygon
You can select a specific polygon from the active files. Values for points
inside or outside the polygon can be changed. The polygon(s) from the
Polygon File you have just selected will appear on your picture. Select
the polygon you wish to use for editing.
Create Polygon
Using your cursor, you can draw a polygon on your map. Values for
points inside or outside the polygon can be changed.
Current View
You can use the portion of your map that is on the graphics screen as the
area to edit. If your entire map is still displayed, you may window (or
zoom in) on a smaller portion of the map and use that area as the current
area to edit.
Parameters
Use Selection of Parameter to select an Operation to perform on the area
to edit, such as deleting a control point and setting Z fields to ZNONS.
You may also specify a Fill Value, which is a number (such as the value
for ZNON) that you would like to set several control points equal to.
You may also select as an Area to Edit either the region Inside the area
you selected, or Outside the area you selected to edit.
Operation
In the area you have defined for editing, you can perform the following
processes:

Delete Points

Blank All Z Fields

Blank Currently Selected Fields

Blank One Z Field

Replace Value For One Z Field

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Fill Value
The fill value is the Z-Value that you wish to assign to the points in the
area you have selected for editing. For example, you may want to make
all values in the area ZNONs. The fill value would then the value you
have defined for null data.
Area to Edit
You can perform editing operations either Inside or Outside the
polygon you have defined.
Edit Field
A list of fields appears. Select the field which contains the point values
you wish to change.
Select Point File
You may select datasets which have already been selected for editing.
For example, your active picture may have been built using both a
seismic shotpoint data file and a well control point file. Your selection
will determine whether the editor applies the area edit to the seismic data
or to the well data.
Undo
Undo enables you to restore the last edit you performed to the way it was
before editing. Undo will undo the last point edit, such as a cursor move
or a view edit. If you invoke undo while editing points using area edit,
and the editor does not restore the points, you can recover these points
by selecting Edit Edit Create Data Cancel Edit.
Delete
Delete will omit a control point that you select with the cursor from your
edited datafile. If you decide that you didnt really want the control point
deleted, you may put it back by selecting undelete.
Undelete
Undelete brings back a control point you deleted. The control points
that have been deleted will be highlighted, and you may select one to put
back. The control point is then put back into your edited datafile.

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Create Point
Use the Create Point option to add one or more points to the existing
file.
Place the cursor at the target location for the new control point. A dialog
box appears with information about the fields that you have stored with
this dataset. The location is filled in automatically, but you specify the
Z fields and other information you want to save with the new control
point. Select OK to save the information that you have typed in, or
Cancel to return to the Point edit menu and not save the new control
point. If you would like to enter all of the information for the new
control point, you may select the option Key X, Y to enter the location
of the new data point as well as any additional fields that you would like
to save with it.
Key X, Y
You can use the Key X, Y option to enter values for the x,y location of
the new point. You can also enter values for the point fields, such as the
Z field and Well ID File.

X-field Enter the value for the X coordinate of the new point.

Y-field Enter the value for the Y coordinate of the new point.

Z-field Enter the value for the Z field of the new point.

Field Values Field names for the fields on the point dataset you
are editing also appear on the Key X, Y dialog box. Assign a value
appropriate to each of the fields listed, e.g., Z-value or Well ID. Up
to 10 fields can appear on one dialog box. Values for up to 50 fields
can be assigned.

Select File
Select File enables you to select a file for adding a point, i.e., it answers
the question: Which edit file (file selected for editing) gets the new point
written to it?
On this menu you are selecting among datasets which have already been
selected for editing. For example, your active picture may have both
seismic shotpoint data and well control point data posted on it. Your
selection will decide whether the editor applies the area edit to the
seismic data or to the well data.

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Select File
Select File is useful for getting an additional file to edit. For example,
your active picture may have had seismic shotpoint data posted, but you
may want to edit the well data values in addition to the seismic data
values.
Select File enables you to select a file for adding a point, i.e., it answers
the question: Which edit file (file selected for editing) gets the new point
written to it?
You may select datasets which have already been selected for editing.
For example, your active picture may have been built using both a
seismic shotpoint data file and a well control point file. Your selection
will decide whether the editor applies the area edit to the seismic data or
to the well data.
To remove a dataset from editing, you must use the Select Files option
on the Edit/Create Data main menu.
Select Fields
Select Fields enables you to select the point dataset you want to edit, and
the fields on that dataset which you want to edit.
Select Fields
A list of fields is presented. You can choose to edit all fields, or one or
more fields. Select Fields limits the fields displayed for View/Edit. This
option is helpful for datasets with more fields than will fit on a dialog
box (ten). Select Fields gives you the chance of viewing only those
fields you are interested in editing, and if at all possible, to view them
on one dialog box.
Select File (for Field Selection)
If you are editing two datasets, such as a seismic dataset and a well
control point set, you must say which file the fields are coming from. If
you are editing only one dataset, you need not Select File.

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Display Parameters
Use the Display Parameters option to see the options for displaying
control point information for the current map. This option is useful if
you have not posted your control points on the map, but would like to
see them now in order to edit them. (This option only changes the
posting of point data in the editor. This option under Line Posting
actually changes the picture.) The Display Parameters options are:

Select Fields
Sizes/Colors
Locations
Select File
Post Symbol/Value Options

Select Fields
Use the Select Fields option to select a field, such as a Z field to post on
the picture around the control point.
Sizes/Colors
Use the Sizes/Colors option to choose a symbol number, size, color, and
a value (Z field) size and color for the points that you are posting. Sizes
are expressed in plotter units (in./cm.).

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Symbol Size This is the size of the symbol you are posting with
your points. The value for Symbol Size is expressed in plotter units
(in./cm.).

Symbol Number Symbol Number is the number of the symbol


in the Extended Symbol Set. Examples of the symbols and their
numbers can be found in Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line
Patterns on page 791.

Symbol Color Symbol Color is the color of the symbol


representing the control point value. Using a number from 0255,
indicate the color for the posted symbol. If you click the color box,
a palette of 256 colors appears. Click to select the color you want.

Value Size Value Size is the size of the number or text


representing the field value, expressed in plotter units (in./cm.).

Value Color Value Color is the color of the number or text


representing the control point value. Using a number from 0255,
indicate the color for the posted grid node value. If you click the
color box, a palette of 256 colors appears. Click to select the color
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Locations
Location enables you to select where you would like to see any selected
field values posted in relation to the symbol.
A list of fields on the file you are editing appears. For each field you
have selected to post, indicate where you would like the value to appear.
The choices are to post the value Above, Below, Right, or Left of the
symbol.
Select File
Select File enables you to select the dataset for which you want to
establish display parameters.
Post Symbol/Value Options
Post Symbol/Value Options enables you to select if and where symbols
and values are posted. You can choose not to post symbols or values, to
post symbols and values for selected points, to post the symbol and not
the value, or to post the symbol and field value for every control point.
No Posting. No symbols or values will be posted.
Symbol Only. Symbol Only will post a symbol at the location of all
points, but will not include values for fields around the symbol.
Selected Points. Selected Points will post a symbol at the location of
all points. When a point is selected for editing, specified fields may be
displayed. You will specify fields to display in Select Fields.
All. All will post a symbol and specified field values for every control
point on the file.
Once all of your posting parameters have been set up the way you would
like them, you may select Symbol Only, Selected Points, or All. Select
No Posting to get out of the posting option without posting any values
on your map. When you select one of the options on the Post Symbol
Value Options dialog box, you will return to the Posting dialog box
where you can Apply your posting choice.
The posting you do in the editor is temporary as far as your picture is
concerned. The changes to the dataset are permanent, but when you exit
your editor, the posting parameters go back to the way they were on the
picture when you started the editing session.

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Autoset Parameters
Use the Autoset Parameters option to specify defaults for creating
points.
You can specify values by selecting the files used to create a particular
picture. The Autoset feature is useful for many sorts of editing tasks and
can be used for all data types. The Autoset capability is useful both if
you are creating a dataset or are editing/adding to an existing dataset.
Autoset works with control points, vertex data, and fault files.
Autoset can be invoked from Point Edit, Line Edit, and Create Data.
Select Type
Like the Select File options, Select Type is a choice among already
selected files. It answers the question: For which type of file do you
want to set Autoset Parameters?
Once you select a file for Autoset Parameters, The program computes
values for new points in the file according to the new parameter values.
Set File Parameters
This dialog box enables you to Autoset Extra Fields and to Snap
Vertices to point locations if you wish to do so.
Autoset Extra Fields
The Autoset File Parameters feature provides the option to Autoset
Extra Fields. This feature will enable the editor to pick up a value
(usually a Z-value) from a grid or control point on which the picture was
based. This feature is especially useful for adding synthesized control
points away from your data, and for creating digitized profiles.
Autoset Extra Fields enables the editor to set field values for new
points automatically. When inputting new points, the editor sets all
fields to default values. When using Autoset, the mapper will not be
asked to supply the values for the new points. Unless you specify how
to set the values using Set Field Parameters, the program will set the
field values to the ZNON for that field.
Snap Vertices to Point Locations
This feature will conform the vertices of your new data to the control
point file you have selected.

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Snap Vertices to Point Locations is another feature of Autoset


Parameters. When you select this option, the editor will pick up the x,y
location of the nearest point in the selected file and use it as the location
of the new point. Snap Vertices is useful for creating a subset of an
existing point set by graphically selecting the points for the new set,
without having to place the cursor exactly on the point locations.
When snapping to point locations, you also have the option of defaulting
the field value from a field in the snap to point.
Select an Item (Match Vertices to Points From File)
This dialog box will appear only if you answered Yes to Snap Vertices
to Point Locations. When you select this option, the editor will pick up
the x,y location of the nearest point in the selected file and use it as the
location of the new point. Snap Vertices is useful for creating a subset
of an existing point set by graphically selecting the points for the new
set, without having to place the cursor exactly on the point locations.
Select the file whose points you want your new data points to snap to.
Set Field Parameters
If a grid file is among the data files selected for editing, and if you want
to default the value of this data field from the grid, you can select a grid.
This grid will be back interpolated at the new point locations and the
back interpolated value used as the field value for the control point.
When snapping to point locations, you also have the option of defaulting
the field value from a field in the snap to point.
Clear
Clear will erase all the parameter values selected in the Autoset
Parameters dialog box.

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Contours, Faults, Lines


Contours, Faults, Lines enables you to edit contours, fault data, or a line
(vertex data). Using your cursor on the currently displayed picture, you
can modify contours, faults, or line data. You can window, pan, or zoom
the picture at any time while editing. When you select Contours, Faults,
Lines, the Line Edit menu appears.
Reshape Contours
Reshape Contours provides a way to edit a contour line. Reshape also
provides smoothing of edited contour lines.
There are three main steps to the Reshape Contours process:
1.

Select the contour line on the active map that you want to reshape.
X marks appear along the selected contour line, marking the points
on the line you can move.

2.

Select the point you want to move.

3.

Select the new location for the selected point.

The contour will be redefined and reshaped according to the point you
have chosen, the new destination you have chosen for the point, and the
points on the contour line which have remained fixed.
You can reshape lines by selecting and moving a reshaping point, or
point of inflection. Reshape Contours fits a curve through the three
closest reshaping points.
If you do not want to reshape the line using a marked point (a point of
inflection along the contour), you can add and delete points which are
able to be moved. To remove reshaping points which you do not want
to influence the shape of the new line, use the Add/Delete Points option.
The ability to add and delete reshaping points gives you more control
over the shape of the new contour. When you delete reshaping points,
a larger segment of the line can be reshaped. When you add reshaping
points, a smaller segment of the line can be reshaped.
The results of the reshape operation can be viewed immediately, and
changes can be made until the line fits with the desired interpretation.
The reshaped contour can now become input for other Z-MAP Plus
operations, such as Contour to Grid.

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Select Line
Use the cursor to select a contour line to reshape.
Move Point
A prompt appears directing you to select a point to move. Contours are
reshaped if you select a marked point of inflection to move, then select
the new location for the point of inflection. Use the cursor to select the
point to move in the contour line.
Add
This option enables you to add reshaping points to the contour line.
Adding reshaping points permits a smaller segment of the contour to
be reshaped.
Contours are reshaped when you choose a marked point of inflection to
move and select the new location for the point of inflection. The Add
Point feature enables you to reshape contour lines using points other
than the points of inflection. To add a point, use your cursor to input the
location of the new inflection (reshaping) point.
Delete
Contours are reshaped when you choose a marked point of inflection to
move and select the new location for that point of inflection. The Delete
Point feature enables you to eliminate points of inflection which you do
not want to use in reshaping the contour. To delete a point, use your
cursor to select the inflection point which you wish to omit. The Delete
Point feature enables you to reshape a larger segment of the contour line.

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Break
Use the Break option to cut a line into separate parts. For example, if you
accidentally cross a fault with a contour, you can break the contour at
the fault and delete the part of the contour that crosses the fault
incorrectly.
There are two ways that you can break a line:

Individually
At a Line

Individually means that you will be using the cursor to input a break
point on a line. When you select to break an individual line, the program
will prompt you to select a break point on a line. The program will place
an X in the spot you have selected with your cursor.
At a Line means that you may break a line where it intersects another
line. For example, you may decide to break all of the contours at a
coastline, so that you can later delete the contours that are onshore. This
option is especially useful when contours and faults have been digitized.
The tiny contour segments inside fault polygons need to be cleaned up
before going to contour gridding.
Type to Break
If you select to Break At a Line, you must select the Type of Line To
Break, and the dataset you want broken (for example, contours of grid
A or grid B, or fault set 1 or fault set 2). From the list of line types that
appears, select a line type to break at line intersections.
Break Keeping and Break Deleting
When you select to Break At a Line, you will then need to indicate
whether you want to keep or delete the shorter line segment of the
broken line.
When you select Break Keeping, the program will keep both segments
of the broken line.
Break Deleting will break the line and automatically delete the shortest
segment. Break deleting should only be used when the piece to delete is
obvious, such as a contour slightly crossing a fault line.

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Extend
Use the Extend option to continue an existing line (such as a contour or
fault line). For example, if contouring did not extend all of the contour
lines to the map border, you can use this option to make the contour lines
end neatly at the border.
When Extend is selected, you need to select a line to extend, then input
points where you would like the line to go. When your line is complete,
there are several options to end the line:

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End End stops the line at the last specified point.

Break/Connect Break/Connect breaks a line and connects one


of the line segments that result to another line.

Attach To End Attach to End attaches the last point selected to


the end of another line.

Delete Extra End Delete Extra End has the same effects as
End, except the part of the original line that was not extended is
deleted.

Delete Extra Break/connect Delete Extra Break/Connect is


the same as Break/Connect, but the piece of the connect line which
was not connected is deleted. The original line that was not
extended is also deleted.

Delete Extra Attach To End Delete Extra Attach to End


deletes the old segment of line after you attach to another line. It is
the same as Attach to End.

Delete Last Delete Last deletes the last point you input.

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Break & Extend


Use the Break & Extend option to stop a line (such as a contour or fault)
at a given location, then extend the line in another direction. For
example, you may decide that a fault is correct until it reaches a certain
position, but it then goes off in an unexpected direction. You can break
the fault line at the point it goes in the wrong direction, then extend the
good portion of the fault in the correct direction. You are prompted to
select a point on the line to break it, then you can extend the line. When
the line is complete, use one of these options to end the line:

End

Break/Connect

Attach to End

Delete Extra End

Delete Extra Break/Connect

Delete Extra Attach to End

Delete Last
For a discussion of these options, see Extend on page 188.
Smooth
Smoothing will fit a curve through points that you have input when you
created a line.
When you select Smooth, a prompt appears directing you to do one of
two things:

select a line to smooth


change the defaults for which lines are subject to smoothing

Change Options
Use the Change Opts feature to change the smoothing defaults for each
data file you are editing. The default values for line types are:

Yes Always smooth the line.

No Do not smooth the new lines.

Query Asks if you desire smoothing.


Depending on the type of line selected, these defaults are initially set to:

Yes for contours

Query for faults

No for vertex files

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You need at least three points in order to smooth a line (two points
already is a smooth straight line). This is very useful when you are trying
to input fault data or contours because it will give them a smooth
appearance instead of a jagged straight line appearance.
The Smoothing Options dialog box lists the Line files subject to
smoothing. If you do not want to accept the defaults which are imposed
on each line type, you can indicate whether you want smoothing for each
of the line types.
Undo Last Edit
Undo Last Edit will give you back your original line before you
performed the last edit. This is useful if you discover that you make a
mistake in editing and really would like it back the way it was before
you tried to change it.
Delete
Delete is designed to eliminate a line (contour, or fault). To delete a line,
place the cursor on the line that you would like to delete and select it. If
you have deleted a line by mistake, you may select Undelete to get your
line back. Use OK when you are finished deleting lines.
Undelete
Undelete will retrieve a line that has been eliminated (deleted). If you
have deleted the wrong line for example, undelete will allow you to get
your line back. After undelete is selected, the lines that have been
deleted will be highlighted. You may select the line to put back with the
cursor. Use Dismiss when you are finished undeleting lines.
New Line
Us the New Line option to create a new line. If it is a contour, you will
also be asked to enter a value for the contour level. Sketch in the new
line using your cursor on the picture. If the smooth option is set to query,
you will need to decide whether to smooth the line. If the smooth option
is set to yes, the line will be smoothed automatically.

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Contour Value Edit


Contour Value Edit enables you to change the value of a contour line.
For example, if you have added a 8500 contour line but incorrectly typed
in that the contour line had a value of 6500, you may select Contour
Value Edit in order to change the contour level to the correct number.
Select the contour that you would like to change the level of with the
cursor.
Point Edit
Point Edit is used to edit vertex points on a line. First select the line with
the cursor. Points along the line will be displayed. You may select to
modify point values, move, delete, or add a point. You may also change
the way the points are displayed.
Select Files
You must have a file selected in order to edit line data, so this option
should be selected only if you would like to access some file in addition
to files you originally selected to edit.
Display Parameters
Display Parameters will allow you to select how you would like lines
displayed on your map in order to help you edit them. There are three
options:

By Line By Line will allow you to select how to display each


line.

All of a Type All of a Type will allow you to display all of the
lines that are the same type (e.g., all contour lines) with the same
end and with the same posting parameters.

Change Default Change Defaults enables you to change the


way new lines of a file type are displayed. It does not change the
way current lines are displayed.
These methods of display allow you to change the line color, the
line type (solid, dashed, etc.), the thickness of bold lines, length of
gaps and dashes if you have dashed lines, etc.

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Autoset Parameters
Use the Autoset Parameters option to specify default values for new
lines.
The editors Autoset Parameters capability enables you to get values
from the files which are selected for editing. For example, a grid can be
used to determine Z-values for new points which you will input. The
Autoset feature is useful for many sorts of editing tasks and can be used
for all data types. The Autoset capability is useful both when you are
creating a new dataset and when you are editing/adding to an existing
dataset. Autoset works with control points, vertex data, and fault files.
You can invoke Autoset from Point Edit, Line Edit, and Create Data.
Select Type
Like the Select File options, Select Type is a choice among already
selected files. It answers the question: For which file do you want to set
Autoset Parameters?
Set File Parameters
Set File Parameters enables you to Autoset Extra Fields and to Snap
Vertices to point locations if you wish to do so.

Autoset Extra Fields The Autoset File Parameters feature


provides the option to Autoset Extra Fields. This feature will
enable the editor to pick up a value (usually a Z-value) from a grid
or control point on which the picture was based. This feature is
especially useful for adding synthesized control points away from
your data, and for creating digitized profiles.
Autoset Extra Fields enables the editor to set field values for new
points automatically. When you input new points, the program sets
all fields to default values. You are not asked to specify the values
for the new points. Unless you specify how to set the values by
using Set Field Parameters, the program sets the field values to the
ZNON (null value) for the field.

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Snap Vertices to Point Locations This feature will conform


the vertices of your new data to the control point file you have
selected.

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Snap Vertices to Point Locations is another feature of Autoset


Parameters. When you select this option, the editor will pick up the
x,y location of the nearest point in the selected file and use it as the
location of the new point. Snap Vertices is useful for creating a
subset of an existing point set by graphically selecting the points
for the new set, without having to place the cursor exactly on the
point locations.
When snapping to point locations, you also have the option of
defaulting the field value from a field in the snap to point.

Match Vertices to Points from File This dialog box will


appear only if you answered Yes to Snap Vertices to Point
Locations When you select this option, the editor will pick up the
x,y location of the nearest point in the selected file and use it as the
location of the new point. Snap Vertices is useful for creating a
subset of an existing point set by graphically selecting the points
for the new set, without having to place the cursor exactly on the
point locations.
Select the file whose points you want your new data points to
snap to.

Set Field Parameters


If a grid file is among the data files selected for editing, and if you want
to default the value of this data field from the grid, you can select a grid.
This grid will be back interpolated at the new point locations and the
back interpolated value used as the field value.
When Snapping to Point Locations, you also have the option of
defaulting the field value from a field in the snap to point. See Match
Vertices to Points from File, above.
Edit Lines Contour Level
If the line you are creating is a Contour Line, then you need to specify
the Contour Level for the New Line.
Clear Autoset Parameters
You can erase the autoset file and field parameters by selecting this
option. The values associated with the new lines will not be drawn from
an autoset file.

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Grid Nodes
Select this option to edit grid node values. Grid nodes are calculated in
the gridding option. You may change grid node values, or set grid nodes
equal to ZNON (null data value). When you edit grid nodes directly,
there is no need to re-grid (since this procedure is directly changing the
grid). After you select to edit grid nodes, the grid nodes will be drawn
on your screen.
Change Values
Select this option to change the value of a grid node. For example, if the
grid node had a value of 7543, and you would like it to have a value of
7500, select Change Values. You may then select the grid node whose
value you want to change. Select the grid node you want to edit with
your cursor. You will then see a dialog box that has the current value,
and you may enter the new value. The status area shows the values of
the surrounding grid nodes. You can change values for as many grid
nodes as you like. Select OK to save the changes, or Cancel if you do
not want the changes saved.
Interpolate Values
Select this option to see x, y, and z values for any point on the map. The
program interpolates values based on the values of the surrounding grid
nodes. The Z-value appears on the map. The information for the selected
point appears in the Z-MAP Plus System window.
Select Fault File
Select a fault file from the list that appears. Faults are needed only when
back interpolating surfaces cut by faults. When faults are used, grid
nodes are calculated using only data located on the same side of the
faults as the node. A Fault File must already be on the MFD in order to
be available for this option.

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Area Edit
The Area Edit option will change all of the grid nodes in an area. This is
especially useful for setting large regions of a grid to ZNON (null data
value). When area edit is selected, you may designate an area to edit
with the cursor, or you may select an existing polygon from a previously
created polygon file. You may also use the current view of the picture
on the screen as the area to edit if you do not want to use a polygon file.
You will then get a dialog box where you may enter the value (fill value)
that you would like the grid nodes in the area to have, and you may
select to change the grid nodes either inside or outside of the area that
you selected to edit.
Select Polygon File
You may select a polygon from an existing file as your area to edit, or
create a polygon by using the cursor on the map. The polygon may then
be used for an area edit.
Select Polygon
If a polygon already exists on a the active picture, you can select it.
Selecting the polygon will confine the grid node edit to the area enclosed
by the polygon.
Create Polygon
The purpose of Create Polygon is to allow you to define the area in
which they wish to edit grid node values. Using your cursor, draw a
polygon on your map. Values for points inside or outside the polygon
can be changed.
End And Close will complete the continuous perimeter of the polygon.
The first point of the polygon will become the last point, so that the
polygon is closed.
Delete Last will delete the last line segment you have drawn on the
picture.
Current View
You may use the portion of your map that is on the graphics screen as
the area to edit. If your entire map is still displayed, you may window
(or zoom in) on a smaller portion of the map and use that area as the
current area to edit.

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Set Parameters
This dialog box enables you to enter a replacement value for Z-values
inside the polygon.

Fill Value The Fill Value is the Z-value you want to enter for
the grid area inside or outside the polygon. For example, if you
would like all of the grid nodes inside the polygon to be replaced
by a ZNON, enter the value you are using as the null data value.

Fill Inside/Outside Polygon The replacement Z-value can be


applied to the area Inside or Outside the polygon.

Select File
Use this to select a grid to edit, if the file that you selected from the main
Edit/Create menu is not the file that you really need.
Post Values
Post Values labels the grid nodes with their values. This is useful if you
have not previously labeled the grid node values on your map and need
to see the values in order to determine which ones to edit. You may
change how the grid node symbols and the Z-values appear and control
how much of the grid is posted, the symbol size, color, and symbol
number. If you would like to post values at only a few grid nodes, you
may select Selective Post and only display values for those grid nodes
that you select with the cursor.
Symbol Parameters
This dialog box enables you to set values controlling posted symbols.

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Post Symbol at Node Locations The options are to Post or


Omit symbols at grid node locations.

Symbol Size This is the size of the symbol to be posted in


plotter units (in./cm.).

Symbol Color Using a number from 0 255, indicate the color


index for the posted symbol. If you click the color box, a palette of
256 colors appears. Click to select the color you want.

Marker Number Marker Number refers to the number of the


symbol in the Extended Symbol Set. Examples of the symbols and
their numbers can be found in Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and
Line Patterns on page 791.

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Row, Rate, and Column Parameters Starting and Ending


Row, Row Rate, and Starting and Ending Rate, all refer to the
configuration of symbols in the rows and columns of the grid.
These parameters are useful if you would like to display only a
subset of grid nodes on your map. For example, you may want to
start with the 5th row and column of grid nodes and end with the
20th row and column. You could choose to post every 3rd row
(Row Rate) to have an idea of the grid node values in a problem
area.

Value Parameters
This dialog box enables you to control the posting of grid symbols at
symbol locations.

Post Value at Symbol Locations This option enables you to


post the Z-value of the grid node at symbol locations on the picture
you are editing. To post the grid node value, choose Post. If you do
not wish to post the grid node value with the symbol, choose Omit.

Value Size The Value Size is the size of the number


representing the grid node Z value, expressed in display units
(inches or centimeters).

Value Color Value Color is the color of the numbers


representing the grid node Z value. Using a number from 0255,
indicate the color for the posted grid node value. If you click the
color box, a palette of 256 colors appears. Click to select the color
you want.

Number of Decimals This value refers to the number of digits


to the right of the decimal. Indicate how many decimal places you
want to post for your grid values.

Row, Rate, and Column Parameters First and Last Row, Row
Rate, First and Last Column, and Column Rate all refer to the
placement of grid node values in the rows and columns of the grid.
Starting and Ending Row, Row Rate, and Starting and Ending
Rate, all refer to the configuration of symbols in the rows and
columns of the grid. These parameters are useful if you would like
to display only a subset of grid nodes on your map. For example,
you may want to start with the 5th row and column of grid nodes
and end with the 20th row and column. You could choose to post
every 3rd row (Row Rate) to have an idea of the grid node values
in a problem area.

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Selective Post
Instead of using parameter values to select which grid nodes are to be
posted, you can select grid nodes to be posted with your cursor.

Create Data
Create Data uses an existing picture as a graphic aid to create data files.
The data you create using the editor will be stored in an MFD or
OpenWorks unless you use the Update Files option or Cancel Edit
option on the Edit/Create Data main menu.
Select Create Data if you would like to create a data file instead of
editing an existing file. You can create the following types of files:

Contours (CNTR)

Faults (FALT)

Polylines (VERT)

Profiles (DATA)

Control Points (DATA)


You must select the type of data that you would like to create (contour,
fault, etc.), give it a file name, and select an MFD or OpenWorks to save
it on. You may also create extra fields of data (except for X, Y, and
Segment ID and describe what those fields are. X, Y, and Segment ID
may not be used as extra fields of data (these are already required fields
of data for lines).
Contour
Select Contour in order to create a contour file. You will need to select
contours as the type of data to create, give the contour data a file name,
select a destination MFD or OpenWorks to saving the file, and describe
any additional fields that you have. You may use the cursor on your map
in order to input the contour data. You will be asked to enter a contour
level number for each new contour that you input. Contours are
automatically smoothed unless smoothing options have been changed.

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Fault
Fault enables you to create a fault file. You will need to select faults as
the type of data to create, give the fault data a file name, select an MFD
or OpenWorks to write the file to, and describe any additional fields that
you have. You may use the cursor on your map in order to input the fault
data. You may also smooth out the created faults by answering Yes to
the menu that asks if you would like to smooth the line. If you would
like to leave the line just as you have drawn it, answer No to the
smoothing question. When creating a New Fault File, you can also
choose to Autoset Extra Fields and to Snap Vertices to Point Locations;
see Set File Parameters on page 192 for information about these two
options.
Polyline
Polyline enables you to create a line of data. You may enter lines for
coastlines, state or national boundaries, lease lines, etc. You will need to
select polylines as the type of data to create, give the line data a file
name, select an MFD or OpenWorks to write the file to, and describe
any additional fields that you have. You may use the cursor on your map
in order to input the line data. Polylines will not be smoothed until
smoothing options have been changed. When creating a New Line File,
you can also choose to Autoset Extra Fields and to Snap Vertices to
Point Locations; see Set File Parameters on page 192 for information
about these two options
Profile\
Profile enables you to create profile lines. Profiles are vertex lines that
also have a depth (Z) value, so they usually have X, Y, SEG ID, and Z
as their fields. Profiles are useful to input additional information in areas
where there is not enough data to create a reasonable surface model. For
example, if you have an isolated fault block with two wells, inputting
profile data will allow you to have enough data to create a reasonable
contour map in the area.
Once profile data has been created you may use it in gridding. A dialog
box will appear that will allow you to input the Z-value for each vertex
point that you enter. You will need to select profiles as the type of data
to create, give the profile data a file name, select an MFD to write the
file to, and describe any additional fields that you have. You may use the
cursor on your map in order to input the profile data. When creating a
New Profile File, you can also choose to Autoset Extra Fields and to
Snap Vertices to Point Locations; see Set File Parameters on
page 192 for information about these two options.

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Control Point
Use Control Point to create well or seismic data in the current map with
the cursor. You may also input several Z-fields if you would like to. You
will need to select control points as the type of data to create, give the
control point data a file name, select an MFD to write the file to, and
describe any additional fields that you have. You may use the cursor on
your map in order to input the control point data. When creating a New
Control Point File, you can also choose to Autoset Extra Fields and to
Snap Vertices to Point Locations; see Set File Parameters on
page 192 for information about these two options.
Field Descriptors
This dialog box enables you to describe fields on the file you are
creating. The values entered on this dialog box describe fields in
addition to the ones required by each of the specific data types being
created. Field description is not allowed for contour data. For new fault,
line, and profile files, you may describe up to eight fields in addition to
X, Y, and Segment ID. For control point files, you may describe up to
eight fields in addition to X and Y.
This dialog box can appear up to eight times, one time for each of the
additional fields you have specified for the new data you are creating.
Each of the parameter values should be set to match the specific field (1
8) which is being described.

Field Name This dialog box enables you to name one or more
of the fields you specified for the data you are creating. The
number of fields you can name depends on the number of fields
you specified in the Filename, Master File Name, and Number of
Fields dialog box. You can specify a as many as eight fields in
addition to the required fields for the kind of data you are creating.
Supply a Field Name for each of the additional fields which will
appear on the file you are creating. The dialog box will appear as
many times as there are fields to be described.

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Field Type There are eight choices for Field Type: Z-value,
Text Size, Character Size, Symbol Code, Delta Z-Throw, Dip
Angle, Color, and Other Field Types. For each time the dialog box
appears assign the appropriate field type for each of the additional
fields in the data you are creating.

Number of Characters (Text Field Only) This number refers


to the number of characters in the character string. It applies only
to the Text Field.

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Associated Grid (Z Field Only) The editor associates grids


with data by two different means: 1) It uses grids you have
specifically selected to edit, and 2) It uses the data on which your
picture was based. If you have selected to edit a grid, or if the
picture you are using to create your new data was based on a grid,
you must make a choice. You can associate a given Z field with a
grid on the list, or you can choose No Grid. If there are no grids
associated with your data at present, the program will lock on to
the No Grid option.

Default Value From Field This option refers to the fields on


the Match Vertices to Points from File list. For each of the
additional fields you have selected to create, you can choose the
field on the Match Vertices to Points File from which you want
your new field to get its value. For fields 18, choose the field on
the Match Vertices file from which you want the default value for
each field to be set.
This option will appear only if you have opted to Snap Vertices to
Point Locations. You had this option presented in the Filename,
master file Name, and Number of Fields dialog box. If you
answered Yes to the Snap Option, another dialog box appeared,
requiring you to select a data file. The Match Vertices to Points
from File dialog box presented a list of data files. When you
selected a file from this list, you indicated to the program that you
want your new data points to snap to the vertices of the nearest
matching control point on that data file.

Regrid
You can regrid:

a polygonal area of a grid

the area of the active picture (view limits) currently displayed

the area of the picture (picture limits)


After you have edited data, such as control point or contour data, you
may regrid the edited area by selecting Regrid. Regrid will calculate
new grid node values using the data that you select (usually you want to
use the edited data you just created) and it will smoothly patch the new
grid node values into the original grid. Only the grid nodes in the
selected area can change. Since regrid has to make calculations over the
area that you specify, it is advisable to regrid in the edited area only - for
this reason, regrid is much quicker if you keep the edited area as small
as possible.

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When using contour data, Regrid will use the CTOG (contour to grid)
algorithm to regrid. When possible, Regrid will use the same algorithm
and parameters that were used in building the original grid.
Set Limits
Set Limits enables you to select where you would like regridding to
occur. You may select a polygon file, then a polygon to limit the
regridding, or you may create a new polygon to control where
regridding will take place, You may also use the current view on the
screen as the area to regrid.

Select Polygon File You may select a polygon from an existing


file as your area to regrid, or create a new polygon using the cursor
on your map. The polygon may then be used for as the area to
regrid.

Select Polygon Enables you to select a specific polygon from


the active files. Values for points inside or outside the polygon can
be regridded. The polygon(s) on the Polygon File you have
selected will appear on your picture. Select the polygon you wish
to use in regridding.

Create Polygon Using your cursor, draw a polygon on your


map. Values for points inside or outside the polygon can be
regridded.

View Limits When you select View Limits, you are indicating
that you want to regrid in the area currently displayed on the
picture on your Graphics Display.

Picture Limit When you select Picture Limit, you are


indicating that you want to regrid in the entire area of the picture.

Set Flags After the area to regrid has been established, you can
determine how regridding will treat null values in the original grid,
and what regridding will do with regridded nulls. You also specify
whether the program regrids inside or outside the polygon you
have defined.
Replace Nulls in Grid with Regrid Values Replace Nulls
in Grid with Regrid Values will allow regridding to calculate a
good grid node value for grid nodes in the edited area that were
previously calculated as ZNONs (null data values).
Replace Values in Grid with Regrid Nulls Replace Values
in Grid with Regrid Nulls will allow regridding to replace grid
nodes in the edit area that previously had a data value with the
ZNON value.

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Regrid Inside or Outside of Polygon When you execute


regridding, the grid values will be recalculated only in the area
you define for regridding. Indicate whether you want
regridding to occur inside or outside the polygon or area you
have defined.
Files/Fields
Select Files/Fields in order to select the files that you would like to have
an effect on regridding, or in order to select fields of data to be used in
regridding, if several Z fields exist. After you select the files/fields to
regrid, you will be asked for the output file name and the destination
MFD or OpenWorks.

Select Regrid Contour File If you would like your regrid files
and fields to be based on a contour file, select the contour file to be
used.

Select Regrid Fault File If you would like your regrid files and
fields to be based on a fault file, select the fault file you want.

Select Regrid Profile File If you would like your regrid files
and fields to be based on a profile file, select the profile file you
want.

Select Regrid Profile Z-field A list of fields on your profile file


appears. Select the Z-field you would like to use in regridding.

Select Regrid Point File If you would like a Point File to be


used in Regridding, select the point file you wish to use.

Select Regrid Point Z-field Select the Z-field from your Point
File which you wish to use in Regridding.

Select Grid To Regrid Select the Grid whose values are to be


recalculated.

Auto Regrid
Auto Regrid will regrid your edited area using default parameters that
have been calculated based on your data.

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Manual Regrid
Manual Regrid enables you to enter your own parameters to control how
grid node values are calculated. You will be asked to select a gridding
method (line gridding, point gridding, etc.), and Gridding Parameters
(see help on gridding if you need further help on gridding parameters).
Not all gridding methods are valid with all data types. For example, the
only gridding method that works with contours is CTOG. You will only
be allowed to select a gridding method that is valid for the (current) data
selected for regridding.

Select Method This dialog box enables you to select a gridding


method with which to perform the regrid. Select the method of
gridding you want to use in the regrid area.

Parameters A list of parameters associated with the gridding


method appears. You can choose a gridding algorithm available in
that method. For a definition of each of the parameters on the
Regrid Parameters dialog box, see the definitions supplied under
Gridding Methods:
Point Gridding
Trend Fit Gridding
Contour Gridding
Line Gridding
Point Gridding Plus
Filter Only

Contour Edit Area


Contour Edit Area will re-contour the area that you have regridded in
order to see the effects of regridding on your map. The new (and old)
contours will be displayed on the screen, but not saved on your picture
unless you select to have the new contours added to your picture. If you
add the contours in the edit area to the picture, and it will leave the old
contours on the picture also.
Contour Grid Area
Contour Grid Area will contour the entire grid area and allow you to see
the effects of re-gridding on your map. You may add these to your
picture to save them, and you also have the option to replace the old
contours that were on the map with the new contours of the grid area.

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Select Data
To edit data you must have a picture to work with. Attach the ZGF that
contains the picture you want to edit. (You can attach the ZGF by using
the File New Graphics File(ZGF) option.) To edit the data used
to create the picture, you also must verify that the MFD that contains the
data is attached.
If the MFD that contains the data files which were used to create the
picture is attached, then the editor automatically selects the data files.
The Select Data option is on the main menu in case you would like to
select data files other than those on which your active picture was
created. If you only want to edit the control point data or the contour
data, Select Data can enable you to restrict your edits to these files.
If you Select Data from the Edit/Create main menu, these files will be
available for any of the types of data editing. If you enter a specific
editing application and want to add to your scope, you can Select Data
in that application.
Select Files For Editing
When you choose Select Data on the main menu, a dialog box appears.
The Select Files for Editing dialog box contains a list of Data Types that
can be edited:

Polyline
Contour
Fault
Grid
Point
Profile
Vertex

Select the data types you want. Files corresponding to these data types
on the currently attached MFDs or OpenWorks are now available for
selection. Items already selected appear in reverse color. Click to clear
the selection for data types you do not want to edit.
Faults are needed only when building surfaces cut by faults. A Fault File
must have been previously constructed in order to be available for this
option.

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The editor works with the Segment ID field on the profile data. Profiles
are like cross sections that have X, Y, and Z-values at each digitized
point along the cross section. Straight line connections are made
between these X-Y-Z points along each profile. The straight line
connections that intersect Contour Gridding search lines create
Intersection Points for use during the gridding process. These profiles
are commonly used to more adequately control gridding between or
away from contours, near faults, and in areas of rapid gradient changes.

Update Files
When you exit the editor, edited files are automatically written to the
MFD or OpenWorks and the picture is updated. The default file name is
the same as the input file name with a version identifier added. The
default MFD is the one that contained the original data. Select Update
Files to change the default names and MFDs or to force an intermediate
version of the data to be written.
Normally, using the editor does not require selecting the update files
option.
Select Files
A list of files known to the editor for the current editing session is
presented. The files known to the editor were selected either because the
current picture is based on them, or because you specifically selected the
files for editing. You can choose to update one or more files, or all files.
A list of files is presented. Point to and click the file you want.
Output Filenames/Master File
If you select Output Filenames/Master Files, a dialog box appears.
You must name an output file and a destination (an MFD or
OpenWorks) for each output file created in the editing session. You
specify the output file name by entering an alphanumeric string from the
keyboard. These names may be up to 24 characters long and may
contain internal blanks. Select the Output Master File from a list. Click
the box to the right of the parameter to view the list of the attached
MFDs, a scratch file, and OpenWorks. Select the destination (the MFD
or OpenWorks) to use for storing the output file.

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Update Picture Flags


Normally the picture file is updated whenever a file displayed on the
picture is updated. Using this option, you may specify that edits not be
reflected on your picture. Update Picture Flags also enables you to have
created line data added to your picture.

Cancel Edit
Select Cancel Edit in order to quit from an editing session and not save
any files. Cancel Edit will cancel the changes made to one or more
datasets. A list of the currently edited files is displayed. Select the files
for which you want to cancel the changes you have made during this
editing session. If you click OK, editing on selected files will be
cancelled. The files selected under the cancel function will return to
their condition prior to the start of the editing session. You may then
continue editing with the original data or exit the editor without the
selected files being updated.

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Color Overview
The colors assigned to each feature or part of a feature, such as lines,
text, polygons, etc., are stored in the pictures color table. Use the Color
Table option to perform color editing by displaying and modifying the
color table.
If you select the Color Table option in Z-MAP Plus, the Color Table
display and the Edit Color Table dialog box appear. Select colors (one
by one) to edit from the Color Table display, and perform the edit in the
Edit Color Table dialog box. The results appear in the Color Table
display.
This topic begins with an overview of how Z-MAP Plus determines
color for a specific feature. This is followed by a description of the Edit
Color Table dialog box. Next, you will find a general explanation of the
Edit Color Table dialog box. If you are familiar with the basics
regarding color graphics and the color table, turn to the discussion of the
Color Editing options that begins with Set Color Mode RGB or HLS on
page 213.
The fundamental units of graphics are called primitives. Z-MAP Plus
supports four types of graphic primitives:

line strings

symbols

text

polygons
Each primitive has an attribute called color.
Rather than identifying the color of a primitive directly, color is
identified indirectly as an index into a table of available colors. The
Z-MAP Plus color table is indexed from 0 to 255, and supports 256
colors. Each entry to the table is described using the Red, Green, Blue
(RGB) color model.
Although colors can be defined in either the RGB or Hue, Lightness and
Saturation (HLS) model, HLS parameters are converted to and stored as
RGB parameters in the color table. The RGB model describes color as
three numbers in the range of zero to one. These three numbers indicate
the relative amounts of red, green and blue that are added together to
obtain the color. HLS describes color by the angle of hue (from 0 - 360
degrees) and the percentage of lightness and saturation (from 0 - 100%).

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Color Table
To display the color table, click the Color Table icon or select Edit
Color Table in the Z-MAP Plus window.
The color table can have a maximum of 256 colors. The first eight
standard Z-MAP Plus colors follow:
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

background (black/white)
normal foreground (white/black)
red
green
blue
cyan
magenta
yellow

Each color cell in the table has an assigned index number. The colors in
the table are assigned to indexes zero through seven. These color
associations may only be valid the first time you enter the program. The
color table for all future sessions is based on the changes made in the
previous session.

The RGB Color System


The color table stores colors in the RGB Color Coordinate System. A
color index number which is listed down one side of the Color Table
display refers to the RGB scale found in the Edit Color Edit dialog box.
The amount of each color used may range from zero to one; however,
their combined total does not have to equal one.

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HLS Color System


You may wish to change the color descriptor mode to Hue, Lightness,
and Saturation (HLS).
Hue is determined by the wave length of light reflected from a surface.
Lightness is the amount of color reflected from a surface and Saturation
is the intensity of the color.
Hue is measured in degrees. The degree measurements for some hues
are:
Blue
=
0
Magenta = 60
Red
= 120
Yellow = 180
Green
= 240
Cyan
= 360
Both Lightness and Saturation are defined on a scale from 0 to 100
percent. A Lightness of 0 produces a dark shade, while a Lightness of
100 produces a very light shade. Likewise, a completely desaturated
color is gray, while a completely saturated color is at its most intense.
RGB

HLS

COLOR

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Red

Green

Blue

Hue

% Lightness

% Saturation

Blue

50

100

Magenta

60

50

100

Red

120

50

100

Yellow

180

50

100

Green

240

50

100

Cyan

300

50

100

Black

N/A

N/A

Grey

same amount of each*

N/A

199*

White

N/A

100

N/A

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Description of the Color Table Display


When you display the Color Table, only the colors used in the current
map appear. However, you can select any blank cell and the
corresponding color appears.
A sample Color Table display is shown in the following example.

The Color Table display has 16 rows and 16 columns. To calculate the
index number for a cell you want to change, add the number on the left
side of the row to the number at the top of the column:
Example:
The cell in the eighth row and seventh column is
Color Index 119: 112 + 7 = 119

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Description of the Edit Color Table Dialog Box

The Edit Color Table dialog box contains these elements:

Status line

Prompt line

RGB and HLS color mode toggle

Action menu

Color editing area

Option to update picture dynamically or on demand

Standard window buttons

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Status/Prompt
The status line and prompt line guides you through the action options.
The instructions are action-specific. For example, if you select Display
you see:
Status: Display from
Prompt: Identify first color
Next, select a cell in the Color Table display. You see:
Status:
Display from
Prompt: Identify second color
The underscored area in the status line contains the number of the first
color cell to be displayed.
Set Color Mode RGB or HLS
You can select either RGB or HLS color mode in the Edit Color Table
dialog box. RGB is the default mode.

RGB creates colors by combining the three primary colors of light:


red, green and blue.

HLS mixes colors based on hue, lightness, and saturation. Hue is


determined by the wave length of light reflected from a surface.
Lightness is the amount of color reflected from a surface, and
saturation is the intensity of the color.

Edit
If you select the Edit option, the RGB or HLS color descriptors for the
specified color index appear. In addition to viewing the current
descriptors, you can redefine these values, changing the display color.
By moving the sliders, you can adjust the selected color index.
The RGB scroll bars for altering the amounts of red, green and blue in a
specified color index are shown in the following example detail:

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Display
To view all of the colors in the color table, select the Display option.
Then select the first and last cells in the color table, and all of the colors
stored in the color table appear. If your terminal supports fewer than 256
colors, the program approximates any unsupported colors you request to
be displayed. For example, pink might appear as red.
If the program supports fewer than 256 colors (say it supports only 128
colors), the program first blanks out the colors originally displayed on
the map, then one by one it blanks out the first 128 colors in order to
display colors in cells 129 through 255.
To display a series of colors, select the first and last cells in the sequence
you wish to display. For example, to display the colors in cells 1 through
200, select cell 1 and cell 200.
Copy
Use the Copy option in the Edit Color Table dialog box to copy the color
associated with one index in the color table to another color index
position. For example, lets say you copy the color for Index 1 to Index
12. Index 1 and Index 12 have the same color as a result.
Interpolate
You can linearly interpolate the color descriptor values in a specified
range on the color table. Since linear interpolation produces gradual
shading along the specified color range, this option is most often applied
to Colorfill or to data posting to help visualize the difference between
Z-values.
You can interpolate color descriptor values in either RGB or the HLS
mode. To interpolate directly, use RGB. To interpolate in hue around the
spectrum, use HLS.

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HLS Interpolation

WHITE

Saturation

100

100

Red 120

Lightness

75

60

Hue

180

Green 240

0 Blue

50

300

25

BLACK

HLS Color Model

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RGB Interpolation
CYAN
(0, 100, 100)

BLUE
(0, 0, 100)
WHITE
(100, 100, 100)

MAGENTA
(100, 0, 100)
E

AL

AY

GR

SC

GREEN
(0, 100, 0)

BLACK
(0, 0, 0)
YELLOW
(100, 100, 0)

RED
(100, 0, 0)

RGB Color Model


Read
Use the Read option in the Edit Color Table dialog box to read in (load)
any color table that has been saved to file. Select Read and Select a color
table from the list of color tables (files with extension .TBL or .tbl)
appears. The color tables are selected from the directories specified in
the Color tab of the Directory Paths dialog box (as described on Color
Tables on page 115). If the file you want is not in this list, check the
directory path.
Write
Use the Write option to write the revised color table to a file. Use the
extension .TBL or .tbl. If you do not specify an extension, the program
adds .TBL to the name you specify.

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Update picture dynamically


Use the Update picture dynamically check box to specify whether you
want the current map to update continuously as you edit color values or
on demand.

Selected The map updates as you move the sliders.


Performance may be slow for a large map.
Cleared (Default) You see the effect of color changes only if
you save them by clicking the Apply or OK button.

Saving the Changes to the Color Table


To save the changes to the color table, click Apply or OK in the Edit
Color Table dialog box. If you click Apply, the current map display is
updated, and the dialog box remains open for further changes. If you
click OK, the current map display is updated, and the dialog box closes.
If you do not want to save changes, click Cancel or Reset. The Reset
button restores the original settings without closing the Edit Color Table
dialog box. The Cancel button closes the dialog box without saving
changes. In either case, the color table is unchanged.
The changes you make are stored with the current pictures color table.
This version is used to generate future pictures until you edit the color
table again.
You May Never See the Default Color Table Again

The color table uses the default values the first time you start Z-MAP Plus. If
you change the color table, the changes are saved when you exit from the
program. The next time you start Z-MAP Plus, the most recent color table is
used. Remember you can save color tables to separate files and reload them.

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Color Indices
To execute the Color Indices operation, select the Color Indices menu
option or click the Color Indices icon in the Z-MAP Plus window.
When you invoke Color Indices, a list appears that shows the map
graphic features you can display. Features may include borders, labels,
contours, title blocks, and the north arrow. When you select a feature to
modify its color index, the SELECT Default COLOR INDICES dialog
box appears. Enter a color index number for one of the following
components or click the swatch to select a new color from the color
table:

Line Color Index

Text Color Index

Symbol Color Index

Polygon Color Index

Swatch

When you modify the color index, you:

Specify a color index number of any of the color indices pertinent


to that type of feature.

Store parameter choices by clicking OK.


The list of features reappears so you can choose another graphical
feature and change the Color Index of its components. When you finish
modifying features, close the dialog box by clicking Cancel.
Color index editing does not affect features already on a map; it only
affects the features you add after you edit the color index

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Features

Overview
Use the Features menu options control what is displayed in the display
area of the Z-MAP Plus window. This option is active only if a picture
is selected (currently active).
The Features menu includes options for these tasks:

Adding graphic features to the display, such as borders, grid nodes,


labels, lines, north arrows, scale bars, and title blocks.

Displaying contours, point data, deviated wells, seismic data, text,


maps and cross sections.

Overlaying multiple pictures (maps and cross sections) as one


picture.

Manipulating the Z-MAP Plus window display area.


Basemap
Use the Features: Basemap option to add borders, labels, scale bars,
title block, North arrows, and an index map to the current map by using
a the Basemap Features dialog box (page 223).
Cross Section
The Features: Cross Section menu has two options for cross section
features:

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Cross Section Features Draws horizons (grid profiles) and Top


picks from wells on the current picture. Control is provided for:
which grids or fields to display, whether to use faults, line type and
width, and other parameters. In addition, the grids as displayed in
the cross section can be output as profile data to the MFD
(page 226).

Map Features Adds map features such as a border, labels,


scale bars, a title block, or an index map to the cross section
(page 232).

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Overlay Pictures
Use the Features: Over Pictures option to overlay one or more features
from one picture onto another picture (page 233).
Contouring
The Features: Contouring menu contains six contouring method
options:

Contour Acts as the updated interface to the powerful


NEW-CONTOUR macro. Use this option to build a contour map
and select contour map options (page 239).

Contour Old Generates annotated contours from grid or


digitized contour data. These annotated contours are included as
part of the information on a contour map. Contour lines are drawn
across an area of equal elevation or equal time values (page 240).

Fast Contour Uses the FASTCONTOURMAP macro to build


a grid, then generate a contour map from the selected Z-field in the
data file (page 246).

3D Fishnet Plot Generates an isometric plot or perspective


map (page 246).

Shaded Relief Produces a brightness grid for contouring with


colorfill (page 247).

Color Scale Draws a color scale that relates a series of color


indices to a variation in a quantity. You typically use this option to
add a color scale bar to a color-filled contour map, but you can also
use it to show almost any quantity variation (page 251).

Lines
Use the Features: Lines option to post lines from data files, or for
drawing lines on a picture freehand (page 252).
Text
The Features: Text menu contains two options:

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File Text Add text to the picture by using a file as the text
source (page 272).
Key Text Add text to the picture by entering it from the
keyboard (page 273).

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Grid Nodes
Use the Features: Grid Nodes option to place symbols and optional
grid values at each node location. While grid node values are not
normally marked on finished maps, grid editing is sometimes facilitated
by having a work map which shows all grid values (page 275).
Polygons
Use the Features: Polygons options to add polygons to a map. This
menu contains three options:

Color-filled Polygons Enables you to fill a polygon with a solid


color (page 277).

Lease Polygon Drawing Posts leases. This option enables you


to define each lease by colored lines, hachuring or color-fill
(page 278).

Shaded Polygons Fills a set of polygons with hachured lines


(page 279).

(X,Y,Z) Point Data


Use the Features: (X,Y,Z) Point Data option to place symbols at
control point locations. In addition, you may post Z-field values and/or
other information around the posted symbols. For example, you can post
the well name above the well symbol and the depth to a particular
horizon below the well symbol (page 280).
Deviated Wells
Use the Features: Deviated Wells option to post and label the top,
bottom, and well trace of deviated wells. The process provides
significant control over size and color of posted features (page 291).
2DSeismic
Use the Features: 2D Seismic option to post seismic line data on the
map (page 321). This option was once called Seismic (Old).
3D Seismic
Use the Features: 3D Seismic option to post both 3D surveys and 2D
seismic data to the map (page 338). This option was once called
Seismic (New).

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Surveys (Canadian)
Z-MAP Plus supports many types of Canadian surveys (on Solaris and
IRIX platforms):

Create DLS/NTS PictureCreates a picture using the Dominion


Land Survey (DLS) and /or the National Topographic Survey
(NTS) system (page 364).

Post DLS & NTS SurveysPosts DLS and NTS lines and labels
on an existing picture. You must supply both areas present to use
this option (page 365).

Create & Post DLS PictureCreates a picture on which you can


plot DLS information (page 366).

Create & Post NTS PictureCreates a picture on which you can


plot NTS information (page 366).

NAD 27NAD 83 Datum Shifttranslates NAD 27 latitudes and


longitudes to NAD 83 state plane projections and vice versa
(page 367).

Post Township/Section Range (DLS)Draws the Township,


Section, Quarter Section along with the Township and Section
labels. (page 367)

Post National Topo. Survey (NTS)Posts National Topographic


Survey (NTS), Map, Series, Block, Unit and/or Quarter lines and
labels on an existing picture (page 368).

Projection Box
Use the Features: Projection Box option to execute the
POST-PIC-STATS macro and post AOI and Projection on a map
(page 369). (For more information about this macro, see the Macro
Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL.)
Picture Assembly
Use the Features: Picture Assembly option to assemble many any
pictures on one picture. Control is provided for features selected,
position, and size for each picture to be assembled (page 370).

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Basemap (Basemap Features Dialog Box)


Use the Basemap Features dialog box to add graphic features to the
current map, such as a border, labels, scale bars, a title block, a North
arrow, or an index map.
To display the Basemap Features dialog box, select Features
Basemap or click the Basemap Features icon. These options are
available only if a picture or map is currently displayed in the
Z-MAP Plus window.

Post Radio Button and Asterisks

To activate the options in any of the Basemap Features dialog box tabs, select
the Post radio button.
Once you select the Post radio button, an asterisk appears beside the tab name
to indicate that it is active. Next time you click OK or Apply All, the features
on all the active tabs are added to the map.

To use the Basemap Features dialog box, follow these steps:


1.

Select the tab for the type of feature you want to add. The tab
appears in front.

2.

Select the Post radio button at the top of the tab. The tabs option
become active.

3.

Specify parameter values for the features you are adding.

4.

Click the Apply button at the bottom of the dialog box to add the
feature described in the current tab. You can also specify features
on multiple tabs, then click the OK or Apply All button to add all
the tabs features simultaneously.

For details about the parameters, click the Help button in the Basemap
Features dialog box. The context-sensitive help system window appears.

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A summary of the tabs follows:


Border Draw a line around the entire area occupied by the basemap.
You can set the border line weight, color, and appearance (such as a
solid or dashed line).
Labels [N/E] Add non-projected X (northing) and Y (easting) labels
around the edge of the map or cross section. You can also add ticks at
coordinate cross points.
Labels [L/L] Add projected latitude and longitude labels (and ticks
at cross points, optionally). This tab appears only if you have a projected
map displayed.
Scale Bar Add one or more scale bars, stacked in a block. The scale
bars correlate the map units to real distances. You can specify the units
used for each scale bar, as well as the height, width, and position of the
scale bar block.
Title Block Add a title block that can contain the company name and
location, five lines of additional text, the author, scale, and map file
number. You can specify the text, as well as the title block size and
position. (For information about customizing a title block, see
Appendix H. Customized Title Blocks, starting on page 897.)
North Arrow Add an arrow pointing in the north compass direction.
You can specify the arrows location, length, and rotation.
Index Map Add a miniature version of a previously created picture.
Index maps are often used to show a larger scale representation of the
area surrounding the detail map shown in the display.

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Basemap Features Buttons


The Basemap Features dialog box has two sets of buttonsbuttons that
appear on each tab and buttons along the bottom that affect all tabs.
Some of the buttons behave differently than standard Z-MAP Plus
buttons, as described in the following tables.
Buttons on Individual Tabs
Apply

Adds the feature described on the currently displayed tab.

Unlock

Unlocks all parameters on the current tab.

Clear

Border, Scale Bar, Title Block, N. Arrow, and Index Map


tabs: Resets all parameter values on the current tab to the default
setting (if any).

Set to AOI

Label [N/E] and Label L/L] tabs: Resets all parameter values on
the current tab to either the values derived from the map AOI or to
any default setting that is pre-defined. (For example, the Top /
Bottom Label Min and Side Label Min values are reset to
AOI-specific values. The Label Mode and Label Placement values
are reset to default values.)

Reset

Resets all parameter settings on the current tab to their saved values
(the values that were set the last time you clicked the OK, Apply,
Apply All, or Save All button).

Buttons at the Bottom of the Dialog Box

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OK

Adds the active features (features on tabs with the Post check box
selected) and closes the Basemap Features dialog box.

Apply All

Adds the active features and leaves the Basemap Features dialog
box open.

Save All

Saves all the current settings without adding any features. The
saved settings appear the next time you click the Reset or Reset All
button.

Unlock All

Unlocks the parameter values on all tabs.

Clear All

Resets parameter values on all tabs to their default settings (if any).
The settings related to the AOI are derived from the current picture.
Other settings may be derived from the most recently saved display
parameter values.

Reset All

Resets parameter values on all tabs to their saved values (the values
that were set the last time you clicked the OK, Apply, Apply All, or
Save All button).

Cancel

Closes the Basemap Features dialog box without adding any


features to the map.

Help

Starts the browser-based help system for Basemap Features.

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Cross Section
The Features Cross Section option is divided into two suboptions:

Cross Section Features

Map Features

Cross Section Features


Cross Section Features enables you to draw horizons and top picks from
wells on the currently active cross section. Use this panel to choose
parameter settings for:

horizons

wells
Cross-section Horizons generates a cross-section curve from a specified
grid and identifies that curve by a name.
Cross-section Wells projects wells onto a cross section and displays
them as sticks on the section. The well name and other data can be
displayed at the top of each stick.
Horizons
You can select a maximum of ten horizons to display in the cross
section. If you select the Cross Section Features option after you create
a cross-section plot, the program remembers the cross-section horizons
and baseline used to generate the picture. If another picture is generated
before the cross-section features are placed on the map, however, you
must specify the baseline and the horizons.
Baseline
The baseline marks the location where the cross section is constructed.
Select the baseline file from a vertex file that is in the Area of Interest
(AOI) of the grid profiles and is on an MFD. The grid profiles appear
along the baseline if you create a cross section. The baseline defaults to
the one selected for AOI setup. You can create a baseline by selecting a
map, then selecting the Edit Edit/Create Data option, and choosing
to create a vertex line.

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The vertex file should be composed of a set of x,y points in the baseplane
of the input grids, which, when connected by line segments, marks the
baseline for the cross section. This baseline is the source for all possible
points where cross-section values must be computed. Closely spaced x,y
points along the baseline are the locations where the surface values are
computed.
If you want to post wells on a line of section, the horizon must lie within
the minimum and maximum range of the cross section, and the
bandwidth must be large enough so the well can be projected onto the
line of section.
Select Baseline File
A list of vertex files is presented. Select the file you want. This file is
used as the cross-section baseline.
Horizons
Cross sections are made from grids. Surface values at closely spaced x,y
points along the baseline are computed by back interpolation from the
input grids. This gives a point d,z on the cross-section axes where d is
the distance along the baseline from the first point and z is the value of
the surface at x,y. These are connected by line segments to depict the
cross-section curve. The back interpolation scheme used for cross
sections is the same one used for contouring; therefore, cross sections
intersect contour elevations at the expected points along the baseline.
The cross-section curve between contour elevations reveals how the
gridded surface behaves between contours.
Select Input Fields (Ordered Selection)
The ordered selection panel is required when you have the option of
determining the order in which field labels or symbols will be posted, or
the order in which fields will be printed on a report.
Horizon Labels
Labels are strings of, at most, 20 characters that are used to distinguish
one surface from the next on a stacked or composite cross section. The
labels or names will default to the name of the horizon selected to
generate the curves or they may be input using a keyboard.
A dialog box appears, listing each of the selected grid files. Enter the
label for each horizon that will appear on the cross section.

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Faults
Input grid profiles can include fault data. If this is the case, include the
fault data when you make the cross section.
Faults are digitized curves that have a discontinuous (faulted) surface.
In computer mapping, curves with a discontinuous surface are called
fault traces. The x,y points along a fault must be sequentially digitized,
so that connecting the points with line segments adequately reconstructs
the fault trace. Faults can either be single curves (denoting vertical faults
or very small fault throws) or double-sided curves (indicating the
amount of throw on the fault). For double-sided curves, a trace is
distinguished from the next trace in the dataset by a unique fault number
that follows each of the x,y points along a fault. When processing a
faulted surface, you must enter the corresponding fault data for that
surface. Select the fault files in the same order as you selected the
corresponding horizons.
Select Input Fields (Ordered Selection)
The ordered selection panel is required when you have the option of
determining the order in which field labels or symbols are posted, or the
order in which fields are printed on a report.
Horizon Parameters
Horizon Parameters include:

Line Number

Labeling Size

Grid Sampling Rate


Line Number
The baseline may be composed of one or more line segments that
connect a series of points, such as a set of well locations. If there is more
than one line segment in a file, you must enter the number that
corresponds to the line segment you wish to use. Each line on the file
should have a unique line number.
Labeling Size
Labels are drawn at the size (in plotter units) specified by this parameter.
By knowing the character size and number of characters, you can
determine how much margin space is required to name the curves.
Change the right offset (margin) to allow complete labels to be printed.

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Grid Sampling Rate


The Sampling Rate determines the number of points used to represent
the cross-section curve. The options are:

Coarse
1

Medium
4

Fine
8

Very Fine16
(sampling rate)(number of points representing cross section
curve)
Using Fine, for example, causes the process to interpolate up to eight
points across a grid cell. Fewer points are generated if the baseline cuts
across a corner of the cell. Most cross sections are adequately made
using the default of Medium. The Very Fine rate may be required for
extremely rough surfaces However, the finer the grid sampling rate, the
greater the processing time.
Grid Sampling Distance
You can specify sampling in cross sections as a distance as well as a rate.
Specify the distance (in engineering units) over which you want the
sampling to occur.
Output Files
You can save a maximum of ten cross-section files that contain the x,y,z
sample points created for the associated grid when making the cross
section. Use this panel to give each of the cross-section files a file name,
and to assign each of the output files to either OpenWorks or an MFD.
Output cross section file name (Up to 10 Files)
Enter the name of the files to be created. The names can be a maximum
of 24 characters long and can contain internal blanks.
Master File Directory for Output file X
Click the Master File Directory for Output File box to display a list
that contains the option Openworks, the MFDs attached to the
Z-MAP Plus session, and the session scratch file. Select the destination
MFD to use for saving the output file.

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Wells
Wells should be selected if you would like to post the well data that lies
within a user-specified bandwidth of the cross-section baseline. The
wells that do not fall directly on the baseline will be projected onto the
baseline at right angles, as long as they fall within the bandwidth
specified for your baseline. You may also post any field of data that is
stored with your well data, for example, the well name and the depth
fields.
Baseline
The Baseline marks the linear location where the cross section is
constructed. Wells can be projected onto the baseline within a
user-specified bandwidth (distance).
From the list that appears, select a file to use as the cross section
baseline. This should be the same file you selected under Horizons.
Well Data
From the list of data files that appears, select the control point file that
contains the well to add to the cross section. A field will be selected from
this file and used as input when the option executes.
Horizons
If you select Horizons from the Wells menu, a symbol is posted at each
selected horizon. You choose the horizons you want from the fields
found on the input Well Data File.
Select Input Fields (Ordered Selection)
The ordered selection panel is required when you have the option of
determining the order in which field labels or symbols will be posted, or
the order in which fields will be printed on a report. Label Horizons
Label Horizons
All selected horizons can be labeled with one data field. A panel will
appear for each of the horizons you have selected. You will choose one
label field for each of these horizons. Horizon Labels default to the grid
name of each selected horizon. The Horizon Labels will be written in the
right margin (offset).

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Label Wells
Using Label Wells, you can label the first selected horizon with several
data fields. The ordered selection panel determines the order of the
labeled data fields on the map.
Select Input Fields (Ordered Selection)
The ordered selection panel is required when you have the option of
determining the order in which field labels or symbols will be posted, or
the order in which fields will be printed on a report.
Label Parameters
Use the Label Parameters table to control labeling by using the
following parameters:

Line Number The line number comes from the Baseline File
for Wells. Enter the line number on the Baseline file you want to
use for cross-section display.

Band Width Control points are posted within a bandwidth


(distance) you define. This band for posting control points arcs
around the end of the baseline in all directions. Enter the value for
the bandwidth. The default bandwidth value is 0, which means that
only the wells that lie exactly on the baseline are posted on the
cross section.

Labeling Size This number refers to the height of the label in


plotter units (in./cm.). The default heights are 0.1 inches or 0.25
centimeters.

Labeling Format Label format refers to the orientation of the


control point labels:
Horizontal aligns the label parallel to the baseline of the
cross section.
Vertical aligns the label perpendicular to the baseline of the
cross section.

Include Field Name? Control points can be labeled with field


names. The field name can be omitted or included in the label. The
options are Name and Noname:
Name Posts the field name.
Noname Posts the field name with the posted control
points.

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Post Z-field value Label control points with field values. You
can include or omit Z field values in the label:
Zvalue Labels Posts Z value labels.
No Zvalue Labels Posts no Z value labels.

Map Features
If you select Features Cross Section Map Features, the Cross
Section Map Features dialog box appears. This is a tabbed dialog box
that is very similar to the Basemap Features dialog box described on
219, with these exceptions:

No tab for setting projected map Labels (L/L)

No North Arrow settings tab


To learn more about the settings in the Cross Section Features dialog
box, see the browser-based help system (accessible from the Help
button in the Cross Section Map Features dialog box).

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Overlay Pictures
Display the picture to be overlaid, then select
Features Overlay Pictures.

Select input graphics file.

Select input picture.

Select output graphics file.

Select output data file.

Maintain features
on overlay?

Yes

No

Choose which features to overlay.

Overlay all features.

Use
cutline (from
input picture on
output picture?

Yes

No

Draw cutline on output picture.

Use no cutline.

Apply.

To verify results, select Picture, pick output picture, then select Full Display.

Save and return to Z-MAP Plus


window.

Overlay Pictures Workflow

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You can overlay one or more features from a picture on another picture.
Here are a few guidelines to help you use the Overlay Pictures option:

Scale The scale of the "draped" picture features (the input


picture features) is adjusted to fit the scale of the output picture.

AOI The AOI of the new picture is the output pictures AOI. If
the output pictures AOI is smaller than the input picture, only the
area of the input picture that intersects the AOI of the output
picture is overlaid (as shown in the following illustration).

Requirement for Overlapping Part of the picture from which


features are being copied must overlap the area of the output
picture on which the features are overlaid (for example, the X and
Y limits of pictures must overlap). If they do not overlap, nothing
appears in the output picture.

Controlling Features Included All features from the input


picture (including those in the margins) that overlap or intersect
with the output picture appear on the output picture. Features of
the input picture that extend beyond the edge of the output picture
are clipped at the map border of the output picture. To prevent
unwanted features from appearing in the new map, turn them off
with Features to Overlay.

Input Picture

Output Picture

To produce results,
the input picture AOI
must intersect the
output picture AOI.

Input Picture Margin

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Features in the input


pictures margin that overlay
the output pictures AOI
appear on the overlay
picture unless you turn the
features off by using
Features to Overlay.

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To view the overlaid features, you must reselect the output picture.
Select File Open Picture Open or click the Picture Open
icon.

Color The color table of the output picture overrides the color
table of the input picture. This can cause problems, for example, if
you overlay a colorfilled picture on a posted data picture. The
colorfill may display differently because the colorfilled picture
features are now using the color table for the posted data.

Input Graphics File


Click the Input GRAPHICS FILE button, and select a ZGF in the
dialog box that appears. The ZGF you select determines which pictures
are available for you to overlay. The first option is Use Current
Graphics file. The list also includes all the ZGFs found in the locations
specified in the ZGFs tab of the Directory Paths dialog box (as described
on page 111). If the file you want is not listed, make sure its directory
path is specified.
The name of the currently attached ZGF is reported in the status area at
the bottom of the Z-MAP Plus window.

Input Picture
Click the Input picture button. In the dialog box that appears, select a
picture to overlay. The first option is Use Current Picture. The list also
includes all the pictures in the selected Input Graphics File.
The name of the current picture is reported in the status area at the
bottom of the Z-MAP Plus window.

Output Graphics File


Click the Output GRAPHICS FILE button, and select a ZGF in the
dialog box that appears. The ZGF you select determines which pictures
are available for you to place overlay features. The first option is Use
current graphics file. The list also includes all the ZGFs found in the
locations specified in the ZGFs tab of the Directory Paths dialog box (as
described on page 111). If the file you want is not listed, make sure its
directory path is specified.

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Output Picture
Click the Output picture button. In the dialog box that appears, select
a picture you want to use as the foundation layer for overlaying features.
The list contains the pictures in the selected Output Graphics File.

Overlay Parameters
Click the Overlay parameters button. In the dialog box that appears,
you can specify whether you want to combine all of the graphics
features to be overlaid into a single feature, and to control whether the
output picture cutline is drawn on the output picture. Graphics features,
sometimes referred to as Logical Graphics Blocks (LGB), can be
manipulated easily when they are distinct features. (For example, they
can be easily deleted or copied.) If features are combined into one
feature, that manipulation capability is lost. However, because the
features are combined, they can be copied, deleted, and so on as a single
unit, which also has advantages.
Maintaining Feature Divisions

Be careful to Maintaining Divisions if the picture you are overlaying has


some of the same features as the destination picture. For example, the picture
you want to overlay has contours, as does the picture which is being overlaid.
When both source and destination picture have contours, the contours on the
destination picture become one feature. You cannot edit the resulting single
feature by trying to delete one set of contours and leave the other. If you want
only one set of contours on the destination picture, use the Edit
Edit Picture Delete Features option before overlaying.

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Division of Features on Overlay


Click the Division of Features on Overlay button and select an option
from the drop-down list. The options control whether features remain
separate or are combined in the new picture. In other words, do features
maintain their division or are they combined into one graphics feature
(such as Index Map). The choices for this parameter are:

Maintain Division (default value) Maintain the features as they


are in the original picture (for example, contours, text, and lines).

Single Feature Combine the features into one feature. If you


use this setting you cannot delete single features, such as contour
lines or labels.

Use Cutline
Click the Use cutline button and select an option from the drop-down
list. The options control whether the cutline from the input picture is
drawn on the output picture. The choices for this parameter are:

No Cutline (default value) Do not draw the input picture


cutline on the output picture.

Cutline Draw the input picture cutline on the output picture.


The cutline is positioned just as it is on the input picture, relative to
the border of the input picture. That is, if the input picture is
smaller than the output picture, the cutline surrounds the smaller
area.
The cutline represents the edge of the plotter paper and appears as
a dotted line in the display. The default offsets between the cutline
and the map AOI equal one inch on the top, right, and left, and four
inches on the bottom.

Features to Overlay
Click the Features to Overlay button. In the dialog box that appears,
select the features you want to overlay from the input picture to the
output picture. The selected features are highlighted. You can toggle
features on and off until you are ready to click OK and set the feature
selection.
Resetting the Overlay Picture Values
You can return the Overlay Picture dialog box to its original settings at any time by
clicking the Reset button.

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Contouring
Z-MAP Pluss contouring capability is divided into Contouring,
Contour Old, Fast Contour, 3D Fishnet Plot, Shaded Relief, and Color
Scale.

Overview of Contouring Options


Contour
Features Contouring Contour builds a contour map and permits
you to customize the appearance of contours. You can also display
Contouring with the shortcut icon shown at left.
In addition to producing graphics features for posting on your map,
Contouring also selects the contouring algorithm best suited to your
data. If profiles are present, NEW-CONTOUR selects the Profile
Contouring Algorithm. If there are opaque faults, the macro uses the
Extended Fault Contouring Algorithm. If neither opaque faults nor
profiles are present, the macro uses the faster No-Constraint algorithm.
With respect to graphics features, you can choose whether to colorfill
your contours, and also whether to include a color bar on your map
For more information about Contouring, see the browser-based help
available from the Help button on the Contouring dialog.
Contour Old
Contours are added to the picture from either a grid or contour file.
Controls over line type, width, and value posting are provided. The
smoothness of contours generated from a grid can be controlled. Faults
or polygons can be used to constrain contouring, and the area between
each pair of contours can be filled with color. In addition, the contours
drawn from a grid can be output as digitized contours to an MFD or
OpenWorks.

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Fast Contour
Enables you to execute the FASTCONTOURMAP macro. This macro
builds a grid and then generates a contour map from the selected Z-field
on your data file. For more information about this macro, see the Macro
Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL.
3D Fishnet Plot
Executes the FISHNET-PLOT macro. This macro creates a fishnet plot
of a gridded surface. You are allowed to designate the angle from which
to view the surface.
Shaded Relief
Allows you to create a shaded relief map also known as a brightness
grid.
Color Scale
Draws a color scale relating a series of color indices to a variation in
some quantity. This option is used primarily for placing a color scale bar
on a map with color-filled contours, but almost any quantity variation
can be shown in this way.

Contour
Contouring generates annotated contours from either a grid or digitized
contour data. These annotated contours are included as part of the
information contained on a contour map. Contour lines are drawn across
an area of equal elevation or equal time values.
Use the Contours option to perform these tasks:

Plot a CTOG output contour file to determine how the digitized


contour data points are connected.

Output digitized contours for use in other Landmark geological


software operations.

Redraw digitized contours with a different map scale or contour


symbol, such as dashed lines instead of solid lines.

Contour depth or time maps to show elements such as areas of


closure, highs, or lows to use for exploration and development.

Display topographic information in an easily understandable


format.

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The Contouring dialog box replaces the previous contouring interface


(before the 1998.5 release). This dialog box has added controls for these
operations:

Set the lowest and highest contour level for the map.

Control colorfill with more options.

Set all colors on the map from the Colors tab.


The Contouring dialog divides all the parameter settings for the
NEW-CONTOUR process into four tabs:

Basic Specify the name of the input grid file, the contour
interval, minimum and maximum depths, and general posting
parameters.

Colors Specify the colors of the contour lines, labels, highlight


frequency and color, and controls the colorfill (if you want to use
colorfill).

Label/Line Specify the label characteristics (such as size,


frequency, and font) as well as the appearance of the contour lines.
On this tab, you also designate a discontinuity file and polygon
clipping file, if you want them.

Output Files Save the file that contains the contour descriptive
data separately from the picture.

Each parameter in the Contouring dialog is covered in detail in the


browser-based Help system, accessible by clicking the Help button in
the Contouring dialog box.

Contour Old
The Contour Old option generates annotated contours from either a
grid or digitized contour data.

Z-MAP Plus Contouring Menu

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Input File (Grid or Contour)


A list of contour and grid files is presented. Z-MAP Plus uses the grid
node value or contour value as input when Contouring executes. Select
the file you wish to use as input.
Constraint (Faults or Polygon)
Faults represent constraints on contouring. By providing the program
with information about fault locations, you indicate that you do not want
contouring to take place across the fault.
You can confine contouring to a specific area by selecting a vertex file.
The vertex file will define a polygon on your map. Contouring will take
place either inside or outside the polygon.
A list of faults and vertex files is presented. Faults are needed only when
building surfaces cut by faults. When faults are used, grid nodes are
calculated using only data located on the same side of the faults as the
node. A fault file must have been previously constructed in order to be
available for this option.
Contouring Parameters, Output Name
Use this panel to specify the contour minimum and maximum,
contouring interval, curve sampling density, output file name and output
MFD. It is only needed for grid input.
Minimum and Maximum Contour Values
These values indicate the minimum and maximum contour levels
generated during contouring. The default minimum contour value
equals the lowest contour level which is divisible by the contour interval
and greater than or equal to the minimum grid value. The default
maximum contour value equals the largest contour level divisible by the
contour interval and greater than or equal to the maximum grid value.
Contouring Interval
Z-MAP Plus computes a rounded number below the grid minimum as
the surface level on which the contour interval is based. The contour
interval (CI) marks a fixed distance in Z units between contours. All
contours that are integer multiples of CI are automatically traced.
During standard contouring, the default value for CI is based on the
relief of the input grid. For example, if you would like contours every
50 feet, the contour interval would be 50.

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Curve Sampling Density


The smoothness of your contours depends on the amount of data you
have to work with and the curve sampling density you select. There are
five curve sampling density rates:

Coarsest. Contours given a coarse sampling rate are generated


fastest; however, they are the least smooth.

Coarse. A moderate sampling density produces draft quality


contours.

Medium. This sampling rate is most often used to generate


contours for working maps, or to preview faults.

Fine. This sampling rate is most often used to generate a report


map.

Very Fine. Contours generated with this sampling density are the
smoothest possible; however, this sampling rate requires the
greatest amount of processing time.

It is important to note that the finer the curve sampling density, the more
points that must be contoured. This results in a longer contouring
process. While in some cases, it may be necessary to apply the finest
curve sampling density to ensure that all surfaces are contoured
smoothly, the trade-off between processing time and smoothness should
be considered.
Output Contour File Name, OpenWorks, and Output Master File
Specify the name of the file to be created. The name can be a maximum
of 24 characters long and can contain internal blanks. Next, you must
select either OpenWorks or the destination MFD for storing the data.
Select the destination MFD from the list of attached MFDs and scratch
file. These files are listed in a popup window that appears when you
click the parameter box. The program will default to Master File 1, as
listed in the status area.

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Curve Drawing and Labeling Parameters


Use the Set CURVE DRAWING and LABELING Parameters dialog
box to specify the following input values:

Contour Labels

Reference (bold) Contours

Hachured Contours

Dashed Contours

Distance to First Label

Distance Between Labels

Character Height

Decimal Positions

Label Value Scale Factor and Label Value Bias

Colorfilled Contours

settings for contours over colorfill

settings for contour colors

Dialog Box After Selecting Starting Color Index Color Box


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Contour Labels Labels may be optionally placed at all contour


levels, or you may specify an interval at which to label your
contours. The specified interval is know as the labeling curve rate.
If you select a labeling curve rate of 3, then every third contour
level will be labeled.

Reference Contours: Bold, Hachured, or Dashed Contour


reference curves represent a multiple of the contour interval.
Reference curves may be bold, hachured, or dashed, whereas
intermediate contours are always a solid thin line.
When defining the frequency with which you would like to draw
bold, hachured and dashed contours on your map, enter the
interval at which you wish the reference contour to appear. A 0
indicates no reference curves, while a 1 indicates all curves will be
drawn with the specified line type.

Distance to First Label Contour labels are not automatically


placed at the start of each contour curve. Therefore, you are asked
to specify the distance, in plotter units (in./cm.), from the origin of
the contour curve to the beginning of the first label.

Distance Between Labels Labels are placed an equal distance


from each other around the entire contour curve. Specify the
distance, in plotter units (in./cm.), between contour labels.

Character Height Contour label sizes may vary to fit your


needs. It has been noted that contour labels are best when drawn at
one of three heights: 0.07, 0.10, or 0.14 inch (0.18, 0.25, 0.36 cm).
While maps that measure less than 10 by 10 inches (25 by 25 cm)
should probably have a label size equal to 0.07 or 0.10 inch, larger
contour maps will probably look better with 0.14 inch labels.
Enter, in plotter units (in./cm.), the character size you desire for
your contour labels.

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Decimal Positions This value indicates the number of places to


the right of the decimal which will be included in the contour
label.

Label Value Scale Factor Enter the desired scale factor. The
contour curve labels will be multiplied by this value. For example,
if your data was in seconds but you would like milliseconds
output, a scale of 1000 would output correct labels.

Label Value Bias If you would like a constant added to the


label values for contours, enter the value.

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Colorfilled Contours Z-MAP Plus can generate colorfilled


contours when contouring from a grid. This function is not
available when contouring from an existing contour file. By
default this operation is not enabled; however, you may enable it
by selecting the Colorfilled option from the parameter box that
accompanies the Colorfilled Contours parameter.
The colors Colorfill chooses are internal to the algorithm. The first
contour level posted uses color index 17, the second uses 18, and
so on. You can change these colors in the color table. For more
information about this procedure, see Appendix D. Color
Editing on page 803.

Draw Contour Lines Over Colorfill You may elect to overlay


contour lines onto the colorfilled contours. By default, the program
will draw and overlay these lines for you. If you do not wish to
overlay these lines, select the No Overlay option.

Starting Color Index for Colorfilled Contours This is the


minimum color index that defines the starting color for colorfill.
Each higher contour level is assigned a successively higher color
index number.

Colorfill Color Index Rate of Change For every


FILLRATEth contour level, the colorfill index color changes.

Starting Color Index for Contour Lines The Starting Color


Index for Contour Lines setting is the initial color index in which
contour lines are displayed.

Line Color Index Rate of Change For every FILLRATEth


contour line, the colorfill index color changes.

Contour Report
Once interactive contouring begins, a contouring index table appears in
the Status/Report window. The contouring index table contains four
types of information:

Index The index value reports how many contours have been
processed and how many remain to be processed.

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Contour Value column The Contour Value column lists each


contour value.

Number Points column The Number Points column lists the


number of points used to produce the contour.

Length column The Length (in.) column reports the length of


each contour.

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Fast Contour
Use the Fast Contour option to execute the FASTCONTOURMAP
macro. This macro builds a grid and then generates a contour map from
the selected Z-field on your data file.
For more information about this macro, see the Macro Reference
Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL.
Fast Contour builds a grid and then generates a contour map from the
selected z field on your data file.
You are asked to specify the following input values:

well dataset
z field on the well dataset
a fault dataset (optional)
contouring interval (optional)
ZGF name and picture name

A contour map of the grid is created from the z field.


Fast Contour Uses Point Data

Use FASTMAPFROMGRID to make a fast map using control point data.

3D Fishnet Plot
Creates a fishnet plot (also known as a perspective map) of a gridded
surface by using the FISHNET-PLOT macro. Fishnet plots often reveal
surface detail that is not be apparent in a conventional contour map. You
can specify the angle for viewing the surface.
You must specify the following information:

name of the graphics file

name of the new picture

name of the input grid file


For descriptions of the FISHNET-PLOT macro parameters, see the
Macro Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL. For more information
about using the 3D Fishnet Plot option, select Help Online
Manuals Macros, and locate the topic for FISHNET-PLOT.

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Shaded Relief

The Shaded Relief operation produces a brightness grid. This brightness


grid can then be used as input to Features Contouring, yielding a
Shaded Relief map once Colorfilled Contours are added.
Assuming that the sun is shining on the structure of interest, the Shaded
Relief operation produces a grid whose values are proportional to the
brightness of the surface (grid). The output grid will have higher values
when the surface is facing the direction from which the sun is shining
and lower values when facing other directions.
Common applications of Shaded Relief mapping are:

representation of the highs and lows of a surface

enhancement of directional features on a surface, especially lineal


features

enhancement of subtle surface textures

creation of a 3D look without the cost of building a 3D


perspective

photographic representation of a grid surface

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The Shaded Relief dialog box contains the following parameters:

Input Grid From the list of input grids that appears, select a
grid to use as input.

Brightness Parameters Brightness Parameters refer to light


intensity used for scaling purposes. The minimum brightness
factor applies to the surface that faces directly away from the sun.
The maximum brightness factor corresponds to the surface directly
facing the sun.
Min This is the minimum brightness of a surface above the
haze facing away from the sun. The possible values are
between 0.0 and 1.0, with 0.0 being the default.
Max This is the maximum brightness of a surface above the
haze facing toward the sun. The possible values are between
0.0 and 1.0, with 1.0 being the default.

Altitude Of Sun (Degrees) The altitude of the sun is the


elevation of the sun, in degrees, above the horizontal plane. This
value may range from 0 to 90 degrees. For maximum detail
definition in your Shaded Relief map, the suns rays should be
approximately parallel to the general trend of the surface. In most
cases this angle would be 0 degrees.
The default value, 315 degrees, places the sun at the upper left
(northwest) side of the map. This is the most common location for
the sun in shaded relief maps. This position does a good job of
avoiding the relief inversion problem.

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Azimuth Of Sun (Degrees) The Azimuth of the Sun is


expressed in degrees clockwise from the North. For example, an
azimuth of 90 degrees means the sun is shining from the east; an
azimuth of 315 degrees means the light appears to be shining from
the northwest. The range of values is 0 to 360 degrees.

Haze Factor The Haze Factor simulates the amount of haze in


the lower areas of the surface. 0.0 signifies no haze, while 1.0
signifies the presence of a haze which would make the lowest
points on the grid opaque, and not reflective of light. Most users
default this value to 0.

Conversion Factor The conversion factor allows you to vary


the unit of measure. A table of unit conversions can be found in
Operations, Volumetrics, Length Scale. If you are converting
feet to meters, your conversion factor is 3.048.

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The conversion factor has two uses. First, if the X,Y values are in
meters and the Z values are in feet, a conversion factor of 3.048
converts the meters to feet, putting the X, Y, and Z values in the
same units for a realistic picture.
Second, you can use the conversion factor to apply a vertical
exaggeration to the Z values. The state of Florida is hundreds of
miles long but only 165 feet high. Without adding a vertical
exaggeration, a relief map of Florida would have noting to show.
Also, some maps may have units that are not convertible. For
example, X and Y in meters and Z in milligals. In cases where it is
not desirable (or possible) to use a realistic conversion factor, try a
conversion factor approximately equal to 4 times the range in Z
divided by the range in X.

Output Grid These entries specify the name of the output


brightness grid and the destination MFD or the OpenWorks path.

Output File Name This is the name of the output brightness


grid.

Master File This is the name of the destination MFD for


storing the output brightness grid.

Contouring the Brightness Grid to Obtain the Shaded Relief Map


In Features Contouring, you can now use your brightness grid as
the input grid for contouring. The Shaded Relief features will be added
to the map in the Curve-Drawing and Labeling Parameters of
Z-MAP Plus. This is when you specify Colorfill parameters which will
highlight the darker and brighter places on the gridded surface.
In some cases you may wish to colorfill contour without overlaying the
contours. Or you may wish to colorfill and contour and either delete the
contours or turn off their display.
The two remaining phases for producing the shaded relief map are
1) contour set up and 2) filling the color table for the picture.
Follow these rules for contours when creating a shaded relief picture:

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Contour Setup
1.

Create 40-50 colorfill contour levels.

2.

Do not draw contours on the picture, or at least do not draw


contours on the picture during the colorfill pass.

3.

Do NOT use contour lines while generating colorfilled polygons


unless you are using an very fine grid.
Colorfilled Polygons

Use the Features Contouring option to generate colorfilled polygons


without using contour lines.

Color Table
The general procedure is as follows. Select Edit Color Table. For the
contour range indices you specified, select the lowest index and give it
a dark color. Select the highest index for the contours and give it a light
color. Interpolate between these two indices to create a continuous
change from dark to light.
Suggested colors for interpolation:
Dark gray: (0, 10, 0) HLS Light gray:(0, 77, 0) HLS
Contour the darkest shades (lowest points on the grid) first, following
with the progressively lighter shades (higher points on the grid).

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Color Scale
Color Scale draws a color bar relating a series of color indices to a
variation in some quantity. This option is used primarily for placing a
color scale bar on a map with color-filled contours, but almost any
quantity variation can be shown in this way. Color Scale uses the
COLOR-BAR macro to create the scale.
To create a color scale, you must have a graphics file and a picture
attached to your Z-MAP Plus session. To see the resultant color bar in
Z-MAP Plus, you must select Display Full Display after you create
the color scale.
You are asked to supply the following elements:

file providing the data range


field number providing data range (optional)
information about contour intervals, number of contours, and
contour minimum and contour maximum
color bar and color-fill information
line color information (optional)
contour labeling information (optional)

See the Macro Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL for detailed
descriptions of each parameter for COLOR-BAR. To display this
information, select Help Online Manuals Macros Manual, and
locate the topic for COLOR-BAR.

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Lines
You may draw lines on your current map after retrieving line data from
an input dataset. The Lines option may be used to display all types of
lineal data that are not normally associated with Z-values, including:

lease polygons
cultural data such as roads, etc.
land grids
fault traces
many other types of x,y data

When drawing lines, you specify:

line type
scaling units
line clipping option
where to place symbols at vertex locations
symbol code
symbol size

If the line is dashed, you can specify the length of the dash, as well as
the length of the gap.
There are two ways to draw lines on an active picture from the
Features Lines option:

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draw lines using File


draw lines using Cursor

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File (Drawing Lines Using File)

This option allows you to post lines on a currently active picture. Lines
can be posted from vertex, fault, and profile data. You may select from
a list of seven graphical representations or up to 20 line patterns.
Select Data
Select a file from the list of files available in the OpenWorks project and
the attached MFDs. This file is used as input when the option executes.
Fields to Post
A list of fields is presented. You may select up to two fields to post. (If
you select more than two fields from the list, the program will not
recognize any of the fields you have attached.)

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Line Drawing Parameters

Use these options to control line color and pattern. You can specify line
parameters manually, or use fields to control the line color and pattern.
General Line Parameters
This panel enables you to control line type, dash length and dash gap,
hachure length, gap, and direction, line weight and line color. These
parameters do not affect the Line Type Patterns.
Line Type
This menu allows you to choose the type of line you want to draw in
connecting the points. Select on the graphical representations of the
desired Line Type, or choose to establish Line Type by Pattern number
or vary the line patterns by Z-field.
Line Pattern Number
This is the pattern number for drawing lines. Enter a number from 1 to
20. (For examples, see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line
Patterns, starting on page 791.)
Dash Length One
This value is required only if you have chosen a dashed line as the Line
Type for lines. This number represents the length in plotter units
(in./cm.) of the first dash in the dash pattern for drawing lines. The
default length for the first dash is 0.07 in. or 0.18 cm.

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Dash Length Two


This value is required only if you have chosen a dashed line with two or
three different dash lengths. This number represents the length in plotter
units (in./cm.) of the second dash in the dash pattern for drawing lines.
The default length for the second dash is 0.09 in. or 0.23 cm.
Dash Length Three
This value is required only if you have chosen a dashed line with three
dash lengths as the Line Type. This number represents the length in
plotter units (in./cm.) of the third dash in the dash pattern for drawing
lines. The default length for the third dash is 0.11 in. or 0.28 cm.
Gap Length One
This value is required only if you have chosen a dashed line as the Line
Type. This number represents the length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the
first gap between dashes in the dash pattern for drawing lines. The
default length for the first gap is 0.07 in. or 0.18 cm.
Gap Length Two
This value is required only if you have chosen a dashed line (consisting
of two or three unequal dash lengths) as the Line Type. This number
represents the length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the second gap between
dashes in the dash pattern for drawing lines. The default gap length for
the second gap is 0.09 in. or 0.23 cm.
Gap Length Three
This value is required only if you have chosen a dashed line (consisting
of three unequal dash lengths) as the Line Type. This number represents
the length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the third gap between dashes in the
dash pattern for drawing lines. The default gap length for the third gap
is 0.11 in. or 0.28 cm.
Hachure Gap
This value is required only if you have chosen a Line Type of Hachure.
This number represents the gap between hachures in plotter units
(in./cm.) of the hachures in the pattern for drawing lines. The default
hachure gap is 0.1 in. or 0.25 cm.

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Hachure Length
This value is required only if you have chosen a Line Type of Hachure.
This number represents the length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the
hachures in the pattern for drawing primary lines. The default Hachure
Length is 0.05 is or 0.13 cm.
Hachure Direction
This direction is the direction of the hachures relative to the line. Left
means to draw the hachures on the relative left side of the line, and
Right means to draw the hachures on the right side of the line. The
default direction is Left.
Line Weight
This number represents a multiple of the normal line width for drawing
lines. The thicknesses range from 1 to 8, and the default Line Weight is
1. The larger the weight, the bolder the line will be.
Color Mode
There are three methods for defining the color of the primary lines:
Index, Field, and Z-field.
Index refers to the number of the color in the Z-MAP Plus color table.
Field refers to the number of the Line Color Field. The line color field
must be present on the input data file.
Z-field will vary color by Z-field. When color is to vary by Z-field, the
program allows you to specify the value change in Z-field required to
change the color of primary lines.
Color Index
The color index is a number from 0 to 255 in the Z-MAP Plus color
table. The color index refers to the settings for the currently active
picture. To choose a color index for lines, click the color box. A palette
of the 256 colors appears. You can change the color index of the lines
by clicking the color you want.
Choose Color Field for Line Color
A list of the field names for color fields is presented. These color fields
are taken from the input line data file. Select one of the fields listed.

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Vary Line Color Parameters


This panel allows you to vary the color of the posted line. Color can be
varied by choosing a starting color index, the number of color levels,
method of defaulting the Z-table for color levels, the Z-increment for
defaulting, and the start Z-value for defaulting. The purpose of this
feature is to allow the mapper to show a gradual increase in a Z-value by
representing a defined change in Z as a color in a given range. For
example, every change of 50 data units could be represented by a
slightly darker shade of blue.
Start Color Index
This number is the number of the color in the color table where the
varying of line colors is to begin. The number of color levels beyond this
value will determine the range of line colors available.
Number of Color Levels
This number refers to the number of colors available for primary lines
as Z-values change on the picture. Number of Color Levels is only used
when the default method for varying line color is Divide.
Default Z-Table for Color Levels By
Defaulting the color variation will result in an automatic assignment of
a color to a Z-value according to the criteria you select for this
parameter. The four methods for determining defaulting are:

None

Divide

Increment

Increment+Start
Units of Measure for Z-Values

While the examples in this text refer to feet, Z-values can be expressed in any
data unit, such as meters, miles, etc.

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None indicates that you do not want to default the color


variation. When you choose not to default the color variation, the
program requires that you input maximum Z-values for each color
change (user input required).

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Divide indicates that you want to default the color variation by


dividing the Z-value range into a number of color levels. A Divide
value of 20 would change the color of the line 20 times. Divide
will calculate equal intervals for the number of color levels you
specify.
For example, if the range of Z is 01000 feet, a divide of 20 would
produce 20 colors, with a color change every 50 feet (Number of
Color Levels required).

Increment indicates how often you want the symbol color to


change with a change in Z-value. When you choose increment, the
program will change the symbol color each time a constant change
in Z has been achieved.
For example, if the range of Z is 0-1,000 feet, and Increment = 20,
there would be 50 different colors, producing a change in the
symbol color every 20 feet.

Increment+Start means that you specify the lowest Z-value at


which to begin default color variation, and the increment which
must be achieved each time before changing to the next color
(Z-increment and Start Value are required).

Z-Increment for Defaulting


The Z-Increment for Defaulting refers to the constant interval between
Z-values in the data which will cause the Line Color to default to the
next color in the Z-MAP Plus color table. If the Z-increment is 1,000
feet, and the starting color is 57 (blue-purple), then a change in 1,000
feet will change the Line Color to 58 (violet).
Start Z-value for Defaulting
This parameter allows you to single out Z-values of interest. For
example, if you are interested in depths at or below 5,500 feet, the Start
Z-Value for defaulting can be 5,500 feet. Data closer to the top surface
than 5,500 feet will all have the same line color.
Choose Z-field to Vary Line Color
The value of the selected Z-field will be used to change line color. You
can only select one Z-field to determine line color variation. Fields
available for selection are taken from your input line data file. A list of
Z-fields appears. Select the Z-field you want.

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Z-Table to Vary Line Color


This table contains a range of up to 50 maximum Z-values for color
indices to use when drawing lines. The table contains a list of Z-values
for each color level. The number of color levels was indicated in the
Vary Line Color Parameters panel. If you stipulated 4 color levels, you
will be asked to enter 4 maximum Z-levels. These Maximum Z-values
are not required if you chose a method of defaulting the table.
Each parameter entry area on the Z Level Table for Line Color
represents the maximum Z-value for each color. The values you enter
into this table will correlate line color to maximum Z-value; when the
Z-value reaches the next maximum, the line color will vary by one index
number.
For example, assume that your starting color on the color index is 17,
the distance between maximum Z-values is 100 feet, and your
maximum Z-value for index 17 is 7,500 feet. The index color for
7,575 feet will be index color 18.
You can represent up to 50 maximum Z-values. The number of Z-values
you can enter on this table is determined by the Number of Color Levels
you entered on the Vary Line Color Parameters table. The starting color
on the color index was also determined by your choice on the Vary Line
Color Parameters table.
Vary Line Pattern Parameters
You can change line patterns posted on variations in Z-value. (For
examples of 20 line patterns, see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and
Line Patterns, starting on page 791.)
Choose Z-field to Vary Line Pattern
If you want your line pattern to change with Z-values, select the Z field
to which the changes in line pattern are to be tied.
Z-table to Vary Line Pattern
This look-up table is used when the Default Z-Table for Pattern
Numbers method is DIVIDE. You can use up to 20 Z-levels. Each level
has a minimum Z-value associated with each line pattern level in the
table.

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Symbol Parameters
Use this panel to control line symbol parameters, including:

Symbol Code

Select Field

Color Field

Symbol Color

Symbol Size
General Symbol Parameters
Use this panel to control the following symbol parameters:

Posting Method

Symbol Code

Symbol Color

Symbol Size

Posting Rate
Posting Method for Symbols and Labels
This method determines whether symbols and labels are posted for no
points (Omit), for All points, or for Select points.
Determine Symbol Code by
There are three ways to determine the symbol code associated with the
lines. The Omit option means that no symbol will be posted. Symbol
Field refers to a symbol field on your input file. The Symbol Number
option lets you enter the Symbol Code number to determine the symbols
posted for lines.
Symbol Code Number
Enter the Symbol Code Number for the symbol you want to use. (For a
list of Symbol Codes, see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line
Patterns, starting on page 791.)

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Determine Symbol Color by


You can determine the Symbol Color by: Index, Field, Z-field, and Line.

Index refers to a number in the Z-MAP Plus color table. When


you enter a number, a box containing the color for the color index
appears to the left of the entry.

Field means that a field on your input file specifies a color for
each symbol.

Z-field refers to a Z-field on the input data file to which the


symbol color is tied. Determining color by Z-field will result in a
change of colors when the value of the field changes.

Line refers to the color of the succeeding line segment. The


succeeding line segment is the segment after the point.

Symbol Color Index


The symbol color index is the number associated with one of the 256
colors in the Z-MAP Plus color table. Click the color box to display the
color palette, then click the color to use as the symbol color.
Determine Symbol Size by
There are five methods for determining symbol size: Value, Field,
Diameter, Area, and Class.

Value uses the size of the symbol in plotter units (in./cm.). The
default values are 0.07 in. and 0.18 cm.

Field refers to a size field on the input file.

Diameter refers to the diameter of the symbol in plotter units


(in./cm.). You can vary the diameter of a symbol based on a
Z-field.
For Diameter, Size = (field value + offset) * scale.

Area defines the area of a posted symbol, causing the area of


the symbol to vary based on a Z-field.
For Area, Size = SQRT [ (4/) * scale * (field value + offset) ]

Class permits you to vary symbol height incrementally based


on a Z-field. This is similar to varying color by Z-field. Each
symbol size represents a range of values.

Symbol Size
This number is the symbol height in plotter units (in./cm.).

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Posting Rate
The Posting Rate for symbols is the divisor of the number of points. A
posting rate of 1 means that every point will be posted. A posting rate of
5 means the first point and then every fifth point will be posted along a
line.
Choose Symbol Code Field
This is the name of the field containing the symbol code of the symbol
to be posted.
Choose Select Field
This panel allows you to choose a field to use as the posting Select Field.
A list of fields on your input line file appears. Choose the field you want
to use as the posting Select Field. At any point where this field is not
defined (= ZNON), a symbol will not be posted.
Choose Color Field for Symbol Color
This is the Color Field used to determine the color for the posted
symbol.
Vary Symbol Color Parameters
This panel allows you to vary the color of the symbol posted. Color can
be varied by choosing a starting color index, the number of color levels,
method of defaulting the Z-table for color levels, the Z-increment for
defaulting, and the start Z-value for defaulting. The purpose of this
feature is to allow the mapper to show a gradual increase in a Z-value by
representing a defined change in Z as a color in a given range. For
example, every change of 50 data units could be represented by a
slightly darker shade of blue.

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Start Color Index This number is the number of the color in


the color table where the varying of symbol colors is to begin. The
number of color levels beyond this value will determine the range
of symbol colors available.

Number of Color Levels This number refers to the number of


colors in the color table which are to be displayed as Z-values on
the map. The Number of Color Levels is only used when the
default method for varying symbol color is Divide.

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Default Z-Table for Color Levels By


Using default color variation results in an automatic assignment of a
color to a Z-value according to the criteria you select for this parameter.
Z-Value Units of Measure

While the examples in this text refer to feet, Z-values can be expressed in any
data unit, such as meters, miles, etc.

The four methods for determining defaulting are:

None indicates that you do not want to default the color variation.
When you choose not to default the color variation, the program
requires that you input maximum Z-values for each color change.
(User input required)

Divide indicates that you want to default the color variation by


dividing the Z-value range into a number of color levels. A Divide
value of 20 would change the color of the symbol 20 times. Divide
will calculate equal intervals for the number of color levels you
specify.

For example, if the range of Z is 01000 feet, a divide of 20 would


produce 20 colors, with a color change every 50 feet. (Number of
Color Levels required)

Increment indicates how often you want the symbol color to


change with a change in Z-value. When you choose increment, the
program will change the symbol color each time a constant change
in Z has been achieved.
For example, if the range of Z is 01,000 feet, and Increment = 20,
there would be 50 different colors, producing a change in the
symbol color every 20 feet. (Z-Increment required)

Increment+Start means that you specify the lowest Z-value at


which to begin default color variation, and the increment which
must be achieved each time before changing to the next color.
(Z-increment and Start Value required)

Z-increment for Defaulting


The Z-Increment for Defaulting refers to the constant interval between
Z-values in the data which will cause the Symbol Color to default to the
next color in the Z-MAP Plus color table. If the Z-increment is 1,000
feet, and the starting color is 57 (blue-purple), then a change in 1,000
feet will change the symbol color to 58 (violet).

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Start Z-value for Defaulting


This parameter allows you to single out Z-values of interest. For
example, if you are interested in depths at or below 5,500 feet, the Start
Z-value for Defaulting can be 5,500 feet. Data closer to the top surface
than 5,500 feet will all have the same symbol color.
Choose Z-field to Vary Symbol Color
Changes in the color of the posted symbol will be tied to the Z-field you
select. You can only select one Z-field to determine symbol color
variation. Fields available for selection are taken from your input line
data file. A list of Z-fields appears. Select the Z-field you want.
Z-table to Vary Symbol Color
This table contains a range of up to 50 maximum Z-values for color
indices to use when posting color symbols. The table contains a list of
Z-values for each color index. The number of color index numbers
posted on the panel was indicated in the Vary Symbol Color panel. If
you stipulated 4 color levels, you will be asked to enter 4 maximum
Z-levels. These maximum Z-values are not required if you chose a
method of defaulting the table.
Maximum Z-value for Symbol Color Index
The parameter entry area on this panel allows you to correlate changes
in Z-value to changes in symbol color index. You can choose up to 50
symbol color levels. The number of Maximum Z-values listed on this
panel is determined by the number of symbol color levels you indicated
on the Vary Symbol Color Parameters panel. Enter the Maximum
Z-value you want for each Symbol Color Index.
Choose Size Field For Symbol Size
If your input data file has a size field on it, you will see a list. Select the
size field you want.

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Vary Symbol Size Parameters


This panel allows you to specify how symbol size parameters will be set
to cause variation in symbol size on your current picture. Control over
symbol size variation is provided by setting parameter values. Parameter
values which can be set for symbol size variation follow:

Offset for Vary by Area or Diameter This number refers to


the offset for symbol size calculation. When you have chosen to
Vary Symbol Size by Area or Diameter, these are the equations:
Vary Diameter Size:
Size = (field value + offset) * scale
Vary Area Size:
Size = SQRT [ (4/p) * scale * (field value + offset) ]

Scale for Vary by Area or Diameter This is the scale for


symbol size calculation.
Vary Area Size:
Size = SQRT [ (4/p) * scale * (field value + offset) ]
Vary Diameter Size:
Size = (field value + offset) * scale

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Minimum Symbol Size (in./cm.) for Vary This number refers


to the smallest Symbol Size to post in plotter units (in./cm.). The
default minimum is 0.05 in. or 0.13 cm. For calculating symbol
size to vary by area or diameter, computed sizes smaller than this
minimum will be posted at the minimum size. For symbol sizes
calculated by class, this minimum is the smallest class size. This
size will be incremented by the Symbol Size Increment.

Maximum Symbol Size (in./cm.) for Vary This number refers


to the maximum Symbol Size to post in plotter units (in./cm.). The
default maximum is 0.25 in. or 0.64 cm. When calculating symbol
size to vary by area or diameter, computed sizes larger than this
maximum will be posted at the maximum size. For symbol sizes
calculated by class, this maximum is the largest class size. This
size will be incremented by the Symbol Size Increment.

Symbol Size Increment (in./cm) for Vary When Symbol Size


is set to Vary by Class, the Symbol Size Increment must be stated
in plotter units (in./cm.) The default symbol size increment is 0.05
in. or 0.13 cm.

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Number of Class Intervals Symbol sizes can be made to vary


according to Class Intervals. Class intervals are defined by
Minimum Z-values, and you can define from 1 to 6 class intervals
for Symbol Size.

Z-minimum for Class One This number refers to the lowest


Z-value at which you want Symbol Posting to begin.

Choose Z-field to Vary Symbol Size


Changes in the size of the posted symbol will be tied to the Z-field on
this list which you select. You can only select one Z-field to determine
symbol size variation. Fields available for selection are taken from your
input line data file. A list of Z-fields appears. Select the Z-field you want
to use.
Z-Table to Vary Symbol Size
This table contains a range of up to 6 maximum Z-values for symbol
sizes to use. The table contains a list of Z-values for each symbol size
class. The number of size classes was indicated in the Vary Symbol
Parameters panel. If you stipulated 4 levels, you will be asked to enter 4
maximum Z-levels.
Maximum Z-value for Size Class
The parameter entry area on this panel allows you to correlate changes
in Z-value to changes in symbol size. You can choose up to 6 size class
levels. The number of maximum Z-values listed on this panel is
determined by the number of size class levels you indicated on the Vary
Symbol Size Parameters panel. Enter the maximum Z-value you want
for each size class.

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Labeling Parameters
This panel allows you to determine labeling parameters for fields.
Control is allowed for: label rate, color mode and color index, font,
number of decimals, height and location of the symbol. You can
determine these label parameters for one or two fields, and you can
determine the labeling parameters for each of two fields independently.
Label Rate for All Fields
The Label Rate refers to the frequency with which posted points are
labeled. A Label Rate of 1 means that all posted points are to be labeled.
A Label Rate of 5 means that the first posted point will be labeled, and
every fifth point after will be labeled.
Color Mode
There are three ways to determine the color of the labels:
Index, Symbol, and Line.

Index refers to the number of the color in the Z-MAP Plus color
table.
Symbol refers to the color of the posted symbol to be labeled.
Line refers to the color of the succeeding line segment.

Color Index
If you chose the Index option for Label Color Mode, you must assign a
color index to determine label color for the current field. To see a palette
of the Z-MAP Plus color table, click the color box. Click the color you
want for the current fields label.
Label Font
The Label Font is the font in which labels for this field are to be printed.
The choices are shown at left.
Number of Decimals
This number refers to the number of places to the right of the decimal to
post for the field.

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Height of Label
This value refers to the height of the label, in plotter units (in./cm). The
label represents the current field. The default label heights are 0.07 in.
or 0.18 cm.
Location of Label
There are two options for locating a label on a line. The label can be
posted to the Right of the line or it can posted to the Left of the line.
Data Units/Clip Mode
This panel allows you to determine the data units in which the
coordinates of the points are expressed, and whether data outside the
AOI border is displayed or clipped.
Data Units
The coordinates of the points on the lines are expressed in data units.
Data Units can be either user units or plotter units. The default value is
user units.
User units are engineering or user coordinates such as feet.
Plotter units are inches or centimeters.
Clip to Border Mode
This option refers to what the program is to do with points on the line
file which lie outside the AOI border of the current picture. When you
select Noclip, the lines are displayed beyond the border of the map.
When you select Clip, the program will not display the data outside the
border.

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Cursor (Drawing Lines with the Cursor)


The Cursor option is intended to add map design functionality. Its
purpose is to allow you to draw freehand lines on your active picture.
While lines drawn with Cursor draw can be saved to the picture, drawing
lines using Cursor DOES NOT AFFECT THE DATA FILES ON
WHICH THE ACTIVE PICTURE IS BASED. Consequently, to edit
any lines drawn using Cursor draw, you must use the Edit option.
If your purpose in drawing lines is to affect data files stored in the
attached MFDs or in the OpenWorks project, you must use the Edit
Edit/Create Data option.
Editing MFD Data

To create or modify data on an MFD or OpenWorks, use the Edit


Data Editor option.

You can draw Contours, Faults, or Polylines on an active picture. With


Cursor draw, you do not need a preexisting data file for posting lines.
Lines drawn freehand can be conformed to user-specified parameters
and are saved in the ZGF as part of the active picture.
Contours
This option is for hand drawing contours on a work map. You will have
a variety of line pattern choices as well as a smoothing option. The
Delete option will make it possible for you to interpret and redraw your
contour.
Faults
This option is for hand drawing faults on a work map. You will have a
variety of line pattern choices as well as a smoothing option. The Delete
option will make it possible for you to interpret and redraw your fault.
Polylines
This option is for hand drawing lines or figures on a map. You will have
a variety of line pattern choices. The Delete option will make it possible
to redraw your line(s) if you wish.

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Line Parameters
When you click Contours, Faults or Polylines, a Line Parameters panel
appears. For an explanation of most of the line parameters, refer to
General Line Parameters on page 254.
For all line types, you can set preferences for line color, line pattern, and
hachures.
For Contours, there is an option to label and set label intervals.
For Contours and Faults, there is a Smoothing option which enables you
to smooth or not smooth the hand-drawn graphics feature.
Drawing Lines and Line End Options
You are able to draw the lines on the active picture as soon as you click
OK in the Line Parameters dialog box. Click Button 1 at the location for
starting the first line, then click at each vertex location for that line.
When you have set all the points for the line, choose an End Option.
End Options
Once you click OK in the Line Parameters dialog box, the End Options
dialog box appears. There are three options for ending the line:
Delete Last deletes the last point you input (and the line connecting that
point to the previous point, if any) in the current line. It will not delete
points from lines that have been ended with End Open or End Closed.

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End Open ends the current line at the last point input.

End Closed ends the current line and connects the last point input
to the first point input.

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Text
Enter from Features in
Z-MAP Plus window

Select method for retrieving or creating text

Import text from a file

Enter text from keyboard

Choose method to specify


character size and location

Select text file


Select fields for X, Y, text, font,
location, size, and rotation

Keyboard

Key &
Cursor

Cursor
Only

Below
Last

Set posting parameters

Save and return to


Z-MAP Plus window

Text Workflow
Text allows you to add text anywhere on your map. Text is required to
make a finished map. Different types of text that frequently appear on
maps include lease names and related information, names of roads,
rivers, etc., township-range indices, indicators for target areas, etc. All
of these types of text can be placed on your map with this process. For
example, you could name the map Top Cretaceous Structure Map, and
add a second line of text below the title (Below Last) that reads Offshore
Louisiana. Text has a source (either a text file or keyboard entry), a font
(type of lettering), a location, a color, and a rotation. To locate text, use
the keyboard only, the cursor only, or the cursor and keyboard together.

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File (File Text)


If your source for text is a text file, the file can contain information for
the following parameters:

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Select Text File A list of files is presented. Select the file you
want. This file will be used as input when the option executes. If
you do not have a text file, you must create one in order to use this
feature.

Select X-field This option allows you to select an X-field for


the x location of the text.

Select Y-field This option allows you to select a Y-field for the
y location of the text.

Select Text Field This option allows you to select the field that
contains the text to be posted.

Select Font Field This option will allow you to select a font
(text style) if there is a font field on your input text file.

Select Location Field This option allows you to identify the


location of your text if there is a location field in your input text
file.

Select Size Field This option allows you to choose a size for
your text characters if your input text file has an entry for this field.

Select Rotation Field This option allows you to identify angle


of rotation for your text if your input text file contains a rotation
field.

Posting Parameters This feature allows you to select the


parameters with which to post your text. It will allow you to select
the font, character size of the text, rotation angle, location,
coordinate system, scale factor, and color of the text. The options
for Coordinate System, SCALED, and UNSCALED refer to map
units and plotter units respectively. Scale Factor is only used in
conjunction with Text Size.

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Key (Key Text)


Most users select the keyboard as the source of text. From the Key Text
menu, select from:

Keyboard
Key & Cursor
Cursor Only
Below Last

If you select Key Text, a prompt directs you to:


SELECT HOW TO SPECIFY CHARACTER SIZE AND LOCATION.

Keyboard
If you select Keyboard, a dialog box appears, which you use to enter a
text string and its location.

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Text Enter the text string you want to appear on the map.

X Location of Text (Plotter Units) Enter the x position of the


text, expressed in plotter units (in./cm.).

Y Location Enter the y position of your text in plotter units (in./


cm.).

Font The choices for text font are shown at left.

Color Index The color index is a number from 0 to 255 in the


Z-MAP Plus color table. The Color Index refers to the settings for
the currently active picture. To choose a Color Index for text, click
the color box. A palette of the 256 colors appears. You can change
the Color Index of the text by clicking the color you want.

Character Size Specify the size of the characters in your text


string in plotter units
(in./cm.).

Degree of Rotation In degrees from 0 to 360, indicate the


rotation for your text string. Rotation is counterclockwise, 0
degrees rotation is horizontal; 90 degrees is perpendicular to the x
axis, and so on.

Location Specified The options for location are Lower Left,


Lower Right, and Center. For example, if you choose Center, it
means that the location you are specifying (with the cursor or the
keyboard location) is the center of the text string. Lower Left
would be the lower left corner of the text string.

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Key & Cursor


With the exception of X-Location and Y-Location of text, the
parameters for Key & Cursor placement are the same as for Keyboard
placement. The X-Location and Y-Location of the text string are not
needed because the position of the cursor on the map determines the x,y
location.

Text Enter the text string as you want it to appear on the map.

Font The choices for text font are shown at left.

Color Index The color index is a number from 0 to 255 in the


Z-MAP Plus color table. The Color Index refers to the settings for
the currently active picture. To choose a color index for lines, click
the color box. A palette of the 256 colors will appear. You can
change the color index of the lines by clicking the color you want.

Character Size Specify the size of the characters in your text


string in plotter units (in./cm.).

Degree of Rotation In degrees from 0 to 360, indicate the


rotation for your text string. Rotation is counterclockwise,
0 degrees rotation is horizontal; 90 degrees is perpendicular to the
x axis, and so on.

Location Specified The options for location are Lower Left,


Lower Right, and Center. For example, if you choose Center, it
means that the location you are specifying (with the cursor or the
keyboard location) is the center of the text string. Lower Left
would be the lower left corner of the text string.

Cursor Only
The entries for cursor placement are Text, Font, and Color Index.

Text Enter the text string as you want it to appear on the map.

Font The choices for text font are shown at left.

Color Index The color index is a number from 0 to 255 in the


Z-MAP Plus color table. The Color Index refers to the settings for
the currently active picture. To choose a color index for lines, click
the color box. A palette of the 256 colors will appear. You can
change the color index of the lines by clicking the color you want.

Below Last
The entries for Below Last are Text, Font, and Color Index. The location
of the text string is below the previously chosen text string.

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Grid Nodes
Select Features Grid Nodes to place symbols and optional grid
values at gird nodes. Grid values do not typically appear on finished
maps, but you may want to show grid values while you edit a grid.
Exercise caution when you post grid node values: A dense grid can
easily result in unreadable, overlapping grid values. Such grids also take
more time to display, since drawing numbers takes much longer than
drawing lines or other types of map features.
To post grid node values, specify these parameters in the Post Grid Data
dialog box:

the grid
the symbol to mark the node location
symbol height
whether to mark ZNON (null data) locations
whether to post grid values
the rate to write grid values
the number of decimal positions for each value
an area within the grid to post

Post Grid Data Dialog Box


Grid
If you click the Grid button, the Select GRID dialog box appears with a
list of grids. Select a grid to use as input.
Posting Parameters
If you click the Posting Parameters button, the Set POSTING
Parameters dialog box, which you use to specify these parameters:

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Symbol Number To post a symbol at the grid node locations,


use the Symbol Number box to specify a symbol to post. Enter 0
to post no symbol. (For symbols and their values, see Appendix
C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line Patterns, starting on page 791.)

Symbol Size Use the Symbol Size box to define the symbol
size in plotter units (in./cm.). The default value of 0.07 in. (0.18
cm.) is adequate to mark the locations and produce legible grid
values. Increasing the size increases the probability that values will
overlap.
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Post at ZNON Location? ZNON (null) grid values result from


a variety of situations. Since it might be important to know where
ZNONs occur, you can use this parameter to mark the locations.
Alternately, there may be large areas of nulls that are of no interest
and marking them only clutters the display. You can choose to post
or omit ZNONs.

First Row To Post Minimum row of the grid to be displayed;


this specifies the bottom of the window.

Last Row To Post Maximum row of the grid to be displayed;


this specifies the top of the window.

First Column To Post Minimum column of the grid to be


displayed; this specifies the left side of the window.

Last Column To Post Maximum column of the grid to be


displayed; this specifies the right side of the window.

Labeling Parameters
Click the Labeling Parameters button to display the Set Labeling
Parameters dialog box. Use this dialog box to specify whether or not to
post the grid values, the number of decimal positions in the grid values,
the rate at which to display grid values, and what portion of the grid you
want to display.

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Post Grid Value? If only grid locations are required, there is no


need to post the grid values. On the other hand, the grid value
information may be helpful. You must decide which option is best
in your case.

Decimal Positions In Value The decimal position indicates the


number of digits to the right of the decimal to be included in the
grid value. If a 0 is entered, an integer value is posted.

Row Labeling Rate and Column Labeling Rate Grid values


are output column-wise from top to bottom. Normally, all entries
are displayed. However, you can specify the output rates to reduce
the density of values on your map. Using m = 2, and n = 5 will
output every 5th row and every other column.

Starting Row (of posted rows) and Starting Column (of posted
columns) If only a portion of the grid is required, you may use
the starting row and column indices to limit the displayed locations
and values. The defaults display the full grid.

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Polygons
The Features Polygons menu contains these options:

Color-filled Polygons
Lease Polygon Drawing
Shaded Polygons

Color-filled Polygons
To fill polygons with a solid color, select Features Polygons
Color-filled Polygons.The EXECUTE MACRO:POLYGON-FILL
dialog box appears. You specify the following parameters.

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name of the input vertex file (Polygons are stored in VERT


(vertex) type files.)
coordinate system for the polygon vertices: either
ENGINEERING or PLOTTER
color to use for filling the polygon

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Lease Polygon Drawing


Lease Polygon Drawing allows you to post and label lease polygons. In
addition to labeling each polygon with lease identification information,
you have the ability to show lease attributes through:

line shading

hachuring

text

color
You are required to supply:

A text dataset that contains lease identification information. This


dataset must contain one or more text fields and the Area
Identification field. It may also contain an Area Symbol code field,
one or more color code fields and multiple z fields.

A vertex dataset that contains the lease identification information.


This dataset must contain X (Easting), Y (Northing), SEG I.D.,
and Area Identification fields.
Area ID and the Polygon Dataset Must be same Data Type

The Area Identification field for both the text dataset and the vertex dataset
must be the same data type and have the same field width.

To label leases, specify:

up to four fields from the lease identification file to use in labeling


each lease

the size of each line of text


Text strings are stacked in the order in which they are selected with
labels automatically center justified. When center justification is not
possible, then labels are right or left justified.
If labels are too large, the macro posts only the last selected label using
a unique two character code that is automatically generated. The text file
entries that cannot be posted are automatically output to a file that
contains the two character identification codes and their meanings.
Lease Polygon Drawing uses the LEASE-DRAWING macro. For more
information about using this feature, select Help Online
Manuals Macros, and locate the topic for LEASE DRAWING.

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Shaded Polygons
Fills a set of polygons with hachured lines. Use this option to hachure
shade fault polygons that have been converted to a vertex file.
Before you can use this option, you must have a picture displayed. The
shaded vertex file is added to the current picture.
Reselect the Current Picture

When you use the Shaded Polygons macro, you must reselect the current
picture by clicking the Picture Open icon. The shaded polygon becomes
visible when you select View Full Display or click the Full Display icon.

The Change Features Delete Last Feature option is not functional


with this process.
You are asked to supply a vertex file that contains polygons. Data fields
required by the macro include:

X (EASTING)

Y (NORTHING)

SEG I.D.
Optionally, you can specify a color index field for the hachured line.
You are also asked to make these specifications:

type of hachured line to draw

hachured line color

polygon outline color

source of hachure line color (value or color field)

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(X,Y,Z) Point Data


Use the X,Y,Z Point Data option to place symbols at control point
locations or to post Z-field values and/or other information around
posted symbols. For example, you can post the well name above the well
symbol and the depth to a particular horizon below the well symbol.

Post Data Dialog Box


If you select Features X,Y,Z Point Data, the Post Data dialog box
appears, which contains the following buttons:
Select Data Button Select DATA Dialog Box
Click the Select Data button to display the Select DATA dialog box.
From the list of files, select the one that contains the data you want to
post. You must select a file before you can specify the other parameters
for the Post Data dialog box.
Fields to post Button Ordered Selection Dialog Box
Click the Fields to post button to display the Ordered Selection dialog
box. This specification is required if you have the option of determining
the order in which field labels or symbols will be posted.
Symbol Parameters Button Symbol Parameters Dialog Box
Click the Symbol Parameters button to display the Symbol Parameters
dialog box, which you use to control point symbol parameters,
including:

symbol code

select field

color field

symbol color

symbol size
The following text describes the parameters in the Symbol Parameters
dialog box.

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General Symbol Parameters


Click the General Symbol Parameters button to display the General
Symbol Parameters dialog box, which you use to control the following
symbol parameters:

posting method
symbol code
symbol color
symbol size
posting rate

Posting Method for Symbols and Labels


The listed choices for symbol posting with posted data points are All,
Select, and Omit. All and Select are the relevant choices. Omit is not
applicable to the posting method for x,y,z point data.

All. Post symbols with all data points.

Select. Post symbols only at points whose select field value is not
null. any Z-field can be a select field. You will choose Field under
the Choose Symbol Code Field panel.

Omit. This is not a meaningful option for this posting method.


Disregard it, and choose between All and Select for posting
method.

Determine Symbol Code by


The symbol code can be determined by symbol Number, symbol Field,
or Omit.

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Number. You can specify the type of symbol posted by using a


symbol number from the Z-MAP Plus Extended Symbol Set. (See
Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line Patterns, starting on
page 791.)

Field. Determine symbol code to use by reading from a Symbol


Code field on your input dataset.

Omit. You can Omit the symbol for posted points. If you want to
retain or suppress labels with posted data points, you can do this
under Label Parameters.

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Symbol Code Number


This number refers to a symbol supplied in the Z-MAP Plus Extended
Symbol Set. If Determine Symbol Code By is set to Number, this
selected symbol will be posted at each location. Otherwise, this
parameter is ignored. (For a list of Symbol Codes, see Appendix C.
Symbols, Fonts, and Line Patterns, starting on page 791.)
Determine Symbol Color by
You may specify the color of the posted symbol in one of three ways.
These three options are on the parameter menu:
You can determine the Symbol Color by Index, Field, or Z-field.

Index refers to a number in the Z-MAP Plus color table. When


you enter a number, the a box containing that color on the color
index appears to the left of the entry. Using Index as the method of
posting means that all of the symbols will be posted with this color
index.

Field means that a field on your input file specifies a color for each
symbol.

Z-field refers to the number of the Z-field on the input data file to
which the symbol color is tied. Determining color by Z-field will
result in a change of colors when the Z-value of the control point
changes (by a user-defined amount).

Symbol Color Index


This is the number associated with one of the 256 colors in the
Z-MAP Plus color table. Enter the index number of the color you want
to use, or click the color swatch next to the number field to call up the
Select A Color Index panel for a graphical selection.

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Determine Symbol Size by


Choose one of these methods for determining symbol size:

VALUE uses the size of the symbol in plotter units (in./cm.). The
default values are 0.07 in. and 0.18 cm.

FIELD uses size from a field on the input file.

DIAMETER allows symbol size to vary by a simple scaling of a


selected Z-field.

AREA allows size of symbol to represent actual area as defined by


a Z-field of area (in engineering units).

CLASS allows symbol size to vary based on up to 6 user defined


intervals that relate to a particular Z-field. You can make all the
producing well symbols a specific size in plotter units (in./cm.), all
the dry holes another size.

Symbol Size
This is the symbol height in plotter units (in./cm.).
Posting Rate
The Posting Rate for symbols is a divisor for the number of points. A
posting rate of 1 means that every control point will be posted. A posting
rate of 5 means that every 5th control point will be posted.
Choose Symbol Code Field
Click the Choose Symbol Code Field button to display the Select
Symbol dialog box. If the input file contains a symbol field, use this
option to post a symbol for a point based on the symbol field.
Choose Select Field
Click the Choose Select Field button to display the Select Field to use
as Posting Select Field dialog box. This dialog box contains a list of
fields in the input line file. Choose a field to use as the posting Select
Field. (The posted control points are based on this field.)
Choose Color Field for symbol color
This is the color field used to determine the color for the posted symbol.
A list of the field names for color fields is presented. These color fields
are taken from the input line data file.

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Vary Symbol Color Parameters


Click the Vary Symbol Color Parameters button to display the Vary
Symbol Color Parameters dialog box. Use this dialog box to vary the
color of the symbol posted. You can show a gradual increase in a
Z-value by assigning a color to a given range. You can vary the color by
choosing a starting color index, the number of color levels, method of
defaulting the Z-table for color levels, the Z-increment for defaulting,
and the start Z-value for defaulting. You can show a gradual increase in
a Z-value by assigning a color to a given range.
Start Color Index
The Start Color Index is the number of the beginning color (in the color
table) to use for varying the symbol colors.
Number of Color Levels
Enter the number of colors to display on the map as Z-values.
Default Z-Table for Color Levels by
Select the criteria (if any) you want to use to automatically assign the
Z-value color.

NONE indicates that you do not want to use default color


variation.

DIVIDE indicates that you want to default the color variation by


dividing the Z-value by a constant value. A Divide value of 50
would change the color of the symbol every time the Z-value is
divisible by 50. Default setting)

INCREMENT indicates that you want to default the color of the


Z-value symbol when a constant distance change has been
achieved. An increment of 25, for example. would result in a
change of color for the Z-value symbol every 25 feet.

INCREMENT+START means that you specify the lowest


Z-value at which to begin default color variation, and the
increment which must be achieved before the next color is posted.

Z-Increment for defaulting


This value is the Z-increment that causes the line color to move up one
level. This value is used only if the Default Z-Table for Color Levels
by button reads INCREMENT or INCREMENT+START.

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Start Z-Value for defaulting


This number is the Z-value to begin defaulting the Z-table. The Start
Z-value is only used if the Default Z-Table for Color Levels by button
reads INCREMENT+START. If the Start Z-value is 7300, and the
increment is 50, color defaulting occurs at 7350, 7400, 7450, etc.
Choose Z-field to vary symbol color
Click the Choose Z-field to vary symbol color button to display the
Select Z FIELD for COLOR change in posting symbol dialog box. If the
input file contains more than one Z-field, you must choose a Z-value to
use as the basis of the color variations.
Z-table to vary symbol color
Click the Z-table to vary symbol color button to display the Z level
TABLE for symbol color dialog box. Use this dialog box only if you are
not using one of the default methods for assigning color table values.
If you are assigning custom values to the color table, you can specify a
maximum value for color index numbers. This enables you to correlate
changes in Z-value to changes in symbol color number.
The number of color index fields and starting index color reflects the
choices you made in the Vary Symbol Color Parameters dialog box. For
example, if you stipulated four color levels, you can enter minimum or
maximum Z-level values for the four color indexes. The maximum
number of color index fields displayed is 17.
Choose Size Field for symbol size
A list of Size Fields on the input line data file appears. You can choose
one size field from this list.

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Vary Symbol Size Parameters


Click the Vary Symbol Size Parameters button to display the Vary
Symbol Size Parameters dialog box. Set parameter values in this dialog
box to control the symbol size variation in the current picture. Values
you can set for symbol size variation follow:

Offset for Vary by Area or Diameter This number refers to


the offset for symbol size calculation. When you have chosen to
vary symbol size by area or diameter, these are the equations:
Vary Area Size:
Size = SQRT [(4/pi) * Scale * (field value + offset)]
Vary Diameter Size:
Size = (field value + offset) * scale

Scale for Vary by Area or Diameter This is the scale for


symbol size calculation.
Vary Area Size:
Size = SQRT [(4/pi) * Scale * (field value + offset)]
Vary Diameter Size:
Size = (field value + offset) * scale

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Minimum Symbol Size (in/cm) for Vary This number refers


to the minimum symbol size to post, in plotter units (in./cm). The
default minimum is 0.05 in. or 0.13 cm.

Maximum Symbol Size (in/cm) for Vary This number refers


to the maximum symbol size to post, in plotter units (in./cm). The
default maximum is 0.25 in. or 0.64 cm.

Symbol Size Increment (in/cm) for Vary When symbol size is


set to Vary By Class, the symbol size increment must be stated in
plotter units (in./cm.) The default symbol size increment is 0.05 in.
or 0.13 cm.

Number of Class Intervals Symbol sizes can be made to vary


according to class intervals. Class intervals are defined by
minimum Z-values, and you can define from 1 to 6 class intervals
for symbol size.

Z-Minimum for Class one This number refers to the lowest


Z-value for symbol posting to begin.

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Choose Z-field to vary symbol size


Click the Choose Z-field to vary symbol size button to display the
Select Z-Field to use to vary symbol size dialog box. This dialog box
contains a list of fields in the input line data file. Changes in the size of
the posted symbol are tied to the Z-field you select from this list. You
can select only one Z-field to determine symbol size variation.
Z-table to vary symbol size
Click the Choose Z-table to vary symbol size button to display the
Z level TABLE for symbol size dialog box. Use this dialog box only if
you are not using one of the default methods for assigning color table
values.
If you are assigning custom values to the color table, you can specify a
maximum value for each size class you specified in the Vary Symbol
Color Parameters dialog box (up to 20 size classes). This enables you to
correlate changes in Z-value to changes in symbol size.

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Labeling Parameters
Use this selection to determine the parameters for labeling fields, for
setting the rate at which to post labels, and for selecting color fields.
Field Parameters
This panel allows you to determine labeling parameters for fields.
Control is allowed for:

color mode
color index
font
number of decimals
height (of label)
location (of label)

You can determine the labeling parameters for each field selected for
labeling independently.
Color Mode
There are three ways to determine the color of the symbol: by the color
Index, by the Symbol, and by the Field.

Index refers to the color index for the color in the Z-MAP Plus
color table.

Symbol refers to the symbol number in the Z-MAP Plus Extended


Symbol Set. (For a list of symbols and their codes, see Appendix
C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line Patterns, starting on page 791.)

Field refers to a field of data stored with the control point data that
lists a color index for each control point.

Color Index
If you choose the Index option for Color Mode, you must assign a color
index from the color table to determine label color for the current field.
The color index is a number from 0 to 255 which represents a color in
the Z-MAP Plus color table. The color index refers to the settings for the
currently active picture.

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Field Font
The Field Font is the font in which Labels for this field are to be printed.
The choices are:

Number of Decimals
This number refers to the number of places to the right of the decimal to
post for the field. Up to 12 decimal places are allowed.
Height of Label
This value refers to the height of the label, in plotter units (in./cm). The
label represents the current field. The default label heights are 0.07 in.
or 0.18 cm.
Location of Label
There are two options for locating a label on a line. The label can be
posted to the Right of the line or it can posted to the Left of the line.
Labeling Rate
The Labeling Rate refers to the rate at which posted control points are
labeled. A label rate of 1 means that every point is labeled, a label rate
of 3 means that every 3rd point in the file is labeled.

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Color Fields
This panel is a list of color fields found on your input control point data
file. Select the color field you would like to use for your label. This
parameter is used only when Color Mode is set to Field.

Data Units/Clip Mode


This panel allows you to determine the data units in which the
coordinates of the points are expressed, and whether data outside the
AOI border is displayed or clipped at the border.
Data Units
The coordinates of the control points are expressed in data units. Data
units can be either user units or plotter units. User units are engineering
or user coordinates such as feet. Plotter units are inches or centimeters.
The default value is User units.
Clip to Border Mode
This option refers to what the program is to do with points on the line
file which lie outside the AOI border of the current picture. When you
select Noclip, the lines are displayed beyond the border of the map.
When you select Clip, the program will not display the data outside the
border.

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Deviated Wells

Features Deviated Wells menu


Deviated well posting enables you to post and label the top, bottom, and
well trace of deviated wells. The process provides significant control
over size and color of posted features.
The main components of deviated well posting are Top Hole Posting,
Bottom Hole Posting, and Well Trace Posting.

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Well Trace Posting includes posting points along the well trace. The
capabilities of each component are outlined in the following table.
Well Trace Posting
(Intermediate)

Top Hole Posting

Bottom Hole Posting

Post symbols at:


all wells
only wells that are not
ZNON for selected
Z-field
a specified posting rate

Post symbols at:


all wells
only wells that are not
ZNON for selected
Z-field
a specified posting rate

Well Trace Posting

Symbol Uses:
same symbol at all
wells
different symbols
based on symbol code
field

Symbol uses:
same symbol at all
wells
different symbols
based on symbol code
field

Well traces can be divided


into:
secondary lines that can
have different posting
parameters from primary
lines

Symbol size and color is


based on:
constant value
size or color field
Z-field values

Symbol size and color is


based on:
constant value
size or color field
Z-field values

Scale posting along well


trace:
based on a selected
Z-field
tick style controls
tick label controls

Color of line segments


from point:
constant color
color based on color field
variable color based on
selected Z-field

Labels up to 12 fields at: Labels up to 12 fields at: Note:


Uses the same line styles that
each posted symbol
each posted symbol
a specified labeling rate a specified labeling rate are available for any line
posting (solid, dashed,
pattern.).

Colors for posted fields


can be:
same color as symbol
a specified color
based on a color field

Colors for posted fields


can be:
same color as symbol
a specified color
based on a color field

Posting Points Along Well


Trace
Symbol posting and size:
same capabilities as Top
and Bottom Hole Posting
Symbol color:
same color as well trace
same capabilities as Top
and Bottom Hole Posting
Labels up to 2 fields:
same capabilities as for
Top and Bottom Hole
Posting

Posted fields can have different sizes, fonts, decimal places, and/or positions.

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Each of the three major parts of a deviated well data file has fields to
post and symbol and labeling parameters. The Top and Bottom
components have been documented under three headings: Top/Bottom
Fields to Post, Top/Bottom Symbol Parameters, and Top/Bottom
Labeling Parameters. Parameter settings for the top do not have to match
bottom hole parameters. The Well Trace component of the data has
three additional parameter types: Line Mode/Scale Mode, Well Trace
Parameters, and Scale Field.
The Top, Bottom, and Well Trace components of the deviated well each
has a Fields to Post panel. This panel is the Ordered Select panel new to
Z-MAP Plus.
Each component also has parallel panels for symbol and labeling
parameters. The parameter panels for all three components are identical
for symbol posting and labeling.
You will most likely want to vary the color coding for symbols and
labels according to whether they belong to the top, bottom, or well trace
component. You can also color code points according to the variation in
a selected Z-field.

Deviated Well Files


Deviated Well files are of the type DWEL. The required fields are X, Y,
and Segment I.D.
All field types are allowed on a DWEL file, but some of the more
important optional fields include:

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Fields for Top Only

Fields for Top, Bottom,


and Well Trace

Fields for Well Trace


Only

Well Name or Platform


Name (used for
labeling)

Line Color Field to


Vary Line Color
Z-field to Vary Line
Color
Z-field to Vary Line
Pattern
Well Trace Fields to
Post
Well Trace Scale Field

Select Field
Symbol Field
Symbol Size Field
Symbol Color Field
Z-field used to control
Symbol Size
Color Fields for Labels
Z-field used to control
Symbol Color

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Select Data
A list of DWEL (deviated well) data files appears, including the
OpenWorks Current Well List. This file will contain the deviated wells
that you would like to post. If you select from the OpenWorks Current
Well List, the selected well list becomes a DWEL file for use in
Z-MAP Plus, however DWEL files cannot used by other applications.

Top/Bottom Fields to Post


At either the well top or bottom locations, you can post up to 12 fields.
The ordered selection panel gives you the option of determining the
order in which field labels or symbols will be posted, or the order in
which fields will be printed on a report.
The Ordered Selection panel has two lists side by side. The Source List
contains the fields that are listed in your input data file. The Destination
List holds the fields you select for output from the Source List. Fields
are output in the order in which they are listed on the Destination List.
Depending on the mode you are in, you can Append (add), Delete, and
Insert (change the order of) the fields on the Destination List. Append is
the default mode.

Top/Bottom Symbol Parameters


These panels allow you to control Top/Bottom Field Symbol
Parameters, including:

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Symbol Code
Select Field
Color Field
Symbol Color
Symbol Size

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General Symbol Parameters


General Symbol Parameters allows you to determine how symbols get
posted by controlling the following parameters: Posting Method,
Symbol Code, Symbol Color, Symbol Size, and Posting Rate.

Posting Method for Symbols and Labels This method


determines how Symbols and Labels are posted. The options are:
All Post symbols with all data points.
Select Post symbols only at points whose select field value
is not null. any Z-field can be a select field. You will choose
Field under the Choose Symbol Code Field panel.
Omit No symbols posted.

Determine Symbol Code By There are three options to


determine which symbol gets posted at top/bottom locations:
Number. You may specify the type of symbol to be posted
using a symbol number from the Z-MAP Plus Extended
Symbol Set. (See Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line
Patterns, starting on page 791.)
Field. Determine symbol code to use by reading from a
Symbol Code field on your input dataset.
Omit. You can Omit the symbol for posted points. If you want
to retain or suppress labels with posted data points, you can do
this under Label Parameters.

Symbol Code Number This number refers to a symbol


supplied in the Z-MAP Plus Extended Symbol Set. If Determine
Symbol Code By is set to Number, this selected symbol will be
posted at each location. Otherwise, this parameter is ignored. (For
a list of Symbol Codes, see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and
Line Patterns, starting on page 791.)

Determine Symbol Color By You can determine the symbol


color by Index, Field or Z-field.
Index refers to a number in the Z-MAP Plus color table. When
you enter a number, the a box containing that color on the color
index appears to the left of the entry. Using Index as the
method of posting means that all of the symbols will be posted
with this color index.
Field means that a field on your input file specifies a color for
each symbol.

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Z-field refers to the number of the Z-field on the input data file
to which the symbol color is tied. Determining color by Z-field
will result in a change of colors when the Z-value of the
control point changes (by a user-defined amount).

Symbol Color Index This is the number associated with the


256 colors in the Z-MAP Plus color table. Each color has an
associated number, or index. To see a palette of the colors, select
the Color Box. Then select the color you want for your symbol
color.

Determine Symbol Size By There are five methods for


determining symbol size:
Value uses the size of the symbol in plotter units (in./cm.). The
default values are 0.07 in. and 0.18 cm.
Field size from a field on the input file.
Diameter allows symbol size to vary by a simple scaling of a
selected Z-field.
Area allows size of symbol to represent actual area as defined
by a Z-field of area (in engineering units).
Class allows symbol size to vary based on up to 6 user defined
intervals that relate to a particular Z-field. You can make all the
producing well symbols a specific size in plotter units (in./
cm.), all the dry holes another size.

Symbol Size This number is the symbol height in plotter units


(in./cm.).

Posting Rate The Posting Rate for symbols is the divisor of the
number of top/bottom fields. A Posting Rate of 1 means that every
top/bottom field on the data file will have a symbol posted. A
Posting Rate of 5 means that every 5th field will have a symbol
posted.

Choose Symbol Code Field


Choosing Symbol Code Field will post a symbol for a point based on the
symbol field on your input file, if your input file contains one.
Choose Select Field
The Select Field determines where posting can occur at top/bottom
locations. A list of fields on your input file appears. Select the field you
want to use as the field on which to base the posted top/bottom fields.

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Choose Color Field for Symbol Color


This is the color field used to determine the color for the posted symbol.
A list of the field names for color fields is presented. These color fields
are taken from the input data file. Select one of the fields listed.
Vary Symbol Color Parameters
Vary Symbol Color Parameters allows you to vary the color of the
symbol posted. Color can be varied by choosing a starting color index,
the number of color levels, method of defaulting the Z-table for color
levels, the Z-increment for defaulting, and the start Z-value for
defaulting. The purpose of this feature is to allow the mapper to show a
gradual increase in a Z-value by representing a defined change in Z as a
color in a given range. For example, every change of 50 feet could be
represented by a slightly darker shade of blue.
Start Color Index
This number represents the Color Index which will be used for the first
Z-value range to be posted. Index refers to a number in the Z-MAP Plus
color table. When you enter a number, the a box containing that color on
the color index appears to the left of the entry. Using Index as the
method of posting means that all of the symbols will be posted with this
color index.
Number of Color Levels
This number refers to the number of colors in the color table that are
displayed as changes in Z-values.
Default Z-Table for Color Levels By
Defaulting the color variation results in an automatic assignment of a
color to a Z-value according to the criteria you select for the parameter.

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None Does not default the color variation.

Divide Indicates that you want to default the color variation by


dividing the Z-value by a constant value. A Divide value of 50
would change the color of the symbol every time the Z-value is
divisible by 50.

Increment Indicates that you want to default the color of the


Z-value symbol when a constant distance change has been
achieved. An increment of 25, for example, would result in a
change of color for every Z-value change of 25.

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Increment+Start Begins with the Start Z-value for Defaulting


Symbol Color and changes to the next color index when the
Z-increment has been reached.

Z-increment for Defaulting


This value equals the Z-increment which will cause the symbol color to
move up one level. This defaulting method is only used if Default
Z-table for Color Levels By is Increment or Increment+Start.
Start Z-value for Defaulting
This number represents the Z-value at which you wish to begin
defaulting the Z-table. The Start Z-value is only used when Default
Z-table for Color Levels By is Increment+Start. If your Start Z-value
is 7300, and your increment is 50, color defaulting will occur at 7350,
7400, 7450, etc.
Choose Z-field to Vary Symbol Color
If there is more than one Z-field on an input file, you must choose the
Z-field that you would like to use to base the color variations on.
Z-table to Vary Symbol Color
This table contains a range of Z-values for color indices that you may
use when posting color symbols. The table contains a list of Z-values for
each color index. Maximum Z-values are not required if you chose a
method of defaulting the table.
Maximum Z-value For Color Index
You may correlate changes in Z-value to changes in color index number.
The number of Maximum Z-values listed on this panel is determined by
the number of Symbol Color Levels you indicated on the Symbol Color
Set Parameters panel; you can choose up to 20 symbol color levels.
Enter the Maximum Z-value you want for each color index.
Choose Size Field for Symbol Size
If your input dataset contains size fields, a list of Size Fields on your
input line data file is presented. You can choose one Size Field from this
list.

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Vary Symbol Size Parameters


You may specify how Symbol Size Parameters will be set to cause
variation in symbol size on your current picture. Control over symbol
size variation is provided by setting parameter values. The parameter
values are described in the following text.

Offset for Vary by Area or Diameter This number refers to


the offset for Symbol Size calculation. When you chose to vary
Symbol Size by Area or Diameter, these are the equations:
Vary Area Size:
Size = SQRT [(4/p) * scale * (field value + offset)]
Vary Diameter Size:
Size = (field value + offset) * scale

Scale for Vary by Area or Diameter This is the scale for


symbol size calculation.
Vary Area Size:
Size = SQRT [(4/p) * scale * (field value + offset)]
Vary Diameter Size:
Size = (field value + offset) * scale

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Minimum Symbol Size (in./cm.) for Vary This number refers


to the minimum symbol size to post, in plotter units (in./cm.). The
default minimum is 0.05 in. or 0.13 cm.

Maximum Symbol Size (in./cm.) for Vary This number refers


to the maximum symbol size to post, in plotter units (in./cm.). The
default maximum is 0.25 in. or 0.64 cm.

Symbol Size Increment (in./cm.) for Vary When symbol size


is set to Vary by Class, the symbol size increment must be stated in
plotter units (in./cm.) The default Symbol Size Increment is 0.05
in. or 0.13 cm.

Number of Class Intervals Symbol sizes can be made to vary


according to Class Intervals. Class Intervals are defined by
Minimum Z-values, and you can define from 1 to 6 class intervals
for symbol size.

Z-minimum for Class One This number refers to the lowest


Z-value at which you want Symbol Posting to begin.

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Choose Z-field to Vary Symbol Size


Changes in the size of the posted symbol will be tied to the Z-field you
select from this list. You may only select one Z-field to determine
symbol size variation. Fields available for selection are taken from your
input line data file.
Z-table to Vary Symbol Size
This table contains a range of up to 6 maximum Z-values for symbol
sizes to use. The table contains a Z-value for each symbol size class.
These Maximum Z-values are not required if you chose a method of
defaulting the table.
Maximum Z-value for Size Class
You may correlate top/bottom symbol size to maximum Z-values. Enter
the maximum Z-value for each Size Class.

Top/Bottom Labeling Parameters


You can control how labels posted at symbols are set up by controlling
Field Labeling Parameters, Labeling Rate, and Color Fields.
Field Parameters
You can determine labeling parameters for each field selected for
labeling independently. You can specify values for the following
parameters:

Color Mode There are three ways to determine the color of the
symbol:
Index refers to a number in the Z-MAP Plus color table.
When you enter a number, the a box containing that color on
the color index appears to the left of the entry. Using Index as
the method of posting means that all of the labels will be
posted with this color index.
Symbol allows you to determine the color of a text label
based on the type of symbol it labels. You do this by selecting
the symbol code number you want from the Z-MAP Plus
Extended Symbol Set, which provides symbols for posting oil
wells, shotpoints, for example. (For examples of these
symbols, see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line
Patterns, starting on page 791.)
Field means that the label color to use is read from a color
field in your input dataset.

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Color Index If you choose the Index option for Color Mode,
you must assign a color index from the color table to determine
label color for the current field. The Color Index is a number from
0 to 255 which represents a color in the Z-MAP Plus color table.
To see the color palette, select the Color Box. Select the color you
want for the current field's label.

Font The Font is the font in which labels for the Label Field are
to be printed. The choices are shown at left.

Number of Decimals For each numeric label field, you can


control the number of decimal places. This number refers to the
number of places to the right of the decimal to post for the field.
Up to 12 decimal places are allowed.

Height of Label This value refers to the height of the label, in


plotter units (in./cm.). The label represents the current field. The
default label heights are 0.07 in. or 0.18 cm.

Location of Label This panel enables you to control the


position of each label field with respect to the symbol. There are
five options for locating a label in relation to a posted symbol:
Above the top/bottom symbol
Below the top/bottom symbol
Right of the top/bottom symbol
Left of the top/bottom symbol
Centered with reference to the well location

Labeling Rate
The Labeling Rate refers to the rate at which posted top/bottom fields
are labeled. A label rate of 1 means that every posted top/bottom field is
labeled, a label rate of 3 means that every 3rd posted field is labeled.
Color Fields
Color Fields presents a list of color fields. Select the color field for the
top/bottom label color. The Select Color Field for top/bottom label color
will appear for as many fields whose color mode was set to Field.

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Well Trace Line Mode/Scale Mode


Well Trace Line Mode/Scale Mode allows you to determine the type of
line which will connect the (well trace) intermediate points. You are
asked to specify:

which lines will have primary line parameters applied


the type of line scale you want

Use Primary Line Parameters for Which Lines


Whether a line is a primary or a secondary line depends on the Select
Field. The first point on a primary line must be a known value. A null
value (ZNON) is not acceptable.
Secondary lines have a null first point (for the value of the Select Field).
The value for the first point on a secondary line is unknown.
Primary line parameters allow you to specify the type of line to connect
the well trace line segments. The types of lines are determined by the
following choices:

Pattern Number
Solid
Single Dash
Double Dash
Triple Dash
Hachured
Vary the Pattern by Z-field
Omit

There are three options with respect to Primary Line Parameters:


All. Post all lines using Primary Line Parameters.
Primary. Post only primary lines using Primary Line Parameters.
When the value of the top hole location is not null, use the Primary Line
Parameters for that line. When the value of the top hole location is null,
use Secondary Parameters for that line.
Secondary. Post only secondary lines using Primary Line Parameters.
When the value of the top hole location is not null, use the Secondary
Line Parameters for that line. When the value of the top hole location is
null, use Primary Parameters for that line.

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Type of Line Scale


The Tick Field is the field number of the Z-field used to post tick marks
and labels along lines. If the Z-field is a depth field, a depth scale for
well traces will be produced.
The Type of Line Scale refers to a method for plotting a scale on lines
based on the values of the Tick Field.
There are three options for Type of Line Scale:
Ticks. Plots tick marks at specified increments.
Ticks+Labels. Plots tick marks at specified increments and posts the
label with the value of the field at these tick marks.
Omit. Does not plot a scale.

Well Trace Parameters


Well Trace line drawing parameters provide control for the following:

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Primary Line Parameters


Choose Color Field for Line Color
Vary Line Color Parameters
Choose Z-field to Vary Line Color
Z-table to Vary Line Color
Vary Line Pattern Parameters
Choose Z-field to Vary Line Pattern
Z-table to Vary Line Pattern
Choose Select Field
Secondary Line Parameters

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Primary Line Parameters


Click the Primary Line Parameters button in the Well trace Line
Drawing dialog box to display the Primary Line Parameters for Well
Traces dialog box. Use this dialog box to control line type, dash length
and dash gap, hachure length, gap, and direction, line weight and line
color. You can specify the following input values:

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Line Type This menu allows you to choose the type of line you
want to draw in connecting the points. Select on the graphical
representations of the desired line types, or choose to establish line
type by Pattern number or vary the line pattern by Z-field.

Line Pattern Number This is the pattern number for drawing


lines. Enter a number from 1 to 20. (For examples of line patterns,
see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line Patterns, starting on
page 791.)

Dash Length One This value is required only if you have


chosen a dashed line as the line type for well traces. This number
represents the length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the first dash in
the dash pattern for drawing lines. The default length for the first
dash is 0.07 in. or 0.18 cm.

Dash Length Two This value is required only if you have


chosen a dashed line with two or three different dash lengths. This
number represents the length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the
second dash in the dash pattern for drawing lines. The default
length for the second dash is 0.09 in. or 0.23 cm.

Dash Length Three This value is required only if you have


chosen a dashed line with three dash lengths as the Line Type. This
number represents the length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the third
dash in the dash pattern for drawing lines. The default length for
the third dash is 0.11 in. or 0.28 cm.

Gap Length One This value is required only if you have


chosen a dashed line as the Line Type. This number represents the
length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the first gap between dashes in
the dash pattern for drawing lines. The default length for the first
gap is 0.07 in. or 0.18 cm.

Gap Length Two This value is required only if you have


chosen a dashed line (consisting of two or three unequal dash
lengths) as the Line Type. This number represents the length in
plotter units (in./cm.) of the second gap between dashes in the dash
pattern for drawing lines. The default gap length for the second
gap is 0.09 in. or 0.23 cm.

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Gap Length Three This value is required only if you have


chosen a dashed line (consisting of three unequal dash lengths) as
the Line Type. This number represents the length in plotter units
(in./cm.) of the third gap between dashes in the dash pattern for
drawing lines. The default gap length for the third gap is 0.11 in. or
0.28 cm.

Hachure Gap This value is required only if you have chosen a


Line Type of Hachure. This number represents the gap between
hachures in plotter units
(in./cm.) of the hachures in the pattern for drawing lines. The
default hachure gap is 0.1 in. or 0.25 cm.

Hachure Length This value is required only if you have


chosen a Line Type of Hachure. This number represents the length
in plotter units (in./cm.) of the hachures in the pattern for drawing
primary lines. The default hachure length is 0.05 in. or 0.13 cm.

Hachure Direction This direction is the direction of the


hachures relative to the line. Left means to draw the hachures on
the relative left side of the line, and Right means to draw the
hachures on the right side of the line. The default direction is Left.

Line Weight This number represents a multiple of the normal


line width for drawing lines. The thicknesses range from 1 to 8,
and the default line weight is 1. The larger the weight, the bolder
the line will be.

Color Mode There are three methods for defining the color of
the primary lines:
Index refers to a number in the Z-MAP Plus color table.
When you enter a number, the a box containing that color on
the color index appears to the left of the entry. Using Index as
the method of posting means that all of the lines will be posted
with this color index.
Field means that a field on your input file specifies a color
for each line.
Z-field refers to the number of the Z-field on the input data
file to which the line color is tied. Determining color by Z-field
will result in a change of colors when the Z-value of the line
changes (by a user-defined amount).

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Color Index The Color Index is a number from 0 to 255 in the


Z-MAP Plus color table. The Color Index refers to the settings for
the currently active picture. To choose a Color Index for lines,
select the color box. A palette of the 256 colors will appear. You
can change the color index of the lines by selecting the color you
want.

Choose Color Field for Line Color


From the list of the color field names that appears, select a field to use
for the line color. The color fields are derived from the input line data
file.
Vary Line Color Parameters
If the color variation is based on the Z-field value, click the Vary Line
Color Parameters button in the Well trace Line Drawing Parameters
dialog box to display the Vary Line Color Parameters dialog box. Use
this dialog box to vary line color by specifying user-supplied default
parameters. You can specify the starting color, method of defaulting
Z-table, the Z-increment for defaulting, and the starting Z-value for
defaulting.

Start Color Index This number represents the color index


which will be used for the first Z-value range to be posted. The
Color Index represents a color in the Z-MAP Plus color table.

Number of Color Levels This is the number of color levels to


use when determining symbol color variation. The number of
color levels is relevant when the method of determining symbol
color is tied to the value of the Z-field.

Default Z-table for Color Levels By When the method of


determining Symbol Color is by Z-field value, there are four
modes of setting up the Z-table to vary symbol color:
None Does not default the table.
Divide Divides the range of Z-values into color level
classes. The program will calculate a reasonable starting
Z-value and Z-increment.
Increment The change in Z-value necessary to change the
symbol color to the next color on the Color Index.
Increment+Start Begins with the Start Z-value for
Defaulting Symbol Color and changes to the next color index
when the Z-increment has been reached.

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Z-increment for Defaulting The Z-increment for Defaulting


refers to the interval between Z-values in the data which will cause
the symbol color to default to the next color in the Z-MAP Plus
color table. If the Z-increment is 1,000 feet, and the starting color
is 57 (blue-purple), then a depth of another 1,000 feet will change
the symbol color to 58 (violet).

Start Z-value for Defaulting This parameter allows you to


single out Z-values of interest. If you are interested in depths at or
below 5,500 feet, the Start Z-value for defaulting can be 5,500
feet. Data closer to the top surface than 5,500 feet will all be the
same color.

Choose Z-Field to Vary Line Color


The value of the selected Z-field is used to change line color. You can
only select one Z-field to determine line color variation. Fields available
for selection are derived from the input line data file.
Z-Table to Vary Line Color
If you specified a Z-field to use for varying line color, click the Z-Table
to Vary Line Color button in the Well trace Line Drawing dialog box
to display the Z level TABLE for Line Color dialog box. This dialog box
contains a range of up to 50 maximum Z-values for color indices to use
when drawing lines, one for each color level. The number of color levels
was indicated in the Vary Line Color Parameters panel. If you stipulated
4 color levels, you will be asked to enter 4 maximum Z-levels. These
maximum Z-values are not required if you chose a method of defaulting
the table.
Each parameter entry area on the Z-table for line color represents the
maximum Z-value for that color. The values you enter into this table will
correlate line color to Maximum Z-value. When the Z-value reaches the
next maximum, the line color will vary by one index number. You can
represent up to 50 Maximum Z-values.
For example, assume that your starting color in the color table is 17, the
distance between Maximum Z-values is 100 feet, and your Maximum
Z-value for index 17 is 7,500 feet. The index color for 7,575 feet will
be index color 18.
The number of Z-values you can enter on this table is determined by the
Number of Color Levels you entered on the Vary Line Color Parameters
panel. The starting color was also determined by your choice on the
Vary Line Color Parameters panel.

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Vary Line Pattern Parameters


Click the Vary Line Pattern Parameters button in the Well trace Line
Drawing Parameters dialog box to display the Vary Line Pattern
Parameters dialog box. This dialog box contains the same choices for
line patterns as are available for varying line colors. If the Line Type is
Z-field, the default values for assigning patterns can be defined.

Start Pattern Number This number represents the starting


pattern number for drawing lines. There can be up to 20 patterns,
each line pattern being correlated with a given Z-value.

Number of Patterns The number of line patterns needed


depends on the number of maximum Z-values for which a change
in line pattern is desired. Up to 20 maximum Z-values, and up to
20 line patterns, can be specified.

Default Z-table for Pattern Numbers by You can use up to 50


Z-values to determine the line patterns to use for drawing lines.
The table uses four modes to determine how the lines on the active
picture are to be drawn:
None Indicates that you do not default the table.
Divide Divides the data range into pattern level divisions.
The program will calculate a starting value and an increment
for each line pattern level.
Increment Indicates that the Z-increment will be used to
calculate an increment and a starting value.
Increment+Start The starting value for the table comes
from the Start Z-value plus the Z-increment for pattern
changes.

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Z-Increment for defaulting This value equals the Z-Increment


which causes the Line Pattern to move up one level. This
defaulting method is only used if Default Z-table for Pattern
Numbers By is Increment or Increment+Start.

Start Z-value for Defaulting This number represents the


Z-value at which you wish to begin defaulting the Z-table. It is
only used when Default Z-table for Pattern Numbers By is
Increment+Start.

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Choose Z-Field to Vary Line Pattern


You can click the Choose Z-Field to Vary Line Pattern button in the
Well trace Line Drawing dialog box to tie changes in line pattern to the
values of a selected Z-field. From the list of Z-fields in the input line
data file, select one field to determine the line pattern variation.
Z-Table to Vary Line Pattern
If you specified a Z-field to use for varying line pattern, click the
Z-Table to Vary Line Color button in the Well trace Line Drawing
dialog box to display the Z level TABLE for Line Pattern dialog box.
This dialog box contains a range of up to 20 maximum Z-values for line
patterns to use when drawing lines. The table contains a list of Z-values
for each line pattern. The number of pattern levels was indicated in the
Vary Line Pattern Parameters panel. If you stipulated 4 pattern levels,
you will be asked to enter 4 maximum Z-levels. These Maximum
Z-values are not required if you chose a method of defaulting the table.
The parameter entry area on this panel allows you to correlate changes
in Z-value to changes in line pattern. You can choose up to 20 line
pattern levels. The number of Maximum Z-values listed on this panel is
determined by the number of line pattern levels you indicated on the
Vary Line Pattern Parameters panel. Enter the Maximum Z-value you
want for each pattern number.
Choose Select Field
The Select Field determines where posting can occur at bottom
locations. To choose a field to use as the posting Select Field, click the
Choose Select Field button in the Well trace Drawing Parameters
dialog box. A list of the fields in the specified input file appears. Choose
the field you want to use as the field on which to base the posted well
trace fields.

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Secondary Line Parameters


Click the Secondary Line Parameters button in the Well trace Line
Drawing Parameters dialog box to display the Secondary Line
Parameters for Well Traces dialog box. Use this dialog box to specify
the following input values:

Line Type Use the Line menu allows you to choose the type of
line you want to draw for the well trace. Select on the graphical
representations of the desired line types, or choose to establish line
type by Pattern number or vary the line pattern by Z-field.

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Line Pattern Number This is the pattern number for drawing


lines. Enter a number from 1 to 20. (For examples of line patterns,
see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line Patterns, starting on
page 791.)

Dash Length One This value is required only if you have


chosen a dashed line as the Line Type for well traces. This number
represents the length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the first dash in
the dash pattern for drawing lines. The default length for the first
dash is 0.07 in. or 0.18 cm.

Dash Length Two This value is required only if you have


chosen a dashed line with two or three different dash lengths as the
Line Type. This number represents the length in plotter units (in./
cm.) of the second dash in the dash pattern for drawing lines. The
default length for the second dash is 0.09 in. or 0.23 cm.

Dash Length Three This value is required only if you have


selected a dashed line with three dash lengths as the Line Type.
This number represents the length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the
third dash in the dash pattern for drawing lines. The default length
for the third dash is 0.11 in. or 0.28 cm.

Gap Length One This value is required only if you have


selected a dashed line as the Line Type. This number represents
the length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the first gap between dashes
in the dash pattern for drawing lines. The default length for the
first gap is 0.07 in. or 0.18 cm.

Gap Length Two This value is required only if you have


selected a dashed line (consisting of two or three unequal dash
lengths) as the Line Type. This number represents the length in
plotter units (in./cm.) of the second gap between dashes in the dash
pattern for drawing lines. The default gap length for the second
gap is 0.09 in. or 0.23 cm.

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Gap Length Three This value is required only if you have


selected a dashed line (consisting of three unequal dash lengths) as
the Line Type. This number represents the length in plotter units
(in./cm.) of the third gap between dashes in the dash pattern for
drawing lines. The default gap length for the third gap is 0.11 in. or
0.28 cm.

Hachure Gap This value is required only if you have selected a


Line Type of Hachure. This number represents the gap between
hachures in plotter units (in./cm.) of the hachures in the pattern for
drawing lines. The default hachure gap is 0.1 in. or 0.25 cm.

Hachure Length This value is required only if you have


selected a Line Type of Hachure. This number represents the
length in plotter units (in./cm.) of the hachures in the pattern for
drawing primary lines. The default hachure length is 0.05 in. or
0.13 cm.

Hachure Direction This direction is the direction of the


hachures relative to the line. Left means to draw the hachures on
the relative left side of the line, and Right means to draw the
hachures on the right side of the line. The default direction is Left.

Line Weight This number represents a multiple of the normal


line width for drawing lines. The thicknesses range from 1 to 8,
and the default Line Weight is 1. The larger the weight, the bolder
the line will be.

Color Mode There are three methods for defining the color of
the primary lines. See Color Mode There are three methods for
defining the color of the primary lines: on page 305.

Color Index The Color Index is a number from 0 to 255 in the


Z-MAP Plus color table. The Color Index refers to the settings for
the currently active picture. To select a color index for lines, select
the color box. A palette of the 256 colors will appear. You can
change the color index of the lines by selecting the color you want.

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Well Trace Fields to Post


Click the Well Trace Fields to Post button in the Post Deviated Wells
dialog box to create an ordered list of field labels or symbols. You can
post a maximum of two well trace fields at each point.
You can use the Ordered Selection dialog box that appears to specify the
order for posting field labels or symbols. Append is the default mode.

Well Trace Symbol Parameters


You can use the Well Trace Symbol Parameters dialog box to control
line symbol parameters, select field, color field, symbol color, and
symbol size. To display this dialog box, click the Well Trace Symbol
Parameters button in the Post Deviated Wells dialog box.
General Symbol Parameters
Click the General Symbol Parameters button in the Well Trace
Symbol Parameters dialog box to display the General Symbol
Parameters for Well Traces dialog box and specify the following symbol
parameter values:

Posting Method for Symbols and Labels This method


determines whether Symbols and Labels are posted for
intermediate points:
All Post all intermediate points.
Select Post intermediate points whose select field value is
not null. any Z-field can be a select field. You will choose Field
under the Choose Symbol Code Field panel.
Omit No well trace points posted.

Determine Symbol Code By:


Number You may specify the type of symbol to be posted
using a symbol number from the Z-MAP Plus Extended
Symbol Set. (See Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line
Patterns, starting on page 791.)
Field Determine symbol code to use by reading from a
Symbol Code field on the input dataset.
Omit No symbol is posted.

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Symbol Code Number This number refers to a symbol


supplied in the Z-MAP Plus Extended Symbol Set. If Determine
Symbol Code By is set to Number, this selected symbol will be
posted at each location. Otherwise, this parameter is ignored. (For
a list of Symbol Codes, see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and
Line Patterns, starting on page 791.)

Determine Symbol Color By You can determine the symbol


color by, Index, Field, Z-field or Line.
Index refers to a number in the Z-MAP Plus color table.
When you enter a number, the a box containing that color on
the color index appears to the left of the entry. Using Index as
the method of posting means that all of the symbols will be
posted with this color index.
Field means that a field on your input file specifies a color
for each symbol.
Z-field refers to the number of the Z-field on the input data
file to which the symbol color is tied. Determining color by
Z-field will result in a change of colors when the Z-value of the
control point changes (by a user-defined amount).
Line means that the symbol color will vary with the line
pattern for your trackline.

Symbol Color Index This is the number associated with the


256 colors in the color table. Key in the index number of the color
you want to use, or click the color swatch next to the number field
to call up the Select A Color Index panel for a graphical selection.

Determine Symbol Size By There are five methods for


determining symbol size:
Value uses the size of the symbol in plotter units (in./cm.).
The default values are 0.07 in. and 0.18 cm.
Field size from a field on the input file.
Diameter allows symbol size to vary by a simple scaling of
a selected Z-field.
Area allows size of symbol to represent actual area as
defined by a Z-field of area (in engineering units).
Class allows symbol size to vary based on up to 6 user
defined intervals that relate to a particular Z-field. You can
make all the producing well symbols a specific size in plotter
units (in./cm.), all the dry holes another size.

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Symbol Size This number is the symbol height in plotter units


(in./cm.).

Posting Rate The Posting Rate for symbols is the divisor of the
number of well trace fields. A Posting Rate of 1 means that every
well trace field on the data file will have a symbol posted. A
Posting Rate of 5 means that every 5th well trace field will have a
symbol posted.

Choose Symbol Code Field


This option will post a symbol for a point based on the symbol field on
your input file, if your input file contains one.
Choose Select Field
The Select Field determines where posting can occur at well trace
locations. This panel allows you to choose a field to use as the Select
Field.
Choose Color Field For Symbol Color
If your input dataset contains a field for symbol color, this panel will
allow you to select one.
Vary Symbol Color Parameters
To vary the color of the posted symbols, click the Vary Symbol Color
Parameters button in the Well Trace Symbol Parameters dialog box to
display the Vary Well Trace Symbol Color Parameters dialog box.
Color can be varied by choosing a starting color index, the number of
color levels, method of defaulting the Z-table for color levels, the
Z-increment for defaulting, and the start Z-value for defaulting. The
purpose of this feature is to allow the mapper to show a gradual increase
in a Z-value by representing a defined change in Z as a color in a given
range. For example, every change of 50 feet could be represented by a
slightly darker shade of blue.

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Specify the following symbol parameter values:

Start Color Index This number is the number of the color in


the color table to use for beginning the varying of symbol colors.
The number of color levels beyond this value will determine the
range of symbol colors available.

Number of Color Levels This number refers to the number of


colors in the color table which are to be displayed as changes in
Z-values on the map.

Default Z-Table for Color Levels By Defaulting the color


variation will result in an automatic assignment of a color to a
Z-value according to the criteria you select for this parameter.
None Does not default the color variation.
Divide Indicates that you want to default the color variation
by dividing the Z-value by a constant value. A Divide value of
50 would change the color of the symbol every time the
Z-value is divisible by 50.
Increment Indicates that you want to default the color of
the Z-value symbol when a constant distance change has been
achieved. An increment of 25, for example, would result in a
change of color for every Z-value change of 25.
Increment+Start The starting value for the table comes
from the Start Z-value plus the Z-increment for pattern
changes.

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Z-increment for Defaulting This value equals the Z-increment


which will cause the symbol color to move up one level. This
defaulting method is only used if Default Z-table for Color Levels
By is Increment or Increment+Start.

Start Z-value for Defaulting This number represents the


Z-value at which you wish to begin defaulting the Z-table. The
Start Z-value is only used when Default Z-table for Color Levels
By is Increment+Start. If your Start Z-value is 7300, and your
increment is 50, color defaulting will occur at 7350, 7400, 7450,
etc.

Choose Z-field to Vary Symbol Color If there is more than


one Z-field on an input file, you must choose the Z-field that you
would like to use to base the color variations on.

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Z-table To Vary Symbol Color This table contains a range of


Z-values for color indices to use when posting color symbols. The
table contains a list of Z-values for each color index. These
maximum Z-values are not required if you chose a method of
defaulting the table.

Maximum Z-value for Color Index The parameter entry area


on this panel allows you to correlate changes in Z-value to changes
in symbol color number. The number of Maximum Z-values listed
on this panel is determined by the number of Symbol Color Levels
you indicated on the Symbol Color Set Parameters panel; you can
choose up to 20 symbol color levels. Enter the Maximum Z-value
you want for each symbol's color number.

Choose Size Field for Symbol Size


You can choose one size field from a list of Size Fields in your input line
data file when the list is presented.
Vary Symbol Size Parameters
To specify how symbol size is varied in the current picture, click the
Vary Symbol Size Parameters button in the Well Trace Symbol
Parameters dialog box. The Vary Well Trace Symbol Size Parameters
dialog box appears, which you use to specify the following symbol
parameter values:

Offset for Vary By Area or Diameter This number refers to


the offset for symbol size calculation. When you have chosen to
vary Symbol Size by Area or Diameter, these are the equations:
Vary Area Size:
Size = SQRT [(4/p) * scale * (field value + offset)]
Vary Diameter Size:
Size = (field value + offset) * scale

Scale for Vary By Area or Diameter This is the scale for


symbol size calculation.
Vary Area Size:
Size = SQRT [(4/p) * scale * (field value + offset)]
Vary Diameter Size:
Size = (field value + offset) * scale

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Minimum Symbol Size (in./cm.) for Vary This number refers


to the minimum symbol size to post in plotter units (in./cm.). The
default minimum is 0.05 in. or 0.13 cm.

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Maximum Symbol Size (in./cm.) for Vary This number refers


to the maximum symbol size to post in plotter units (in./cm.). The
default maximum is 0.25 in. or 0.64 cm.

Symbol Size Increment (in./cm.) for Vary When symbol size


is set to vary by class, the symbol size increment must be stated in
plotter units (in./cm.) The default symbol size increment is 0.05 in.
or 0.13 cm.

Number of Class Intervals Symbol sizes can be made to vary


according to class intervals. Class intervals are defined by
Minimum Z-values, and you can define from 1 to 6 Class Intervals
for Symbol Size.

Z-Minimum for Class One This number refers to the lowest


Z-value at which you want symbol posting to begin.

Choose Z-field to Vary Symbol Size


Changes in the size of the posted symbol will be tied to the selected
Z-field on this list which you select. You can only select one Z-field to
determine symbol size variation. Fields available for selection are taken
from your input line data file.
Z-table to Vary Symbol Size
If you specified a Z-field to use for varying symbol size, click the
Z-Table to Vary Symbol Size button in the Well Trace Symbol
Parameters dialog box to display the Z level TABLE for Well Trace
Symbol Size dialog box.
This table contains a range of up to six maximum Z-values for symbol
sizes to use. The table contains a Z-value for each symbol size class.
These Maximum Z-values are not required if you chose a method of
defaulting the table.
The parameter entry area allows you to correlate changes in Z-value to
changes in symbol size. The number of Maximum Z-values listed on
this panel is determined by the number of Size Class Levels you
indicated on the Vary Symbol Size Parameters panel; you can choose up
to 6 size class levels. Enter the maximum Z-value you want for each size
class.

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Well Trace Labeling Parameters


Well Trace Labeling Parameters enables you to set up well trace field
labeling parameters, labeling rate for well trace fields, and color fields
for well trace labels.

Label Rate for All Fields This is the rate at which posted fields
along the well trace will be labeled. A Label Rate of 1 means that
all posted fields will be labeled; a Label Rate of 3 means that every
3rd posted point will be labeled.

Color Mode There are three methods for defining the color of
the well trace labels. For a discussion of these methods, see Color
Mode There are three methods for defining the color of the
primary lines: on page 305.

Color Index If you choose the Index option for Color Mode,
you must assign a color index from the color table to determine
label color for the current field. The color index is a number from 0
to 255 which represents a color in the color table. The Color Index
refers to the settings for the currently active picture. To view the
color palette, select the color box. Select the color you want for the
current field's label.

Font The Font is the font in which labels for this field are to be
printed. The choices are shown at left.

Number of Decimals For each numeric label field, you can


control the number of decimal places. This number refers to the
number of places to the right of the decimal to post for the field.
Up to 12 decimal places are allowed.

Height This value refers to the height of the label, in plotter


units (in./cm.). The label represents the current field. The default
label heights are 0.07 in. or 0.18 cm.

Location There are two options for locating a label on a line.


The label can be posted to the Right of the line or it can be posted
to the Left of the line.

Well Trace Scale Field


Well Trace Scale Field allows you to choose the Z-field for setting up
tick mark parameters and tick label parameters. Variations in the
spacing, color, line weight, font, and other variables will be tied to the
Z-field you choose.

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Well Trace Scale Parameters


To set up variations in ticks and labels for well trace lines, click the Well
Trace Scale Parameters button in the Post Deviated Wells dialog box.
In the Well Trace Scale Parameters dialog box that appears, you can
specify the following input values:

Minimum Z-value for Tick This is the minimum Z-value for


posting ticks and labels. The program takes the Minimum Z-value
for posting ticks and labels and adds the Z-field Tick Increment.
Ticks are not posted at Z-values falling below the value of
Minimum + Increment.

Maximum Z-value for Tick This is the maximum Z-value for


posting ticks and labels. Ticks are not posted for Z-values
exceeding this number.

Z-Increment Between Ticks The Z-increment is the increment


between tick marks on the Well Trace Scale. The Z-increment is
based on the same units as the Z-value.

Tick Length The Tick Length is the length of the tick mark,
expressed in plotter units (in./cm.).

Tick Line Weight Tick Line Weight is a multiple of the normal


line weight for drawing tick marks. The thicknesses range from 1
to 8, and the default Tick Line Weight is 1. The larger the weight,
the bolder the line will be.

Determine Tick Color by There are two ways to determine


Tick Color:
Index The number of a color in the color table.
Line The color of the well trace line. If you choose Line,
the color of the tick mark will become the same as the color of
the well trace line.

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Tick Color Index Color Index Number is associated with the


color for the ticks.

Determine Label Color by Labels may have the same color as


the tick mark, the line or the color index.

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Label Color Index If you choose the Index option for Color
Mode, you must assign a color index from the color table to
determine label color for the current label. The Color Index is a
number from 0 to 255 which represents a color in the color table.
The Color Index refers to the settings for the currently active
picture. To view a palette of the color table, select the color box.
Select the color you want for the current label's label.

Label Font The Label Font is the font in which labels for this
field are to be printed. The choices are shown at left.

Number of Decimals For each numeric label field, you can


control the number of decimal places. This number refers to the
number of places to the right of the decimal to post for the label.
Up to 12 decimal places are allowed.

Label Height This value refers to the height of the label, in


plotter units (in./cm.). The label represents the Z-field selected for
Well Trace Fields to Post. The default label heights are 0.07 in. or
0.18 cm.

Label Location There are two options for locating a label on a


line. The label can be posted to the Right of the line or it can
posted to the Left of the line.

Label Orientation A label may be placed either perpendicular


or parallel to the line it references.

Data Units/Clip Mode


Click the Data unit/Clip mode button in the Post Deviated Wells dialog
box. In the Data Units/Clip mode dialog box that appears, you can
specify the following values:

Data units (default setting) Specify the measurement units


used for control point coordinates by clicking the Data units
button. From the drop-down list, select USER (to express values in
user units like feet or meters) or PLOTTER (to express values in
plotter units like inches or centimeters).

Clip to border mode Points on the line file that lie outside the
Area of Interest (AOI) of the current picture may be cut off at the
border or extend beyond the border of the map. The options are:
Clip Clip the data at the map border.
Noclip Display data beyond the map border.

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2D Seismic
Post Seismic Line Data Dialog Box

Features 2D Seismic - Seismic Line Data menu


The 2D Seismic feature is to allow you to post seismic line data on your
map. You can post shotpoints and track lines. Control is available for the
following options:

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Z-values of labeled shotpoints


labeling parameters
ZNON value
posting all seismic lines, or some seismic lines
symbol color parameters

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Data
This is the data file which contains the seismic data which you would
like to post on the map. Labeling and posting options will be applied to
this seismic data file. A list of data files is presented. Select the data file
you want.
Shotpoint Numbers

Shotpoint numbers for both data files need to be ordered and contiguous in
each line. To do this, use the Operations Data Operations Sort Data
option.

Z-field
A list of fields is presented. If you do not want to post Z-values along
with seismic shotpoints, select None - use no field.
Shotpoints to Post
Click the Shotpoints to Post button in the Post SEISMIC LINE Data
dialog box. In the Select Shotpoints to POST dialog box that appears,
you can specify the following input values:

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selection mode for posting symbols


symbol field/symbol code number
centered symbol code
symbol size
rate to post symbols (divisible by)
starting location (divisible bias)/first shotpoint to post
minimum separation between shotpoints, in plotter units

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Selection Mode
The Shotpoints to Post panel enables you to determine which shotpoints
on the input file to post on the map. The next two options on the Post
Seismic Data main menu will determine how points already posted on
the map will be labeled.
The available methods available for shotpoint symbol posting are
described in the following text.

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All Points Post all shotpoints on a line.

Endpoints+Postrate Post the first, last, and every nth shotpoint


on the data file. This method posts shotpoints based on a
user-specified increment, not by shotpoint number. The first and
last shotpoints are posted, and intervening shotpoints are posted
according to two user-specified values: Starting Location and Rate
to Post. The value you specify for Starting Location is the
numerical position of the first intervening shotpoint to post. The
value you specify for Rate to Post is the increment at which
subsequent shotpoints should be posted. For example, when
Starting Location = 5 and Rate to Post = 10, the 1st, 5th, 15th,
25th, 35th, etc., and the last shotpoint are posted.

Endpoints+Divisible Post the first and last points and every


point having a shotpoint number divisible by n. This method posts
shotpoints based on shotpoint number. The first and last shotpoints
are posted, and intervening shotpoints are posted according to two
user-specified values, m and n. Here, m is a number which is added
to the shotpoint number and n is a number which is divided into
(shotpoint number + m). Only those points whose shotpoint
number plus m is equally divisible by n will be posted. For
example, to post only shotpoint numbers that end in 7, set m = 3
and n = 10. Thus, when the shotpoint numbers that end in 7 have 3
added to them, they will be divisible by 10.

Intervals This method posts shotpoints based on intervals


expressed in plotter units (in./cm.). The first and last points are
posted, and intervening shotpoints are posted at a distance greater
than a user-specified minimum separation. Check line statistics to
determine a reasonable minimum separation.

Trackline A trackline will connect the shotpoints, but no


symbols will appear at the shotpoint locations.

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Use Symbol Field or Symbol Number


You may specify the type of symbol to be posted using a symbol number
from the Z-MAP Plus Extended Symbol Set or by using the symbol field
on your input file, if your input file contains one. You may also choose
not to post a symbol. These three options are on the parameter menu.
Centered Symbol Code
For a list of symbols and their codes, see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts,
and Line Patterns, starting on page 791.
Symbol Size
This is the size of the shotpoint symbol in plotter units (in./cm).
Rate to Post (Divisible By)
This number represents the rate to post shotpoints. If the rate to post is
1, all shotpoints in the file are posted. A value of 3 posts every third
point in the file.
Divisible By is active when the posting mode is Endpoints+Divisible.
Posting shotpoints that are divisible by 10 would post shotpoints 100,
110, 120, etc. (assuming that these shotpoints are in your file and that
the divisible bias is 0).
Starting Location (Divisible Bias)
The first and last endpoints in the AOI are always labeled. The rate to
post takes effect after the first point is posted. For example, if the rate is
2, shotpoints 1, 3, 5, 7, etc. are posted.
Divisible Bias is active when your labeling mode is
Endpoints+Divisible. This number will be added to the shotpoint
number before division and the label will be posted when the result is an
integer.
Minimum Separation
The minimum separation should be defined only when the Selection
Mode is Intervals. This number represents the minimum separation
between posted shotpoints. The minimum distance between posted
shotpoints should be expressed in plotter units (in./cm.).

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Labeled Shotpoints (Shotpoint Number)


To specify how shotpoints are labeled with their shotpoint numbers,
click the Labeled Shotpoints (Shotpoint Number) button in the Post
SEISMIC LINE Data dialog box. The Select Shotpoints to LABEL
With Shotpoint NUMBER dialog box that appears uses your Shotpoints
to Post settings. You can specify the following input values:

labeling mode

label orientation

rate to post (rate to label posted shotpoints)

starting location

minimum separation
Shotpoint Labeling Mode
The five options available for shotpoint symbol labeling are on the
parameter menu. Each is described in the following text.

No Labels Do not label shotpoints.

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All Points Label all points on a line.

Endpoints+Lablrate Label the first, last, and every nth point


on a line. This method labels shotpoints based on a user-specified
increment, not by shotpoint number. The first and last shotpoints
are labeled, and intervening shotpoints are labeled according to
two user-specified values: Starting Location and Rate to Post (the
menu should actually say Rate to Label). The value you specify for
Starting Location is the numerical position of the first intervening
shotpoint to label. The value you specify for Rate to Post is the
increment at which subsequent shotpoints should be labeled. For
example, when Starting Location = 5 and Rate to Post = 10, the
1st, 5th, 15th, 25th, 35th, etc., and the last shotpoint are labeled.

Endpoints+Divisible Label the first and last points and every


point having a shotpoint number divisible by n. This method labels
shotpoints based on shotpoint number. The first and last shotpoints
are labeled, and intervening shotpoints are labeled according to
two user-specified values, m and n. Here, m is a number which is
added to the shotpoint number and n is a number which is divided
into (shotpoint number + m). Only those points whose shotpoint
number plus m is equally divisible by n will be labeled. For
example, to label only shotpoint numbers that end in 7, set m = 3
and n = 10. Thus, when the shotpoint numbers that end in 7 have 3
added to them, they will be divisible by 10.

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Intervals This method posts shotpoints based on intervals


expressed in plotter units (in./cm.). The first and last points are
posted, and intervening shotpoints are posted at a distance greater
than a user-specified minimum separation. Check line statistics to
determine a reasonable minimum separation.

Label Orientation
The Shotpoint Label Orientation has two components. The first
component is the location of the shotpoint number label relative to the
seismic line. The second component is the angle of rotation which the
label has. The angle of rotation can be specified in relation to the seismic
line or in relation to the x axis of the map.

Left+Above+X-axis This option will place labels above a


horizontal seismic line or to the left side of a vertical seismic line.
Label rotation will be set up in relation to the x axis of the map.

Right+Below+X-axis This option will place labels below a


horizontal seismic line or to the right side of a vertical seismic line.
Label rotation will be set up in relation to the x axis of the map.

Left+Above+Line This option will place labels above a


horizontal seismic line or to the left side of a vertical seismic line.
Label rotation will be set up in relation to the seismic line.

Right+Below+Line This option will place labels below a


horizontal seismic line or to the right side of a vertical seismic line.
Label rotation will be set up in relation to the seismic line.

Rate to Post (Divisible by)


This number represents the rate to label the posted shotpoints. If the rate
to post is 1, all posted shotpoints will be labeled. A label rate of 3 would
label every third shotpoint label is posted.
Divisible By is active when the posting mode is Endpoints+Divisible.
Labeling shotpoints that are divisible by 10 would give you labels for
100, 110, 120, etc. (assuming these points are in the data file and the
divisible bias is 0).

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Starting Location (Divisible Bias)


The first endpoint on the line, as well as the last endpoint on the line, will
be posted. If the starting location is 7, then the 7th shotpoint will be
posted. The rate to post goes into effect at this point. Assuming a post
rate of 2, the 1st, 7th, 9th, and 11th point, etc., will be posted until the
last shotpoint is reached.
Divisible Bias is active when your labeling mode is
Endpoints+Divisible. This number will be added to the shotpoint
number before division.
Minimum Separation
The Minimum Separation should be defined only when the Selection
Mode is Intervals. This number represents the minimum separation
between labeled shotpoints. The minimum distance between labeled
shotpoints should be expressed in plotter units (in./cm.).
Labeled Shotpoints (Z-values)
This panel enables you to determine which shotpoints are labeled with
Z-values. The control parameters for this panel are the same as the
control parameters for selecting shotpoints to label with shotpoint
number.
Z-value Labeling Mode
The five options available for shotpoint labeling are described in the
following text.

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No Labels Do not label shotpoints.

All Points Label all points on a line.

Endpoints+Lablrate Label the first, last, and every nth point


on a line. This method labels shotpoints based on a user-specified
increment, not by shotpoint number. The first and last shotpoints
are labeled, and intervening shotpoints are labeled according to
two user-specified values: Starting Location and Rate to Post (the
menu should actually say Rate to Label). The value you specify for
Starting Location is the numerical position of the first intervening
shotpoint to label. The value you specify for Rate to Post is the
increment at which subsequent shotpoints should be labeled. For
example, when Starting Location = 5 and Rate to Post = 10, the
1st, 5th, 15th, 25th, 35th, etc., and the last shotpoint are labeled.

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Endpoints+Divisible Label the first and last points and every


point having a shotpoint number divisible by n. This method labels
shotpoints based on shotpoint number. The first and last shotpoints
are labeled, and intervening shotpoints are labeled according to
two user-specified values, m and n. Here, m is a number which is
added to the shotpoint number and n is a number which is divided
into (shotpoint number + m). Only those points whose shotpoint
number plus m is equally divisible by n will be labeled. For
example, to label only shotpoint numbers that end in 7, set m = 3
and n = 10. Thus, when the shotpoint numbers that end in 7 have 3
added to them, they will be divisible by 10.

Shotpoint Label user-specified shotpoints.

Z-value Orientation
The Z-value Orientation has two components. The first component is the
location of the Z-value label relative to the seismic line. The second
component is the angle of rotation which the label has. The angle of
rotation can be specified in relation to the seismic line or in relation to
the x axis of the map.

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Left+Above+X-axis Places labels above a horizontal line or to


the left side of a vertical seismic line. The label rotation angle will
be set up in relation to the x axis of the map.

Right+Below+X-axis Places labels below a horizontal line or


to the right side of a vertical seismic line. The label rotation angle
will be set up in relation to the x axis of the map.

Left+Above+Line Places labels above a horizontal line or to


the left side of a vertical seismic line. The label rotation angle will
be set up in relation to the seismic line.

Right+Below+Line Places labels below a horizontal line or to


the right side of a vertical seismic line. The label rotation angle
will be set up in relation to the seismic line.

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Rate to Post (Divisible by)


This number represents the rate to label Z-values at the posted
shotpoints. If the rate to post (label) is 1, all posted shotpoints will have
labels. A rate of 3 would give you Z-values for every 3rd posted
shotpoint.
Divisible By is active when the Labeling Mode is Endpoints+Divisible.
Labeling shotpoints with Z-values for points divisible by 10 would give
you values for shotpoints 100, 110, 120, etc. (assuming these shotpoints
are in your file and the divisible bias is 0).
Starting Location (Divisible Bias)
The first endpoint on the line, as well as the last endpoint on the line, will
be posted. If the starting location is 7, then the 7th shotpoint will be
posted. The rate to post goes into effect at this point. Assuming a post
rate of 2, the 1st, 7th, 9th, and 11th point, etc., will be labeled until the
last shotpoint is reached.
Divisible Bias is active when your labeling mode is
Endpoints+Divisible. This number will be added to the shotpoint
number before division. Only those shotpoints that are divisible by the
divisible rate once the divisible bias has been added will have Z-value
labels.

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Labeling Parameters and ZNON


To specify parameters for labeling seismic lines, click the Labeling
Parameters and ZNON button in the Post SEISMIC LINE Data dialog
box. In the Set LABELING Parameters dialog box that appears, you can
specify the following values:

Character Size Character size is the height of the numbers and


letters in the labels. Character size is expressed in plotter units (in./
cm.). The default character size is 0.1 in. or 0.25 cm.

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Label Rotation Angle There are two reference points for label
rotation angle: the seismic line and the x axis of the map. When
you chose your labeling mode in the Labeled Shotpoints and
Labeled Z-values panels, you selected a Label Orientation. The
Label Rotation Angle refers to your choice of the line or the x axis
as the point of reference.

Decimal Positions in Z-values This number refers to the


number of digits to the right of the decimal in the posted value.

Z-value Shift This number is the number to add to the Z-value


before the Z-value label is posted.

Z-value Scale This number is the number to multiply the


Z-value by before the Z-value label is posted. For example, if you
are working with a Z-value expressed in seconds, you can multiply
by 1000 to have time values posted in milliseconds.

ZNON Value This number is the null data value for the field
being posted.

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Line Name Parameters


To specify parameters for posting line names, click the Line Name
Parameters button in the Post SEISMIC LINE Data dialog box. In the
Set LINE NAME DRAWING Parameters dialog box that appears, you
can specify the following values:

Name Positioning Mode This option determines where the


seismic line name will be displayed:
Both+Line The line name will be posted at both the first
and last shotpoints. The reference point for the rotation angle is
the seismic line.
Start+Line The line name will be posted at the starting
shotpoint only. The reference point for the rotation angle is the
seismic line.
End+Line The line name will be posted at the ending
shotpoint only. The reference point for the rotation angle is the
seismic line.
Both+Axis The line name will be posted at both the first
and last shotpoints. The reference point for the rotation angle is
the x axis.
Start+Axis The line name will be posted at the starting
shotpoint only. The reference point for the rotation angle is the
x axis.
End+Axis The line name will be posted at the ending
shotpoint only. The reference point for the rotation angle is the
x axis.

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Character Size Character size is the height of the numbers and


letters in the labels. Character size is expressed in plotter units (in./
cm.). The default character size is 0.1 in. or 0.25 cm.

Name Rotation Angle There are two reference points for label
rotation angle: the seismic line and the x axis of the map. When
you chose your labeling mode in the Labeled Shotpoints and
Labeled Z-values panels, you selected a Label Orientation. The
Label Rotation Angle refers to your choice of the line or the x axis
as the point of reference.

Type of Trackline Between Shotpoints Select the type of


trackline which is to connect consecutive points on the same
seismic line. In addition to Locked, Blank, and Omit, there is a
menu consisting of solid, dashed, bold, and tick tracklines.

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Length of Trackline Dashes This is the length of the trackline


dashes when the trackline type is dashed. The trackline length is
expressed in plotter units (in./cm.). The default length is 0.2 in. or
0.5 cm.

Line Width of Trackline This is the width or weight of the


trackline when the trackline type is bold. The width is expressed as
a multiple of plain line widths.

Select Lines to Post


This option provides control for posting seismic lines.
The menu allows you to:

choose a method of posting seismic lines


create or select a posted line list dataset
create or select a selected line list dataset
select line names from a menu or by using wildcards

Select Method
Select Method enables you to select which seismic lines to post:

post all seismic lines on a file, or post only selected lines


select the posted lines by exclusion or inclusion

The options for Selecting Seismic Lines are as follows:

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All Will post all seismic lines on an input file and output the
line names to a posted line list dataset.

Only Will post only those lines which you select. Selected lines
will appear on the active map. Selected line names are written to
the selected line list dataset. They are marked as posted in the
posted line list dataset.

Except The excluded lines are written to the selected line list
dataset and are not posted. All the lines except the excluded lines
will be posted.

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Posted Line List Dataset


This is an output file that contains all the line names for the seismic data
file. Posted lines are flagged on the list by the word Posted. Files created
for output will have the extension LPST. It is usually best to create a file
each time you post with a new dataset.
You can pick another LPST file or create one. Unless you want to
prevent posting of lines already posted on the picture, it is best to create
a file. If you select to create a file, a panel appears.
Create a New File
This is the name of the new posted line dataset and the MFD on which
it should be written. Use an existing posted line list dataset to prevent
already posted lines from being reposted each time you execute Selected
Line Posting.

Posted Line Dataset Name This is the name of the new posted
line dataset.

Output Master File Select OpenWorks or the destination MFD


for storing the posted line dataset.

Selected Line List Dataset


This is an output file which contains the list of lines to label or exclude
from labeling. These files have the extension LSLT. To ensure that
posted lines are labeled to your specifications, it is best to create a
labeling file.
You can select an existing selected line list dataset to repeat a posting
sequence, or you can create a file.
Create a New File
This is an output file that contains the list of lines to label or exclude
from labeling.

Selected Line Dataset Name This is the name of the new


selected line dataset.

Output Master File Select OpenWorks or the destination MFD


for storing the selected line dataset.

Select Line Names (Menu Select)


The line names you select from this list are output to the selected line list
dataset file and the lines will be posted on, or excluded from, your active
picture. When the Select Method is All, you cannot access this panel.

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Input Line Names (with Wild Cards)


You can use this option to add or delete line names in the selected line
list dataset by using a wildcard. Wildcards can consist of a text string
plus one character or a text string plus multiple characters.

Add Line Names Specifies the wildcard and character string


associated with the line names you want to add to the selected line
list. For example, %AUS% adds all line names that contain the
string AUS, such as AUS-069.

Line Name Specifies the identifying wildcard and text string


(for example, %AUS%). You can place wildcards anywhere inside
the string, at the beginning, and at the end. It is helpful to include
the wildcard at the beginning. Otherwise, leading blanks in the
data file may exclude text strings you want to include (for
example, AUS).

Wildcard The wildcard is the character which may match any


character in a line name. Any symbol except an asterisk (*) may be
used as a wildcard.

Wildcard Use The choices include line names matching a


multi-character or one character string:
MULTICHR
ONECHAR
For example:
for MULTICHR, AUS% matches: AUS, AUS1, AUSTEB
for ONECHAR, AUS% matches: AUS1, AUS2, but no AUSTEB

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Delete Line Names This option presents a list of line names


and wildcards on the selected line list data file. Lines selected from
this list will be deleted when the option executes.

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Symbol Color Parameters


This panel enables you to select methods for determining the color of the
symbols and labels which will be posted with seismic lines on your
active picture. This panel enables you to select:

basic color parameters for symbols and labels

the symbol color field and symbol field

Z-field to vary symbol color

Z-color table for varying symbol color


Set Parameters
To set the color of the symbols and labels posted with seismic lines,
click the Set parameters button in the Symbol Color Parameters dialog
box. Use the Set Parameters dialog box that appears to specify the
following values:

Symbol Color Selection by You can determine the color of the


symbol associated with a seismic line by three methods.
Symbol Color The color of all seismic line symbols will be
determined by selecting a value in the color table.
Color Field The color of each symbol is given by the color
field on the input data file which you select.
Z-field The color of each symbol is tied to the Z-field on
your input data file which you have selected for determining
symbol color changes. You can only select one Z-field to
determine symbol color variation. Fields available for selection
are taken from your input seismic line data file.

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Symbol Color This number refers to the number in the color


table for the color you desire.

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Set Variable Color Table by This parameter determines how


the Z-table for symbol color variation will be set up. There are
three options:
Type In Choosing Type In means that you want to supply
values for symbol color. No automatic defaults for the Z-table
will be set up. You can enter a number for the symbol color for
each Z-value.
Divisions When you choose Divisions, the table starts with
the minimum Z-value. The program will divide the range of
Z-field values into equal color levels. This is the default way of
setting up the Variable color table.
Increment The color table takes its reference from the
minimum Z-value. The program finds the nearest multiple of
the Z-increment for Color Change which is less than the
minimum Z-value. The color variation defaulting begins with
this value. Each level in the table is incremented by the
Z-increment until it either exceeds the maximum Z-value or
until it reaches the limits of the table.

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Number of Color Levels This number refers to the number of


colors in the color table which are to be displayed as Z-value
changes on the map.

Start Color This is the number of the color in the color table
where the varying of symbol colors is to begin. The number of
color levels beyond this value will determine the range of symbol
colors available.

Z increment for Color Change This value equals the


Z-increment that causes the symbol color to move up one level.
This value must be supplied when the Symbol Color Selection by
is Z-field and the Set Variable color table is by Increment.

Label Font The Label Font is the font in which labels for this
field are to be printed. The choices are shown at left.

Label Color The Label Color refers to an index number that is


associated with a color in the color table.

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Select Symbol Color Field


A list of symbol color fields from your input seismic data file appears.
Select the symbol color field you want.
Select Z-field to Vary Symbol Color
A list of Z-fields on your input seismic data file appears. The Z-field you
select will become the basis for symbol color variation.
Edit Z Color Table
This table enables you to define Z-value minimums for each of the
Z-value levels you are defining. Different colors from the color table are
assigned to each of the levels.
Each color index number represented in the color levels needs to have a
minimum Z-value defined. Z-values falling in the range defined by this
minimum, and not exceeding the next defined minimum value, will be
assigned the color corresponding to that level of Z-value.
Select Symbol Field
A list of symbol fields on your input seismic data file appears. Select the
symbol field you want.

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3D Seismic
Compared with 2D Seismic, the 3D Seismic posting option has
additional capabilities and improvements in seismic line data posting.
You can use 3D Seismic to:

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Post seismic lines (track line) and shotpoints for both 3D surveys
and 2D seismic data.

Thin track line out of dense 3D seismic data.

Decimate (eliminate selected) shotpoints, labels of posted


shotpoints, and labels for Z-field attributes.

Relocate and rotate 3D survey names and seismic line names.

Clip a seismic line at the map border, rather than truncating it at


the last shotpoint which will fit in the map border.

Indicate whether a given shotpoint on a seismic line is the start of,


the end of, or within, a discontinuity (geologic unconformity).

Vary the color, size, font of line names, line numbers, and
Z-attribute labels based on select criteria.

Vary the type, color and size of shotpoint symbols and labels based
on selected criteria.

Vary all of the above mentioned parameters for line names or line
numbers and shotpoint labels according to range criteria.

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Input Data Requirements (Fields and Sorts)


This posting process requires seismic data which satisfies the
requirements of either 2D seismic data or of a 3D seismic survey.
The required fields for 2D data are as follows:

Line number (or line name)

Shotpoint number

Z conditionally required; it is needed for color, size, and


Z-value labeling modulation
The required fields for 3D data are as follows:

3D survey name
3D line number
3D shotpoint number
X
Y
Z conditionally required. It is needed for color, size, and
Z-value labeling modulation
Shotpoint Numbers

Shotpoint numbers for both data files need to be ordered and contiguous in each
line. To do this, use the Operations Data Operations Sort Data option.

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Post Seismic Data Menu

Features 3D Seismic Seismic Line Data (New) menu


The Post Seismic Data (New) menu provides options that display
secondary choice or parameter entry dialog boxes. The following is a
description of what the panels and parameters of this process are
designed to do.
Seismic Data
This panel presents a list of all data files in the attached MFDs and in the
OpenWorks project. The panel enables you to select the data file that
contains the fields to display. If the fields in the file are not sorted
correctly, a diagnostic message appears.
Data
Type

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

2D

Line Name
Line Number

Shotpoint Number
Shotpoint Number

(none)
(none)

3D

3D Survey
3D Survey

3D Line Number
3D Shotpoint Number

3D Shotpoint Number
3D Line Number

Fields in seismic line data files will usually be sorted correctly.


However, you can use the Sort Data option under Operations Data
Operations to sort the data in the correct order if necessary.

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Choose Fields
The parameters in this panel are defined in detail in the following text.
Each of the Choose Field options in this panel display a dialog box that
lists fields of a given type (such as text size, color, font) when these
fields are present on the input seismic data file.
Fields which control posting of data include the Z-value field, the
selection field, the shotpoint reshot field, the discontinuity field, and the
modulation field. All the other fields on the Choose Fields menu are
fields which will affect some graphical attribute of posted data, such as
the color, line pattern, or line weight of a posted seismic line, the text
color, size, and font of survey names, line names, and shotpoint
numbers; the color, type, and size of shotpoint symbols.
The following fields can be chosen if present on the input seismic line
data file:

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Z-value Field

Color Field

Selection Field

Track Line Pattern Field

3D Survey Name Size Field

Track Line Weight Field

3D Survey Name Color Field

Shotpoint Symbol Code Field

3D Survey Name Font Field

Shotpoint Symbol Size Field

Line Name Size Field

Shotpoint Reshot Field

Line Name Color Field

Discontinuity Field

Line Name Font Field

Modulation Field

Z-value Field The field which will be the Z-attribute field.


Variations of this Z-value field can be noted using graphical
features such as size and color of label.

Selection Field When not all seismic data are to be posted, this
field will determine which lines and surveys to post. The only valid
select field for 2D seismic data is line name or line number. The
only valid select field for 3D seismic data is 3D survey name.

3d Survey Name/line Name Parameters When parameters for


text attributes are present on seismic data files, the user can select
the size, color, and font of the text which will make up the 3D
survey name or seismic line names. The field types which will be
listed for survey names and line names are type text size, text
color, and font.

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Color Field When this color field is present on seismic data


files, the user can select the color field for shotpoints, symbols, and
Z-value attribute labels.

Track Line Parameters When parameters for line attributes


are present on seismic data files, the user can select the line pattern
and line weight to be used in representing track lines (seismic
lines) on the picture. The field types governing the appearance of
the seismic lines are type line pattern and type line weight.

Shotpoint Symbol Parameters When parameters for the type


and size of the shotpoint symbol are present on seismic data files,
the user can select the field to determine the type and size of
shotpoint symbol to be posted on the active map.

Shotpoint Reshot Field The reshot field is a text field. If you


have specified the reshot field on your input file, and if the reshot
field has a value, the text of the reshot field will be appended to the
shotpoint number label (when the shotpoint number label is
posted).

Discontinuity Field A flag for a discontinuity in the data can


be activated for a specific field. In the General Posting Parameters
menu, you can say Yes or No to using discontinuities.

Modulation Field Selecting a modulation field enables you to


modulate, or vary, symbol size or color with the variation in the
value of a Z-field (the modulation field). The modulation field is
used when Color Mode is Z-field.

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Shotpoints to Post
This option brings up a Shotpoints to Post panel. The Shotpoints to Post
panel allows users to determine whether to post All, None or some of
the shotpoints. The some options consist of the Rate and Divide
methods.
Use the Shotpoints to Post dialog box to specify the following input
values:

whether all or some shotpoints are posted using a shotpoint


symbol

the type of symbol which is posted for shotpoints

the method for deciding the size of a given shotpoint symbol

the discontinuity ratio

the starting point on the seismic line for posting shotpoint symbols
Symbol Posting Method
The options for symbol posting method are All, Rate, Divide, and None.
For Rate and Divide, (as well as for All) the first and last shotpoints on
the seismic line are always posted.

All Posts a symbol for all shotpoints in the data file.

Rate Posts a symbol for every Rateth shotpoint, in addition to


posting the first and last shotpoint on all seismic lines. For
example, a rate of 5 on a line with 30 shotpoints will result in the
posting of symbols for shotpoints number 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 30,
and so on to the last shotpoint on the line.

Divide Posts a shotpoint symbol for any shotpoint number


divisible by the divisor, in addition to the first and last shotpoint on
the seismic line. For example, a Divide value of five on a line with
30 shotpoints will result in the posting of shotpoints symbols for
shotpoints number 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and so on to the last
shotpoint on the line.

None Posts no shotpoint symbols.

Centered Symbol Code


The marker symbols available for shotpoint symbol type are taken from
the Extended Symbol Set. Enter the number of the symbol type you want
to use. (For examples see Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line
Patterns, starting on page 791.)

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Symbol Size Mode


You can define the size of the shotpoint symbol in the following ways:

Value The symbol will be the size, in plotter units (in./cm/),


entered in the value field for Symbol Size on this panel.

Field The symbol will be the size indicated by the field type
symbol size on the input seismic line data file. If there is more than
one symbol size field on the input seismic data file, the user will be
able to select the size field.

Z-field The symbol will vary in size according to the variation


in the value of a selected Z-attribute. The symbol size variation
will be governed by Z-range table and the symbol size table.

Symbol Size
This parameter is for use when the Symbol Size Mode is Size. Enter the
size, in plotter units (in./cm.), for the posted shotpoint symbols.
Discontinuity Ratio
This parameter is used only when you have answered Yes to Use
Discontinuities? on the General Posting Parameters menu. The
Discontinuity Ratio is the Discontinuity Symbol Size Ratio. The value
you enter will result in the scaling of the posted shotpoint symbol size
wherever the shotpoint falls within a discontinuity (unconformity).
Rate To Post (Divisible By)
This parameter is required when the shotpoint symbol posting mode is
Rate or Divide.
This is the shotpoint symbol posting rate. A rate of 2 will post symbols
for the endpoints and for every other shotpoint, e.g., 1, 3, 5, 7, etc.
Starting Location (Divisible Bias)
The starting shotpoint number is a bias added to the shotpoints on each
seismic line before rate or division are performed. The divisible bias is
the starting shotpoint number on each seismic line where shotpoint
posting is to begin. Shotpoints are posted according to the following
equation: Integer=(Shotpoint+Bias)/(Divide Rate). Each shotpoint
position that meets these conditions with an integer is posted.

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If the starting shotpoint number is 5, and the Divide value is 4, then


shotpoint numbers 1, 8, 12, 16 and so on are posted. Shotpoint 4 is
evenly divisible by 4, but shotpoint 4 is not posted because if falls before
the starting shotpoint number of 5.
For Rate, if the starting shotpoint number is 5 and the rate is 2, shotpoint
number 1, 5, 7, 9, and so on to the last shotpoint number have Z-value
labels posted. Shotpoint number 3 falls within the rate, but is not posted
with a Z-value label because it comes before the starting shotpoint.
Shotpoint Labels (Shotpoint Number)
The label which can be associated with a shotpoint on a seismic line is
the shotpoint number, and if a reshot field is present, the reshot text will
be added to the shotpoint number. Like Shotpoints to Post, Shotpoints
to Label options include All or None; the option to post some shotpoint
labels are Rate, Interval and Divide.
The Shotpoints to Label options apply to the posted shotpoints. The
panel allows the user to determine which of the posted shotpoints will
be labeled with the shotpoint number.
The panel allows for control of shotpoint color, size, and angle as well
as starting point for the first label.
Shotpoint Labeling Mode
For All, Some, or None of the posted shotpoints, a shotpoint number
label can be included. If a given shotpoint has a symbol posted, it can be
selected to have a shotpoint number label posted with it.
The options for label posting method are All, Rate, Divide, and None.
For All, Rate, and Divide, the program will always label the first and last
shotpoints.

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All Posts a number for all shotpoints in the data file.

Rate Posts a label for every Rateth posted shotpoint symbol. A


shotpoint number label is also posted at the starting location (the
first shotpoint symbol labeled).

Divide Posts a shotpoint number label for any posted shotpoint


divisible by the divisor, in addition to the starting location (the first
shotpoint symbol labeled).

None Post no shotpoint symbol labels.

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Rate To Post (Divisible By)


This parameter is required when the shotpoint labeling mode is Rate or
Divide. This is the shotpoint symbol posting rate. A rate of 2 posts
symbols for the starting location and for every other shotpoint, such as
1, 3, 5, 7, and so on.
Starting Location (Divisible Bias)
This parameter is required when the shotpoint labeling mode is Divide.
This is the number of the shotpoint where the first label is to be posted.
Shotpoint Labels (Z-value)
Z-labels are only available for posted shotpoints (and only if all or some
shotpoints are posted).
The value of the Z-attribute which can be posted with any shotpoint can
be labeled. The Z-value labeling control is the same as for shotpoints to
post and shotpoints to label, except that the user can specify the number
of decimal places desired in the Z-value label.
Label Posting Mode
For All, Some, or None of the posted shotpoints, a Z-value label can be
included. If a given shotpoint has a symbol posted, it can be selected to
have a Z-value label posted with it.
The options for label posting method are All, Rate, Divide, Interval, and
None. For All, Rate, Divide, and Interval, the program will always label
the first and last shotpoints with Z-labels.

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All will result in all shotpoints on the data file having a Z-value
label posted on the active picture.

Rate will result in the posting of a label for every Rateth posted
shotpoint. A Z-value label will also be posted at the starting
location (the first shotpoint symbol which is to be labeled).

Divide will result in posting of a Z-value label for any posted


shotpoint divisible by the divisor, in addition to the starting
location (the first shotpoint symbol which is to be labeled).

Interval will result in posting of a Z-value label for the starting


shotpoint and for each successive shotpoint reaching the interval.
The last shotpoint will also have a Z-value label.

None will cause none of the posted shotpoint symbols to be


labeled with Z-values.

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Rate To Post (Divisible By)


The rate to post Z-value labels is the frequency for posting labels on
posted shotpoints. A rate of 1 would post Z-value labels with all posted
shotpoints; a rate of 3 would post labels for every third shotpoint.
Starting Location (Divisible Bias)
The divisible bias is the starting shotpoint number on each seismic line
where Z-value label posting is to begin. The starting shotpoint number
is a bias added to the shotpoints on each seismic line before rate,
interval, or division are performed. If the starting shotpoint number is 5,
and the Divide value is 4, then shotpoint numbers 1, 8, 12, 16 and so on
are posted. Shotpoint 4 is evenly divisible by 4, but no Z-value label is
posted for it, falling as it does before the starting shotpoint number of 5.
For Rate, if the starting shotpoint number is 5 and the rate is 2, shotpoint
number 1, 5, 7, 9, and so on to the last shotpoint number have Z-value
labels posted. Shotpoint number 3 falls within the rate, but is not posted
with a Z-value label because it comes before the starting shotpoint.
Label Color
Z-value labels can have up to 20 colors assigned.
Label Size
The label size is expressed in plotter units (in./cm).
Label Angle
Taking the shotpoint associated with the Z-value to be labeled as the
pivot point, the Label Angle is the value in degrees counterclockwise to
be added to the original label angle.
Label Angle is a Characteristic
The above parameters refer to characteristics of the label. Bias, scale, and
number of decimals apply to the Z-value itself. The Z-value is biased or
scaled, and the value is put into the label.

Bias
Prior to posting the Z-value label, you can add a bias value can to the
Z-value. The posted Z-value label will reflect the biased Z-value.

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Scale
Prior to posting the Z-value label, you can scale the Z-value by a value.
The posted Z-value label will reflect the scaled Z-value.
Number of Decimals
This is the number of decimals to the right of the decimal to be posted
in the Z-value label.
Line Name Parameters
This option brings up a panel which allows the user to control how a
seismic line name (or number) is posted. The location, angle of
orientation, text font, size and color can be controlled using this panel.
Name Location
There are eight possible locations for the seismic line name.

Both will result in the line name being printed at the beginning and
ending shotpoints, parallel to the seismic line.

Start will result in the line name being printed at the beginning
shotpoint, parallel to the seismic line.

End will result in the line name being printed at the ending
shotpoint, parallel to the seismic line.

North will result in the line name being printed at the


northernmost position on the seismic line, parallel to the line.

East will result in the line name being printed at the easternmost
position on the seismic line, parallel to the line.

West will result in the line name being printed at the westernmost
position on the seismic line, parallel to the line.

Omit will result in no line name being posted.

Name Orientation
The line name can be oriented parallel to the track line or parallel to the
X-axis of the picture.

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Line. The line name will be oriented parallel to the track line it
labels.

X-axis. The line name will be oriented parallel to the X-axis of


the picture.

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Name Font
The choices for text font are shown at left.
Name Size
This is the size of the text in plotter units (in./cm.).
Name Color
This is the color of the seismic line name. Clicking the color box will
bring up a color widget comprised of 256 colors. Select the color you
want for the seismic line name.
Name Angle
Taking the shotpoint nearest the line name as the pivot point, the Name
Angle is the value in degrees counterclockwise to be added to the
original line name angle.
Track Line Parameters
These parameters affect both 3D and 2D seismic lines.
These parameters allow the user to control how a posted seismic line
(track line) will be drawn. The connectivity mode allows a decision on
whether to use all shotpoints in drawing a seismic line or only those
points which have posted shotpoint symbols.
The discontinuity pattern allows a different line pattern to appear for
segments of a seismic line which fall within a discontinuity.
The normal pattern refers to the normal line pattern for the seismic line
(For a list of the line patterns and their associated numbers, see
Appendix C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line Patterns, starting on
page 791.)
Number break and distance break allow a track line to be broken up into
several segments by applying tests to consecutive shotpoints.
The value for number break refers to the difference in value between any
two posted shotpoint numbers. The user specifies a difference between
shotpoints number values. If the difference between two consecutive
values exceeds this value, then the program will show the break in the
track line.

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The value for distance break refers to the distance between shotpoints.
If the distance between shotpoints exceeds this value, then the program
will show the break in the track line.
Connectivity Mode
The options for connectivity mode are Posted and All.

Posted will result in drawing the track lines between posted


shotpoints only.

All will result in drawing the track lines between all shotpoints,
even shotpoints not selected for posting.

Discontinuity Pattern
You can alter the appearance of the line in areas where a discontinuity
(unconformity) is present. Consult the section Appendix C. Symbols,
Fonts, and Line Patterns, starting on page 791. Select the number for
the line pattern to draw if a discontinuity is present.
Normal Pattern
You can select the line pattern you want for the track line. If you wish
to distinguish between a normal pattern for the track line and a pattern
indicating a discontinuity, select one line pattern for normal, and another
line pattern to indicate a discontinuity.
The line patterns and their corresponding numbers appear in Appendix
C. Symbols, Fonts, and Line Patterns, starting on page 791.
Line Weight
You use this parameter if the Line Pattern Type for track line is bold (1).
The Bold line width factor is a multiple of plain line widths. The values
is a number from 18, with the default value set at 2.

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Number Break
This parameter sets up a value difference test between any two
consecutive shotpoints on a track line. If the value entered exceeds this
difference, the track line will be broken between those shotpoints.
The value for number break refers to the difference in value between any
two posted consecutive shotpoint numbers. The user specifies a
difference between shotpoints number values. If the difference between
two consecutive values exceeds this value, then the program will show
the break in the track line. A value of 0 will insure that a continuous
track line will be drawn regardless of any difference in shotpoint
number values.
Distance Break
This parameter sets up a distance test between any two consecutive
shotpoints on a track line. If the value entered exceeds this distance, the
track line will be broken between those shotpoints.
The value for distance break refers to the distance between shotpoints.
If the distance between shotpoints exceeds this value, then the program
will show the break in the track line. A value of 0.0 will insure that a
continuous track line will be drawn regardless of the distance between
shotpoints.
3D Survey Name Parameters
These parameters allow control for the location of the survey name, the
font, size, and color of the text, and the angle of rotation for the survey
name.
Survey Name Location
There are eight location options for 3D Survey Names.

Both+Line Post the 3D survey name parallel to, and above, the
first seismic line in the survey, and parallel to, and below, the last
seismic line in the survey.

Start+Line Post 3D survey parallel to, and above, the first


seismic line in the survey.

End+Line Post 3D survey parallel to, and below, the last


seismic line in the survey.

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Both+Shot Center the 3D survey with reference to all the first


shotpoints (on all the seismic lines in the survey). Likewise, the 3D
survey name will be centered with reference to the end shots on all
the seismic lines in the survey. The survey names at both ends will
be perpendicular to the lines in the survey.
Start+Shot Center the 3D survey with reference to all the first
shotpoints (on all the seismic lines in the survey). The survey name
will be perpendicular to the lines in the survey.
End+Shot Center the 3D survey name with reference to all the
end shotpoints (on all the seismic lines in the survey). The survey
name will be perpendicular to the lines in the survey.
Center Post 3D survey names in the center of each 3D survey
in the active map or cross section.
Omit Do not post 3D survey names in the active map or cross
section.

Survey Name Font


The choices for text font are shown at left.
Survey Name Size
This is the size of the text in plotter units (in./cm.).
Survey Name Color
This is the color of the text for the 3D survey name. Clicking the color
box will bring up a color widget composed of 256 colors. Select the
color you want for the 3D survey name.
Survey Name Angle
In considering the angle of rotation for the survey name, the program
takes the center of the label as the rotation point. The program begins
with the default orientation of the survey name label. Taking the current
angle of rotation of the Survey Name as the starting point, the Survey
Name Angle is the additional counter-clockwise angle applied to the
default orientation.

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3D Survey Line Parameters


These parameters enable you to control which 3D survey lines are
posted, and which posted lines have posted names. The parameters
allow decimation of track lines and track line labels.
Line Posting Method
For All, Rate, and Divide, the program will always post labels for the
first and last track lines.

All results in 3D survey lines being posted.

Rate results in the posting of the first and last track line in the
survey, and every Rateth track line. The calculation of the Rateth
line begins with a user-specified start track line number. A rate of 1
would result in all track lines being posted; a rate of 2 would result
in every other track line being posted.

Divide results in the posting of the first and last track line in the
survey, and each track line whose number (plus a user-specified
bias), is evenly divisible by the divide value.

None results in no 3D survey lines being posted.

Rate To Post Lines (Divisible By)


The rate to post lines is the frequency for posting track lines in the 3D
survey. A rate of 1 would post all lines; a rate of 3 would post every 3rd
line.
Starting Line (Divisible Bias)
The divisible bias is the seismic line number where posting is to begin.
The starting line number is a bias added to all lines in the survey before
rate or division are performed. If the starting line number is 5, and the
Divide value is 4, then line numbers 1, 8, 12, 16 and so on are posted.
Line 4 is evenly divisible by 4, but it is not posted, falling as it does
before the starting line number (5). For Rate, if the starting line number
is 5 and the rate is 2, line 1, 5, 7, 9 and so on will be posted. Line number
3 falls within the rate, but is not posted because it comes before the
starting line.

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Line Name Posting Method

All will result in posting names for all posted 3D survey lines.

Rate will result in the posting of line names for the first and last
track line in the survey, and a line name for every posted Rateth
track line. The calculation of the Rateth line begins with a starting
posted line number which the user supplies. A rate of 1 would
result in posted names for all posted track lines. A rate of 2 would
result in posted names for every other posted track line.

Divide will result in the posting of line names for the first and last
track line in the survey, for each posted track line whose number
(plus a user-specified bias), is evenly divisible by the divide value.

None will result in no 3D survey line names being posted.

Rate To Post Line Names (Divisible By)


The rate to post line names refers to the frequency with which posted
lines are to have posted line names. A rate of 1 would post line names
for all posted lines; a rate of 3 would post line names for every 3rd line.
Starting Line Name (Divisible Bias)
The divisible bias is the seismic line number where name posting is to
begin. The starting line name is a bias added to all lines in the survey
before rate or division are performed. If the starting line number for
posting names is 5, and the Divide value is 4, then line numbers 1, 8, 12,
16 and so on will have line names posted. Line 4 is evenly divisible by
4, but no name is posted for it, falling as it does before the starting line
for name posting (5).
For Rate, if the starting line number is 5 and the rate is 2, line 1, 5, 7, 9
and so on will have line names posted. Line number 3 falls within the
rate, but no name is posted for it because it comes before the starting
line.

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General Posting Parameters


Use this dialog box to control some of the more important posting
parameters.

Reposition Line Name w.r.t AOI (With Respect to AOI)


Specify whether seismic line names or 3D survey names can be
placed outside the pictures area of interest instead of being
clipped at the border.
No If the 2D/3D line names or 3D survey names fall
partially or entirely outside the picture border, the line name/
survey name is not posted.
Yes The program attempts to place the 2D/3D line name
immediately outside the border. For 3D survey names, any
angle of rotation is eliminated, and the program attempts to
place the survey name inside the picture border. If the effort to
place the survey name inside fails, a diagnostic message
appears.

Use Discontinuities Specify whether to use discontinuities in


posting. Yes means that if a discontinuity field is present in the
data file, use it. No means ignore discontinuity fields.

Minimum Distance The minimum distance is to the smallest


plotter distance allowed between data points. To ignore minimum
distance, use 0.0 for the value.

Color Mode Color Mode determines how the color settings for
track lines and shotpoint symbols are set.
Value Set the color of track lines and shotpoint symbols by
selecting a color value.
Field Vary the color of track lines and shotpoint symbols by
field type. Select a color mode field for a particular graphics
feature (such as symbol color) from the input seismic data file.
To select a color field, select the Color Field option in the
Choose Fields menu.
Z-field Vary the color of track lines and color/size of
shotpoint symbols by Z-attribute field. The size and color are
determined by the Z-range table and Color and Symbol Size
table. The starting color index is the starting color for
modulated field values. The color changes one index for each
modulation level.
If the color or size of a posted object is to vary with the change in a
specific Z-value, the user can specify how many levels of variation
(modulation levels) are reflected in posting.

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Color Value This parameter is used when Color Mode = Value.


The color value may be a field on your input file associated with a
particular posted entity (e.g., a shotpoint number). The color you
select will determine the color of the posted lines and shotpoint
symbols. Clicking the color to the left of the number field box will
bring up the color selection widget.

Number of Modulation Levels The number of modulation


levels determines the variations which will be possible for
shotpoint symbols, shotpoint labels, and Z-labels. The modulation
levels govern how many levels there are in the Z-range table and in
the Symbol Size table.
This parameter value must be supplied when the Color Mode is
Z-field, and if the Z-range Table Creation Method (on the
Modulation Parameters/Z-range Creation Parameters menu) is to
be Type In.
Enter the number of modulation levels you want to create. The
color and size of shotpoint symbol, shotpoint label, and Z-attribute
label will be varied when each level of Z-field values is reached.

Starting Color Index The starting color index is the color you
assign to the first level of the Z-range table. Each level up from the
first Z-field level results in posting with the next highest color.

Select Data to Post


This option brings up a Select Data to Post panel. If all data in the
seismic data file is to be posted, then the other parameters on this panel
are irrelevant. If only some of the data on the seismic data file is to be
posted, this panel allows the user to set up conditions which data must
satisfy in order to be posted. The data to post can be selected if it
satisfies one of the unary, binary, or Boolean operators available. Or,
data can be posted which satisfies a user-specified textual or numeric
mask.
Data to Post
All will result in all data being posted.
Some will allow you to set up selection criteria using operators, textual
and numeric masks, and wildcards. Data which match the selection
criteria you define will be posted.

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Select Operator
The operators set up a comparison between data values (such as
shotpoint numbers, line names, z attribute values) and a user-specified
text or numeric mask. The mask excludes values which do not satisfy the
requirement when the operator is applied to it. The values that fail to
satisfy the operator/mask are not posted.
The operators are:

EQ Post values equal to the textual or numeric mask.

NE Post values which do not equal the textual or numeric


mask.
If the EQ and NE operators are applied to character fields, the
entry for VALUE can contain wildcard characters.

LT Post values which are lexically or numerically less than the


textual or numeric mask.

LE Post values which are lexically or numerically less than or


equal to the textual or numeric mask.

GT Post values which are lexically or numerically greater than


the textual or numeric mask.

GE Post values which are lexically or numerically less than or


equal to the textual or numeric mask.

Null Post attributes whose field value equal to the ZNON (null
value) for the field.

NotNull Post all attributes which have a non-null value, or


which do not equal the ZNON.

Between Post all values which are between the lowest and
highest end of the lexical or numerical range defined by the masks.
Endpoints are included.

Outside Post all values which do not fall within (which are
outside of) the range of the lowest and highest lexical or numeric
values. Endpoints are not included.
The Value of the field must be of the same type (numeric or character)
as the field being tested.
Textual Selection Mask 1
For the unary operators (EQ, NE, LT, LE, GT, GE), enter a text string
which is to be a constant. Wildcards may be used in textual masks
(except for the first character of the string).

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For example, using the operator EQ:


Mask 1: AUS
will post all values consisting of characters AUS.
Mask 1: AUS*
will post all values consisting of characters AUS, and any characters
which follow AUS, such as AUS-001, AUS-002, AUS--01, etc.
The textual selection mask 1 also serves as the lower constant of the
range for the operators Between and Outside.
Textual Selection Mask 2
Textual selection Mask 2 is required for the binary operators Between
and Outside. Textual selection Mask 2 serves as the upper constant for
the operators Between and Outside.
Numeric Selection Mask 1
For the unary operators (EQ, NE, LT, LE, GT, GE), enter a numeric
value which is to be a constant. The operator will be applied to the
constant and all numeric values which satisfy the mask will be posted.
Numeric Selection Mask 2
Enter a numeric value that is to be the upper constant for operations
Between and Outside.
Rules For Using Wildcards
Masks used with the GT, LT, GE, and LE operators must observe the
following conventions: 1) Must begin with a non-wildcard character,
2) May contain any number of % wildcards, 3) May end with an *
wildcard, 4) Must not contain an * wildcard before any characters that
are to be used in the comparison.
Single Character Wildcard
The single character wildcard is %. For example, to post any data
having a one-hundreds decimal value, the mask is: 0.0%
If the operator is EQ, data values such as 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 are posted. In
this example, the value 0.001 is not posted, because the program is
looking for only one character after the third character in the string.

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Multiple Character Wildcard


The multiple character wildcard is *. For example, to post any data
beginning with the string AUS-, the mask is: AUS-*
If the operator is EQ, data values such as AUS-50 and AUS-51 are
posted.
Modulation Parameters
The Modulation Parameters panel allows you to set up ranges in
Z-Attribute variations which will cause a color or label text size change.
Z-Range Creation Parameters
The Z-Range Parameters panel allows users to set up a Z-Range table.
The Z-Range table sets out a number of minimum Z-Attribute values. A
change in the color or size of a posted entity will occur at each level of
the Z-Range table, e.g., the color index of the Z-Attribute value label
(and/or the size of that label) will increment to the next color index on
the color table (or to the next text size).
There are four methods of setting up a Z-Range table.
Z-Attribute modulation is defined in the Z-Range table. Symbol Size
modulation is defined in the Symbol Size Range table.
Z-Range Table Creation Method
When you choose a method for determining the number of modulation
levels, you are deciding how many levels of variation there can be in the
color of shotpoint and Z-Attribute labels, and the levels of size variation
you can have for shotpoint symbols. The number of modulation levels
is the same for the Z-Range table and for the Symbol Size table. The
levels in the two tables have a one to one correspondence. Modulation
level 2 in the Z-Range table will result in the symbol size assigned to
modulation level 2 in the Symbol Size table.
The four methods of creating a Z-Range table are:

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Type In. When you select Edit Z-range Values, a series of panels
will appear, allowing you to enter the minimum value for each
level in the Z-Range table. Changes in posted items (color or size)
will occur when each level is reached.

Divide. You can specify a number of levels to be built into the


Z-Range table. If you want 7 levels of variation in the posted items
for Z-Attribute values, then the divide value would equal 7.

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Inc. An increment will be added to the minimum value in the


table. If the minimum value is 1200, and the increment is 100,
then a Z-Range level will be created at 1300, 1400, etc., up to 50
levels.

Inc+Start. The user specifies the Z-Attribute value where the


modulation levels are to start. Values below the Start value do not
affect the variation in size or color of posted items. The user also
specifies the increment to be added to the start value to create the
next highest level. If the start value is 0.007 and the increment is
0.001, the posted color and size variations will take effect at each
level starting with 0.007, 0.008, 0.009, etc.

Z-Range Increment
When the Z-Range Table Creation Method is Divide, Inc or Inc+Start,
you must enter the value of the increment between modulation levels.
Z-Range Start
When the Z-Range Table Creation Method is Inc+Start, you must enter
the starting value. The increment will then be added to the start value to
create each additional modulation level.
Symbol Size Range Creation Parameters
To set a range for the size of symbols on the current map or cross
section, create a Symbol Size Range table.
Click the Symbol Size Range Creation Parameters button in the
Modulation Parameters dialog box to display the Symbol Size Range
Creation Parameters dialog box. Use this dialog box to set up a Symbol
Size Range table. The Z-Symbol Size table sets out minimum and
maximum value for varying symbol size.
Z-Attribute modulation is defined in the Z-Range table. Symbol Size
modulation is defined in the Symbol Size Range table.

Symbol Size Table Creation Method The methods of creating


a Symbol Size table are:
Type In. When you select Edit Symbol Size Range Values, a
series of panels appear, enabling you to enter the minimum
symbol size value for each level in the Symbol Size table.
Changes in shotpoint symbol size occur when each level is
reached. The number of modulation levels is specified on the
General Posting Parameters panel.

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Divide. The user supplies a minimum and maximum symbol


size for the Symbol Size table. The program divides the
difference between the maximum and minimum symbol size
by the number of levels in the modulation table. If you have
specified 7 modulation levels, a minimum symbol size of 0.1, a
maximum symbol size of 0.7, you have a 0.1 change in symbol
size for each additional modulation level.
Inc. An increment will be added to the minimum symbol size
in the table. If the minimum value is 0.1, and the increment is
0.05, then a Symbol Size variation will be 0.1 for level one,
0.15 for level two, 0.2 for level 3, 0.25 for level four, etc.
Inc+Start. The user specifies the value for the starting symbol
size. If the start value is 0.3 and the increment is 0.07, the
symbol size for level two will be 0.37; for the third level, a
value of 0.44, etc.

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Starting Symbol Size This is the size of the symbol for the first
modulation level in the table. The units are expressed in plotter
units (in./cm.) If the modulation field fails to satisfy any of the
values of the mod field on the Z-Range table, it is posted with the
starting symbol size (and starting color).

Symbol Size Table Increment When the Symbol Size Table


Creation Method is Divide, Inc or Inc+Start, you must enter the
value of the increment between symbol sizes.

Symbol Size Table Start When the Symbol Size Table


Creation Method is Inc+Start, you must enter the starting value for
shotpoint symbol size. The increment will then be added to the
start value to create each additional symbol size for the number of
modulation levels.

Symbol Size Table Minimum When the Symbol Size Table


creation Method is Divide, the minimum and maximum symbol
size for the table is required. The program computes the difference
between the minimum and maximum values for symbol size and
divides this difference by the number of modulation levels. The
resulting value is the amount to increment symbol size when each
modulation level is reached.

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Symbol Size Table Maximum When the Symbol Size Table


creation Method is Divide, this is the maximum value of the range
where symbol sizes are to be calculated. The program computes
the difference between the minimum and maximum values for
symbol size and divides this difference by the number of
modulation levels. The resulting value is the amount to increment
symbol size when each modulation level is reached.

Edit Z-Range Values


When the Z-Range Table Creation Method is Type In, you must supply
a minimum Z-value for each of the modulation levels you are creating.
Depending on the number of modulation levels, from 1 to 5 panels will
appear, allowing you to enter minimum Z-values for each modulation
level.
Edit Symbol Size Range Values
If the Symbol Size Table Creation Method is Type In, you must supply
the symbol size for each of the modulation levels you create. Depending
on the number of modulation levels, from 1 to 5 dialog boxes appear,
which you use to enter symbol sizes for each level.

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Surveys (Canadian)
Z-MAP Plus supports picture creation and survey posting for many
types of Canadian surveys:

Create DLS/NTS Picture Creates a picture using the


Dominion Land Survey (DLS) and /or the National Topographic
Survey (NTS) system.

Post DLS & NTS Surveys Posts DLS and NTS lines and labels
on an existing picture. You must supply both areas present to use
this option.

Create & Post DLS Picture Creates a picture on which you


can plot DLS information.

Create & Post NTS Picture Creates a picture on which you


can plot NTS information.

NAD 27NAD 83 Datum Shift Translates NAD 27 latitudes


and longitudes to NAD 83 state plane projections and vice versa.

Post Township/Section Range (DLS) Draws the Township,


Section, Quarter Section along with the Township and Section
labels.

Post National Topo. Survey (NTS) Posts National


Topographic Survey (NTS), Map, Series, Block, Unit and/or
Quarter lines and labels on an existing picture.
The DLS and NTS Binary Files

Z-MAP Plus supplies default files for defining DLS and NTS surveys. To
substitute custom survey definition(s), follow these steps:
1. Name the custom file(s) that contain the DLS.BIN or ZNTS.DAT surveys.
2. Set the appropriate environment variable:

setenv DLSFILE /directoryname/DLS.BIN


setenv NTSFILE /directoryname/ZNTS.DAT

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Create DLS/NTS Picture


On Solaris and IRIX platforms, you can use this option to create a
picture whose AOI is specified using either the Dominion Land Survey
(DLS) or the National Topographic Survey (NTS) system or both. You
must specify whether each corner is to be defined in NTS or DLS and
supply the definition.
If the corner is defined in DLS, you supply the Township, Range, and
Section numbers. If the corners are defined in NTS, you must supply the
NorthEast and SouthWest corners or the NorthWest and SouthEast
corners.
The Create DLS/NTS Picture option creates only the picture, no
annotation or lines are drawn.
You must provide the following information:

Meridian, township, range and section of any DLS corner

Description of any NTS corner

UTM zone and absolute scale value


This option calls the PICT-NTS-DLS macro. (For more information,
select Help Online Manuals Macros Manual, and locate the
topic for PICT-NTS-DLS.)

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Post DLS & NTS Surveys


On Solaris and IRIX platforms, you can use this option to post National
Topographic Survey (NTS), Map, Series, Block, Unit and/or Quarter
lines and labels on an existing picture. You can also specify line type
and width for each type of line, as well as the font and size for each type
of label.
You can also post Dominion Land Survey (DLS) lines on an already
created picture. (You can create a picture with DLS lines using the
Create DLS/NTS Picture option.) On the DLS map the Township,
Section, Quarter Section and DLS lines may be drawn along with the
Township and Section labels. Road allowances may also be posted on
the picture.
The NTS and DLS are clipped to each other along the British Columbia
and Alberta border.
Warning

To use this option, the current map must include both NTS and DLS areas.

Specify the following information:

type of line for NTS, Map, Series, Block, Unit and/or Quarter
boundaries

line type and width of each NTS line

type of labeling for the NTS lines

size and font of the NTS labels

type of line for Township, Section, Quarter, Section and Legal


Subdivision (DLS) lines

type of labeling for the DLS lines

whether to post DLS road allowances


This option calls the POST-NTS-DLS macro. (For more information,
select Help Online Manuals Macros Manual, and locate the
topic for POST-NTS-DLS.)

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Create & Post DLS Picture


On Solaris and IRIX platforms, you can use this option to create a
picture for plotting Dominion Land Survey (DLS) information. The area
of interest for the picture is specified using Meridian, Township, Range,
and Section numbers for the Northwest and Southeast corners of the
desired area. Township, Section, Quarter Section and Legal
Subdivision lines may be drawn on this map along with the Township
and Section labels. Road allowances may also be posted on the picture.
A border is drawn around the map.
This option calls the PIC-POST-DLS macro. For more information,
select Help Online Manuals Macros Manual, and locate the
topic for PIC-POST-DLS.
Specify the following information:

UTM Zone Number

name of the graphics file

name of the new picture

name of the input grid file

Create & Post NTS Picture


On Solaris and IRIX platforms, you can use this option to create a
picture on which you may plot National Topographic Survey (NTS)
information. The area of interest for the picture is specified using either
the North West and South East corners or the North East and South West
corners of an NTS or PNCA survey. You can request NTS, Map, Series,
Block, Unit and Quarter lines and labels.
You can specify line type and width for each type of line and font and
size for each type of label.
Specify the following information:

either the North East and South West corners and the North West
and South East corners of the survey

type of line for NTS, Map, Series, Block, Unit and Quarter borders

line style and width of each type of border

type of labeling for the lines

size and font of the labels


This option calls the PIC-POST-NTS macro. (For more information,
select Help Online Manuals Macros Manual, and locate the
topic for PIC-POST-NTS.)

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NAD 27NAD 83 Datum Shift


With the capability to handle NAD 83 state plane projections, there is a
need to be able to translate NAD 27 latitudes and longitudes to the new
NAD 83 standard. On Solaris and IRIX platforms, you can use this
macro accomplish that translation. The translation is available in both
directions.
Specify the following information:

input data file for the old latitude and longitude data in the type
fields

individual fields of the latitude and longitude type to use in the


transfer

desired direction of the transfer

new field names for the output latitude and longitude fields

name of the target data file and MFD for writing the output
This option calls the NADCONV macro. (For more information, select
Help Online Manuals Macros Manual, and locate the topic for
NADCONV.)

Post Township/Section Range (DLS)


On Solaris and IRIX platforms, you can use this macro to post Dominion
Land Survey (DLS) lines on an existing picture. (You can create a
picture with DLS lines by using the PICT-NTS-DLS macro.) You can
also add Township, Section, Quarter Section and DLS lines, Township
and Section labels, and Road allowances.
Specify the following information:

type of line for Township, Section, Quarter, Section and Legal


Subdivision (DLS) lines

type of labeling for the lines

whether to post road allowances


This option calls the POST-DLS macro. (For more information, select
Help Online Manuals Macros Manual, and locate the topic for
POST-DLS.)

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Post National Topo. Survey (NTS)


On Solaris and IRIX platforms, you can use this option to post National
Topographic Survey (NTS), Map, Series, Block, Unit and/or Quarter
lines and labels on an existing picture. The macro also enables you to
specify line type and width for each type of line, as well as the font and
size for each type of label.
Specify the following information:

type of line for NTS, Map, Series, Block, Unit and/or Quarter
boundaries
line type and width of each line
type of labeling for the lines
size and font of the labels

This option calls the POST-NTS macro. (For more information, select
Help Online Manuals Macros Manual, and locate the topic for
POST-NTS.)

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Projection Box
This option posts AOI and Projection information for a map.
The Projection Box option posts a box on a map showing all the picture
information such as picture name, scale, projection, etc. This box is
always 3 inches by 5 inches (same height as the default title block). The
projection box can be placed to the left of the title block by specifying
the position of the lower right corner of the projection box in map units.
You must select an existing ZGF.
This option calls the POST-PIC-STATS macro. For more information,
select Help Online Manuals Macros Manual, and locate the
topic for POST-PIC-STATS.

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Picture Assembly
In Picture Assembly, you can take several existing pictures of one or
more surfaces (for example, a contour map, a 3D perspective map and a
cross section) and compile them into one presentation picture. The
component pictures of the assembly can be drawn from more than one
graphics file.
Before you select the Picture Assembly option, you must create and
define the limits for a new assembled picture (map or cross section). To
create a map, select File New Basemap. Each picture in the
assembled picture is enclosed in a frame that you define and resize.

Select Graphics File


Click the Select Graphics File button in the Picture Assembly dialog
box to display a list of all the ZGFs found in the specified ZGF directory
paths. Select the graphics file ZGF) that contains the picture you want
to place in the assembly.

Select Picture
Click the Select Picture button in the Picture Assembly dialog box to
display a list of all the pictures in the specified ZGF. Select an input
picture to place in the assembly.

Select Features
Click the Select Features button in the Picture Assembly dialog box to
display a dialog box that lists the features in the selected picture. Select
the features that you want to draw on the assembly. The default behavior
is to select all the features.

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Cutline, Division
Click the Cutline, division button in the Picture Assembly dialog box
to display the Division, Cutline Parameters dialog box. Specify input
values for the following options:

Division of Features for Index Map Click the Division of


Features for Index Map button and select one of these options
from the list:
Maintain Division (default value) Select this option to
maintain the features as separate entities (such as contours,
borders, and title block). This option enables you to edit or
delete the features individually.
Single Feature Select this option to combine all input
picture features into a single graphics block, referred to as an
index map.

Use cutline Click the Use cutline button and select one of these
options from the list:
Cutline. Add a cutline around the input picture. This places a
solid line around the outside border offsets.
No Cutline. Omit the cutline from the input picture.

Create Frame
Click the Create Frame button in the Picture Assembly dialog box to
display the Create Frame dialog box. Use this dialog box to create a
frame for a picture you are placing in the assembly.

Key Frame Click the Key Frame button in the Create Frame
dialog box to display the Location, Height and Scale dialog box.
Enter coordinates and parameters from the keyboard for the
position, scale, and height of the frame:
Lower Left X and Y Coordinates You can specify the
location for placing the picture by entering the values for the
x,y coordinates of the lower left corner of the location. Until
you select OK, the frame you are creating repositions its lower
left corner wherever you click the mouse button in the
Z-MAP Plus window display area. This enables you to
reposition the frame graphically.

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Scale If you do not want to define the size of the component


picture by using the cursor, you can enter the picture scale.
Enter the value to use for scaling the picture. A value 1 does
not change the scale, a 0.5 halves the original scale. Each
picture in the assembly is treated individually.
Enter a value to scale the size of the picture being placed in the
assembly. The dimensions of the output picture (assembled
picture) are multiplied by this value to determine the size of the
picture.
Height Height overrides the scale. Enter the height in
plotter units (in./cm.).

Change Height and Change Width To change the size of the


input picture, click the Change Height button or Change Width
button in the Create Frame dialog box. The Change Height or
Change Width dialog box appears. Click the mouse button at the
new location for the frame edge. The frame is rescaled,
maintaining the same height to width ratio. When you finish
resizing the index map, click OK to close the dialog box.

Modify Frame
Once you create the index map frame, you can click the Modify Frame
button in the Picture Assembly dialog box to display the Modify Frame
dialog box. Use this dialog box to change any of the previously input
parameters, then click OK.

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Select Corner Select the corner of the frame that you want to
move. The frame changes colors. Using the cursor, select the new
location for the corner of the selected frame.

Next Frame This option takes the cursor to the next component
frame on the active picture. From this position you can select the
modifications you want to make to the frame (location, height,
width, cutline, division, features). You can select Next Frame as
many times as you like before you click OK in the Modify Frame
dialog box.

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Key Location This panel enables you to enter values for the
location, scale, and height of the frame. This method can be used
instead of the cursor method of making modifications.
Lower Left X and Y Coordinates You may specify the
location of the picture being placed on the assembly by
entering the values for the x,y coordinates of the lower left
corner.
Scale Enter a number to scale the size of the picture being
placed on the assembly. The dimensions of the input picture
will be multiplied by this number to determine the size of the
picture placed on the assembly.
Height Height overrides the Scale value. Enter the height in
plotter units (in./cm.).

Change Height Move the cursor above or below the frame.


When you change the height, the frame is rescaled.

Change Width Move the cursor to the left or the right of the
frame. When you change the width, the frame is rescaled.

Cutline, Division You can put a cutline around the pictures on


your assembly. You can also treat the features of your picture as
one single graphics feature, or you can keep the graphical features
separate. When the features are kept as one graphical feature, they
are lumped together and no further editing of individual features
may be done for that picture on the assembly. When you choose to
keep the graphical features separate, you can selectively modify
them, or omit particular features from the individual frames on
your output picture.

Division of Features for Picture Being Placed on the Assembly


The features in the picture being placed on the assembly may
be combined into one single graphical feature, or these graphical
features may remain separate.
Maintain Division (default value). Select this option to
maintain the features as they are in the original picture.
Consequently, contours, borders, title block, etc., are kept as
separate entities.
Single Feature. Select this option to combine all features
(contours, border, title block, etc.) into a single graphics block,
referred to as an index map.

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Use Cutline You can put a cutline around each picture being
placed on the assembly.
Cutline. Select this option to place a cutline around the
picture being placed on the assembly.
No Cutline. Select this option to prevent a cutline from being
placed around the picture being placed on the assembly.

Select Features A list of the features on the picture is


presented. Select the features you wish to draw on the picture
being placed on the assembly. The program defaults to All the
features.

Delete Frame
Once you create the index map frame, you can click the Delete Frame
button in the Picture Assembly dialog box to display the Delete Frame
dialog box. Use this dialog box to select a frame to delete. You can also
restore a frame you have deleted.

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Next Frame This option takes the cursor to the next component
frame in the active picture. You can select Next Frame as many
times as you like before you click OK in the Delete Frame dialog
box.

Delete Frame Use the cursor to select the frame to delete.

Undelete Frame The Undelete option works on the frame you


have just deleted. When you select Undelete Frame, the deleted
frame will be put back on your output picture, in the position from
which it was removed.

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View Menu Options

Overview
Use the View menu options to control the way maps and cross sections
appear in the Z-MAP Plus window display area including which
features appear, whether the entire image is visible, and whether
changes appear automatically.
View options are active only if the display area currently contains a map
or cross section. (The Switch Screens option is active only if the display
area is split from the menu bar and you are using a dual monitor system.)
A summary of the View menu options follows.

Display List Select the features (such as contours, faults, and


text) that are included when a redrawing operation executes (for
example, Zoom In, Zoom Out, Window, Pan, Re-display, and Full
Display).

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Zoom In Enlarge part of the image to fill the display area. The
image enlarges as soon as you select a centerpoint.

Zoom Out Reduce the image in the display area. The image
becomes smaller as soon as you select a centerpoint.

Window Draw a window around an area in the image, which


then enlarges to fill the display area.

Pan Shift the image to reveal a different part of it in the display


area. Define the extent and direction of the pan by selecting a
point, then selecting a new location for the point.

Re-display Load new or changed features into the display area,


or reload the image after changing the selections in the display list.

Full Display Redisplay the map or cross section at its original


size.

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Auto Display Set Z-MAP Plus to add new or changed features


immediately to the display area. If Auto Display is not enabled,
features are added only on demand (for example, if you execute a
Zoom In, Zoom Out, Window, Pan, Re-display, or Full Display
operation).

Switch Screens Switch the display area from one monitor to


the other. This option is available only if you set the system switch
so the display area is split from the menu bar, and the system has
dual monitors.

Display List
Use the Display List option to select the graphic features you to display
in the next redrawing operation (such as Zoom In, Zoom Out, Window,
Pan, Re-display, and Full Display). This capability is useful for
expediting work on complex pictures. For example, when you view a
complex map as a whole, you can hide elements that take a long time to
redraw. When you zoom in on a part of the map, you can include those
elements.
To view the display list, select View Display List or click the
Display List icon (shown at left).
The SELECT GRAPHICS FEATURES dialog box appears. The display
list in the dialog box shows all the graphic features in the current map or
cross section, such as borders, control points, contours, text, and title
block. By default, all features are selected (highlighted) and are set to be
included in the next redrawing operation.
To clear a selection, click the element. Elements that are not selected are
omitted from redrawing. Omitted elements are still part of the map or
cross section, they are just rendered temporarily invisible.

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Zoom In
Use the Zoom In option to enlarge a part of the current map or cross
section. To zoom in, follow these steps:
1.

Select View Zoom In or click the Zoom In icon (shown at


left).
The prompt LOCATE POINT TO ZOOM ABOUT appears in the
status area.

2.

Click the center of the area you want to enlarge.


The map or cross section is enlarged to about four times the
original size. The display area contains the part of the image
defined by the center point you chose.
Only the features currently selected in the display list appear. (To
view the display list, select View Display List.) By default, all
features are selected in the display list and are redrawn. If you have
cleared any feature selections, they are not included in the Zoom
In operation.

To return the display to it previous size, click the Zoom Out icon
(described on page 378). To return the display to its original size and
orientation, click the Full Display icon (described on page 382).

Canceling an Ongoing Redraw Operation


To cancel the ongoing redrawing operation, click the Process Interrupt
icon (shown at left). The ongoing redrawing process (for example,
Zoom In, Zoom Out, Window, Pan, Re-display, or Full Display) stops
immediately.
You may want to clear some of the features in the display list (as
described above), then redisplay the picture by selecting View
Re-display or clicking the Re-display icon (shown at left). New or
missing features are redrawn.

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Zoom Out
Use the Zoom Out option to reduce the size of the currently displayed
current map or cross section. To zoom out, follow these steps:
1.

Select View Zoom Out or click the Zoom Out icon (shown at
left).
The prompt LOCATE POINT TO ZOOM ABOUT appears in the
status area.

2.

Click to select a center point for the new display area.


The map or cross section is reduced to about one fourth of its
former size. The reduced image appears in the part of the display
area defined by the center point you chose.
Only the features currently selected in the display list appear. (To
view the display list, select View Display List.) By default, all
features are selected in the display list and are redrawn. If you have
cleared any feature selections, they are not included in the Zoom
Out operation.

To return the display to it previous size, click the Zoom In icon


(described on page 377). To return the display to its original size and
orientation, click the Full Display icon (described on page 382).
Cancelling an Ongoing Redraw Operation

For information about cancelling an ongoing redraw operation, see page 377.

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Window
Use the Window option to define an area of the current map or cross
section and enlarge it to fill the display area. To execute a Window
operation, follow these steps:
1.

Select View Window or click the Window icon (shown at left).


The cursor changes to a cross hairs symbol.

2.

Click to select a corner and drag to define the area (the window)
you want to include in the display. (In some applications this
action is called drawing a rubber band around an area.)
The image in the window expands to fill the display area.
Only the features currently selected in the display list appear.
(To view the display list, select View Display List.) By default,
all features are selected in the display list and are included in the
new display. If you have cleared any feature selections, they are
not included in the Window operation.

To return the display to its original size and orientation, click the
Full Display icon (described on page 382).
Cancelling an Ongoing Redraw Operation

For information about cancelling an ongoing redraw operation, see page 377.

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Pan
Use the Pan option to shift the current map or cross section within the
display area, so you can see an adjacent part of the image. This option is
useful for chasing lines or data across a map you have enlarged with
the Zoom In option.
To pan, follow these steps:
1.

Select View Pan or click the Pan icon (shown at left).


The prompt LOCATE EXISTING PAN REFERENCE POINT
appears in the status area.

2.

Click to select a point you want to include in the new display.


The prompt LOCATE NEW POINT POSITION appears in the
status area.

3.

Click to select a new position for the point you selected.


The display area shifts immediately in the direction and to the
distance you specified. Only the features currently selected in the
display list appear. (To view the display list, select View
Display List.) By default, all features are selected in the display
list and are redrawn. If you have cleared any feature selections,
they are not included in the Pan operation.

To return the display to its original position, click the Full Display icon
(described on page 382).
Cancelling an Ongoing Redraw Operation

For information about cancelling an ongoing redraw operation, see page 377.

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Re-display
Use the Re-display option to refresh the current display (whether it
shows all or part of a map or cross section). If you have added features
since the last redrawing operation, the features are added to the display
(and are the only items redrawn). If you have not made any changes, the
display reloads unchanged.
To execute a Re-display operation, select View Re-display or click
the Re-display icon (shown at left).
The display updates immediately. Only the features currently selected in
the display list appear. (To view the display list, select View
Display List.) By default, all features are selected in the display list and
are redrawn. If you have cleared any feature selections, they are not
included in the Re-display operation.
Cancelling an Ongoing Redraw Operation

For information about cancelling an ongoing redraw operation, see page 377.

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Full Display
Use the Full Display option if you have used the Zoom In, Zoom Out,
Window, or Pan option, then want to redisplay the map or cross section
at its original size and placement.
To execute a Full Display operation, select View Full Display or
click the Full Display icon (shown at left).
The current map or cross section returns to its original size and
placement. Only the features currently selected in the display list appear.
(To view the display list, select View Display List.) By default, all
features are selected in the display list and are redrawn. If you have
cleared any feature selections, they are not included in the Full Display
operation.
Cancelling an Ongoing Redraw Operation

For information about cancelling an ongoing redraw operation, see page 377.

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Auto Display
Use the Auto Display option to set Z-MAP Plus to add new features to
the display dynamically (on) or add new features only on demand (off).
If Auto Display is on, Z-MAP Plus performs a Re-display operation
each time you add or change a feature. If Auto Display is off, the display
updates only if you perform one of the redrawing operations (such as
Re-display, Full Display, Zoom In, Zoom Out, Window, or Pan).
To toggle Auto Display on or off, select View Auto Display. The
system window reports the status change for the Auto Display option, as
shown in the following example. (The appearance of the option in the
View menu does not change.)

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Switch Screens
Use the Switch Screens option to switch the active picture display from
one monitor to the other. The Switch Screens option is useful if you run
multiple OpenWorks applications simultaneously.
The Switch Screens option is available only if you use dual monitors and
the Z-MAP Plus graphics window is split from the menu bar.
Splitting Screens Before Switching

The Switch Screen option is inactive (and appears dimmed) unless you split the
Z-MAP Plus window so the display area is separate from the main menu. After
the split, you can move the display area between monitors.
To split the Z-MAP Plus window, use one of the following methods:
1 Select Tools System Switches. Select Separate from the Graphics Window
Configuration list. Exit from Z-MAP Plus and restart it.
2 Edit the MappingLauncher.dat file by entering the following command on a new
line (or edit the existing zmapplussh line to include the -m option):
Applications:
ZMAP Plus

zmapplussh -m &

To execute a Switch Screens operation, select View Switch Screens.


The graphics window immediately appears on the opposite monitor.
The Switch Screens option has the following features:

Once you select a monitor for displaying the Z-MAP Plus


Command Menu, you cannot move it to another monitor.

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Online help appears on the same monitor as the Z-MAP Plus


Command Menu.

The color editing dialog boxes appear on the same monitor as the
Z-MAP Plus window.

The position of the Z-MAP Plus window is stored as a session


parameter and is restored in the next Z-MAP Plus session.

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Modeling

Overview
Surface modeling, or gridding, is one of the most important functions in
Z-MAP Plus. Many functions in Z-MAP Plus use grids as input or
produce grids as output. A good introduction to gridding terminology
and the gridding process is available in the Z-MAP Plus Users Guide,
accessible by selecting Help Online Manuals User Guide.
Simply put, a grid is a set of regularly distributed points that are
calculated or estimated from an input set of control points. Control
points represent real data that has been collected and is not regularly
distributed.
The gridding methods are designed to work with point data, grids,
digitized contours, seismic lines, or other line oriented data.
A summary of available Modeling menu options follows.
Point Gridding Plus Provides all the functionality available in Point
Gridding and supports new features that enhance the geologic accuracy
of faulted structure models. Point Gridding Plus honors the input fault
geometry data, so it creates more accurate horizon models than
traditional structure modeling programs. Used in combination with
Profile Contouring, Point Gridding Plus provides high quality maps of
faulted surfaces.
Point Gridding Provides nine algorithms for building grids from
point (x, y, z) data. The algorithms are: Least Squares, Projected Slopes,
Weighted Average, Closest Point, Distance, Isopach, Bounded Range,
Linear Trend, and Moving Plate. You can use faults as barriers when
you build grids.
Contour Gridding Builds a grid from digitized contours. The
algorithm takes advantage of the information content in the digitized
contours to produce the grid faster and honor the contours exactly. You
can use faults only as barriers when you build grids.

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Line Gridding Plus Adds fault-rendering functionality to the


capabilities of Line Gridding similar to the additional functionality
Point Gridding Plus adds to the capabilities of Point Gridding.
Line Gridding Builds a grid from data in line format (such as
seismic, magnetic, and gravity data). The algorithm takes advantage of
information content of the line format to produce a grid faster and of a
quality similar to the Least Squares algorithm. You can use faults as
barriers when you build grids.
Trend Fit Gridding Builds a polynomial trend grid from point (x, y,
z) data or from a grid. You can build first order (3 term) through sixth
order (28 term) trends.
Trend Surface Gridding Creates a trend grid and a residual grid by:

using the supplied surface grid to build a trend grid of a specified


order
subtracting the trend grid from the supplied surface grid and
creating the residual grid

Many applications for trend surface grids exist. For example, you can
generate residuals and a trend surface from a velocity grid. After you
examine the residuals, you can identify high velocity, pull-up areas.
For detailed information about this macro, see the
TREND-ANAL-GRID topic in the Macro Reference Manual for
Z-MAP Plus / ZCL (Help Online Manual Macros Manual).
Boolean Grid Creates a grid with node values that equal either 0.0
or 1.0. Boolean grids are useful for mapping a formation that meets or
exceeds a criteria (for example, below, equal to, or above the Oil-Water
Contact level). For detailed information about this macro, see the
GRID-LT-EQ-GT topic in the Macro Reference Manual for
Z-MAP Plus / ZCL (Help Online Manual Macros Manual).
Constant Grid Creates a grid with node values that are all identical.
For detailed information about this macro, see the
EVAULATE-CONGRID topic in the Macro Reference Manual for
Z-MAP Plus / ZCL (Help Online Manual Macros Manual).
Polynomial Grid Evaluates a polynomial function over a
user-defined area and stores the results as a new grid. For detailed
information about this macro, see the EVAULATE-POLYN topic in the
Macro Reference Manual for Z-MAP Plus / ZCL (Help
Online Manual Macros Manual).

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User-Defined Filter Filters a grid with a user-defined grid (filter


operator). The filter operator grid can originate either from a GRID file
on an attached MFD or as an imported external disk file. The filter
operator can possess ring symmetry. Ring symmetry means that the
values in the grid nodes that are equidistant from the center point of the
grid are equal in value. For detailed information about this macro, see
the USER-FILTER topic in the Macro Reference Manual for
Z-MAP Plus / ZCL (Help Online Manual Macros Manual).
Flexing Smooths all or part of a grid by using Laplacian flexing,
Biharmonic flexing, or both. You can make smoothing adjustments with
or without further restrictions from the upper and lower constraint
surfaces. Flexing is used in many gridding methods, including Point
Grid Plus, Point Gridding, Contour Gridding, Line Gridding Plus, and
Line Gridding.
For an introduction to modeling and gridding in Z-MAP Plus, see the
Z-MAP Plus Users Guide. The section More on Grids covers the
process of creating grids, gridding terminology, and Point Gridding Plus
parameters.

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Shared Gridding Parameters


Many of the Z-MAP Plus gridding methods share certain parameters.
This topic describes the common parameters. For specific ranges and
suggestions for setting these parameters, see the description of each
gridding method. The following table shows which gridding methods
use common parameters.

Data Hulls

Search Radius

Extrapolation

Refinements

Cutoff

Smoothness
Modulus

# of Flex Passes

Flexing Type

Flexing Parameters

Control Grid

Shared Gridding Parameters

Point Gridding Plus

Point Gridding

Gridding Method

Contour Gridding

Trendform Gridding
Line Gridding Plus
Line Gridding
Flexing

X
X

X
X

The following topics describe the effect each of these parameters have
and how to use them to improve grids. The Boolean, Constant,
Polynomial, and User-Defined gridding methods do not use these
parameters.

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Control Grids
You can use control grids to determine which grid nodes are initialized
in Point Gridding Plus, Point Gridding, and Line Gridding Plus. You can
designate a control grid to tailor the new grids node values. Each
gridding method can use information from the selected control grid in a
number of different ways. Possible choices for this parameter include:
None Do not use a control grid.
Flex Only Flex the control grid. To constrain flexing, Z-MAP Plus
uses any input control points and faults.
Grid Non-ZNONS Replace any non-null grid nodes in the control
grid with values. Determine the non-null values by using:

specified gridding parameters


input control points
faults

No null (ZNON) grid nodes are altered. This control option is useful for
ensuring that node values are calculated at the same node locations for
all project grids. You cannot perform any refinements. The output grid
has the same x,y limits and increments as the control grid.
Grid ZNONS Replace any null (ZNON) grid nodes in the control
grid with values determined by:

specified gridding parameters

input control points

faults
No non-null grid nodes are altered. You cannot perform any
refinements. The output grid has the same x,y limits and increments as
the control grid, and the entire grid is filtered (both original non-ZNON
values and the newly calculated nodes).
Faults Only Set the program to create the specified output faults and/
or fault profile files. The Faults Only control option uses the control grid
and processes the input centerline fault file against it. No input control
point data is required.
Default AOI Choose the x,y limits and increments from the control
grid. This is the most common application of a control grid and
guarantees that the control grid and output grid cover the same area and
that their nodes are located at the same x,y positions.

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Data Hulls
You can use data hulls to determine which grid nodes are initialized
(assigned a value greater than null or ZNON) in Point Gridding Plus,
Point Gridding, or Line Gridding Plus. Choose one of the four methods
(discussed in the following text) to determine which grid nodes are
initialized:

Data Distribution

Convex Hull

Concave Hull 1

Concave Hull 2
Data Distribution The Data Distribution method of determining the
gridding area is the method used in classic Point Gridding. The
gridding area is determined by basic gridding parameters, such as reach
or minimum number of control points that can be used to compute any
grid value.
Convex Hull The Convex Hull option sets Z-MAP Plus to grid
whenever possible inside the convex hull of the dataset expanded by the
Expand parameter you defined in the Secondary Parameters option. The
gridding is limited only by the Reach Parameter.

Convex Hull

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Concave Hull 1 The Concave Hull 1 option sets Z-MAP Plus to grid
whenever possible inside the convex hull reduced by concavities. The
concavities are determined by the radius. The size of an imaginary ball
rolled around the convex hull of the data determines the depth of the
concavities.
Concave Hull 2 The Concave Hull 2 option is similar to Concave
Hull 1, except that concavities are slightly deeper between initialized
grid nodes.

Size of the ball rolled around


the convex hull of the data

Size of the ball rolled around


the convex hull of the data

Concave Hull 1 Using Different Size Balls


Setting the Radius of the Ball used to Create the Convex Hull
When you choose either Convex Hull method, the following dialog box
appears, which you use to set the radius of the ball used to roll around
the data edges.

In this dialog box, the value of the radius is automatically set to five
times the grid increment. You can reset the radius of the ball to any value
between 1 - 5 times the grid increment. In this dialog you also name the
data hull you create.

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Search Radius
The Search Radius parameter determines how far from a node the
gridding method should look to determine the value assigned to the
node.

The default radius is half the diagonal of the grid being calculated and
is usually much larger than necessary. Although it is better for the radius
to be too large rather than too small, a large radius increases gridding
time. Since only the closest points are used, significantly more data are
looked at than are actually used to calculate a nodes value. Most users
have found that significantly reducing the default value for the Search
Radius is the easiest way to speed the gridding process.
This is one of the primary parameters for controlling how far
extrapolations are carried away from the data. Reducing this to the point
where the search radius is smaller than the distance between data and the
edge of the map, or between data points, will cause ZNONs to be placed
in those unreached areas. This extrapolation control method will create
holes (ZNON areas) in void areas in the middle of data.

Extrapolation Distance
You can use the Extrapolation Distance parameter to set a distance from
the perimeter of the data to define an area in which you want to calculate
grid nodes. This parameter is applicable to Point Gridding Plus, Point
Gridding, Contour Gridding, Line Gridding Plus, and Line Gridding.
The default Extrapolation value is equal to the Search Radius value.
If Search Radius, Minimum Number of Points, Number of Sectors, or
any other node initialization parameters restrict node calculation to an
area smaller than the one defined by the Extrapolation setting, the
Extrapolation setting overrides the other parameters. In other words,
node values are calculated even if the other parameters are set to prevent
it. To avoid overriding other node initialization parameters, set the
Extrapolation Distance value to 0.

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Refinements
Grid refinement is the process of cutting the gridding interval in half and
computing the new intermediate grid values from the original grid
values (also called resampling). When combined with grid flexing, this
process can substantially reduce gridding time because resampling and
flexing are significantly faster than calculating initial node values.
You can compare the process of starting coarse and refining to building
a regional surface form, then adding the local detail to it. The more
refinements you do, the more general that regional starting surface is.
More refinements can help create a better grid if there is a strong
regional component or if the data have large void areas that a coarse grid
could easily model.
Refinements can cause problems with grids that use a large number of
faults or have a few closely spaced faults. Make the initial grid
increment small enough to place a grid node between fault segments.

Flexing Parameters
Flexing, sometimes called filtering or relaxation, is used to
simultaneously smooth the grid and tie it to the data. Flexings primary
purpose is to remove small surface irregularities in the initial surface
that are not supported by data. These irregularities are put in the surface
during initialization and are not desirable in the final surface model.
Flexing parameters are available in Point Gridding Plus, Point Gridding,
Contour Gridding, Trendform Gridding, Line Gridding Plus, Line
Gridding, and the Flexing Modeling menu options.
These parameters are described in detail with the final gridding method
in the section Flexing starting on page 520.

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Point Gridding Plus


Enter from Modeling in the
Z-MAP Plus window

Select input control point file.

Choose a Z-field to grid from the drop-down list.

Select a Fault File name, if one is associated with the data file.

Select the fault field.

Select the Pre-computed Fault Polygon file, optional.

Choose a Point Gridding Plus algorithm.

Optional: Choose a control grid.


Name output files and select destination MFD.

Set other Advanced parameters as needed, such as


Data Hull, Fault Dip Angle, and Weighting.

Yes

Do you want to
flex the grid?

No

No

Set flexing parameters.


Apply

Save and return to the


Z-MAP Plus window.

Is algorithm
Projected
Slopes?

Yes

Select additional
fields.

Point Gridding Plus Workflow


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Overview
Point Gridding Plus has the functions available in Point Gridding, with
additional features that enhance the geologic accuracy of faulted
structure models. To display the Point Gridding Plus dialog box, click
the Point Gridding Plus icon (shown at left) or select Modeling Point
Gridding Plus in the Z-MAP Plus window. Use Point Gridding Plus in
combination with Profile Contouring to create high quality maps of
faulted surfaces.
Details about the parameters found on each of the Point Gridding Plus
dialog box tabs is available in the browser-based Help system. To
display this information, click the Help button in the Point Gridding
Plus dialog box. The remainder of this topic contains conceptual
information to help you achieve the best results with the program.
You can use Point Gridding Plus to perform these tasks:

Grid randomly distributed point data (such as well data or seismic


data) with or without faults.

Build extremely accurate models of faulted horizons, given the


fault geometry data.

Model fault faces that cut a horizon, given the fault geometry data.

Point Gridding Plus has the following improved model interpretation


features:

directionally biased gridding


additional ways to specify which grid nodes are initialized
Kriging capability

Support utilities are also available, including these utilities:

export to Z-MAP Plus, a SeisWorks utility


Fault Polygon Shrinker
Fault Locator Circle
Profile Contouring

This next topics describe Point Gridding Plus and its capabilities,
including information about these subjects:

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Honoring Fault Geometry in Point Gridding Plus on page 396


General features, starting on page 397
Point Gridding Plus Support Utilities on page 398

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This discussion is followed by a description of Point Gridding Plus.


E
RFAC
T SU
FAUL

X
BED

X
BED

Key:
AE= projected vertical separation of beds
AC= throw
CB= polygon gap
(Tearpock and Bischke 1991. Published with the permission of the authors.)

Fault Movement Terminology


Honoring Fault Geometry in Point Gridding Plus
Point Gridding Plus was originally developed to help geoscientists
accurately incorporate fault geometry data into geologic structure
models. The process expects input fault data to be in a centerline fault
format; this means that the dataset must contain X, Y, Segment ID,
Vertical Separation*, Fault Polygon Gap** and Dip Angle fields. Given
vertical separation and one of the other variables of either dip or fault
polygon gap, you can compute the missing variable. For example, if you
determine vertical separation by correlating logs and find missing
sections, and you assume that the fault strike approximately follows the
digitized fault traces, the program automatically computes accurate fault
polygons.
During grid initialization, the program searches across faults for data
points to use for initializing grid node values. Data points on the other
side of a fault trace are adjusted in depth by the vertical separation of the
fault trace that cuts between the data point and the grid node.
Once a centerline structure model is created, the program automatically
expands the centerline faults into fault polygons. The program fills the
grid nodes inside the fault polygons with values that provide a good
approximation of the part of the fault face that cuts the structure.

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By looking across the fault trace, Point Gridding Plus builds grids that
honor the vertical separation along the traces. As a result, a structure
model created by Point Gridding Plus has grid nodes initialized
accurately inside small fault blocks with few data points. The continuity
of structural features that are cut by faults is preserved across the fault
face. This is similar to hand contouring techniques.
Maintaining Classic Point Gridding Capabilities
Point Gridding Plus is designed to enhance classic point gridding and to
work correctly with the typical input data for point gridding. For
example, Point Gridding Plus builds structure models from point data
without faults, and builds structure models from point datasets
combined with fault polygons (cut-outs) without any fault geometry
data. As in classic point gridding, fault polygons without fault geometry
are treated as opaque barriers during grid initialization.
Gridding: Directionally Biased
Point Gridding Plus includes a biased gridding option. When the
program computes the initial value of a grid node with biased gridding,
the gridding code assigns higher weight factors to data points in the
direction of the trend than are assigned to data points in other directions.
If you use this option, you specify the strength of the desired trend and
a trend direction as an angle away from North.
Determining How Grid Nodes Are Initialized: Improved Methods
This gridding process also contains two additional methods for deciding
exactly which grid nodes are initialized:

One method computes the convex hull (the simplest complex


polygon) that encloses the data, and expands it by a specified
amount.

With the other method, the program hugs the data distribution
more closely, and may even divide it into distinct clusters. If the
data is highly clustered, this last method enables you to divide the
input data into separate data hulls and grid only the nodes in each
cluster.

Kriging
Point Gridding Plus has a kriging feature a gridding technique that
uses well-defined models of a structures spatial correlation to produce
optimal structure models. The kriging feature is designed for users who
are familiar with geostatistics.

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Point Gridding Plus Support Utilities


The following support utilities are available for you to use with Point
Gridding Plus:

Export To Z-MAP Plus (a SeisWorks utility)

Fault Polygon Shrinker (a ZCL process)

Profile Contouring macro (part of Z-MAP Plus and ZCL)

Fault Locator Circle processes (part of Z-MAP Plus and ZCL)

Use the Export to Z-MAP Plus utility to copy horizons, fault polygons,
fault regulars, and cartographic data into an MFD. Once the data is in an
MFD, you can edit, grid, and contour the data. This utility automatically
creates centerline fault traces that have x, y coordinates, vertical
separation, and fault gap values. This utility does not handle intersecting
faults. You must join faults at intersection points.
Fault Shrinker is a ZCL process that automatically converts traditional
fault polygons into fault centerlines. This process automatically resolves
the center point of intersection from intersecting fault polygons. If you
provide seismic data for the target horizon, Fault Shrinker automatically
captures fault vertical separation along a fault trace from the seismic
data. This option is available by selecting Operations Faults
Shrinker.
Profile Contouring is designed to work with faulted structure models
created in Point Gridding Plus. You can use this utility to contour both
the structure model and the fault faces that cut that model. Profile
Contouring makes use of profiles created by Point Gridding Plus (data
files containing X, Y, Z, and Segment ID fields) to guide contours
making the sharp directional changes required to pass accurately from
contouring across a fault face to contouring across the structure
model.This option is available by selecting Operations Faults
Profiler.
In Point Gridding Plus, you can grid a set of closed polygons in a vertex
file, then contour and colorfill either inside or outside the polygon
boundaries.
You can use data hull polygons you create in Point Gridding Plus to
control colorfill operations in Profile Contouring.

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Fault Locator Circles is a ZCL process that gives you a graphical


method for guiding an interactive interpretation of fault trace and fault
regular location, based on horizon and fault picks in vertical wells and
an estimate of the fault dip angle. This utility creates a file of circular
contours centered at each well location. An experienced geoscientist can
use fault locator circles with unfaulted horizon contour maps to make
high quality interpretations of fault traces.

Using Point Gridding Plus


Point Gridding Plus has four primary objectives:

Grid randomly distributed point data, with or without faults.


Build very accurate models of faulted horizons, given fault
geometry data.
Model the fault faces that cut a horizon, given fault geometry data.
Incorporate enhancements to point gridding that are useful with or
without fault input.

Point Gridding Plus can look across faults and use fault geometry along
fault traces during the gridding process. Point Gridding Plus enables you
to supply fault vertical displacement, and fault polygon gap or dip angle
data, to define fault geometry. The gridding process allows control point
values in one fault block to help determine grid node values in adjacent
blocks. Z-values assigned to grid nodes in the adjacent fault block are
normalized by the vertical separation of the faults separating the two
fault blocks. During grid initialization, Z-MAP Plus impresses the fault
vertical separation on the grid model, maintaining and refining this
vertical separation throughout the process of grid smoothing. When
geologic horizons are cut by normal faults, use of fault geometry data
adds significantly to the quality of gridded representations. Fault
polygon gap data or fault dip angle data combined with fault vertical
separation data can be used to produce realistic fault face
representations in gridded horizon models. While Point Gridding Plus
uses many of the same basic parameters as Point Gridding, output from
the Point Gridding Plus process does not duplicate the output of Point
Gridding. Point Gridding Plus uses improved versions of:

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Least Squares Equations


Isopaching Procedures
Biharmonic Filter Edge Operators

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Fault Processing
Faults without vertical separation are treated exactly alike in the two
gridding processes, but Point Gridding Plus does not treat faults with
vertical separation as opaque barriers. Standard gridding algorithms
have difficulty with poorly initialized or undefined grid nodes inside
small fault blocks, but Point Gridding Plus does not. Point Gridding Plus
can replace the undefined grid nodes inside fault polygons
(characteristic of other gridding algorithms) with reasonable node
values modeling the fault face cutting the structure. The ease with which
Point Gridding Plus handles fault polygons can be especially useful
when you find, for example, that part of one of the horizon models
covered by your lease has ZNONs at equity determination time.
Gridding as if faults were opaque barriers produces incomplete and
inaccurate horizon models near faults for the following reasons:

Vertical separation may reverse along a fault


Small fault blocks may not be initialized
Significant surface structures may not continue across a fault

Point Gridding Plus, by contrast, can produce accurate horizon models


near faults for these reasons:

Vertical separation is consistent along faults


Small fault blocks are initialized
Significant surface structures continue across faults

Fault Geometry
Geoscientists measure fault throw, fault dip, and fault heave in a plane
perpendicular to the fault strike. Fault strike is the trend of a horizontal
line in the fault. Fault throw is the apparent vertical movement of the
fault in the plane. Fault dip is the angle of the fault face in the plane
measured down from the horizon.
Profile Contouring and Point Gridding Plus
Point Gridding Plus produces profile datasets optimized for use, in
combination with the output grid, which includes nodes that model the
fault field with Landmarks profile contouring model. Profile
contouring uses these datasets to produce accurate and visually pleasing
contour maps. By using throw gridding datasets optimized for work
with profile contouring, you can often avoid the expense of producing
and storing extremely fine-grid models.

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Using Point Gridding Plus with Vertical Separation Faults


Point Gridding Plus produces the best results with fault centerlines that
have vertical separation, and fault polygon gap or fault dip. The program
automatically expands centerline faults into fault polygons after the it
creates the initial grid. Centerline faults are the most natural way to
incorporate fault geometry into a gridding algorithm. It is easy to
determine the opposite side of a centerline fault trace, but it may be
difficult to determine the opposite side of a fault polygon.

Point Gridding Plus Parameters

The Point Gridding Plus dialog box has four tabs:


Basic Tab Settings for the input data file or the control grid file to
grid and parameter values, such as which algorithm to use, how many
refinements to perform, and the name of the new grid file. The Basic tab
also displays statistics for the grid AOI and increments.
Advanced Tab Settings for smoothing and bias, data hull, fault dip
angle, and other parameters that control node initialization.
Other Outputs Settings for creating and naming any additional files
you want to create as output: expanded faults, filled faults, a grid file,
and blanked fault files.
Additional Fields Settings for using the Projected Slopes algorithm.

Basic Tab
The Point Gridding Plus: Basic tab is divided into three sections:

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Input files (next topic)


Gridding Parameters (page 404)
Output (page 413)

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Input Files
The following illustration shows the options in the Input files section of
the Point Gridding Plus: Basic tab.

Control Point File


The Control Point File box value specifies the input control point file
(pointset file) to be gridded. If you click the Control Point File: Select
button, the Select Input File dialog box appears, which lists the pointset
files available in the attached MFDs (top list) and available in the
OpenWorks project (bottom list). Select a pointset file to use. The dialog
box closes immediately, and you return to the Point Gridding Plus
dialog box, which displays the specified file name in the Control Point
File box.
Z-Field Name
The Z-Field Name box value specifies the Z-field used to create the
grid. Click the Z-Field Name button and select a field from the
drop-down list. The list of Z-fields is automatically generated from the
selected control point file.
Fault File Name
If a fault file is associated with the specified control point file, click the
Fault File Name: Select button. From the dialog box that appears,
select the centerline fault file to use. The list includes all the available
fault files in the attached MFDs and in the current OpenWorks project.
The dialog box closes immediately, and you return to the Point Gridding
Plus dialog box, which displays the specified file name in the Fault File
Name box. The program uses this fault file to create fault polygons.

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Fault File Fields


If the input fault file contains multiple fields for one or more data types,
click the Fault File Fields: Select button. In the Select CENTER LINE
FAULT Fields dialog box that appears, specify the data fields to use for
gridding. You can specify a field to use for the following types of data:
x, y, Seg ID, throw, dip angle, and heave.
If the fault file contains multiple fields for a data type and you do not
specify the field to use, the program uses the default setting the first
field found for the data type.

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X-field Click the X-field button and select an x field to use from
the drop-down list.

Y-field Click the Y-field button and select a y field to use from
the drop-down list.

Seg I.D. Field Click the Seg I.D. Field button and select a
segment ID field to use from the drop-down list.

Throw Field Click the Throw Field button and select a delta-Z
throw field to use from the drop-down list. This field name is a
misnomer this field contains vertical separation values. This
field is required for incorporating fault geometry in Point Gridding
Plus.

Dip Angle Field Click the Dip Angle Field button and select a
dip angle field to use from the drop-down list. The dip angle
should always be greater than zero and less than or equal to 90
degrees. Either a dip angle field or a heave field is required for
Expanded Fault Computations.

Heave Field Click the Heave Field button and select a heave
field to use from the drop-down list. This field name is a
misnomer this field should contain fault polygon gap values.
Either a dip angle or heave field is required for Expanded Fault
Computations. If both a dip angle field and a heave field are
included in the input file, the heave field is the default selection,
and the dip angle field is ignored.

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Gridding Parameters
The following illustration shows the options in the Gridding Parameters
section of the Point Gridding Plus: Basic tab.

Gridding Algorithm
You can choose any of ten gridding algorithms to use for the Point
Gridding Plus operation. A description of each gridding algorithm
follows.

Least Squares (default value) Each grid value is initialized by fitting


a weighted planar least squares fit to the data in a circular area around
the grid node. The grid value is the Z-value of the plane at the grid
location. This method tends to smoothly pass through data with no sharp
peaks. Overprojection is possible. It is the most frequently used gridding
method as it works well for many types of surface data.

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Projected Slopes At each control point, the program computes the


local slope (strike and dip) of the surface. These may be combined with
user input slopes. Planar surfaces having these slopes are projected from
each data point into void areas. A grid nodes initial value is the average
of the distance-weighted Z-values of these planes at that node. Only data
inside a circular area around each node are used. This method tends to
exaggerate highs and lows. It is useful for monoclines where dips should
cause the surface to project above or below data values. This algorithm
requires additional parameters to be set. See Algorithms Requiring
Additional Parameter Dialogs page 422.
Weighted Average Each initial grid value is computed as the
weighted average of data in a circular area around the grid node. This
method tends to peak at highs and lows. It is considered good for
equipotential-type surfaces.
Closest Point Each initial grid value is set equal to the value of the
control point that is nearest to the grid location. This method is
sometimes called the polygon method or discrete method. Normally it is
not reasonable to flex (filter) this grid. This algorithm is applied with
moderate to poor success on average lithology data (a number at a point
represents the lithology at that point). The degree of success improves
with more and better distributed data.
Distance Sometimes referred to as Distance to Closest Point, this
algorithm produces a grid whose values are the distance from each node
to the closest data point. Normally it is not reasonable to flex (filter) this
grid. This type of grid is used extensively in computer mapping to build
masking grids. A distance grid, combined with a blanking grid
operation, places ZNONs at grid nodes beyond or within a certain
distance of data. That modified distance grid can then be used to control
where gridding is done (Control Grid) or where filtering is done
(Masking Grid). The technique is useful for updating old grids with new
data.
Isopach The gridding procedure used is almost identical to the Least
Squares/Biharmonic Gridding combination that is usually
recommended for irregularly spaced well or drill hole data. The
differences are in the treatment of zero thickness data. Otherwise the
isopaching procedure is Least Squares grid initialization followed by
Biharmonic post processing. This algorithm requires additional
parameters to be set. See Algorithms Requiring Additional Parameter
Dialogs page 422.

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The first difference is the treatment of zero thickness data that are, in
effect, replaced by Z-values that will continue the local trend of the
thickness into the zero data area. The slope of this trend establishes
where the inferred zero isopach curve will fall in the area between zero
and non-zero data.
The second difference between the Least Squares and Isopaching
procedures is the minimum allowed Z-value of the grid. In the case of
the Isopaching procedure, there is effectively no lower bound to the
Z-values of the grid. This allows the slope of the surface to continue
downwards outside the zero contour. However, the reported grid
minimum which is stored in the grid header is always zero.
Bounded Range This method is used to grid data that has an upper
and/or lower bound to the Z-values, such as Net to Gross data. It uses
the Least Squares algorithm to calculate grid node values. However,
before grid node values are computed, values of control points that are
equal to the upper limit or equal to the lower limit are replaced with
estimated values above and below the limits, respectively. The resulting
grid will contain values above and below the limits. A contour map
made from this grid will have limit contours which pass between the
limit and real-valued control points. The Bounded Gridding process can
be altered (Curve Compression Factor) so that the limit contours move
closer to, or farther from, real valued control points. This algorithm
requires additional parameters to be set. See Algorithms Requiring
Additional Parameter Dialog Boxes on page 422.
Point Density Gridding This gridding option computes the density
of data points within distance Reach of each grid node. The value
returned at each grid node location is the number of data points found
within distance Reach divided by the area of the circle with radius
Reach. The grid model created by point density gridding may be used as
a rough estimate of the confidence which should be assigned to each
grid value in a grid of the same size created using another gridding
algorithm and the same value of the Reach parameter.
Kriging Kriging is a gridding technique that uses information about
the spatial continuity of a surface. Using randomly positioned point
data, Kriging produces a statistically optimal model of the surface.
Kriging is a difficult algorithm to use correctly, but it is better when you
know certain characteristics of the target surface, and when the surface
satisfies certain hypotheses. Kriging is similar to classical Least Squares
estimation with the covariances determined from a user-defined
function. This algorithm requires additional parameters to be set. See
Algorithms Requiring Additional Parameter Dialogs page 422.

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The semivariogram is a mathematical model of the spatial continuity of


a surface or any spatially varying geologic property studied using
geostatistics. Following standard notation from probability theory, an
isotropic semivariogram for the spatially distributed variable Z is:
2

E(Z(x) Z(x + h))


S ( h ) = -------------------------------------------------2

In this formula x stands for the X and Y coordinates of any location


in space and x+h stands for the X and Y coordinates of another point
in space h units away from x. In the isotropic case the value of S(h)
is assumed to be the same for any pair of locations separated by distance
h.
There are many standard models for semivariograms. Point Gridding
Plus supports four of the most frequently used models, each of which
requires you to specify three values: the Nugget C0, the Sill C, and the
Range R. The four semivariogram models are:

Spherical
S(h) = C0 + C[1.5(h/R) .5(h/R)]where h<R
S(h) = C0 + Cwhere h>=R

Linear
S(h) = C0 + C*h

Exponential
S(h) = C0 + C[1.exp(h/R)]where h<R
S(h) = C0 + Cwhere h>=R

Gaussian
S(h) = C0 + C[1.exp(-h /R)2]where h<R
C0 + Cwhere h>=R

Generally, semivariograms increase in value out to a distance equivalent


to the range. The fact that most semivariograms increase in value with
increasing range is equivalent to saying that the correlation between two
Z values decreases with separation between the points.
Semivariograms can be made non-isotropic by using the trend bias
option.

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To qualify for Kriging, data must be able to fit into one of three
mathematical hypotheses:

Kriging Stationary Hypothesis, where the first and second


moments of Z are independent of position

Intrinsic Hypothesis, a reduced form of the Stationary Hypothesis,


where S(H) is independent of position

Kriging Hypothesis, where deviations from the Stationary or


Intrinsic Hypotheses are acceptable only if these variations occur
beyond the practical range of the semivariogram

Random Closest The Random Closest Point algorithm models


secondary rock properties such as permeability or porosity. Other
algorithms are not well suited to modeling secondary rock properties
because they treat rock units as continuous. This method can grid a
secondary rock property throughout an area that is distributed in a
nonlinear and discontinuous fashion.
Random Closest Point collects one data point in each search octant,
subject to the standard search constraint. One of those points supplies
the z-value assigned to the grid node. The probability of a particular data
point being selected is inversely proportional to the distance between the
point and the grid node. A random number generator is used to make the
selection.
Control Grid Usage
You can use control grids to restrain an existing grid in various ways.
For example, you can use control grids to change an existing grids AOI
or grid increment for use in the Calculator or Volumetrics.
Use the Control Grid Usage options in the Point Gridding Plus: Basic
tab to specify whether and how to use a control grid.

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First select the control grid method from the drop-down menu. Next,
select the file to use as the control grid from the Select Input File dialog
box that appears.
Flex Only and Refinement Settings

If you choose the Flex Only method, the Refinements value is automatically
set to 0. For all other methods, the Refinements default value is 1.

Control grid is a common gridding parameter used by many gridding


methods. For more information about Control Grid Usage, see
page 389.
ZNON Value
The program uses a default value of 1.000000e+30 for null (ZNON)
points.

To change the setting, triple-click the ZNON Value box contents in the
Point Gridding Plus: Basic tab. Enter a value from the keyboard. Use a
null value that is far outside any values found in the input data.
Search Radius
In the Search Radius box of the Point Gridding Plus: Basic tab, enter
the radius for drawing a circle around the grid node being calculated.
Data points inside the circle are eligible for use in calculating the nodes
Z-value (expressed in map units). Typically, only the closest data points
are actually used. The default value is half the size of the grid.

Reduce Search Radius to Improve Performance

Most users have found that, for large volumes of data, reducing the Search
Radius will speed up the gridding process dramatically.

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Search Radius is a parameter shared by many gridding methods. (For


more information, see page 392.)
Refinements
Each refinement pass halves the grid increment, which produces finer
detail in the map.

In the Refinements box of the Point Gridding Plus: Basic tab, enter the
number of refinement passes you want the program to perform. The
initial grid increment is used to build the initial grid. The refinement
passes are then performed, with the grid resampled at half of the
previous increment value, after which the grid is flexed. This process is
repeated for the specified number of refinement passes until the final
grid increment is reached. The default Refinements value is 1, and the
range of valid numbers is 0 to 5.
The Refinements setting is common to many types of gridding methods,
and is described further on page 393.
Extrapolation Distance
Use the Extrapolation Distance box in the Point Gridding Plus: Basic
tab to specify the width of an extrapolation corridor around the data
perimeter. Grid nodes that fall inside the corridor are initialized with
values extrapolated from the nearby data points.

The Extrapolation Distance value is expressed in map units. The default


value equals the default Search Radius value (half the grid size). The
Extrapolation Distance value cannot exceed the length of the Search
Radius value.
Extrapolation Distance is commonly used for a number of grid types.
(For more information, see page 392.)

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Smoothness Modulus
Use the Smoothness Modulus box in the Point Gridding Plus: Basic tab
to specify the extent to which you want to smooth the grid. Note that the
more smoothing you apply, the less the grid honors the data points.

In the Smoothness Modulus box, you can enter any value between 0
and 1. The default setting is 0.2. With a value of 0 (zero), if smoothing
pushes the surface away from the data, the program brings it back to
exactly honor the data. A value of 1 (one) produces the smoothest grid,
without regard for precisely fitting the grid to the data. With the default
value of 0.2, if smoothing pushes the surface away from the data, the
program brings it back at least 20% of the distance between the surface
and the data point. The Smoothness Modulus value affects the grid
nodes that are within 5 or 6 grid increments from the data.
To achieve an optimum trade-off between accuracy and smoothness,
you may need to produce several test grids that each use a different
smoothness modulus. The Smoothness Modulus is often used with
seismic data, with its value shifted towards 1. The effect is to remove
some of the wobble from contours that cross or run along seismic lines.
The Smoothness Modulus parameter is common to a number of gridding
methods. (For more information, see page 525.)
XMin, XMax, YMin, YMax
The XMin, XMax, YMin, and YMax values in the Point Gridding Plus:
Basic tab specify the AOI of the output grid. These values are the
minimum and maximum X and Y coordinate values of the output grid.

The default values are derived from the input data file. The default AOI
covers an area that is slightly larger than the smallest rectangle that
contains the input data (approximately 10% larger than the X/Y ranges).
If you specify a control grid, the control grid is used to supply these
values.

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You may want to round the values up to more even numbers. Do not
make the AOI any larger than required, however. The added grid nodes
increase the grid size and gridding execution time. In addition, remote
grid node values are more likely to have unrealistic values.
ZMin and ZMax
These values represent the upper and lower Z-values that appear in the
final grid.

These values default to numbers that are slightly smaller and larger
(10% of Z-range), respectively, than the smallest and largest data value
for the Z-field being gridded. This allows a small amount of overshoot
of grid values above or below data values. If you are using a control grid,
the control grid boundaries serve as the upper and lower boundary limits
for the Bounded Range algorithm.
XInc and YInc Grid
These values represent the gridding increment taken from the input
control point file. Grid increments represent the distance in the X and Y
direction respectively across the grid cell. These distances define the X
and Y gridding increments for your grid.

The increments default to the same value in both directions. If you are
using a control grid, these values default to those of the control grid.
For more information about X and Y gridding increments, see X and Y
Gridding Increments on page 493.
Experimenting with Different Increments

Many users find that altering grid increments has the most significant effect on
surface form and honoring data.

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Output Panel

Output Location
From the drop-down Output Location list, select the attached MFD to
use for storing the grid (or use the OpenWorks project).
Output Grid Name
Name of the new grid file. These names can be up to 24 characters in
length, and can contain interval blanks. The default name supplied by
Z-MAP Plus adds a G/ to the value of the Z-field. This field is editable.
Number of Rows and Columns
As you set parameters in Point Gridding Plus, these fields display an
estimate of the size of the new grid. You can not change these values
directly. They are provided for your convenience.

Advanced Tab
The Advanced tab has two panels: Smoothing and Other Controls.
Smoothing Panel
The Smoothing panel parameters control grid flexing. You can use
flexing (sometimes called filtering or relaxation) to simultaneously
smooth the grid and tie it to the data. Flexings primary purpose is to
remove small surface irregularities in the initial surface that are not
supported by data. These irregularities are put in the surface during
initialization and are not desirable in the final surface model.
Many gridding methods have smoothing parameters. For more details
about each of these parameters, see page 520.
Flexing Type
The Flexing Type button shows which type of flexing is specified
whether flexing is performed with a Biharmonic filter, Laplacian filter,
both filters, or no filter.

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Control of Passes
Use the Control of Passes setting to specify one of these conditions:

FLEX = NUMPASS (default value) Continue flexing until the


Number of Flex Passes value is met.

FLEX <= NUMPASS Stop flexing as soon as either the Cutoff


or Number of Flex Passes value is met.
Cutoff
In the Cutoff box, enter a number to use as a test value to determine
when to stop flexing. Flexing continues until the amount of change from
one pass to the next is smaller than the Cutoff value. The default Cutoff
value is 0.25, which typically results in three to six flexing passes.
Number of Flex Passes
In the Number of Flex Passes box, enter the number of flexing passes to
execute (if the Control of Passes setting is FLEX = NUMPASS) or the
maximum number of flexing passes to execute (if the Control of Passes
button reads FLEX <= NUMPASS). The default value is 10.
Other Controls Panel
Data Hull
Set the type of Data Hull on the Advanced tab under the Other Controls
panel. Data hull is a shared parameter, for a description of the different
settings, see Data Hulls on page 390. For Concave Hulls you also
need to set the following parameters.
Radius (for Concave Hull 1 and Concave Hull 2)
For Concave Hull 1 and Concave Hull 2, you are required to enter a
value for the radius of your data hull. The value set for this radius draws
the circle used to calculate which nodes are initialized and which treated
as null values. All grid nodes beyond the hull are blanked. A larger
radius stays closer to the outside boundary of the data and a smaller
radius will tend to move inside the original boundary. Then, the
Extrapolation setting is used to draw the actual hull around the
initialized data points.
Hull Radius is Different From the Search Radius

This parameter is different from the Search Radius parameter, which is set in
the Primary Parameters dialog box.

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Output Data Hull File Name


Enter the name of the output data hull file.
Output Data Hull File
This is the destination MFD to use for storing the output data hull file.
X Expand and Y Expand
Enter numbers (representing the distance in the X and Y direction
beyond the edge of the grid) that you want Point Gridding to search for
data when calculating a nodes value. These default to 0.
Trend or Bias Ratio
Biased gridding adds a uniform directional bias to grid models created
by any of the gridding algorithms supported by Point Gridding Plus
except closest point gridding, distance to closest point gridding, and
point density gridding. Ratio is the strength of the trend. Generally,
Ratio should have a value of 5 or larger to have any marked impact on
the grid model.
Trend or Bias Angle
Biased gridding requires you to specify a bias direction measured
clockwise away from North.
Trend Bias Angle Units
Biased gridding requires you to specify a bias direction measured
clockwise away from North. The angle may be measured in units of
degrees or radians.
Fault Dip Angle Unit
The units indicate whether fault dip is measured in Degrees or Radians.
Almost always, fault dip angles are measured in radians.
Maximum # of Fault Crossings
In the data collection phase of gridding, this number refers to the
maximum number of fault crossings allowed between a data point and a
grid node.

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Minimum Total Points


Enter the minimum number of points that must be used to calculate a
grid nodes value. If fewer points than this are available, then a ZNON
will be assigned to that grid node. The default is 1. This means that if
only one data point lies inside the search radius, the grid node will be
assigned the value of that data point. The Extrapolation Distance
parameter may need to be set to 0, since its value will override the
effects of this parameter.
Desired Points Per Sector
Enter the maximum number of points from each sector that can be used
to calculate a grid nodes value. This defaults to 4 and the range of valid
numbers is 1 to 8.
The circle, defined by the search radius, and centered over the grid node
being calculated is divided into 8 sectors. To do this lines running NS,
EW, N45E, and N45W are drawn. Each piece of pie defined by these
lines is a sector.
Using only a certain number of data points from each sector reduces the
influence of clustered data. For example, assume 40 points are tightly
clustered in the NNE sector, one point is in the SSW sector, the 40 and
the 1 are similar distance form the node, and that all are used to calculate
the nodes value. The average surface value in the NNE sector will be
40 times more influential in defining the nodes value than will the
isolated point in the SSW sector, even though the 40 and the 4 represent
nearly the same amount of information about the surface.
By using a maximum of 4 points per sector the above example would
change from a 40 to 1 influence to a 4 to 1 influence and a more
representative Z-value would be calculated for the node.
Minimum Number of Sectors
Enter a number representing the minimum number of sectors that must
contain data before a grid nodes value can be calculated. If fewer than
this number of sectors have data, then a ZNON is assigned to the grid
node. The default is 1 and the range of valid numbers is 1 to 8. The
Extrapolation Distance parameter may need to be set to 0, since its value
will override the effects of this parameter. For a definition of what
sectors are, see Desired Points Per Sector on page 416.

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This is one of the primary parameters for controlling how far


extrapolation is carried away from the data. Increasing this to 3 will
prevent nodes from being calculated in the corners of the grid,
increasing to 4 will create a large convex hull around the data, and 5, 6,
7 and 8 will create concave hulls around the data that fit tighter and
tighter to the data. This extrapolation control method will not create
holes (ZNON areas) in void areas in the middle of data. The other
parameter commonly used to control extrapolations is Search Radius.
Weighting
Controls whether data influence, when calculating a nodes value, falls
off quickly or slowly with distance from the grid node. Possible choices
for this parameter include:
Sharp Weighting (default value). This gives very large weights to
close data. The weight decreases roughly as an inverse squared function.
This type of weighting should be used unless you are dealing with very
rough (noisy) data.
Smooth Weighting. This allows even very distant data to have a
significant influence on a grid nodes value. It will produce a smooth
grid from rough or noisy data. However, the results will not necessarily
honor the data.
Uniform Weighting. There is no weighting function applied to the
data. Every point is assigned the same weight. In determining the value
of a grid node, the values of all points have equal weight.
Geoscientists will choose Uniform Weighting when all control points
have a very high noise level. When all control points have a very high
noise level, the best possible grid can by produced by simply averaging
the values of control points inside the search radius of each grid node.
When using Uniform Weighting you probably do not want to smooth
the grid using either the biharmonic or the Laplacian filters, since both
filters will tend to tie the grid back to the individual data points.
Report Type
You have three choices concerning the extent of the processing analysis
report: None, Partial, and Full.
None indicates that you do not wish to see the report.
Partial will give you a summary report.
Full will give you a full report.

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Pre-Computed Fault Polygon File


Z-MAP Plus can compute expanded fault polygons for you if your
centerline fault file contains fields for either dip angle or heave. If you
have built your own expanded faults polygon file and would like the
program to use it instead of its own expanded fault polygon, this dialog
box allows you to select and use that user-supplied fault polygon.

Other Outputs Tab


Point Gridding Plus can generate several types of fault grids. The
following illustration shows these different types of fault grids and the
file that describe them.

Centerline Fault
To create a fault polygon from this
file, the centerline file must contain
x, y, seg ID, Heave, and Throw fields.

Filled Fault
Interpolates z-values along the edge of
the polygon;thus contouring across the polygon
to join contour levels is possible.

Expanded Fault
Defines a polygon filled with null
or ZNON values.

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To generate Expanded or Filled fault grid or files, designate a name in


the appropriate field on the Other Outputs tab. If you have supplied the
necessary fault geometry information, Point Gridding Plus generates the
file
Expanded Fault Panel
Expanded/Blanked Fault Grid Location and Grid File Name
In an expanded (or blanked) grid file, the horizon model is defined up to
the fault polygons. The grid nodes inside the fault polygons are ZNONs.
This file should be contoured using standard faulted contouring.
Expanded Fault Location and Fault File Name
Data that describes the grid is stored in the expanded fault file. To create
a fault file, specify an attached MFD (or use the OpenWorks project) to
store the new file and specify the file name.
Fault Filled Panel
Fault Filled Grid File Name and Location
In this file, the horizon model is defined up to the fault polygons. Grid
nodes inside the fault polygons are assigned Z-values to model the fault
face. This file should be contoured using the Profile Contouring Option.
Fault Profile Data File Name and Master File
This is the name of the output fault file containing profiles along the
expanded fault traces. The file produces fault polygons with Z-values to
model the intersection between the faults and the horizon. In order for
this file to be produced, the centerline fault file must contain both a
throw field, and a dip angle or heave field. The Output Fault Profile is
required for profile contouring (Features Contouring Line/
Label Tab Gradient Profile Discontinuity field).

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ZNON Filled - Optional Panel


This is the name of the file that has ZNONs in throw, dip angle, or heave
fields filled in by linear interpolation. This file is useful for data
analysis.
Data Used in Gridding - Optional Panel
This file is an output version of the input control point file. If you do not
wish to output this file, leave the file name blank.
For the following gridding algorithms, the output data file will hold only
the input data actually used in gridding:

Least Squares

Weighted Average

Closest Point

Distance

Point Density
For these algorithms, the output data file eliminates points with ZNON
Z-values and points too far outside the Area of Interest (AOI) to be used
in gridding.
For the Projected Slopes Algorithm, this file holds the input data. In
addition, the output data file contains the DZ/DX and DZ/DY fields
used in gridding.
For Isopach or Bounded Range Gridding, this file holds the input data.
In addition, the output data file contains the modified bounding
Z-values.
For each output file to be produced by your execution of Point Gridding
Plus, select one of the attached MFDs or the scratch file. When you click
the parameter box, a popup menu appears, listing the MFDs and a
scratch file attached to the Z-MAP Plus session. Select the destination
MFD for storing the output file.

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Additional Fields Tab


This tab allows you to supply values for DZ/DX, DZ/DY and Weight.
This selection is necessary only when:

You have chosen the Projected Slopes Algorithm and Expanded as


the type of data for Projected Slopes.

If more than one DZ/DX, DZ/DY, or Weight field is on the dataset.


If only one is present, the program will find and use it.

If the type of data is Normal, Z-MAP Plus uses the Projected Slopes
Algorithm to calculate DZ/DX, DZ/DY, and assign a weight of one to
each data point on the grid.
DZ/DX Field
This field represents the change in Z divided by the change in X, or the
first derivative in the X-direction. A list of DZ/DX Fields on your Input
Control Point file appears. Point to and click the field you want.
DZ/DY Field
This field represents the change in Z divided by the change in Y, or the
first derivative in the Y-direction. A list of DZ/DY fields on your Input
Control Point file appears. Point to and click the field you want.
GRADIENT-WEIGHT Field
The Projected Slopes Algorithm assigns weights to the Z-values inside
a circular area around a node before averaging them. Z-values closest to
the grid nodes receive the greater weight. If you assign your own
weights, higher numbers receive the greater weight.
Data Type
Normal. This data type is appropriate for data that does not contain
gradient information (X, Y, Z).
Expanded. This data type is appropriate for data that does contain
gradient information and weights (X, Y, Z, DZ/DX, DZ/DY, W).
If your data type is expanded, you will have the option to supply
information about additional fields.

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Algorithms Requiring Additional Parameter Dialog Boxes

Projected Slopes

Isopach

Select Control Grid Usage

Bounded Range

Select Data Hull

Kriging

Select Fault Dip Angle

A parameter dialog box appears, matching the selected gridding algorithm

Projected Slopes

Isopach

Bounded Range

Kriging

Selected data type

Compression factor

Upper and lower Z-bound

Semivariogram

Boundary tolerance

Semivariogram nugget,
sill, and range

Compression factor

X direction block

Y direction block

Output error file

Choose a control grid (optional)

Save and return to Point Gridding


Plus window

Point Gridding Plus Algorithms Requiring Parameter Dialog


Boxes Workflow

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Depending on which Point Gridding Plus Algorithm you have chosen, a


parameter option for that algorithm may or may not appear on your
screen. The following algorithms do allow additional user-supplied
parameter values:

Projected Slopes
Isopach
Bounded Range
Kriging

Isopach Parameter Options


The Isopach Parameter Option asks for the Compression Factor.
Compression Factor is also used for the Bounded Range Algorithm.
Compression Factor
The value entered for the compression factor will force the boundary
between negative and positive grid node values (the zero contour when
mapped) either closer to or farther from real valued data points
(nonzeros). The zero thickness contour will be drawn closer to the
zero-valued data when this parameter is reduced during Isopach
gridding. The zero contour will be drawn closer to the non-zero data if
the compression factor is increased. The default (2) causes the curve to
pass approximately halfway between zero and non-zero data. The
allowed range is 0 to 5.

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Bounded Range Parameters Options


This option allows you to specify:

Upper and Lower Z-bound


Boundary Tolerance
Compression Factor

Upper Z-bound
This number represents the upper bound in Z of the bounded range.
Lower Z-bound
This number represents the lower bound in Z of the bounded range.
Boundary Tolerance
Enter a value that will be used to test each control points Z-value to see
if it is close to a boundary limit (Z-minimum and Z-maximum).
Z-values in this tolerance of the upper or lower limits are treated as if
their values were equal to those limits. The tolerance defaults to zero.
An example of Boundary Tolerance
When gridding Net to Gross, the lower and upper limits might be zero
and one and the Boundary Tolerance .03. Then, any points with
Z-values between .03 and .03 are treated as if they were zero, and
points with Z-values between .97 and 1.03 are treated as if their values
were one. Because these control points are now considered to be at the
limits, they will be replaced with estimated values that are beyond the
limits before the grid is calculated.
Compression Factor
The value entered for the compression factor will force the boundary
between negative and positive grid node values (the zero contour when
mapped) either closer to or farther from real valued data points
(nonzeros). The zero thickness contour will be drawn closer to the
zero-valued data when this parameter is reduced during Isopach
gridding. The zero contour will be drawn closer to the non-zero data if
the compression factor is increased. The default (2) causes the curve to
pass approximately halfway between zero and non-zero data. The
allowed range is 0 to 5.

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Kriging Algorithm - Parameter Options

Select Kriging algorithm

Select Data Hull and Fault Dip Angle

(for expanded faults)

Kriging parameter dialog box appears

Select semivariogram

Spherical

Linear

Exponential

Gaussian

Enter values for semivariogram nugget, sill and range

Enter values for X and Y direction block (usually 0)

Enter name for error grid file and select MFD

Save and return to


Z-MAP Plus
main menu

Point Gridding Plus, Kriging Workflow

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There are eight parameters for the Kriging algorithm:

Semivariogram

Semivariogram Nugget

Semivariogram Sill

Semivariogram Range

X-direction Block

Y-direction Block

Output Kriging Error Grid File Name

Output Kriging Error Grid File Master File


Semivariogram
The semivariogram is a mathematical model of the spatial continuity of
a surface or any spatially varying geologic property studied using
geostatistics. Following standard notation from probability theory, an
isotropic semivariogram for the spatially distributed variable Z is:
2
E(Z(x) Z(x + h))
S ( h ) = -------------------------------------------------2
In this formula x stands for the X and Y coordinates of any location
in space and x+h stands for the X and Y coordinates of another point
in space h units away from x. In the isotropic case the value of S(h)
is assumed to be the same for any pair of locations separated by distance
h.

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There are many standard models for semivariograms. Point Gridding


Plus supports four of the most frequently used models, each of which
requires you to specify three values: the Nugget C0, the Sill C, and the
Range R.

Semivariogram Models
The four semivariogram models are:

Spherical
S(h) = C0 + C[1.5(h/R) 0.5(h/R)]where h<R
S(h) = C0 + Cwhere h>=R
Linear
S(h) = C0 + C*h
Exponential
S(h) = C0 + C[1.exp(h/R)]where h<R
S(h) = C0 + Cwhere h>=R
Gaussian
S(h) = C0 + C[1.exp(h /R) 2]where h<R
S(h) = C0 + Cwhere h>=R

Generally, semivariograms increase in value out to a distance equivalent


to the range. The fact that most semivariograms increase in value with
increasing range is equivalent to saying that the correlation between two
Z values decreases with separation between the points.
Semivariograms can be made non-isotropic by using the Trend Bias
option.

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Semivariogram Nugget
The Nugget is one of the three variables which defines the
semivariogram when using the Kriging capability provided by Point
Gridding Plus. The Nugget is the sum of measurement noise and
localized fracture effects which reduce the accuracy of any single
measured Z-value. A positive Nugget implies that a grid model created
using Kriging may not exactly honor the input Z values which are used
to define the model.

Semivariogram Nugget
Semivariogram Sill
In the picture above, 10 on the Y-axis represents the Nugget or the
distance between data points calculated by the Semivariogram when the
empirical distance is zero.
The Sill = the Nugget + 100, or 110.

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Semivariogram Range
The Range is the user-specified distance between any two points in
space at which the correlation between the values of the two points is
assumed to reach a fixed and uniform minimum value. Range is one of
the three variables which define a semivariogram and must be specified
only when using the Kriging capability provided by Point Gridding.
X-direction Block
This is the block dimension in the X-direction used during Kriging. If
X-direction block value is zero, then point kriging is performed.
Y-direction Block
This is the block dimension in the Y-direction used during Kriging. If
Y-direction block value is zero, then point kriging is performed.
Output Kriging Error Grid File Name and Master File
The kriging error grid shows the estimated standard deviation of the
kriging horizon model. The Error Grid can show where more control is
needed or where the Kriging model cannot be trusted.

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Point Gridding
Enter from Modeling in Z-MAP Plus
window

Default Point Gridding

Operator Controlled Point Gridding

Select control point data file

Select control point data file

Select faults and fault Z-field if required

Select Z-field

Name output and choose algorithm

Faults

Apply Point Gridding

Name output and choose algorithm

Review Results/Gridding

Set primary parameters & control grid use

Set secondary parameters


NOTE: Bold borders
indicate steps you must
perform the step.
*Use only with
Projected Slopes
Gridding and if more
than one DZ/DX, DZ/
DY, and/or Weight field
is present.

Set flexing parameters

Choose control grid file

Select additional fields*

Review data distribution statistics

Apply Point Gridding


Save and return to
Z-MAP Plus window

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Point Gridding Workflow

Overview
Point Gridding uses nearby x,y,z data to calculate values of nodes in a
grid. Any data set that has values at x,y locations and would be
reasonable to contour by hand can be gridded with this option. Input data
are referred to as randomly distributed, which means they need not be
digitized contours or line oriented data (seismic). However, data in those
formats are acceptable.
Point Gridding allows you to specify:

size and position of the grid


how far to look for data
upper and lower limits for the grid
whether faults are used
how far from data to calculate node values

You can also force the size of a grid to match that of another grid or pass
values of a previously built grid through to the grid being built.
Grids are built in three stages:

data and parameter input


grid initialization
post processing (flexing)

Data and Parameter Input sets the control point file, Z-field, fault file,
and control grid to be used during the gridding process.
Grid Initialization computes the initial node values. You select from
nine algorithms. Each algorithm produces different results and is
designed for different data and geologic problems. The default is a Least
Squares algorithm. Once an algorithm has been selected, you may set
the primary and secondary gridding parameters and the data distribution
parameters before continuing to the Post Processing phase.
Post Processing refines and adjusts the initial values to more closely
honor data and to smooth the surface. To do this the grid is refined by
dividing the X and Y grid increments by 2, once or several times. Before
and after each refinement the surface (grid nodes) is filtered to smooth
it and tie to the data. You control how much refinement, smoothing, and
honoring of data is done. The default is one refinement and use of a
Biharmonic filter. A gridding report is output to the processing window
once this option is applied.
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Control Points
A list of files is presented. Point to and click the file you want. A field
will be selected from this file and used as input when the option
executes. The grid node values will be based on the control points
(usually depth values from wells).

Z-field
A list of fields is presented. Point to and click the field you want.
Z-values in this field will be used when this option executes. Z-values
are usually depth or time values.

Faults
A list of fault files is presented. Point to and click the fault file you want.
Faults are needed only when building surfaces cut by faults. When faults
are used, grid nodes are calculated using only data located on the same
side of the faults as the node. A fault file must have been previously
constructed in order to be available for this option.

Output Grid Name and Algorithm


Use this dialog box to specify the following input values:

name of the grid

MFD for storing the grid

gridding method (Moving Least Squares, Moving Weighted


Averages, Projected Slopes, etc.)

boundary tolerance (Bounded Range algorithm)

compression factor (Bounded Range and Isopach algorithms)

type of data (Projected Slopes algorithm)


Normally, you will go to this dialog box and change the grid name and
output MFD.
Output Grid Name
Enter the name of the grid to be created; this name may be up to 24
characters long and may contain internal blanks.

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Output Grid Master File


When you click the parameter box, a popup menu appears, listing the
attached MFDs and scratch file. Select the MFD to use for storing the
output file.
Algorithm Choices
Select the algorithm to use when Point Gridding executes. Possible
choices for this parameter include:

Least Squares

Projected Slopes

Weighted Average

Closest Point

Distance

Isopach

Bounded Range

Linear Trend

Moving Plate
These choices are discussed in the following text.
Least Squares (default) Each grid value is computed by fitting a
weighted planar least squares fit to the data in a circular area around the
grid node. The grid value is the Z-value of the plane at the grid location.
This method tends to smoothly pass through data with no sharp peaks
and over projection is possible. It is the most frequently used gridding
method as it works well for many types of surface data.
Projected Slopes At each control point, the program computes the
local slope (strike and dip) of the surface. These may be combined with
user-input slopes. Planar surfaces having these slopes are projected from
each data point into void areas. A grid nodes value is the average of the
distance-weighted Z-values of these planes at that node. Only data
inside a circular area around each node are used. This method tends to
exaggerate highs and lows. It is useful for monoclines where dips should
cause the surface to project above or below data values.
Weighted Average Each initial grid value is computed as the
weighted average of data in a circular area around the grid node. This
method flattens towards the regional average and consequently tends to
peak at highs and lows. It is considered good for equipotential type
surfaces.

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Closest Point Each initial grid value is set equal to the value of the
control point that is nearest to the grid location. This method is
sometimes called the polygon method or discrete method. Normally it is
not reasonable to flex (filter) this grid. This algorithm is applied with
moderate to poor success on average lithology data (a number at a point
represents the lithology at that point). The degree of success improves
with more and better distributed data.
Distance Sometimes referred to as Distance to Closest Point, this
algorithm produces a grid whose values are the distance from each node
to the closest data point. Normally it is not reasonable to flex (filter) this
grid. This type of grid is used extensively in computer mapping to build
masking grids. A distance grid combined with a blanking grid operation
places ZNONs (null data) at grid nodes beyond or within a certain
distance of data. That modified distance grid can then be used to control
where gridding is done (Control Grid) or where filtering is done
(Masking Grid). The technique is useful for updating old grids with new
data.
Isopach This algorithm uses the Least Squares algorithm to calculate
node values. However, before node values are computed, every zero
valued control point is replaced with a negative estimated value. The
resulting grid will contain negatives where there is no thickness. A
contour map made from this grid will have a zero contour which passes
between the non-zero and zero control points. The Isopach Gridding
process can be altered (Curve Compression Factor) so that this contour
moves closer to, or farther from, real valued control points.
Bounded Range This method is used to grid data that has an upper
and/or lower bound to the Z-values, such as Net to Gross data. It uses
the Least Squares algorithm to calculate grid node values. However,
before grid node values are computed, values of control points that are
equal to the upper limit or equal to the lower limit are replaced with
estimated values above and below the limits, respectively. The resulting
grid contains values above and below the limits. A contour map made
from this grid has limit contours that pass between the limit and
real-valued control points. The Bounded Gridding process can be
altered (Curve Compression Factor) so that the limit contours move
closer to, or farther from, real valued control points.
Linear Trend This is the Moving Least Squares algorithm, except
that all data are weighted equally (Moving Least Squares weights by
distance). For unfaulted data, this has the effect of building a first order
trend grid. With faults, this algorithm produces first order trends in fault
blocks but will create very rough transitions from one block to the next.

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Moving Plate This is the Moving Weighted Averages algorithm,


except that all data are weighted equally (Weighted Average weights by
distance). For unfaulted data this has the effect of building a flat surface
at the average value of all the data. With faults this produces flat
surfaces in fault blocks but creates very rough transitions from one
block to the next.
Boundary Tolerance
This parameter is used only when you use the Bounded Range
algorithm. Enter a value to used for testing each control points Z-value
to see if it is close to a boundary limit (Z-minimum and Z-maximum).
Z-values within this tolerance of the upper or lower limits are treated as
if their values were equal to the limits. The default tolerance is 0.0.
Example
If when gridding Net to Gross the lower and upper limits are 0 and 1 and
the Boundary Tolerance is 0.03, any points with Z-values between - 0.03
and 0.03 are assigned a value of 0 and points with Z-values between 0.97
and 1.03 are given a value of 1. Consequently, these control points are
considered to be at the limits, and as a result they will be replaced with
estimated values that are beyond the limits before the grid is calculated.
(See the preceding discussion of Bounded Range under the Algorithm
parameter.)
Compression Factor
This parameter is used only when using the Isopach or Bounded Range
algorithm. This discussion is presented in terms of the Isopach
algorithm but applies equally to the upper and lower limits of the
Bounded Range algorithm.
Enter a value to be used. This value will force the boundary between
negative and positive grid node values (the zero contour when mapped)
either closer to or further from real valued data points (non-zeros). The
zero thickness contour will be drawn closer to the zero valued data when
this parameter is reduced during Isopach gridding. The zero contour will
be drawn closer to the non-zero data if the Compression Factor is
increased. The default (2) causes the curve to pass approximately
halfway between zero and non-zero data. The allowed range is 0 to 5.

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How Compression Factor Works


The Compression Factor actually alters the negative values that replace
zeros in the data file before gridding. The replacement values are
calculated using an equation of the form:
Zr = 1 Zc ( CF 2 ) DRATIO
Where:
Zr = Zero replacement value
Zc = Z-value of the real valued control point that is closest to the zero
valued control point being replaced
CF = Compression Factor
DRATIO = Distance between Zr and Zc divided by the average Control
Point spacing
Type of Data
This parameter only has effect when using the Projected Slopes
algorithm. It controls whether Point Gridding calculates dip in the X and
Y directions (first derivatives in these directions) for each data point or
whether you provide these values in fields of your data file. Possible
choices for this parameter include:
Normal. You are not providing this data and would like the Point
Gridding, Projected Slopes algorithm to calculate DZ/DX, DZ/DY and
use a weight of one for each data point.
Expanded. You have an expanded data file which contains DZ/DX,
DZ/DY, and Weight for the Z-field to be gridded. The Point Gridding
Projected Slopes algorithm will use the first DZ/DX field, DZ/DY field,
and Weight field it encounters. If some values for these fields are ZNON
(null data value), Point Gridding will calculate them.

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Primary Parameters
After initializing grid,
enter from Primary
Parameters on Point

Enter coordinates for Area of

Enter X and Y grid increments

Enter minimum and maximum Z-values

Enter search radius value

Proceed to
Secondary
Parameters on
Point Gridding Primary Parameters Workflow
The Primary Parameters dialog box allows you to specify:

X and Y limits
X and Y grid increments
maximum and minimum Z-values
distance to search when looking for data
how control grids are used (if used).

Defaults can be automatically calculated for all of these parameters.


Altering grid increments most significantly effects how well the data is
honored and the form of the surface. For large volumes of data, reducing
the search radius will speed up the gridding process dramatically.

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Minimum and Maximum X and Y Coordinates


Enter values to be used as the minimum and maximum X and Y
coordinates for the output grid. The default values for these parameters
delineate an area that is slightly larger (10% of X or Y range) than the
smallest rectangle that contains your data. If you are using a control grid,
then these values default to those of the control grid.
You may want to round the default coordinates to numbers more
appropriate for your project. However, do not make the area any bigger
than required, since the added grid positions will increase the gridding
time, and it may not be possible to compute realistic values if they are
too far from the data.
X and Y Gridding Increments
Enter numbers representing the distance in the X and Y direction
respectively across the grid cell, these define the X and Y gridding
increments for your grid. The increments default to the same value in
both directions.
If you are using a control grid these values default to those of the control
grid.
Usually you want square grid cells, so the X interval should be equal to
the Y interval. A gridding interval that is equal to (but not larger than)
the distance between your closest data points will accurately honor
every data point, but a larger gridding interval will often work equally
well and save some computer time.
A good rule-of-thumb is to select a gridding interval that is half the size
of the smallest feature of importance to your project. If you are
interested in closures that are 100 feet across, choose a 50 foot gridding
interval. However, do not make the gridding interval any smaller than
necessary, as gridding time increases rapidly as the cell size goes down
(e.g., cutting the grid increments in half will increase the compute time
by a factor of about 4).
The terms Initial and Final gridding intervals are sometimes used. You
must provide the final gridding intervals. Z-MAP Plus determines the
initial gridding intervals, based on the number of specified refinements.

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Minimum and Maximum Z-values


Enter values that represent the upper and lower Z-values that will appear
in the grid. These values default to numbers that are slightly smaller and
larger (10% of Z-range), respectively, than the smallest and largest data
value for the Z-field being gridded. This allows a small amount of
overshoot of grid values above or below data values. If you are using a
control grid, the control grid boundaries serve as the upper and lower
boundary limits for the Bounded Range algorithm.
Search Radius
Enter the distance that will be used to draw a circle around the grid node
being calculated. Data falling inside that circle are eligible for use in
calculating that nodes Z-value. Normally, only the closest data are
actually used. Search Radius is a parameter common to many gridding
methods; for more information, see page 392.
Control Grid Usage
This parameter is active only if a grid is selected for the Control Grid
parameter on the Point Gridding main menu. It controls how
information in the selected Control Grid is used during Point Gridding
execution. Control grids are a common gridding parameter used by
many gridding methods. For more information about Control Grid
Usage, see page 389.

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Secondary Parameters
After setting primary parameters,
enter from Secondary Parameters
on Point Gridding main menu

Enter X and Y expand distance beyond the grid limits

Select type of weighting (sharp or smooth)

Enter minimum number of points for interpolation

Enter desired number of points per sector

Enter minimum number of sectors

Enter extrapolation distance

Proceed to Flexing Parameters


on Point Gridding main menu
Point Gridding Secondary Parameters Workflow
The Secondary Parameters dialog box allows you to:

reach beyond the edge of the grid for data

adjust data point weighting

set the minimum points to calculate a value

set the maximum point to calculate per sector

specify the minimum number of sectors that must have data

specify the distance away from data which will force node value
calculation

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X Expand and Y Expand


Enter numbers (representing the distance in the X and Y direction
beyond the edge of the grid) that you want Point Gridding to search for
data when calculating a nodes value. These default to 0, but if there is
data outside the grids AOI, you will get better grid node values at the
grid edges by using this data.
Type of Weighting
Controls whether data influence, when calculating a nodes value, falls
off quickly or slowly with distance from the grid node. Possible choices
for this parameter include:
Sharp Weighting (default). This gives very large weights to close data.
The weight decreases roughly as an inverse squared function. This type
of weighting should be used unless you are dealing with very rough
(noisy) data.
Smooth Weighting. This allows even very distant data to have a
significant influence on a grid nodes value. It will produce a smooth
grid from rough or noisy data. However, the results will not necessarily
honor the data.
Minimum Total Points
Enter the minimum number of points that must be used to calculate a
grid nodes value. If fewer points than this are available, then a ZNON
will be assigned to that grid node. The default is 1. This means that if
only one data point lies inside the search radius, the grid node will be
assigned the value of that data point. The Extrapolation Distance
parameter may need to be set to 0, since its value will override the
effects of this parameter.

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Desired Points Per Sector


Enter the maximum number of points from each sector that can be used
to calculate a grid nodes value. This defaults to 4 and the range of valid
numbers is 1 to 8.
The circle, defined by the search radius, and centered over the grid node
being calculated, is divided into eight sectors. To do this lines running
NS, EW, N45E, and N45W are drawn. Each piece of pie defined by
these lines is a sector.
Using only a few data points from each sector reduces the influence of
clustered data. For example, assume 40 points are tightly clustered in the
NNE sector, one point is in the SSW sector, the 40 and the 1 are similar
distance from the node, and that all are used to calculate the nodes
value. The average surface value in the NNE sector will be 40 times
more influential in defining the nodes value than will the isolated point
in the SSW sector, even though the 40 and the 1 represent nearly the
same amount of information about the surface.
If we change the number of data points to a maximum of 4 points per
sector, where the four points kept are the four closest to the node, the
above example would change from a 40 to 1 influence to a 4 to 1
influence and a more representative Z-value would be calculated for the
node. When dealing with a small local area, such as around one grid
node, four points in one sector will give as good a surface or better as 40
points per sector would, and with much less processing time.

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Minimum Number of Sectors


Enter a number representing the minimum number of sectors that must
contain data before a grid nodes value can be calculated. If fewer than
this number of sectors have data, then a ZNON is assigned to the grid
node. The default is 1 and the range of valid numbers is 1 to 8. The
Extrapolation Distance parameter may need to be set to 0, since its value
will override the effects of this parameter. For a definition of what
sectors are, see Desired Points Per Sector, above.
This is one of the primary parameters for controlling how far
extrapolation is carried away from the data. Increasing this to 3 will
prevent nodes from being calculated in the corners of the grid,
increasing to 4 will create a large convex hull around the data, and 5, 6,
7 and 8 will create concave hulls around the data that fit tighter and
tighter to the data. This extrapolation control method will not create
holes (ZNON areas) in void areas in the middle of data. The other
parameter commonly used to control extrapolations is Search Radius.
Extrapolation Distance
Enter a number representing the distance beyond the perimeter of the
data within which grid nodes are forced to be calculated. The default is
equal to the Search Radius.
If search radius, minimum number of points, number of sectors, or any
other parameters restrict node calculation to less than this distance,
those parameters are overridden by this parameter. Override means that
node values will be calculated even if those other parameters would
prevent this from happening. To prevent this override, you need to set
the Extrapolation Distance to 0.

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Flexing Parameters
After setting secondary
parameters, enter from Flexing
Parameters on Point Gridding
main menu

Select type of flexing

Biharmo

Laplacian

Combinati

None

Enter flexing cutoff value

Specify maximum number of refinements

Specify smoothness modulus

Select control grid if desired

Select additional fields if desired

Review data distribution statistics

Apply Point Gridding

Save and return to


Z-MAP Plus main menu

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Point Gridding Flexing Parameters Workflow


The Flexing Parameters dialog box allows you to specify:

the type of flexing to perform


when to stop flexing
how much to honor the data
whether contour/search-line intersection points are used
whether contour constraints are used
upper and lower bounds (surfaces) within which the flexed surface
must remain

Flexing, sometimes called Filter or Relaxation, is used to


simultaneously smooth the grid and tie it to the data. Flexings primary
purpose is to remove small surface irregularities in the initial surface
that are not supported by data. These irregularities were put into the
surface during initialization and are not desired in the final surface
model.
Type of Flexing
The Type of Flexing button shows which type of flexing is specified
whether flexing is performed with a Biharmonic filter, Laplacian filter,
both filters, or no filter.
Biharmonic (default) The Biharmonic filter adjusts grid values so
that the surface resembles a rigid surface like a handsaw that bends
slowly and smoothly from one inflection point to another. This is
sometimes called a minimum curvature or minimum tension surface.
This is the default filter for Least Squares gridding.
Laplacian The Laplacian filter adjusts grid values so that the surface
resembles a bubble that comes quickly back to the average surface
position away from inflection points. If you stick your finger into a
bubble it causes the surface to peak at your finger and quickly return to
its original form away from your finger. This is sometimes called a high
tension surface. This is the default filter for Weighted Average gridding.
Combination Combination flexing applies the Biharmonic filter,
then the Laplacian filter. The results are not easily predicted, but fall
somewhere between Biharmonic and Laplacian, probably a little closer
to the Biharmonic, since it is the first filter applied.

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Cutoff
In the Cutoff box, enter a number to use as a test value to determine
when to stop flexing. Flexing continues until the amount of change from
one pass to the next is smaller than the Cutoff value. The default Cutoff
value is 0.25000, which typically results in three to six flexing passes.
Cutoff is a common flexing parameter used in many gridding methods.
For more information, see page 525.
Number of Refinements
Enter a value that represents the number of times the final grid intervals
are doubled when determining the settings for the initial grid increment
values. These initial grid increments will then be used to build an initial
grid, that initial grid will be resampled to half its grid increments and
then flexed. This process is repeated Number of Refinement times until
the final grid increment is reached. This defaults to 1 and the range of
valid numbers is 0 to 5.
Many gridding methods use refinement. For more information, see
page 393.
Number of Flex Passes
In the Number of Flex Passes box, enter the number of flexing passes to
execute (if the Control of Passes setting is FLEX = NUMPASS) or the
maximum number of flexing passes to execute (if the Control of Passes
button reads FLEX <= NUMPASS). The default value is 10.
Control of Passes
Use the Control of Passes setting to specify one of these conditions:

FLEX = NUMPASS Continue flexing until the Number of Flex


Passes value is met, or

FLEX <= NUMPASS (default) Stop flexing as soon as either


the Cutoff or Number of Flex Passes value is met.

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Smoothness Modulus
In the Smoothness Modulus box, enter a value to specify the extent to
which you want to smooth the grid at the expense of honoring the data.
You can enter any value between 0 and 1. The default setting is 0.2.
With a value of 0 (zero), if smoothing pushes the surface away from the
data, Z-MAP Plus brings it back to exactly honor the data. A value of 1
(one) produces the smoothest grid, without regard for precisely fitting
the grid to the data. With the default value of 0.2, if smoothing pushes
the surface away from the data, Z-MAP Plus brings it back at least 20%
of the way toward the data. This Smoothness Modulus affects nodes that
are within 5 or 6 grid increments from the data.
To achieve an optimum trade-off between accuracy and smoothness,
you may need to produce several test grids that each use a different
smoothness modulus. The Smoothness Modulus is often used with
seismic data, with its value shifted towards 1. The effect is to remove
some of the wobble from contours that cross or run along seismic lines.
The Smoothness Modulus parameter is common to many types of
gridding methods. To learn more, see page 525.

Control Grid
A list of grids is presented. Point to and click the grid you wish to use as
the control grid. This is an optional parameter. Information from the
control grid such as X and Y limits and increments, node values, and
ZNON locations can be used when gridding. (See Control Grid Usage
on page 439 in the Primary Parameters topic.)

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Select Additional Fields


Use this dialog box to supply values for DZ/DX, DZ/DY and Weight.
This selection is necessary only in the following circumstances:

You use the Projected Slopes algorithm and specify Expanded as


the Type of Data for Projected Slopes value.

The dataset includes more than one DZ/DX, DZ/DY, or Weight


field. If only one field is present, the program finds and uses it.

If the data type is Normal, the program uses the Projected Slopes
algorithm to calculate DZ/DX and DZ/DY, and to assign a weight of one
to each data point in the grid.
DZ/DX Field
This field represents the change in Z divided by the change in X, or the
first derivative in the X-direction.
DZ/DY Field
This field represents the change in Z divided by the change in Y, or the
first derivative in the Y-direction.
Z-weight Field
The Projected Slopes Algorithm assigns weights to the Z-values inside
a circular area around a node before averaging them. Z-values closest to
the grid nodes receive the greater weight. If you assign your own
weights, higher numbers receive the greater weight.

Data Distribution Statistics


If you click the Data Distribution Statistics button in the Point Gridding
dialog box, the Z-MAP Plus System window immediately displays
statistics about the current data and its distribution relative to the grid
lattice (X and Y limits and increments).
Statistics appear only for data in the X and Y limits of the grid. An
example follows.
DATA STATISTICS FOR Z-VALUE: WINDOW DEFINED BY GRID LIMITS

POINTS READ = 120, POINTS IN WINDOW = 120,


POINT NO.
1 = ( 920.000 , 1920.00 ,
POINT NO.
2 = ( 1015.00 , 2085.00 ,
POINT NO.
3 = ( 1110.00 , 1790.00 ,

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ZNON POINTS = 0
7400.00 )
7500.00 )
7200.00 )

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POINT NO.

MIN-X
MIN-Y
MIN-Z
AVG-Z
REL-Z

=
=
=
=
=

120 = ( 430.538 , 2012.49 , 8000.00 )


|
|
|
X-coord
Y-coord
Z-value
153.876
, MAX-X = 3050.00
, RANGE-X =
30.0000
, MAX-Y = 2085.00
, RANGE-Y =
6475.00
, MAX-Z = 8500.00
, RANGE-Z =
7497.00
, RMS-Z = 7509.94
, STD-Z
=
0.587695E-01, ZNON = 0.100000E+31

2896.12
2055.00
2025.00
440.595

A table is created describing the relationship of the data to the grid


lattice. The object of the table is to help you determine:

whether the grid will honor the data

how to make the grid increment as large as possible to optimize


execution time
Change the grid increment several times and observe how the table
changes. The table looks like this:
DISTRIBUTION OF DATA IN FINAL GRID CELLS BY PERCENTAGE
Points Per Cell:
Cells with Each Grouping
Cells with Points by Group
Points in Each Grouping

0
83.95

1
15.06
93.81
88.33

2
3
0.99 0.00
6.19 0.00
11.67 0.00

4
0.00
0.00
0.00

5
0.00
0.00
0.00

6
0.00
0.00
0.00

7
0.00
0.00
0.00

Points Per Cell This row indicates the number of data points
per grid cell.

Cells with Each Grouping This row contains the percentage of


the grid cells that contain zero, one, two, etc. control points. The
goal should be to have only one data point in a grid cell, and the
surface will be smoother if the grid cells that have data are
surrounded by empty grid cells.
In the preceding example, the program has looked at the entire grid
and determined that 83.95% of the cells contain zero control
points, 15.06% of the cells contain one point, 0.99% contain two
points, and 0.0% contain three or more points.
A large percentage of empty (0) grid cells would probably give
you a good grid, but would take much longer to process than a grid
that does not have a large percentage of empty grid cells.
It is much more important to have 0.0 percentage in the columns
represented by 37 points per cell than to have a small percentage
of cells with 0 points. Cells with 37 points will not always allow
contours to honor every point, no matter what the value is for the
smoothness modulus.

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Cells with Points by Grouping Of the grid cells that do have


data, this is the percentage of cells that have that many (number at
top of column) data points in them. To guarantee that contours
honor data, you want at most one data point per grid cell.
Therefore, you want to keep the percentage in the 1 Points Per
Cell column as high as possible. Even with two or three points per
cell, the contours are likely to honor the data, but there is no
guarantee.
In the preceding example, 93.81% of all cells that contain points
have one point, 6.19% of this group contain two points, and 0.00%
contain three points.

Points in Each Grouping This is the percentage of all data


points that occur as that many (number at top of column) points
per grid cell. In the preceding example, 88.33% of the data occur
as one point per grid cell, 11.67% occur as two points per cell, and
none denser than that. Again you want to have most of your data in
cells by themselves. Therefore, you want to keep the percentage in
the 1 Points Per Cell column as high as possible. This row of the
table is a good indicator of how clustered versus how evenly
distributed your data is.

By understanding the goals for each of these categories, you can see that
one category cannot be improved without degrading another. The goal
is to reach an acceptable compromise. The best way to learn how to do
this is practice.

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Contour Gridding
Select Modeling Contour
Gridding in Z-MAP Plus window

Select input contour data

Select the format of the data

Were
contours built
using faults?

Yes

Select fault file

No

Enter output grid name and error-check parameters

Enter primary parameters

Compute primary
parameters from
input data?

No

Yes

Flex the
grid?

No

Select profile data file and


profile Z-field

Yes

Use profile data


to control
surface?

Yes

No
Enter flexing
parameters

No

Honor point
data when
building grid?

Yes

Apply
Results of CTOG appear

Select control points file


and control points Z-field

Save and return to


Z-MAP Plus window

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Contour Gridding Workflow

Overview
Contour Gridding, sometimes known as Contour to Grid (CTOG), is an
interpolation technique which builds a grid from digitized contours. The
algorithm uses knowledge that adjacent points of equal value were
digitized from a continuous contour line to build a grid that accurately
honors the digitized contours.
In addition to digitized contours, Contour Gridding can also use seismic
line data (profiles) and/or well data (scattered data). These profile and
scattered data may also be interpretive data created to control the form
of the grid to be built. Other controls on the gridding process include
faults, x,y,z limits, grid increments, filters, and upper and lower limits
during filtering.
Contour Gridding Algorithm
Contour Gridding first reconstructs the original contours by connecting
the sequentially digitized contour points with straight line segments.
This is the Error Check Contour File.
Then Contour Gridding constructs a network of four search lines, two
along rows and columns of the grid to be built, and two at 45 degrees to
those search lines which pass through node locations. Contour values
are stored with these search lines at every spot where the lines cross a
reconstructed digitized contour.
When it is time to calculate a value for a grid node, only the four search
lines that radiate from that node are used. For each line, the contour
crossing on either side of the node and nearest to it are used. A straight
line is fit between those two point and a value from that line is calculated
at the grid node location. This is done for the other three search lines and
the average of all four lines is used as the nodes initial value. After the
initialization, filtering is applied to these node values.

Contours
Select a data file from list of files of type DATA or CNTR (contour) that
appears. The file you choose is used as the digitized contour input file.
If this file is of type Marker or No Marker (as described in the following
topic), the first field of type Z-field is used as the digitized contour input.

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Contour Data Format


Use this dialog box to specify how the digitized contour file is
organized. The default organization is Marker+Contour, which is the
format used by Landmarkss Z-CAP program. If this or the current
parameter setting does not match the selected contour file, an error
appears in the Z-MAP Plus xterm window.
Five contour file formats are available. Some of the formats use one or
more header records at the beginning of each contour string to identify
and separate contours. The header records are identified by a marker
value in the X or Y field. The marker value must be a unique number that
does not conflict with any of the contour data values. Since each contour
starts with a header record, the marker value must appear in the first
record of the file.
For example, if the file structure is of the Marker+Contour type, the first
three records of the file might look like the following example:
X (EASTING) Y (NORTHING)
--------------------------999999999
7200
34587.56
66743.9
34569.45
66748.3

Here the marker is nine 9s in the X field. The first record of the file is
assumed to have a marker in the X field and the second field is expected
to contain the Z value of the contour data that follows. The next two
records are X and Y coordinates for digitized points along the contour.
The next time nine 9s (Marker) is encountered in the X field will signify
a change in contour, and possibly a change in contour value.
Possible choices for this parameter are described in the following text.
The locations on either side of the + represent the X-field and Y-field
(e.g., X-field+Y-field for Marker+Marker). Although the notation
indicates which of the two fields is to contain the Marker, the fields need
not be in this order in the file.

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Marker+Marker A marker occurs in both the X and Y fields.


The record immediately following the markers record contains the
Z value of the digitized contour in the X field. The Y field is
ignored. This is the standard format of a file created during using
Contouring. No Z field is required. The file should be a .CNTR file.

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Marker+Contour (default value) A marker occurs in the X


field, and the contour value occurs in the Y field. The records that
follow this record are X and Y coordinates of the digitized contour.
This is the standard format of a file created by Landmarks
digitizing program Z-CAP and the Z-MAP Plus File Conversion
option. No Z field is required. The file should be a .CNTR file.

Contour+Marker A contour value occurs in the X field, and a


marker occurs in the Y field. The records that follow this record are
X and Y coordinates of the digitized contour. This is not a standard
format for Landmark software, but is offered as a convenience in
case other software in use creates files of this structure. No Z field
is required. The file should be a .DATA file.

Marker A marker occurs in the X field, and the Y field and Z


field are blank (are ignored). The records that follow this record
are X, Y, and Z records. In this case, the marker is used only to
distinguish between separate contours that have the same contour
value and are adjacent in the file. The file should be a .DATA file.

No Marker No marker is used. The first record of the file is


considered valid data. The data is stored as X, Y, and Z. A change
in Z is used to identify a change in contour. The file should be a
.DATA file.

Faults
A list of fault files is presented. Point to and click the fault file you want.
Faults are needed only when building surfaces cut by faults. When faults
are used, grid nodes are calculated using only data located on the same
side of the faults as the node. A fault file must have been previously
constructed in order to be available for this option.

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Output Grid Name and Error Check Parameters


Use this dialog box to specify the following input values:

name of the new grid

MFD for storing the error check file

name for an optional error check contour file

MFD for storing the grid

distance between digitized points required to make two separate


contours, or, alternatively, to close on itself, making one contour
Select Output Type
Select Output Type controls whether a grid is built, an Error-Check
Contour File is built, or if both are built. The grid is the standard
Z-MAP Plus surface model representation of the input data. the
Error-Check Contour File is Z-MAP Plus interpretation of what your
input contours are. If there seem to be problems with Z-MAP Plus
breaking or connecting contours incorrectly, then you should create this
file. To use the file, create a picture. Then use View Contouring
Contour to put these contours on the picture in one color, and the
original digitized contours in another color. The differences are often
apparent and simple to correct.
Possible choices for this parameter are:

Save+Create Save an Error-Check Contour File and build a


grid of the surface.

Save Contours Only save an Error-Check Contour File.

Create Grid (default value) Only build a grid of the surface.


Output Grid Name
Enter the name of the grid to be created; this name may be up to 24
characters long and may contain internal blanks.
Output Grid Master File
When you click the parameter box, a popup menu will appear, listing the
attached MFDs and a scratch file. Select the MFD to use for saving the
output file.

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Name of Error-Check Contour File


Enter the name of the Error-Check Contour File to be created; this name
may be up to 24 characters long and may contain internal blanks.
Contour Gridding creates this contour file from the input digitized
contours. It outputs the file using the Marker+marker format (as
described in Contour Data Format on page 453). This format clearly
marks where the program breaks or connects contours. Therefore, it
allows you to see how Contour Gridding interpreted your digitized
contours.
If breaks in contours are distinguished by change in Z-value, then
separate contours may be joined together by the program. Also, contours
may not connect to themselves when they represent a closure.
Displaying the Error-Check Contour File on a map will let you see if
these problems occur.
Contour File Master File
When you click the parameter box, a popup menu appears, listing the
attached MFDs and scratch file. Select the destination MFD for saving
the Error-Check Contour File.
Break Contour Distance
Enter a number representing the distance to test for when deciding
whether a contour should be continuous or broken. This distance is
measured in the same un