GRIDGENR User Guide

copyright © 2001, 2002 by Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 159674 R2003.4

This publication has been provided pursuant to an agreement containing restrictions on its use. The publication is also
protected by Federal copyright law. No part of this publication may be copied or distributed, transmitted, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language, in any form or by any means,
electronic, magnetic, manual, or otherwise, or disclosed to third parties without the express written permission of:

Landmark Graphics Corporation
Building 1, Suite 200, 2101 CityWest, Houston, Texas 77042, USA
P.O. Box 42806, Houston, Texas 77242, USA
Phone: 713-839-2000
FAX: 713-839-2401
Web: www.lgc.com

Trademark Notice
Landmark, the Landmark logo, 3D Drill View, 3D Drill View KM, 3DVIEW, Active Field Surveillance, Active
Reservoir Surveillance, ARIES, Automate, BLITZ, BLITZPAK, CasingSeat, COMPASS, Contouring Assistant,
DataStar, DBPlot, Decision Suite, Decisionarium, DecisionDesktop, DecisionSpace, DepthTeam, DepthTeam
Explorer, DepthTeam Express, DepthTeam Extreme, DepthTeam Interpreter, DESKTOP-PVT, DESKTOP-VIP,
DEX, DFW, DIMS, Discovery, Drillability Suite, DrillModel, DrillVision, DSS, Dynamic Surveillance System,
EarthCube, EdgeCa$h, eLandmark, EPM, e-workspace, FastTrack, FZAP!, GeoDataLoad, GeoGraphix, GeoGraphix
Exploration System, GeoLink, GES, GESXplorer, GMAplus, GrandBasin, GRIDGENR, I2 Enterprise, iDims,
IsoMap, LandScape, LeaseMap, LMK Resources, LogEdit, LogM, LogPrep, Make Great Decisions, MathPack, Model
Builder, MyLandmark, MyWorkspace, OpenBooks, OpenExplorer, OpenJournal, OpenSGM, OpenTutor,
OpenVision, OpenWorks, OpenWorks Well File, PAL, Parallel-VIP, PetroBank, PetroWorks, PlotView, Point
Gridding Plus, Pointing Dispatcher, PostStack, PostStack ESP, PRIZM, PROFILE, ProMAX, ProMAX 2D, ProMAX
3D, ProMAX 3DPSDM, ProMAX MVA, ProMAX VSP, pStaX, QUICKDIF, RAVE, Real Freedom, Reservoir
Framework Builder, RESev, ResMap, RMS, SafeStart, SCAN, SeisCube, SeisMap, SeisModel, SeisSpace,
SeisVision, SeisWell, SeisWorks, SeisXchange, SigmaView, SpecDecomp, StrataMap, Stratamodel, StratAmp,
StrataSim, StratWorks, StressCheck, STRUCT, SynTool, SystemStart, T2B, TDQ, TERAS, Total Drilling
Performance, TOW/cs, TOW/cs The Oilfield Workstation, Trend Form Gridding, Turbo Synthetics, VIP, VIP-COMP,
VIP-CORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-EXECUTIVE, VIP-Local Grid Refinement, VIP-POLYMER, VIPTHERM, WavX, Web OpenWorks, Well Editor, Wellbase, Wellbore Planner, WELLCAT, WELLPLAN,
WellXchange, wOW, Xsection, ZAP!, Z-MAP Plus are trademarks, registered trademarks or service marks of
Landmark Graphics Corporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Note
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a
commitment by Landmark Graphics Corporation. Landmark Graphics Corporation assumes no responsibility for any
error that may appear in this manual. Some states or jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer of expressed or implied
warranties in certain transactions; therefore, this statement may not apply to you.

Chapter


Table of Contents
Preface

About This Manual
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
UNIX vs. NT Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
Operating Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
Mouse Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
Mouse Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
GRIDGENR Prompts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Special Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Key Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Motif Window Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Other Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
New Terminology/Emphasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii
Related Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii
Chapter 1

Introduction to GRIDGENR
What Is GRIDGENR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How GRIDGENR Aids Reservoir Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Gridblock Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Geological Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Layer Topography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Layer Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gridblock Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grid Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grid Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Faults and Pinchouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Calculation of Gridblock Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
GRIDGENR Tools and Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Map Data Import and Digitizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meshes vs. Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curvilinear Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text Annotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardcopy Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unitless Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detailed Well Modeling and Grid Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Array Generation and Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-11
1-11
1-12
1-13
1-14
1-14
1-14
1-15
1-16

Using GRIDGENR with VIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Chapter 2

Getting Started
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
Starting GRIDGENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Understanding the GRIDGENR Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The GRIDGENR Main Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The GRIDGENR Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Zone Modification Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-22
2-23
2-25
2-27

Working with Grid Database Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Opening a New File for Digitizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Opening a New File with Imported Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Opening a new GRIDGENR file with Well List data imported from OpenWorks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Opening a new GRIDGENR file with Surface/Units data imported from
OpenWorks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35
Creating a new GridGenr file with data imported from a GTF file . . . 2-42
Opening a new Gridgenr file with imported data from ZMap . . . . . . . 2-45
Opening an Existing File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-49
Saving Modifications to a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-50
Saving a File Under a Different Name (Save As) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51
Closing a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-52
Importing and Exporting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-53
Export to GTF File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-54
Import from a GTF File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-56

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Importing from OpenWorks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-58
Opening a new GRIDGENR file with Well List data imported from OpenWorks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-59
Opening a new GRIDGENR file with Surface/Units data imported from
OpenWorks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-62
Importing Map Files from Other Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-69
Controlling the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Display Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Screen Background Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zooming and Panning the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zooming In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zooming Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring the Display to Original Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Default Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shifting the Display (Pan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Redrawing the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the Scale and Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Toggling the Objects On or Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Toggling the Border On or Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Swapping the Color Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving the Scale or Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specific Location of Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Green-Red Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Red-Blue Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gray-Scale Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring the Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-70
2-70
2-71
2-72
2-72
2-72
2-72
2-73
2-73
2-74
2-74
2-74
2-74
2-75
2-75
2-75
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2-75
2-75
2-76
2-76
2-76

Printing the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-76
Printing to a PostScript Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-76
Producing Output to CGM Graphics Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-77
Quitting GRIDGENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-77
Chapter 3

Mapping the Reservoir
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-79
Setting the Display Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contour Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fault Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Well Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-80
3-80
3-83
3-85

Importing Contours, Wells, Faults, and Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-86
Importing from Stratamodel SGM with GeoLink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-86
Importing Maps from Z-MAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-87

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Defining New Map Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-90
Controlling the Reference Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-90
Adding New Faults and Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-91
Types of Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-92
Transmissibility Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-94
Associating Faults with Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-94
Fault Locking and Closed Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-95
Defining Procedure for Contours, Faults, or Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-96
Adding Contours and Faults by Copying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-100
User-Defined Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-102
Adding New Well Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-103
Adding New Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-104
Copying Text from Other Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-107
Editing Map Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Points on a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Redrawing Part of a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Points on a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Merging Contours or Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Breaking a Contour or Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appending Points to a Contour or Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closing a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locking a Curve to a Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Data Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a Contour Value or Fault Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Value of a Mesh Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Value of Data In an Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Transmissibility Factor of Faults In an Area . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Transmissibility Factor of All Faults in the Model . . . . . .
Viewing the Fault Spreadsheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incrementing All Data Values In a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incrementing All Data Values in An Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incrementing All Fault Transmissibility Factors In a Zone . . . . . . . .
Incrementing All Fault Transmissibility Factors in An Area . . . . . .
Multiplying All Data Values In a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiplying All Data Values in an Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiplying All Fault Transmissibility Factors In a Zone . . . . . . . . .
Multiplying All Fault Transmissibility Factors in an Area . . . . . . . .
Converting Mesh Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting Individual Mesh Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting All Mesh Points In an Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resmoothing Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clean Up Faults in Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Data from the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Specific Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Specific Mesh Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting All Data In a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3-115
3-116
3-119
3-120
3-122
3-122
3-124
3-125
3-126
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3-128
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3-130
3-131
3-132
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3-136
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3-138
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Deleting all Data In an Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Renaming Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Individual Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting All Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revising Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Text Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-143
3-145
3-147
3-148
3-149
3-150
3-151
3-152
3-153

Viewing Map Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Map Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Map Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Map Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contour Summary by Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contour Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contour Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fault IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Well Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-154
3-154
3-154
3-154
3-155
3-155
3-157
3-157
3-158
3-158

Chapter 4

Gridding the Reservoir
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-159
Gridding Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finish Defining Contours and Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understand How Grids Are Created and Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understand Gridblock Mechanics and Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Follow Natural Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Problem with Rectangular Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Benefits of Curvilinear Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define Simulation Layers by Splitting or Combining Zones . . . . . . . . . . . .
Make Gridblocks Appropriate Size and Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optimize Grid Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nullify Fault Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pay Special Attention to Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-160
4-160
4-160
4-163
4-164
4-164
4-165
4-167
4-167
4-170
4-172
4-173

Setting the Grid Display Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-175
Creating Reservoir Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Rectangular Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Rotated Rectangular Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Grid With an Irregular Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating A Point Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Grid by Copying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abandoning a Grid In Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining a Grid With Customized Gridblock Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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viii

Adding Points Uniformly on a Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Points from the Opposite Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Ways to Specify Grid Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Next Point Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Next Point Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using an Arc to Define Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making a Border or Line Follow a Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Returning from the Pop-Up Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-193
4-194
4-195
4-196
4-196
4-197
4-198
4-198

Editing Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Corner Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pinching a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pinching a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding to a Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Rows or Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subdivide an Area of the Main Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extending the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Grid Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rows and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section of Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nullifying Part of a Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Null Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reactivating a Single Null Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reactivating All Null Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Tie Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Tie Lines from Another Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Tie Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Individual Tie Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing All Tie Lines in a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recalculating a Gridded Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Respacing Edge Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reshaping the Grid Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refining the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cartesian Refinement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radial Refinement for Vertical Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horizontal Radial Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extending Cartesian Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Grid Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Omitting Part of an Existing Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Including an Omitted Refinement Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the X or Y Increment of a Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Z Increment of a Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the X or Y Spacing of a Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Z Spacing of a Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a Radial Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-199
4-199
4-200
4-201
4-202
4-202
4-202
4-204
4-206
4-210
4-210
4-211
4-212
4-214
4-215
4-215
4-216
4-216
4-219
4-220
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4-221
4-223
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Removing Grid Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Individual Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Sections of Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing All Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotating a Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shifting a Grid (Translating) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-249
4-249
4-249
4-250
4-251
4-253
4-254

Viewing Grid Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining Grid Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining Row/Column Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing Zone Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grid Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-256
4-256
4-256
4-257
4-257

Chapter 5

Calculating Gridblock Values
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-259
How Gridblock Values Are Calculated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-260
A Simple Example without Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-260
Fault Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-261
Starting the Array Calculation Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-262
Starting from GRIDGENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-262
Starting from DESKTOP-VIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-262
Using the Array Calculation Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Display Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Array Calculate for the First Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-263
5-264
5-265
5-266

Opening a Grid File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-267
Changing the Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-268
Specifying the Values To Be Calculated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-269
Specifying the Calculation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Permeability Averaging Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zone Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameters by Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameters by Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-271
5-271
5-272
5-273
5-273
5-275

Sloping Fault Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-276
Ignore Data Outside Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-278
Specify Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-279
3D Upscaling Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-280
Running the Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-284

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Viewing the Calculated Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-286
Setting Up the Desired View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-286
Reading and Enhancing the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-288
Viewing and Editing the Calculated Data Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-290
Inquire Information on a Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-291
Transferring the Data to an ASCII File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-292
Using 3DVIEW to Analyze the Calculated Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-293
Printing the Graphic Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing to a Postscript Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing to Non-Postscript Printers or Plotters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting to a CGM File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-293
5-293
5-293
5-294

Exporting the Calculated Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-296

Subject Index

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List of Figures
Preface

About This Manual
Figure 0-1: Mouse Button Arrangement and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
Chapter 1

Introduction to GRIDGENR
Figure 1-1: How Reservoirs Are Divided Into Gridblocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Figure 1-2: Reservoir Cross Section with Zones and Simulation Layers . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Figure 1-3: How Elevation Contours Are Used to Define Layer Boundaries . . . . . . . 1-4
Figure 1-4: Typical Porosity Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Figure 1-5: 2-D Grid Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Figure 1-6: Applying a Grid Structure to a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Figure 1-7: How Projected Grid Cells Define a Gridblock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Figure 1-8: How Pinchouts are Modeled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Figure 1-9: Modeling of Vertical Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Figure 1-10: Modeling Normal Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Figure 1-11: Using Contours to Calculate Gridblock Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Figure 1-12: GRIDGENR Work Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Figure 1-13: Imported Porosity Mesh with Overlaid Reservoir Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Figure 1-14: Example of a Curvilinear Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Figure 1-15: Example of Radial Grid Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Figure 1-16: Example of a Data Array (Porosity at Each Gridblock) . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Figure 1-17: Color-Coded Display of Calculated Grid Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Figure 1-18: Example of VIP-CORE Initialization Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17

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Chapter 2

Getting Started
Figure 2-1: The GRIDGENR Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Figure 2-2: Main Window Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Figure 2-3: Control Panel Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Figure 2-4: Zone Modification Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Figure 2-5: Menu for combining/deactivating zones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Figure 2-6: Split Modification Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Figure 2-7: Using “Save As” to Build Case Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51
Figure 2-8: ASCII Version of a GRIDGENR Database File (GTF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-53
Figure 2-9: The Options Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-70
Chapter 3

Mapping the Reservoir
Figure 3-1: Contour Display Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-80
Figure 3-2: Understanding Makcon Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-82
Figure 3-3: Fault Display Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-83
Figure 3-4: Well Display Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-85
Figure 3-5: Reservoir Detail Showing Faults and Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-91
Figure 3-6: How Fault Locking Can Affect Gridblock Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-95
Chapter 4

Gridding the Reservoir
Figure 4-1: How a Grid Looks In GRIDGENR (2D View Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-160
Figure 4-2: Grid Definition for Multiple Zones (3D Perspective) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-161
Figure 4-3: Finite Difference Solution Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-163
Figure 4-4: Rectangular Grid Superimposed On a Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-164
Figure 4-5: How GRIDGENR Adjusts Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-165
Figure 4-6: Curvilinear Grid Designed to Match Reservoir Boundaries . . . . . . . . . 4-166
Figure 4-7: How Gridding Algorithms Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-167
Figure 4-8: Effect of Different Algorithms on Same Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-169
Figure 4-9: Effect of Gridblocks on Computer Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-170
Figure 4-10: Coarsening a Grid By Removing Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-171
Figure 4-11: Refining Part of a Grid (Cartesian Method) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-171

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List of Figures

Figure 4-12: Using Null Areas to Model Fault Throw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-172
Figure 4-13: Refining the Grid Around a Well (Radial Method) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-173
Figure 4-14: Distortion in Well Flow Due to Grid Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-174
Figure 4-15: Grid Display Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-175
Figure 4-16: Example of a Rectangular Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-178
Figure 4-17: Example of a Rotated Rectangular Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-181
Figure 4-18: Example of a Boundary Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-184
Figure 4-19: Example of a Point Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-186
Figure 4-20: Grid Border Spacing Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-189
Figure 4-21: Examples of MB3 Pop-Up Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-195
Figure 4-22: Drawing an Arc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-197
Figure 4-23: Cartesian vs. Radial Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-228
Figure 4-24: Radial Refinement in the Z Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-231
Figure 4-25: Horizontal Radial Refinement in the X,Y Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-234
Chapter 5

Calculating Gridblock Values
Figure 5-1: Quadrature Methods for Calculating Gridblocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-260
Figure 5-2: Gridblock Vertical Offset in Vicinity of Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-261
Figure 5-3: The Array Calculation Module Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-263
Figure 5-4: No Correction Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-277
Figure 5-5: Quadratic Correction Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-277
Figure 5-6: Linear Correction Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-278
Figure 5-7: Areal Integration Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-280
Figure 5-8: 3D Upscaling Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-281
Figure 5-9: 3D Upscaling of a Geological Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-282
Figure 5-10: Edit Window Showing Porosity Data for Zone 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-290

Subject Index

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List of Tables
Preface

About This Manual
Table 0-1: Typical Mouse Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Table 0-2: Names and Locations of Common Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Table 0-3: Window Operation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Chapter 1

Introduction to GRIDGENR
Chapter 2

Getting Started
Table 2-1: GRIDGENR Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Table 2-2: Drawing Area Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Chapter 3

Mapping the Reservoir
Chapter 4

Gridding the Reservoir
Chapter 5

Calculating Gridblock Values
Table 5-1: Menus Used in Array Calculate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-264
Table 5-2: Array Calculate Display Area Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-264
Table 5-3: Array Calculate Control Panel Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-265
Table 5-4: Data Categories for Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-270
Table 5-5: Zone Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-272
Table 5-6: Calculation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-273
Table 5-7: Data Type Selections on the Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-286

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Table 5-8: Grid Data Export Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-296

Subject Index

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About This Manual
Purpose
This manual provides a complete guide to the operation of the Landmark Grid
Generator (GRIDGENR) software and all of its related utilities. The manual can
be used for extended study by users learning the software, or for quick reference
by those who already understand its basic operation.

Audience
This manual is intended for use by reservoir engineers or other technical
personnel who are trying to describe reservoir structure and properties in a format
that can be used by reservoir simulation software such as the Landmark line of
VIP simulators. This manual assumes you have a basic familiarity with
computers. Experience with the X Window System/Motif interface is especially
helpful as is some familiarity with the technical requirements of reservoir
simulators.

Organization
The manual is arranged in a user guide format with step-by-step procedures
covering all aspects of program operation. The chapters are arranged in the
following order:

R2003.4 - Landmark

Chapter 1 - Introduction explains basic gridding concepts and provides an
overview of major GRIDGENR features.

Chapter 2 - Getting Started explains how to start GRIDGENR, how to use
the menus and control panels, how to open, save, import, and export files, and
how to quit GRIDGENR.

Chapter 3 - Mapping the Reservoir explains how to import or digitize
reservoir map elements such as contours, faults, wells, and text. The chapter
also provides detailed explanations on how to change any type of map
element, and how to view the imported or contoured map data.

Chapter 4 - Gridding the Reservoir explains how to construct a grid that
best fits the reservoir structure and how to edit existing grids.

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Chapter 5 - Calculating the Reservoir explains how to calculate reservoir
gridblock values based on the contours and grid structure already described.
This chapter also explains how to edit the calculated data, view it in graphical
displays, print it, or prepare data array files that can be used by simulators.

UNIX vs. NT Windows
The VIP dialog boxes inUNIX are often similar to, if not identical with, those in
Windows. Where there are significant differences, both dialog boxes are shown.

Operating Conventions
This manual uses certain conventional methods to indicate the correct mouse
button and keyboard usage.

Mouse Buttons
Mouse buttons are named MB1, MB2, MB3, and MB4 as shown in the illustration
below. The mouse examples below show a right-handed arrangement. Button
arrangement may be reversed for left-handed mouses (see your system
documentation for details).
MB1

MB2

MB3

Three-Button Mouse

MB1 MB2 MB3 MB4

Four-Button Mouse

Figure 0-1: Mouse Button Arrangement and Terminology

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About This Manual

Mouse Operations
You can use the mouse by rolling it across the surface of the mouse pad or desk
(except on Sun). As you move the mouse, the pointer moves to a corresponding
location on the screen. The following terms are used to describe various mouse
operations:
Table 0-1: Typical Mouse Operations
Mouse
Operation

Instructions

Click

Press MB1 and release rapidly.

Double-click

Press MB1 two times rapidly.

Triple-click

Press MB1 three times rapidly.

Control-click

Hold down Control key and click once.

Shift-click

Hold down Shift key and click once.

Drag

Hold down MB1 and move the mouse, then release when pointer
reaches desired location.

Select

Click once or double-click at the indicated location.

Shade

Drag the mouse pointer across a group of text, double-click to
shade a word, or triple-click to shade a line or paragraph.

Set cursor

Click MB1 in text at location where you want to start typing.

View pop-up
menu

Click MB3 then click menu option to select. Some menus may
require you to drag MB3 to view and select from the pop-up menu.

GRIDGENR Prompts
GRIDGENR often prompts you with instructions on what to do next. Typically
these prompts indicate which mouse button to press for what action. For example:

Prompt

The prompt above indicates you should press MB1 to select a point, MB2 to
delete a point, MB3 to view a pop-up menu, or MB4 to finish entering points. If
an MB4 option is shown, it will not be available on a three-button mouse.
However, most prompts give the same option for both MB3 and MB4. For
example: (3-4) Finish

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Special Keys
Some keys are named differently on different systems. Our standard names for the
major keys are listed below, along with an explanation of how to identify each
one. Other special-purpose keys (Compose, Pause, etc.) are either not used with
our system or are used infrequently.
Table 0-2: Names and Locations of Common Keys
Name

Typical Label

Typical Location

Returna

Return, Enter, or bent
arrow pointing left

Right side of main keyboard.

Tab

Tab or double arrows
pointing left/right

Upper left on main keyboard.

Deleteb

Delete or Del or large
arrow with X

Upper right on main keyboard, or
to right of main keyboard.

Backspaceb

Backspace, Remove, or
long arrow pointing left

Upper right on main keyboard.

Esc

Escape or Esc

Upper left on main keyboard.

Shift

Shift or arrow pointing
upward

Bottom right and left on main keyboard.

spacebar

None (long bar)

Bottom of main keyboard.

Control

Control or Ctrl

Lower left on main keyboard.

Altc

Alt

Left and/or right of spacebar.

Metac

Diamond symbol (◊)

Left of spacebar.

Cursor arrow

Short arrows pointing up,
down, right, and left

To right of main keyboard.

F1, F2, etc.

F1, F2, etc.

Top of main keyboard or to left of
main keyboard.

PgUp

Page Up or PgUp

To right of main keyboard.

PgDn

Page Down or PgDn

To right of main keyboard.

a. On many keyboards there is both a Return and an Enter key. In these cases, always
use Return.
b. Delete and Backspace may be interchangeable on some keyboards.
c. Alt and Meta may be interchangeable on some keyboards.

Key Combinations
Some keys such as the Control key, Meta key, and Alt key are used in combination
with others. For example, you can press Control-D by holding down the Control
key and pressing the D key. The same applies to combinations like Alt-F4, MetaF4, etc. Always hold down the first key before pressing the second.

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About This Manual

Combining keys may also be used with mouse clicks. For example, Control-click
means to hold down the Control key and click MB1. Control-Shift-click means to
hold down the Control key and the Shift key before clicking once with MB1.

Motif Window Operation
Software components appear in various windows that you can control using the
following conventions. These conventions work only for systems running the X
Window System with the OSF/Motif window manager:
Table 0-3: Window Operation Procedures
Window Operation

Correct Procedure

Resize window

Drag any corner or edge.

Fill screen

Click square button at top right corner.

Convert to icon

Click dot button at top right corner.

Convert icon to window

Double-click on icon.

Move window

Drag the title.

Bring window to front

Click on title.

Move window to back

Alt-F3 or Meta-F3.

Close window

Alt-F4 or Meta-F4.

Other Conventions
Other conventions are used in this manual to provide you with additional
information about the software.

New Terminology/Emphasis
Any new or unfamiliar term is highlighted in italics. For example, the word
hypertext may be new to you, therefore it is highlighted. Italics are also used for
emphasis, such as when a procedure warns you not to do something.

Error Messages
Most error messages encountered when using the software are highlighted at the
place where they might occur in each procedure. Error message information is
enclosed in a shaded box like the one below:
Line Cannot Cross Itself
This message appears when you try to draw a contour that doubles back on itself. Click
MB2 to back up and redraw the contour.

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The error message is shown in bold text and the appropriate action is listed
directly underneath.

Related Manuals
The following manuals provide more information on Landmark products related
to GRIDGENR. For more information, please consult the appropriate manual
listed below.

GRIDGENR Technical Guide. This manual contains all the technical
appendices for the GRIDGENR User’s Guide.

Getting Started with VIP. An introduction to the VIP product line in general
and the DESKTOP-VIP program in particular. Explains all of the concepts
and data you need to prepare and run reservoir simulations.

PlotView User’s Guide. A manual that explains how to use the PlotView
graphics utility to plot well production curves from a VIP reservoir simulation
and compae the results to historical values or other simulation case studies of
the same data.

VIP-CORE Reference Manual. A complete summary of all keywords and
data formats needed to build an initial reservoir model.

VIP-EXECUTIVE Reference Manual. A complete summary of the
keywords and data needed to simulate reservoir operation.

VIP-EXECUTIVE Technical Reference. A detailed discussion of the
mathematical theory behind the VIP simulators.

VIP-THERM Reference Manual. A summary of the keywords and data
entry formats needed to set up a VIP-THERM simulation.

DESKTOP-PVT User’s Guide. A summary of the keywords and data entry
formats needed to use the EOS-PAK product.

GeoLink User Guide. A summary of the user interface available with the
GeoLink package.

3DVIEW User’s Guide. A summary of the user interface available with the
3DVIEW package.

Contact your Landmark representative for more information about these manuals
or other Landmark products.

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1
Introduction to GRIDGENR
What Is GRIDGENR?
The Landmark Grid Generator (GRIDGENR) is a computer application that
helps you describe the three-dimensional structure and properties of a
hydrocarbon reservoir, then compile the data into a format that can be used to
drive reservoir simulation models. In particular, you can do the following:

Compile reservoir map data taken from other sources, including:

Depth or thickness contours.

Porosity, permeability, and saturation contours.

Fault paths for sealing or conductive faults.

Location of producing and injecting wells.

Edit these map elements and add text annotation, as desired.

Define and edit a grid structure that can be used to subdivide the reservoir into
three-dimensional gridblocks for computer modeling purposes.

Refine portions of the grid for more detailed modeling.

Calculate values for each defined property at each gridblock, based on the
mapped contours.

Create data arrays containing the calculated values, which can be used for
input to reservoir simulators.

Print the maps on a printer or plotter.

This manual explains how to use GRIDGENR to accomplish all of the tasks listed
above.

Basic Concepts
The following sections describe the basic concepts assumed in computer
modeling of reservoirs, which will help you understand how GRIDGENR works.

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How GRIDGENR Aids Reservoir Simulation
In order to model a reservoir on a computer, the initial state of the reservoir must
be described in detail. This includes not only the size and dimension of every
geological layer in the reservoir, but also the properties of each layer, such as
porosity, permeability, and initial saturation. Once these values are defined and an
initial state is calculated, the reservoir model can simulate how the reservoir
behaves over time as certain events affect its performance — such as well
injection and production.
GRIDGENR does not perform the reservoir simulation itself. Instead,
GRIDGENR is a tool used to prepare reservoir data in a format that can be used
by reservoir simulation software like Landmark’s VIP product line. In the past,
such data was laboriously prepared by hand. With GRIDGENR, the building of a
reservoir model is greatly simplified.

Understanding Gridblock Structure
Different porosities, permeabilities, and saturations exist at every point within a
reservoir. However, it would be impossible or impractical to measure every
variation in these values. In order to make the simulation technique manageable, it
is more practical to divide the reservoir into discrete components called
gridblocks.

y
x
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 5

z

Gridblock
Reservoir Model

Figure 1-1: How Reservoirs Are Divided Into Gridblocks

By definition, a gridblock is a three-dimensional volume in which each individual
property — such as porosity, permeability, pressures, and saturations — is
modeled with a single value. In areas of the reservoir where these properties are
highly uniform, the gridblocks may be large. In regions where they are not, the
gridblocks should be generally smaller. For example, gridblocks should be smaller
in areas where there are significant variations in geological deposition or fluid
movement (e.g., near wells).
Once you define the structure and physical properties of each gridblock,
GRIDGENR calculates several key parameters, including the pore volume for
each gridblock and the fluid transmissibility in each direction within the
gridblock. With this key data defined, the computer modeling task suddenly

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becomes more manageable: instead of simulating every component of flow, a
reservoir simulator can now calculate how fluid flows from one gridblock to the
next.
Based on the pore volume, transmissibility, and other properties of a gridblock,
the model calculates that a certain type of fluid will move through it at a certain
rate. Adding all these flow components together produces a complete picture of
reservoir dynamics.

Geological Zones
A key component of the reservoir model is a horizontal region called a zone. A
zone is typically a producing or permeable structure such as a sandstone with
similar rock properties in the vertical direction. Each zone is typically one
gridblock thick. If you need to model a specific type of fluid movement, you can
split a zone into several gridblocks in the vertical direction. In such cases,
however, the geological properties are assumed to be identical for each of the
vertically stacked gridblocks in the same zone.
All gridblocks in a zone are contiguous on their sides, except where they are offset
by a fault. In general, all of the gridblocks in a zone are contiguous with the
gridblocks in the zones above and below it. It is possible, however, to define gaps
such as shale layers in the reservoir, and it is also possible for zones to pinchout,
thus providing continuity between a gridblock in one zone and gridblocks in one
or more zones above it.

= Zone boundary
= Simulation layer boundary

Figure 1-2: Reservoir Cross Section with Zones and Simulation Layers

Sometimes, you may not want to model a producing zone as a single layer
because there are important vertical effects such as gas percolation occurring
within the zone. In such cases, you can subdivide the zone into additional
simulation layers, as shown in Figure 1-2. This illustration shows a cross section
of a reservoir with two geological layers. For modeling purposes, each geological
layer has been subdivided into two simulation layers. Notice that the relative
thickness of each simulation layer is proportional to the zone thickness — the
simulation layers shown above are approximately 50 percent of the zone
thickness.

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Layer Topography
Usually, the surface topography of each zone has already been defined by
geologists on contour maps. These contour maps may have been drawn on paper
or produced electronically using various types of mapping software. In either
case, the contour maps describe the exact geometry of each zone. Instead of
specifying the elevation at each point across the entire surface, the contour map
uses a line to connect points of equal elevation. This gives a good idea of the
surface topography at the top and bottom of each zone.

Top of current zone
(bottom of previous
zone)
Layer
thickness

Bottom of current zone
(top of next zone)

Figure 1-3: How Elevation Contours Are Used to Define Layer Boundaries

The illustration above shows how elevation contours might look for the top and
bottom surfaces of a single zone. Notice that in most cases, the top surface of one
zone is also the bottom surface of another zone. The gross thickness of a layer (as
opposed to net pay) is defined as the distance between corresponding points on the
top and bottom surfaces. If contour maps are available that show layer thickness,
these can be used to determine the surface topography, as well.
You must use the surface topography or thicknesses to define the geometry of
each layer in the reservoir. For example, you can specify:

The top surface of the first layer and the gross thickness of every layer
(recommended).

The top surface of every layer and the gross thickness of the last layer.

The top surface of every layer and the bottom surface of the last layer.

Of course, this assumes that all layers are contiguous. To skip a layer— for
instance, in a non-producing zone — you would have to define extra surfaces, as
appropriate, to define the bottoms or tops of noncontiguous zones. In any event,
you should take care not to overspecify the geometry. For example, if you specify
both gross thickness and a bottom surface and the two do not match exactly,
GRIDGENR will compute the structure using gross thickness and ignore the
bottom-of-structure maps.

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Layer Properties
The same type of contours that can be used to define surface topography can also
define physical rock properties and saturations within a zone. Contour maps may
already exist for these types of properties or they can be created using automated
mapping software. For example, the following map shows porosity in the top
layer of a reservoir.

Figure 1-4: Typical Porosity Contours

Gridblock Geometry
Once you define the contours of a zone, it becomes simpler to define and calculate
the gridblock geometry.

Grid Definition
The gridblock structure in a reservoir can be defined point-by-point, or automated
to some degree using GRIDGENR’s gridding features. Instead of having to define
each side of each three-dimensional gridblock, GRIDGENR simplifies the
process by letting you define a two-dimensional (2-D) grid like the one shown
below. The 2-D grid is made up of rows and columns. The intersection of each row
and column forms an intersection or corner point. Each corner point has an x,y
coordinate that specifies its position horizontally with regard to the surface of the

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earth and a z value that specifies its depth.
Columns
1

Grid boundary
or border

2
Grid
cell

3
1

Edge point
y

2 Rows

Grid corner
point (xn,yn)

3
x

Figure 1-5: 2-D Grid Terminology

Grid Projection
GRIDGENR projects the grid that you specify onto the surface of each zone, as
shown in the illustration below.
User-defined
2-D grid

Grid projected onto
top surface of a
zone

Figure 1-6: Applying a Grid Structure to a Zone

Once projected in the z dimension, the 2-D grid then defines the shape of each 3D gridblock. The illustration below shows how grid cells projected onto the top of
two successive layers define the corner points for a gridblock. The height or

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thickness of each gridblock (z dimension) is automatically determined by the
variable height or thickness of the layer where it is located.
Projected grid cells
x2,y2

x4,y4

x1,y1
z1

x3,y3
z2

z3

x2,y2

Gridblock

Top of Zone 1

z4

Top of Zone 2

x4,y4
x3,y3

x1,y1

Figure 1-7: How Projected Grid Cells Define a Gridblock

Notice that the gridblock is limited by and contiguous with the surface of a zone.
In GRIDGENR, gridblocks never cross zone boundaries, since different zones
have different rock properties and the entire purpose of a gridblock is to specify an
area with uniform properties.

Faults and Pinchouts
Besides the layer geometry, GRIDGENR also takes into account complex
variations in reservoir structure such as faults and pinchouts. A pinchout occurs
where the tops of two zones coincide, as shown in the illustration below.
GRIDGENR can easily determine the parts of a zone with zero thickness by
subtracting the elevation contours from each other.

Zone 1
= Zone 2
area of zero
thickness

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 2

Figure 1-8: How Pinchouts are Modeled

Faults present a slightly more difficult problem. GRIDGENR lets you trace or
digitize the actual path of a fault through each layer of the reservoir. Then it
calculates the nearest gridblock interface to the fault path and actually produces a
vertical offset in the gridblocks the same way that a fault produces vertical offsets
between geological layers. This vertical offset is taken into consideration when

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calculating gridblock transmissibilities, so that the model reproduces the same
kind of limited communication within a faulted zone that tends to occur in nature.
Original fault path

Zone 1

Zone 2

Standard
Connection
Fault
Connection
Standard
Connection

Gridblock
offset at fault
boundary

Zone 1

Zone 2

Figure 1-9: Modeling of Vertical Faults

The illustration above shows how a vertical fault would be modeled. GRIDGENR
cannot model reverse thrust faults explicitly because this would require the grid at
the top of a zone to overlap itself. Any reverse fault must be modeled as a vertical
fault. If the sloping fault correction is applied then a reverse fault will be
approximated as best possible. However, GRIDGENR can model normal faults
such as the one in the following illustration.
In this case, there is no overlap in the grid, for example, at the top of Zone 1. In
fact, viewed from above, the grid would have a gap in it where it crosses the fault.
This gap can be modeled as a null area using GRIDGENR’s flexible gridding
features. (Refer to “Sloping Fault Correction” on page 5-276 for further details.)
Slanted
normal fault
boundary

Zone 1
Standard
Connection

Zone 2

Fault
Connection
Standard
Connection

Zone 1

Zone 2

Figure 1-10: Modeling Normal Faults

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The transmissibility factor of the fault is also tracked. This relates to the fault’s
ability to communicate (or transmit) fluid from block-to-block across the fault.
Each surface of a gridblock that contacts a fault is assigned a transmissibility
factor that expresses the ability of fluid to flow across the fault. The
transmissibility factor is expressed by a number from 0 (no fluid flow across the
fault) to 1 (unobstructed flow). For instance, a sealing fault has a transmissibility
factor of 0; a conductive fault has a transmissibility factor greater than 0. Typical
factors would be .3, .5 or .9.

Wells
GRIDGENR allows the definition of two types of wells. Wells may be either well
spots or deviated wells. Well spots always have a single X/Y location. Deviated
wells are defined using multiple X/Y/Z locations. Because deviated wells have a
component in Z, they cannot be digitized but must be imported. Well spots can be
digitized.
The structure of a well spot is very simple but the structure of a deviated well can
be more complex. Each deviated well can have one or more traces.

Well 1

1st
Trace
2nd
Trace

Perf

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You may define perforations for both well spots and deviated wells to correspond
with the perforations in the actual well. Because these depend on either Z or
measured depth, neither of which can be visualized in an areal view, they need to
be imported rather than digitized. GRIDGENR will use the imported perforations
to calculate which gridblocks need to be perforated in the simulation grid.

Well 1

Simulation
Grid

Real
Perforation
Gridblock [2,2] and
[2,3] will be perfed
in the simulation
run.
Because perforations are time dependent you may define start and stop times for
the perforations in the import file.
GRIDGENR shows a well spot as a diamond at it’s X/Y location and it projects
deviated wells traces onto the areal view for viewing. You may also look at the
simulator perforations in 3DVIEW. However, the actual trace is not displayed
there at this time.

Calculation of Gridblock Values
Once you have defined contours and grid structure, GRIDGENR has all the data it
needs to define the shape and uniform properties within each gridblock.
GRIDGENR can calculate:

The depth of each gridblock corner point.

The gridblock porosity, permeability, or saturation.

The gridblock pore volume and transmissibility.

GRIDGENR interpolates the corner point depths from the topography contours
and derives the other values from property contours. For example, the following
illustration shows a gridblock with two porosity contours running through it.
Since each gridblock is, by definition, an area of uniform properties, only one
porosity value can be assigned. To calculate a value, GRIDGENR uses a surface

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fitting and averaging technique to arrive at the optimum value for the gridblock.
These techniques are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5.
A

B

Porosity Contour A = 24.00
Porosity Contour B = 26.00
Gridblock Porosity = 25.00

Figure 1-11: Using Contours to Calculate Gridblock Values

GRIDGENR Tools and Features
In addition to the basic concepts discussed previously, there are some major
features you must understand in order to get maximum benefit from GRIDGENR.

Map Data Import and Digitizing
GRIDGENR lets you take contours, faults, and wells defined in other software
formats, convert them to a GRIDGENR format, then import them for display and
editing inside GRIDGENR. GRIDGENR imports contour and fault files directly
from Z-MAP Plus. In addition, it can import from third-party mapping software
such as:

CPS-3 (Radian Corporation)

ISM (Dynamic Graphics)

Imported mapping data from 3rd party packages must be converted using the
conversion utility. GRIDGENR can also accept contour values developed in
Landmark’s Stratamodel software, but only after processing using Landmark’s
own GeoLink system.

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GRIDGENR can also import contours, faults, grids and wells directly from
OpenWorks. The data is imported directly into GRIDGENR, and no conversion or
intermediate data files are necessary. See “Importing from OpenWorks” on
page 2-58.

Map data from
CPS-3 and ISM

ZMAP

Map data from
SGM via
GeoLink

Contours, faults,
grids, and wells
from
OpenWorks

Convert and
import

Import

GRIDGENR
Map Display
Import

Edit map
display

Data array for
VIP or other
simulators

Construct
final grid and
calculate

Import

Figure 1-12: GRIDGENR Work Flow

Meshes vs. Grids
When importing gridded data from mapping packages such as CPS-3, Z-MAP,
ISM, and GeoLink, it is important to differentiate between the computational
grids produced by these packages and the reservoir simulation modeling grids
used in GRIDGENR. Geologic computational grids contain a series of data values
representing the variation in a single property over the entire map surface. A
reservoir simulation modeling grid, on the other hand, represents the distribution
of gridblock corner points across the same surface.
The illustration on the following page shows a computational grid (diamond
symbols) overlaid with a reservoir grid (straight lines). Notice that the
computational grid takes the form of a rectangular, uniformly spaced mesh, while
the reservoir grid is not necessarily uniformly spaced or rectangular. Since these

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two types of grids serve entirely different purposes, this manual will always use
the term mesh for geologic grids and grid for reservoir simulation grids.

Porosity values
= 28
= 26
= 24
= 22

Figure 1-13: Imported Porosity Mesh with Overlaid Reservoir Grid

Even though meshes cannot be used as reservoir grids, they still can serve a useful
purpose — as contours. Meshes provide a more thorough description of each
reservoir property than line-style contours, since they give a better idea of
variations in a property at uniformly spaced intervals across an entire zone. For
this reason, you may want to use meshes in place of — or in addition to —
contour data.

Curvilinear Grids
The most important feature of GRIDGENR is its ability to define, edit, and
compute properties for reservoir simulation grids. To meet the special gridding
needs for reservoir simulation, GRIDGENR’s gridding tools let you create
curvilinear grids that you can easily curve or orient in any direction. This
flexibility lets you concentrate gridblocks in areas where they are needed the most
and orient the gridblock structure to the specific reservoir geometry. Convenient
GRIDGENR editing tools let you change the size of gridblocks, add or delete
rows or columns, and reposition gridblock boundaries as needed. GRIDGENR

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provides several gridding algorithms that automatically determine the optimum
internal grid alignment, based on boundaries and edge points that you specify.

Figure 1-14: Example of a Curvilinear Grid

Text Annotation
GRIDGENR automatically adds map titles, scales, contour labels, well names,
and grid cell numbers to all digitized or imported map data. You can turn these
labels on or off, as desired. You can also add more text annotations if needed. For
example, you might add labels describing field boundaries or major faults. Once
text is added, you can easily copy it, move it, change it, or delete it.

Hardcopy Printing
The map displays that you prepare can be printed in a hardcopy format for reports
or presentations, as needed. You can easily print the map images to any
PostScript-compatible printer or plotter.

Unitless Data
In some ways, GRIDGENR can be considered to have unitless dimensions for the
property maps. The units you use are not important, as long as all data values of a
given type use identical units. For instance, all length measurements can be in feet
or meters, but not a combination of feet and meters. For example, if depth is
measured in feet and surface locations are measured in Universal Transverse
Mercator coordinates (UTM), you must either convert the depth values to meters
or the UTM coordinates to feet before using them in GRIDGENR.

Detailed Well Modeling and Grid Refinement
GRIDGENR lets you apply its gridding algorithms to the entire grid or only to
specific parts of the grids that require special detail. Special grid refinement
features let you increase the level of grid detail over areas of the grid where you
may want to intensify the tracking of dynamic variables. You can even add radial

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gridblocks around wells, as shown in the illustration below. This kind of radial
refinement lets you closely track production or injection variables in the well
vicinity.

Figure 1-15: Example of Radial Grid Refinement

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Array Generation and Editing
GRIDGENR’s built-in Calculation module lets you automatically calculate all
gridblock values using a few simple steps, then compile the data into a format that
can be used by reservoir simulators such as VIP. Typically, reservoir simulators
require the data to be arranged in the form of tables or arrays. For example, the
following array shows calculated porosity values for each gridblock in the top
zone of a reservoir:
Porosity for
0.160 0.163
0.214 0.200
0.160 0.168
0.214 0.201
0.160 0.172
0.215 0.201
(etc.)

plane
0.174
0.192
0.180
0.192
0.183
0.191

Z 1
0.190
0.182
0.192
0.190
0.195
0.187

0.200
0.180
0.205
0.187
0.208
0.194

0.217
0.180
0.219
0.188
0.220
0.196

0.231
0.184
0.234
0.192
0.236
0.201

0.245
0.193
0.249
0.196
0.257
0.207

0.240
0.199
0.255
0.201
0.260
0.212

0.231
0.200
0.235
0.204
0.238
0.214

Figure 1-16: Example of a Data Array (Porosity at Each Gridblock)

The values are arranged in rows and columns the same way that rows and columns
appear in a map view of the gridded layer. GRIDGENR can prepare a similar
array for each different property in each layer of a reservoir.
The Calculation module provides you with complete flexibility in calculating grid
values and displaying them in color-coded graphic displays like the one shown
below. You can view and edit individual grid values, if desired, and write the
values to data files in various formats such as the keyword format used with VIP.
See Chapter 5 for more details on array calculation.

Figure 1-17: Color-Coded Display of Calculated Grid Values

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Using GRIDGENR with VIP
GRIDGENR was designed specifically for use with the VIP line of reservoir
simulators — although you can use it to prepare arrays for other computer
simulators as well. You can even access GRIDGENR and related modules directly
from inside the DESKTOP-VIP software (see “Starting GRIDGENR” on
page 2-21).
By using GRIDGENR’s built-in Calculation module, you can prepare keyword
files that are usable directly as input to the VIP-CORE initialization module. For
example, the following text shows the first few lines of a VIP-CORE keyword
data file prepared using the Calculation module:

C
ARRAYS
C
C
CORP VALUE
C
C
LAYER
1
C
C
C ZONE
1
SPLIT 1.00000000
LAYER
C
C GRID BLOCK: I =
1 , J =
1 , K =
1
-40.57
7564.15
4718.79
210.01
7186.54
4716.62
-40.57
7564.15
4734.30
210.01
7186.54
4733.01
C GRID BLOCK: I =
2 , J =
1 , K =
1
211.46
7564.15
4721.81
460.57
7189.15
4729.29
211.46
7564.15
4737.44
460.57
7189.15
4745.42
.
.
.

1

211.46
-40.57
211.46
-40.57

7564.15
7183.96
7564.15
7183.96

472
471
473
473

463.49
210.01
463.49
210.01

7564.15
7186.54
7564.15
7186.54

473
471
475
473

Figure 1-18: Example of VIP-CORE Initialization Data File

When using GRIDGENR with VIP or any other simulator, you should understand
the special requirements of that simulator with regard to gridblock structure and
relevant properties. For information on VIP requirements, see the manual titled
Getting Started with VIP or the VIP-CORE Reference Manual. Where appropriate
in this manual, we have made occasional reference to pertinent VIP requirements
so that you can make sure your data works well when you use it in VIP
simulations.

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Chapter

2
Getting Started
Introduction
This chapter explains everything you need to know to get started using
GRIDGENR, including:

How to start GRIDGENR.

How to use the GRIDGENR menus and Control Panel.

How to open, close, and save grid database files.

How to import and export files for various reasons.

How to zoom, pan, and control the display.

How to get help, if you need more information.

How to exit GRIDGENR.

Before reading this chapter, you should be familiar with the basic concepts
contained in Chapter 1. For a quick refresher on keyboard and mouse usage, see
the Preface to this manual.
Once installation is completed correctly, you can start the GRIDGENR
application and begin using the system.

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Installation
If GRIDGENR has not yet been installed, you must first install it. Once
installation is completed correctly, you can start the GRIDGENR application and
begin using the system.

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Starting GRIDGENR
To start GRIDGENR from DESKTOP-VIP, select it from the Input menu shown
below.
NOTE:

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You must have an active study and case before selecting this option.

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Understanding the GRIDGENR Interface
When you start GRIDGENR, the Main Window and Control Panel appear
together, as shown below. The Main Window provides a drawing area for
reservoir description, plus various pull-down menus you can use to select program
options. The Control Panel is used to control what appears in the main window.
Each component is described in more detail on the following pages.
NOTE:

You can resize the Main Window and Control Panel by dragging the corners.
For example, you may want the GRIDGENR interface to take up less room
on the screen. Or, you may want to make the Main Window larger so you
have more room to work.

Main Window

Control Panel

Figure 2-1: The GRIDGENR Interface

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The GRIDGENR Main Window
The Main Window lets you control the input and output of graphic data used to
describe gridblock properties and structure. However, most of the functions in the
Main Window are not accessible until you open a new or existing grid file, as
explained later in this chapter. The Main Window includes a menu bar and
drawing area that are discussed in more detail below.
Menu bar

Prompts and
messages

Drawing area

Scale
Spectrum
Filename and
reference
points

Figure 2-2: Main Window Components

Menu Bar. The menu bar contains a series of pull-down menus that let you
select any of the available program options. The following menus are
available:

Table 2-1: GRIDGENR Menus
Menu Name

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Purpose

See
Chapter

File

Open grid files; save changes to the current file; save
the current file under a different name; import/export
data; print hardcopy; exit GRIDGENR.

2

Edit

Add, copy, modify, or remove map elements (grids/
contours/faults/points/mesh/wells/text). Options on
this menu change to match the current Context setting on the Control Panel.

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Table 2-1: GRIDGENR Menus (Continued)
Menu Name

Purpose

See
Chapter

Inquire

View specific data values for grids, contours, and
wells; measure distances; view coordinates.

3,4

Screen

Zoom in and out; pan; restore; redraw; modify display; control scale and spectrum; change background
color.

2

Calculate

Use finished grids and contours to create an array
table for input to reservoir simulators.

5

Options

Set screen display options and tolerances.

2

To select any menu option, just click on the desired menu, then click the
desired option (or drag the mouse pointer to it). For example, to open a file,
click the word File on the menu bar, then click the word Open on the pulldown menu — GRIDGENR displays a list of filenames you can select from.
Sometimes, a menu provides several cascading selections — just keep
clicking (or drag the mouse) until all desired selections are chosen.

Drawing Area. The center of the GRIDGENR Main Window is a drawing
area for displaying or digitizing various map elements (see Figure 2-2).
Several features are provided for this purpose.

Table 2-2: Drawing Area Features
Feature

Purpose

See
Chapter

Prompts/ messages

Lead you through each step required to create or
modify map elements; warn about errors or problems; define mouse button usage.

3,4

Spectrum

Provides a color scale for easy visualization of contour ranges. For example, any porosity contours in
the range of 18-20 percent might be colored green.

2

Scale

Automatically shows relative distance in map coordinate units (feet or meters), based on map reference points that you select.

2

Filename/ ref.
points

Shows the name of the current grid file and the
coordinates of the reference points.

3

Procedures later in this chapter explain how to change the drawing area
display (see “Controlling the Display“ on page 2-70).

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The GRIDGENR Control Panel
The GRIDGENR Control Panel lets you control what is displayed in the Main
Window. For example, the settings shown below would allow you to view or
digitize the top-of-structure (TOS) contours for the first reservoir layer (Zone 1)
using the mouse.

Current map
element
Current
property

Current geologic
layer or “zone”
Current simulation
layer or “layer”
Reference point
control

Zone modification
control

Figure 2-3: Control Panel Elements

The various Control Panel buttons and settings are discussed in more detail below.
To operate any button, click on it then click the desired selection, or drag the
mouse pointer to the desired selection. To operate the zone number setting, drag
the slider bar or click on either side of it.

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Context. This button describes the current map element being viewed, edited,
or digitized. For example, if you are working on wells, this button should be
set to Well. Setting this button changes the options available on the Edit menu
to match the context of what you are doing. For example, setting it to Grid
changes the Edit menu so that only the gridding functions are available.

Property. This button describes the current property displayed in the drawing
area. For example, to view or digitize porosity (POR) contours for a certain
zone, this button should be set to POR. Changing this button changes the
property shown in the drawing area. For example, you can use it to cycle

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through all of the property contours defined for a given zone — viewing one
set of contours at a time. For a full description of properties, see “Types of
Contours“ on page 3-92.

Zone No. GRIDGENR treats each reservoir layer as a zone numbered from 1
to 999. Typically, each zone is a geological layer for which you can define a
top surface, bottom surface, gross thickness contours, and attributes. The
Zone No. setting lets you select the number of the zone (geological layer)
currently being viewed or digitized. For example, to work on the top layer,
you would set the zone number to 1. Changing the zone number changes the
map view shown in the drawing area. For example, if the property is set to
POR and you change the zone number, the map view changes to show the
porosity contours for the next zone.

SimLayer No. This is the simulation grid layer. This will correspond exactly
to the zone number if no Zone Modifications are defined.

Reference Point. This button lets you change the current reference points for
digitizing. Reference points are a fixed set of coordinates used to infer the
horizontal dimensions of the reservoir. For more details on this feature, see
“Controlling the Reference Points“ on page 3-90.

Zone Modifications. This button pops up a table which allows you to specify
which zones to combine, split, set inactive, insert, or delete. These
modifications will actually take place when the grid is calculated.

Top GridView/Bottom GridView. These buttons allow you to choose
whether you view the grid at the top of the currently selected zone or the grid
at the bottom of the currently selected zone. Switching to TOS or BOS will
automatically toggle the grid.

The Zone Modification Panel
This panel provides a mechanism for specifying how the geologic zones in your
model will map to the simulation model. By default they map one to one, however
there are three modifications available. You may set one or more zones inactive
which removes the zone from the simulation grid. You may combine several
contiguous zones into one simulation layer. You may also split a geological zone
so that it is modeled by multiple simulation layers. Zones may also be inserted and
deleted.

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NOTE:

Local grids are defined relative to simulation layers so the zone
modifications need to be defined before local grids.

Figure 2-4: Zone Modification Panel

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Geo Zone. The geologic zones. The number of these displayed depends on
the amount of data defined in your model. If you are defining the zone
modifications before all of your data has been defined, you may add more
layers by typing in a larger number in the zone on slider then re-entering the
panel.

Name. An optional name for the geo zone.

Combined Unit. A unit consisting of individual geologic zones which have
been combined to form a group for use in a simulation model. These units can
be split to form different simulation layers. You may name your combined
units, if desired.

# of Splits. A number that indicates how many simulation layers a combined
unit will be split into.

Splits. The part of the combined unit that will be put into each simulation
layer.

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SimLayer. Which simulation layer will be written here.
In order to combine zones or set them inactive, select one or more zones by
holding down MB1 and pulling the mouse across the desired layers. Then
access a menu by depressing MB3 and select your option.

Edit
Combine
Separate
Set Inactive
Set Active
Insert Before
Insert After
Delete

Figure 2-5: Menu for combining/deactivating zones.

To insert a new zone above or below a current one, click on the existing zone
then select Insert Before or Insert After. To provide a name for geologic zones
or a combined unit, select the desired box then type into it.
To change the number of splits for a combined unit, select the box and type a
new number. The splits will be automatically changed.
To change the split fraction or name a simulation layer, select the box to
change and the split modification panel will be displayed.

Figure 2-6: Split Modification Panel

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Getting Started

Working with Grid Database Files
GRIDGENR uses a single file to store all the map elements and grids that you
define for a given reservoir case study. This file is called a grid database (.gdb)
file. The GRIDGENR features that enable you to digitize, import or define map
elements will not work unless you have the file open on the computer screen.
The filename that you choose for the reservoir case study should reflect in some
way the name of the reservoir, since it will contain most of the basic information
about the reservoir structure and properties. Once you open a new file, you can
begin defining the reservoir structures and properties as described in Chapters 3
and 4.
You have two options when you open a new grid file. You can open a new file for
digitizing, or you can open a new file and import data into it. The following
procedures explain both ways to open, save, and close grid database files.

Opening a New File for Digitizing
The New (Digitize) option lets you open a file with a blank display area that you
can use to build reservoir grids and digitize data.
1. Select File ➛ New (Digitize)... from the Grid Generator Main Window.
The GridGenr File Selection dialog box appears. This box lets you specify a
filename for the new file.

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2. Make sure the path shown in the bottom entry field is the desired directory
where you want to store the grid file. If not, click on this line, backspace over
the previous pathname, and retype the pathname.
You can also interactively search for the correct path by double-clicking the
directory names in the Directories list (the /.. entry moves back up a level in
the directory structure).
3. Click the mouse pointer at the end of the bottom entry field and leave it there.
You should see a flashing text cursor (I-shaped symbol) at the end of the line.
4. Type the desired filename for the new file. (A .gdb extension will be appended
to the filename automatically when you save it.)
5. Click the OK button or press the Return key.
GRIDGENR displays the following panel which lets you define reference
points for the new file.

6. Enter identifying names and x,y coordinates of any two fixed points in the
reservoir (such as well locations). These coordinates will be used as a
reference for determining all horizontal distances within the reservoir. For
best results, the reference points should be widely separated. If you plan to
digitize a series of maps of the same area, these should be points that appear
on every map. For a more detailed discussion of reference points, see
“Controlling the Reference Points“ on page 3-90. Also, see the discussion of
“Unitless Data“ on page 1-14.
7. Click the OK button. The reference points appear in the drawing area as two
red symbols. The new filename and reference point coordinates also appear
just below the drawing area in the GRIDGENR Main Window.
GRIDGENR is now ready for you to begin defining contours, faults, wells, text,
and grids. Turn to Chapters 3 and 4 for the appropriate procedures. Although you
have opened the file in the GRIDGENR Main Window, it does not yet exist in a
saved format on the system’s hard disk. To save the file to disk, you must use the
Save or Save As feature discussed later in this chapter (see “Saving Modifications
to a File“ on page 2-50).

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Opening a New File with Imported Data
The New (Import) option lets you simultaneously open a new file and import the
first set of data to be contained in it. The files that you import using this feature
must be one of the following:

An OpenWorks file. You can choose Well List or Surface/Units to import
wells, meshes, faults, perforation data, and contours from your current or
available OpenWorks project.

GRIDGENR GTF file. This could be a GTF file produced using the Export
feature (see “Export to GTF File” on page 2-54), from GeoLink.

Z-MAP and formatted ASCII fault, contour, or grid file with headers.

Opening a new GRIDGENR file with Well List data imported from OpenWorks
1. Select File ➛ New (Import)... ➛ from OpenWorks... ➛ from Well List...
If you have already selected a project in OpenWorks, you will get the dialog
box shown in step 3 on the next page.
If there is not an active OpenWorks project, you receive the Select Project
dialog box with a list of available projects, similar to the one shown below.

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2. Select an existing project in the Select Project dialog box. Click OK.
If you have not already selected a well list in OpenWorks, a Well Selection
dialog box opens.

3. Select a well list from the available lists and click on OK.
The dialog box shown below opens. The project name that you selected
appears on the title bar. The wells in the well list that you selected display in
the OpenWorks Well List panel on the left side of the dialog box.

NOTE:

If you did not begin with an active well list, you may have to reselect File ➛
New (Import)... ➛ from OpenWorks... ➛ from Well List... in order
to open this window.

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4. Choose from the following ways to display the well names in the OpenWorks
Well List panel:

Click on the CWN button to display the Common Well Name. This is the
default option.

Click on the WN button to display the Well Name.

Click on the UWI button to display the Unique Well Identifier.

5. Using the scroll bar on the right side of the OpenWorks Well List panel, scroll
down the list and select the wells you want to import.
There are several methods and functions associated with the selection and
importation of wells in the OpenWorks Data Import dialog box:

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Click on the well or wells you want to select. The well name(s) you selected
and some information cells now appear in the Import OpenWorks Well Table
panel on the right side of the dialog box.

Alternatively, you can click the Select All button in the OpenWorks Well List
panel and the arrow
button in the middle of the dialog box to import all
the wells in the well list. The well names now appear in the Import
OpenWorks Well Table.

Click the Insert Rows button to insert an additional row (or rows) in the
Import OpenWorks Well Table panel.

If you wish to delete a well from the list of imported wells, simply click on the
name of that well, then click the Delete button.

Click the Reset button to remove all the well names from the Import
OpenWorks Well Table panel.

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6. Click the Import/Merge button to import the wells into the grid database file.
Once you have wells in a project, you will use this button to merge any new
wells with the existing wells. Alternatively, you can click the Import/Replace
button to replace any existing wells with any new wells you select for
importation.
The GridGenr File Selection dialog box opens.
7. Select a .gdb file in the Selection box, and click on OK.
8. The Selection box closes, and the Grid Generator Main Window displays data
on the well(s) you selected.

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Opening a new GRIDGENR file with Surface/Units data imported from
OpenWorks
1. Select File ➛ New (Import)... ➛ from OpenWorks... ➛ from Surface/
Units...
If you have already selected a project in OpenWorks, you will get the dialog
box shown in step 3 on the next page. If there is not an OpenWorks project
running, the Select Project dialog box similar to the one shown below appears
with a list of available projects.

2. Select a project in the dialog box. Then, click on OK.
If the project you selected contains no well list (or if you have not already
selected a well list), you will get the dialog box shown in step 3 on the next
page. If the project contains well data, the Select Well List dialog box similar
to the one shown below appears.

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3. If not, select a well list from the available lists and click on OK.
The Select Well List dialog box closes, and an empty OpenWorks Data Import
Surface/Unit dialog box appears. The project name that you selected appears
on the title bar.

4. Click on the Surf button or the Unit button. The steps for both are the same.
The Surface/Units Selection dialog box appears.

This box lists the different surfaces, or tops, that you can choose from. The
selections are determined by the OpenWorks project you selected.

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5. Select a surface from the list of choices and click on OK. You will see the
OpenWorks Data Import form.

You can import one or any number of surfaces into the project, as follows:

To select a single surface, click on it. Your selection and some information
cells appear in the Import OpenWorks Object Table on the right side of the
dialog box.
The steps needed to fill in the information cells begin on the next page.

If you want to import several surfaces, click on the Insert Rows button to add
as many rows as you want. Then, select the different surfaces to import in to
the project.
If you do not click on Insert Rows when selecting more than one surface,
only your last selection is displayed in the Import OpenWorks Object Table.

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If you want to bring all the surfaces into the project, click on the Add All
OBJ button. You do not need to insert rows when using this method.

All of the surfaces appear in the Import OpenWorks Object Table. If you wish
to delete a surface from the list of imported objects, simply click on the name
of the surface to select it, then click the Delete button.
You can also click the Reset button to remove all the surfaces from the Object
Table list. The different tops or surfaces you can choose from are still
displayed (but not highlighted) in the OW Objects From Surface/Unit panel.
You can display as many zones of your project as you like, as follows:
6. If you are interested in displaying only one zone, click on the cell under the
word Zone, then type a number in the cell. Zone 1 is the default zone. For

more information on zones, see “Geological Zones“ on page 1-3.
7. If you are interested in several zones, you can click on the Single Property
button to display the Single_Property_Panel.
This panel allows you to quickly choose which zones of your project are
displayed.

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8. Enter an End Zone No.to change the number of zones displayed for your
project, then click on OK.
The Single_Property_Panel closes, and the number of zones that you selected
appears in the Import OpenWorks Object Table.
You can select a single property or several properties for a given zone of your
project, as follows:
9. To select a single property, click on the cell under the word Property with
Button 3.
A list of properties available for your project are displayed. For more
information about contour properties, see “Types of Contours“ on page 3-92.

10. Click on the property that you want to display.
This property is displayed for any and all of the zones of your project. The
default property is TOS (Top of Surface).

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11. You might want to display several properties for the zone(s) you select. To
select several properties, click on the Single Zone button to bring up the
Single_ Zone_Panel.

12. Click on the different properties for the zone you are interested in, then click
on OK.
The Single_Zone_Panel closes, and the properties you selected appear in the
Import OpenWorks Object Table.
13. Click on the Import/Merge button in the OpenWorks Data Import window to
bring up the GridGenr File Selection dialog box below.
If you are starting a new project, you can choose to replace the previous data
with the new data by clicking the Import/Replace button instead of the
Import/Merge button.

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14. Select a .gdb file in the Selection box, or give your file a new name, and click
on OK.
The GridGenr File Selection dialog box closes, and the Grid Generator Main
Window displays the imported property chosen in step 9.

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Creating a new GridGenr file with data imported from a GTF file
1. Select File ➛ New (Import)... ➛ from File...
The GridGenr File Selection dialog box appears, similar to the one below.

2. In the Directories list, select the directory containing the file to import.
3. In the Files list, locate the filename you wish to import and double-click to
select it.
You can also click the filename, then click on OK. If you do not see the
filename, enter a different pathname, followed by /*.gtf in the Filter panel and
click the Filter button.
4. Once the import file is selected, you will be prompted for the Gridgenr
database file name. Make sure the path shown in the bottom entry field is the
desired directory where you want to store this file. If not, click on this line,
backspace over the previous pathname, and retype the pathname.
You can also interactively search for the correct path by double-clicking the
directory names in the Directories list (the /.. entry moves back up a level in
the directory structure).
5. Type the desired filename for the new file. (A .gdb extension will be appended
to the filename automatically when you save it.)
Click the OK button or press the Return key.

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6. When you select an import file, GRIDGENR displays the following form,
which lets you specify the import requirements. The filename you selected is
displayed on the top line of this form.

7. Make sure the desired import filename is shown on the top line of this form. If
not, retype the name.
NOTE:

If you want to return to the File Selection panel and select a different
filename, replace the pathname/filename with a question mark (?), click the
OK button, and repeat the previous step.

8. Select the types of map elements that you want to import from the Import
Segment portion of the form. If you want all types, click on All.
9. Select the Action on Current Data.
If you want incoming data to replace any duplicated data in the existing file,
select Replace. If you want incoming data to be added to the existing data,
select Merge.
10. Click the OK button to begin importing.
As the importing process proceeds, a series of messages appear above the
drawing area. When the process is finished, the imported elements appear in
the drawing area.
Import File nnnn Does not Exist
This message appears if GRIDGENR did not find the filename in your start-up
directory or at the specified path location. Click the OK or Cancel button and start
over at step 2.

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Warning: Errors During Importing
This message appears if there was a problem with the data in the import file. To
investigate the problem, go to the directory where you started the program and
view the import.err file. For example:
more import.err

You can now add more contours, faults, wells, text, and grids to the file, or edit the
data as desired. Turn to Chapters 3 and 4 for the appropriate procedures.

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Opening a new Gridgenr file with imported data from ZMap
You can import a Zmap file in ASCII format directly into the Grid Generator
without having to merge it with an existing .gdb coordinate file. The ASCII
format is described in Chapter 5 “Map Data File Formats” in the Grid Generation
Technical Reference manual.
1. Select File ➛ New (Import)... ➛ from Zmap File... ➛ from ASCII File...
The Import Zmap Panel dialog box appears.

Filter/select
file(s)

2. Filter/select the file under the Directories/Files fields on the left portion of the
dialog box. The selected file displays in the File Table.

File(s) selected

WARNING: Before you start to fill in the File Table, be aware that selections are inserted
at the current cursor position. Always make sure the correct row is
highlighted.

Or use the following keys to select multiple files from the File list:
To Select

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Do This

Files for placement on
specific line in File
Table

Click
to create new rows.
Highlight cell in row before selecting file. If
selected row has a file assigned, new file will be
added in the row below.

All files in the list

Click

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To Select
All files in a sequence

Do This
Click and drag in file list. With files highlighted,
click destination row if File Table is not empty.

3. Enter the zone(s)/property(ies) to import as described below.
a. Enter the Zone to import that corresponds to each file as shown below.

b. Click MB2 in the entry field and select the Property to import for the zone
as shown below.

Use the following options to help you build the File Table:
Use this button

To do This
Clear highlighted cell(s) in the File Table.

Clear the entire File Table.
Insert a blank row at the bottom of the File Table
or below a highlighted cell.

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Or use any of the following options to quickly define zone/property
combinations:
To Select
Multiple properties for a single
zone

Perform these steps
Click and highlight the
File Table row in which
you want to insert the
properties.
Then click:

Single property for
multiple zones

To Open Action Box

Enter
Zone

Select
Select
Multipl
Multiple
Properties

Click and highlight the
File Table row in which
you want to insert the
properties.
Then click:

NOTE:

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Enter
Property
Enter Zone
Range

You can click a cell and drag to copy its contents to other cells.

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4. When the File Table is complete, click the Import/Replace button to create a
new .gdb file or to overwrite an existing .gdb file of the same name. The File
Selection dialog box opens.

Filter to the drive/directory and enter the name of the new database file in
the entry field. Then click OK.
5. Click the Close button to close the Import window.

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Opening an Existing File
Once a grid database file is created and saved, you can reopen it at any time and
continue to work with it, as desired. To open an existing file:
1. Select Open from the File menu.
GRIDGENR displays one of the following dialog box forms which lets you
specify a filename and pathname for the file to be opened:

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NOTE:

The top line of this form (Filter) should show the complete pathname of your
home directory or the subdirectory used specifically to store .gdb files. If
not, type in the correct pathname and click the Filter button.

Modified Data Existed, Save It Before Restart?
This message appears if an existing file was already open in the GRIDGENR
drawing area and contains modifications which have not yet been saved.
Click the Yes button to save the most recent changes, No to discard them,
or Cancel to avoid opening a new file.

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2. Double-click on the desired filename in the Files list.
The file opens at the first contour map in the first zone. You can page through
the maps to view other properties or zones by using the Zone setting or the
Property button on the GRIDGENR Control Panel.
If you are opening a file from a previous version of GRIDGENR which did
not support definition of fault transmissibility factors, you may see a special
message such as the following:

Accept the settings as you see them, unless you want to change the
transmissibility factors to something other than the selected values.
GRIDGENR is now ready for you to begin working with existing maps and grids,
or define new ones. Turn to Chapters 3 and 4 for the appropriate procedures.

Saving Modifications to a File
You should save your work periodically to avoid loss of data. If the system
crashes while you are working, it retains only the last set of modifications that you
saved. Saving a file does not exit the file. You can continue working on the file
after each save. To save a file while you are working:
1. Select Save from the File menu.
If there are no current modifications to be saved, this selection is grayed out.
When you select Save, the following message appears above the drawing
area.
... Writing Data to Disk ... Please Wait

The file is saved automatically. When the message disappears, you can
continue working.

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Saving a File Under a Different Name (Save As)
The Save As option on the File menu lets you save any existing file under a
different filename or in a different subdirectory. The original file is still saved on
disk in its original form — using Save As just creates a second copy of the
original file and stores it under the specified name.
New Grid File
(Base Case)
Save

Save
As

Case File #1

Case File #2

Save
As
Case File #3

Figure 2-7: Using “Save As” to Build Case Files

This provides a convenient way to build similar reservoir case studies with
slightly different parameters (see illustration above). For example, if you want to
test several different grid structures for the same reservoir, you could create one
grid file, save it under its original name, then use Save As to save it as other
filenames. To use this feature, make sure the file is opened in the GRIDGENR
Main Window, then follow these steps:
1. Make sure you have saved any changes to the displayed data, if you want the
changes to be part of the original file.
2. Select Save As from the File menu. GRIDGENR displays the following form,
which lets you enter a new filename for saving:

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3. Click the mouse pointer at the end of the Selection line and leave it there. You
should see a flashing text cursor (I-shaped symbol) at the end of the line.
4. Type the desired filename for the new file. (A .gdb extension will be appended
to the filename automatically.)
5. Click the OK button or press the Return key. The grid file is saved to disk
automatically using the new name.
File Already Exists, Overwrite It?
This message appears if you entered a filename that already exists. If you did so
intentionally, click Yes to continue. If not, click No to reenter a different filename,
or Cancel to avoid creating a new file.

You can now continue editing the data in the file, as explained in Chapters 3
and 4. Any further modifications saved for this file will be saved under the new
name, not the original name.

Closing a File
To close a file and clear the drawing area, you must either open a new file open an
existing file, or exit the program. If you want to clear the drawing area of various
elements without closing a file, use the Remove option on the Edit menu, as
explained in Chapters 3 and 4. If you want to clear the drawing area for defining a
new type of property for the current case study, just change the Property or Zone
setting on the Control Panel.

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Importing and Exporting Files
GRIDGENR provides file importing/exporting features that you can use in a
number of different ways. Exporting converts GRIDGENR database files (GDB)
into a plain text format (GTF) that you can manipulate with an editor or port to
other platforms (see illustration below). Importing lets you bring these files back
into GRIDGENR for storing as normal GRIDGENR database files. Importing
also lets you bring in some mapping and ASCII files such as Z-MAP Plus that
mesh directly into GRIDGENR, as well as data from OpenWorks.
The various import/export applications, as well as the steps required to use these
features, are discussed on the following pages. The specific format of importable
files is detailed in Chapter 6 of the GRIDGENR Technical Guide.
SCREEN
lowerleft
upperright
1000.0000000000 1000.0000000000 17000.000000000
13000.000000000
-3961.591308594 -781.3417358398 21376.257812500
14318.991210938
WELL
14 5513.8247070313 10205.555664063
5 3594.2211914063 8161.2338867188
10 5360.5219726563 5430.2402343750
6 7246.0839843750 9602.3447265625
1 7641.3437500000 7575.0478515625
13 9423.3203125000 9361.0380859375
9 11137.028320313 10587.050781250
15 9618.0205078125 7169.9033203125
8 8554.3574218750 5358.5205078125
7 8522.5097656250 3396.1525878906
2 11493.859375000 7566.6396484375
4 13485.462890625 7230.6274414063
11 12507.022460938 5724.7724609375
(
)

Figure 2-8: ASCII Version of a GRIDGENR Database File (GTF)

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Export to GTF File
GRIDGENR files can be exported using the Export option on the File menu. The
exported file is stored in GRIDGENR Text File (GTF) format.
To export a file:
1. Make sure the file to be exported is open and displayed in the GRIDGENR
Main Window.
2. Select Export from the File menu. The GGExportPanel is displayed:

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3. You can type the desired filename in the Export to File field. To select from a
list instead, click the words “Export to File” or enter a question mark (?). If
you do either, one of the following Export File dialog boxes opens.

Select a directory where you want to save the exported file. If you want to see
what files exist of a certain type, such as GRIDGENR Text Format (GTF),
type an asterisk followed by the extension type (such as *.gtf) at the end of the
directory path in the Filter field at the top of this form. Press the Filter button.
All existing files of the type you selected are displayed in the Files field.
In the Selection field, type the desired filename for the exported file. Press
OK. You are returned to the GGExportPanel.
4. On the GG Export Panel, select the elements and zones to be exported. For
instance, selecting All selects all elements listed on the right (Contours,
Faults, Mesh, etc.).
Selecting Specify will export individual elements according to the boxes you
check. Selecting Current will include the currently selected elements in your
grid. If you want to specify the zone to be exported, use the sliders to display
the desired zone number. Select Current Zone to include the current zone of
the file to be exported.

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5. Press OK. The file is exported in the format you selected and the appropriate
extension is automatically appended to the filename.
As this happens, a series of messages appears above the drawing area to
indicate the progress.
Export file [name] already exists. Overwrite it?
This message appears if you enter a filename that already exists. Click Yes to
overwrite the existing file with the new export file, or click No to avoid overwriting it.

Import from a GTF File
You can bring any file stored in GRIDGENR text format (GTF) back into
GRIDGENR for display in GRIDGENR’s standard graphics format. To import a
GRIDGENR text file, you must already have opened a GRIDGENR database file.
In some cases, the text file that you are importing may contain property contours
or zone grids that already exist in the file currently open on the screen. In such
instances, you can choose to replace the existing contours/grids with the imported
ones, or merge the imported contours/grids with the existing ones. To import a
GRIDGENR text file:
1. Make sure the file you want to be imported is in your startup directory or
some identifiable directory on your network. If the file is from a mapping
package, not in GRIDGENR text format, use the conversion utility described
in Chapter 5 of the GRIDGENR Technical Guide.
2. At the File menu, select Import/from File. The GRIDGENR File Selection
form is displayed:

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3. The Filter field displays the current directory. To change the directory doubleclick a selection in the Directories field. To select a file to import, doubleclick a selection in the Files field.
If you do not see the filename, enter a different pathname (followed by /*.gtf)
on the top line and click the Filters button. Or double-click the names in the
Directories list to find the directory where the file is located.
When you select an import file, GRIDGENR displays the following form,
which lets you specify the import requirements:

4. Check the path and filename shown on the top line of this form, to make sure
it is the desired import file. If not, retype the name.
NOTE:

If you want to return to the File Selection panel and select a different
filename, replace the pathname/filename with a question mark (?), click the
OK button, and repeat the previous step.

5. Select the types of map elements that you want to import from the Import
Segment section of the form. If you want all types, click on All.
6. Select the Action on Current Data. If you want incoming data to replace any
duplicated data in the existing file, select Replace. If you want incoming data
to be added to the existing data, select Merge.

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7. Click the OK button to begin importing.
As the importing process proceeds, a series of messages appear above the
drawing area. When the process is finished, the imported elements appear in
the drawing area.
Import File nnnn Does not Exist
This message appears if GRIDGENR did not find the filename in your start-up
directory or at the specified path location. Click the OK or Cancel button and start
over at step 2.
Warning: Errors During Importing
This message appears if there was a problem with the data in the import file. To
investigate the problem, go to the directory where you started the program and
view the import.err file. For example:
more import.err

Importing from OpenWorks
The Import from OpenWorks option lets you import data from an OpenWorks
database. The files that you import using this feature must be one of the following:

58

An OpenWorks file. You can choose from available projects in either a Well
List or Surface/Units.

GRIDGENR GTF file. This could be a GTF file produced using the Export
feature (see “Export to GTF File” on page 2-54), from GeoLink.

Z-MAP and formatted ASCII fault, contour, or grid file with headers.

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Opening a new GRIDGENR file with Well List data imported from OpenWorks
1. Select File ➛Import... ➛ from OpenWorks... ➛ from Well List...
If you have already selected a project in OpenWorks, you will get the dialog
box shown in step 3 on the next page.
If there is not an active OpenWorks project, you receive the Select Project
dialog box with a list of available projects, similar to the one shown below.

2. Select a project in the Select Project dialog box, or create a new one. Then,
click on OK.
When you select an existin g project, a Well Selection dialog box opens.

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3. Select a well list from the available lists and click on OK.
The dialog box shown below opens. The project name that you selected
appears on the title bar. The wells in the well lists that you selected display in
the OpenWorks Well List panel on the left side of the dialog box.

4. Choose from the following ways to display the well names in the OpenWorks
Well List panel:

Click on the CWN button to display the Common Well Name. This is the
default option.

Click on the WN button to display the Well Name.

Click on the UWI button to display the Universal Well Identifier.

5. Using the scroll bar on the right side of the OpenWorks Well List panel, scroll
down the list and select the wells you want to import.
There are several methods and functions associated with the selection and
importation of wells in the OpenWorks Data Import dialog box:

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Click on the well or wells you want to select. The well name(s) you selected
and some information cells now appear in the Import OpenWorks Well Table
panel on the right side of the dialog box.

Alternatively, you can click the Select All button in the OpenWorks Well List
panel and the arrow
button in the middle of the dialog box to import all
the wells in the well list. The well names now appear in the Import
OpenWorks Well Table.

Click the Insert Rows button to insert an additional row (or rows) in the
Import OpenWorks Well Table panel.

If you wish to delete a well from the list of imported wells, simply click on the
name of that well, then click the Delete button.

Click the Reset button to remove all the well names from the Import
OpenWorks Well Table panel.

6. Click the Import/Merge button to import the wells into the grid database file.
Once you have wells in a project, you will use this button to merge any new
wells with the existing wells. Alternatively, you can click the Import/Replace
button to replace any existing wells with any new wells you select for
importation.
The GridGenr File Selection dialog box opens.
7. Select a .gdb file in the Selection box, and click on OK.
8. The Selection box closes, and the Grid Generator Main Window displays data
on the well(s) you selected.

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Opening a new GRIDGENR file with Surface/Units data imported from
OpenWorks
1. Select File ➛ Import... ➛ from OpenWorks... ➛ from Surface/Units...
If you have already selected a project in OpenWorks, you will get the dialog
box shown in step 3 on the next page. If there is not an OpenWorks project
running, the Select Project dialog box similar to the one shown below appears
with a list of available projects.

2. Select a project in the dialog box. Then, click on OK.
If the project you selected contains no any well data, you will get the dialog
box shown in step 3 on the next page. If the project contains well data, the
Select Well List dialog box similar to the one shown below appears.

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3. Select a well list from the available lists and click on OK.
The Select Well List dialog box closes, and an empty OpenWorks Data Import
Surface/Unit dialog box appears. The project name that you selected appears
on the title bar.

4. Click on the Surf button or the Unit button. The steps for both are the same.
The Surface/Units Selection dialog box appears.

This box lists the different surfaces, or tops, that you can choose from. The
selections are determined by the OpenWorks project you selected.

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5. Select a surface from the list of choices and click on OK. You will see the
OpenWorks Data Import form.

You can import one or any number of surfaces into the project, as follows:

To select a single surface, click on it. Your selection and some information
cells appear in the Import OpenWorks Object Table on the right side of the
dialog box.
The steps needed to fill in the information cells begin on the next page.

If you want to import several surfaces, click on the Insert Rows button to add
as many rows as you want. Then, select the different surfaces to import in to
the project.
If you do not click on Insert Rows when selecting more than one surface,
only your last selection is displayed in the Import OpenWorks Object Table.

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If you want to bring all the surfaces into the project, click on the Add All
OBJ button. You do not need to insert rows when using this method.

All of the surfaces appear in the Import OpenWorks Object Table. If you wish
to delete a surface from the list of imported objects, simply click on the name
of the surface to select it, then click the Delete button.
You can also click the Reset button to remove all the surfaces from the Object
Table list. The different tops or surfaces you can choose from are still
displayed, but deselected, in the OW Objects From Surface/Unit panel.
You can display as many zones of your project as you like, as follows:
6. If you are interested in displaying only one zone, click on the cell under the
word Zone, then type a number in the cell. Zone 1 is the default zone. For

more information on zones, see “Geological Zones“ on page 1-3.
7. If you are interested in several zones, you can click on the Single Property
button to display the Single_Property_Panel.
This panel allows you to quickly choose which zones of your project are
displayed.

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8. Enter an End Zone No. in the appropriate panel to change the number of zones
displayed for your project, then click on OK.
The Single_Property_Panel closes, and the number of zones that you selected
appears in the Import OpenWorks Object Table.
You can select a single property or several properties for a given zone of your
project, as follows:
9. To select a single property, click on the cell under the word Property with
Button 3.
A list of properties available for your project are displayed For a listing and
more information about contour properties, see “Types of Contours“ on page
3-92.

10. Click on the property that you want to display.
This property is displayed for any and all of the zones of your project. The
default property is TOS (Top of Surface).

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11. You might want to display several properties for the zone(s) you select. To
select several properties, click on the Single Zone button to bring up the
Single_ Zone_Panel.

12. Click on the different properties for the zone you are interested in, then click
on OK.
The Single_Zone_Panel closes, and the properties you selected appear in the
Import OpenWorks Object Table.
13. Click on the Import/Merge button in the OpenWorks Data Import window to
bring up the GridGenr File Selection dialog box below.
Once you have run an OpenWorks project and you specify a new project, you
can choose to replace the previous data with the new data by clicking the
Import/Replace button instead of the Import/Merge button.

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14. Select a .gdb file in the Selection box, and click on OK.
The GridGenr File Selection dialog box closes, and the Grid Generator Main
Window displays a property of your project. The property displayed is
determined by what you chose in step 9.

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Importing Map Files from Other Formats
You can use the Import feature to import contours, faults, wells, and grid structure
directly from some software packages:

Stratamodel SGM files must be processed through GeoLink and then exported
to the GTF format before they can be imported into GRIDGENR or GeoLink
can be used to directly create a GRIDGENR database (.gdb).

Gridded data (meshes) from other mapping packages must include the mesh
data parameters listed in “Mesh Grid Data” in Chapter 6 of the GRIDGENR
Technical Guide.

You may add contours, faults, and well spots to your model by using the
mouse to define their location.

You can import the data using the procedures later in this chapter (see“Import
from a GTF File“ on page 2-56).

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Controlling the Display
GRIDGENR gives you total control over the data displayed in the drawing area.
You can turn certain features on and off, such as contour lines and labelling. You
can zoom in and out, or pan across an image.

Setting the Display Options
To view the Options Panel, select All from the Options menu. This panel lets you
turn on or off various display features and set others on a sliding scale. If the panel
is not completely visible when it first opens, drag the corners of the window or
click the square button at the top right. To set options, you can click on check
boxes, fill in the blanks, or move sliders, as appropriate. When finished, click the
OK button (or Cancel to exit without changing the options). Various options on
this panel are discussed later in this manual, where appropriate.

Figure 2-9: The Options Panel

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Setting the Screen Background Color
GRIDGENR lets you set the background color of the screen to any desired hue.
Be careful not to set it so light so that you cannot see certain screen components,
such as grid lines, scales, etc. To set the background color:
1. Select the Background Color option from the Screen menu.
GRIDGENR displays the following form:

2. Turn on the Auto button if you want to see the background colors changes as
you reset the hue control.
3. Adjust each of the three hue controls (Red, Green, Blue) as desired to achieve
the desired color mix. To produce a shade of gray, make sure all three controls
are lined up.
If the Auto button is not activated, you can press Apply to see how the color
looks on the screen. You can also press the Reset button to reset the
background to its original color (black).
4. When you have achieved the desired background color, click the OK button to
close this panel.

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Zooming and Panning the Display
You can easily zoom in, zoom out, pan across a map display, or restore the display
to its original size.

Zooming In
You can zoom in by selecting an area of the display and making it fill the entire
drawing area. To zoom in:
1. Select Zoom In from the Screen menu, or press Control-Z. The following
message appears above the drawing area:
Point to lower left of window: (1) Select (2-4)Abort

2. Click at the lower left corner of the area you want to zoom. The mouse pointer
expands into a rubberband box and the following message appears:
Point to upper right of window: (1) Select (2-4)Abort

3. Move the mouse pointer until the rubberband box entirely encloses the area of
interest, then click again. The selected area expands to fill the drawing area.

Zooming Out
You can zoom back out to fit more of a map display into the drawing area. To
zoom out:
1. Select Zoom Out from the Screen menu, or press Control-U. The following
message appears above the drawing area:

2. Enter a zoom scale factor and click the OK button. For example, to make the
display appear half the current size, enter 2. To make it appear one-third the
current size, enter 3.

Restoring the Display to Original Size
After zooming or panning, you can restore the display to its original size by
selecting Restore from the Screen menu or pressing Control-R.

Setting the Default Window
You can set the display to always be restored to a certain zoom percentage when
you select the Restore option. To set the zoom restore:

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1. Zoom in to the desired range on the display, as described earlier in this
section.
2. Select the Reset Default Window option from the Screen menu.
3. Click on Yes on the confirmation panel.
4. Zoom in or out some more.
5. Select the Restore option from the Screen menu or press Control-R. Now the
display should return to the zoom selected in step 1.

Shifting the Display (Pan)
You can pan the display up, down, left, or right. This is convenient if you are
zoomed in on a small area of the map and you want to view different sections of
the map in a zoomed perspective. To shift the display:
1. Select Pan from the Screen menu, then select the direction of panning. The
panning occurs automatically.
You may also use control plus the cursor keys (← → ↓ ↑) as a menu shortcut
for panning.
2. To adjust the amount of panning, select Pan/Factor from the Screen menu.
GRIDGENR displays the following form:

3. Enter a panning factor and click the OK button. For example, a factor of 1.00
means the display will pan a whole view at a time; a factor of 0.5 means the
display will pan half its length; and so forth.

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Redrawing the Display
Sometimes, the display may become muddled — especially after editing or other
changes. You can redraw the display by selecting Redraw from the Screen menu,
or pressing Control-W. This causes all elements in the drawing area to be redrawn
correctly.
Also, if your display does not support “Backing Store”, then the pull down menus
will obscure part of the display and that area of the display will not be redrawn,
leaving a hole in the displayed picture. You can have the screen redraw itself
automatically whenever the obscured area is re-exposed. To turn this feature on,
select Miscellaneous from the Options menu and turn on the button labeled
“Redraw With Expose Event.” For maps with many contours the redraw time may
be significant. If this is the case, then it may be preferable to configure your
display to enable “Backing Store” on your X-Server.

Controlling the Scale and Spectrum
Whenever you open a grid database file in the drawing area, a spectrum may
appear at the top of the screen and a scale may appear at the bottom.

Spectrum is the color scale used for reading the maps. The scale uses various
colors from green to red to indicate increments along a range of values
beginning with a certain minimum value for each property and ending with a
certain maximum value. The minimum and maximum values for this color
scale are specified when you begin adding contours or faults for a new
reservoir case study. You can reset these using the Options menu (All).

Scale is the distance scale used for determining distances on the maps. The
scale is set automatically based on the reference point coordinates you define
when you first open a grid database file.

The following procedures explain how to change the display of these two objects.

Toggling the Objects On or Off
You can turn the spectrum or scale on or off by selecting Spectrum/Display or
Scale/Display from the Screen menu. Each time you select one of these options, it
toggles the targeted object on or off.

Toggling the Border On or Off
You can turn the border on or off by selecting Spectrum/Border from the Screen
menu. Each time you select this option, it toggles the border on or off.

Swapping the Color Spectrum
You can reverse the sequence of colors on the spectrum scale by selecting the
Spectrum/Swap from the Screen menu. The scale flips automatically.

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Moving the Scale or Spectrum
You can move the scale or spectrum by selecting Spectrum/Move or Scale/Move
from the Screen menu. When you do, the following message appears above the
drawing area:
Move cursor to the lower left location (1) Select (2-4)
Escape

Click at the lower left location where you want the spectrum to be moved. The
following message appears above the drawing area:
Move cursor to the upper right location (1) Select (2-4)
Escape

Click at the upper right location where you want the spectrum to be moved. The
spectrum will be displayed.

Specific Location of Spectrum
You can move the spectrum to a specific location by selecting Spectrum/Top,
Spectrum/Bottom, Spectrum/Left, or Spectrum/Right from the Screen menu.
Which ever option you select, GRIDGENR will move the spectrum to that
location.

Green-Red Spectrum
To display the spectrum using a green to red color scheme, select Spectrum/
Green-Red from the Screen menu. Upon selecting Green-Red, GRIDGENR will
display the spectrum with green on the left and red on the right.

Red-Blue Spectrum
To display the spectrum using a red to blue color scheme, select Spectrum/RedBlue from the Screen menu. Upon selecting Red-Blue, GRIDGENR will display
the spectrum with red on the left and blue on the right.

Gray-Scale Spectrum
To display the spectrum using a shades of gray, select Spectrum/Gray-Scale from
the Screen menu. Upon selecting Gray-Scale, GRIDGENR will display the
spectrum with various shades of gray.

Number of Colors
You can specify how many colors are displayed in a spectrum by selecting
Spectrum/#Colors from the Screen menu. After selecting this option the following
message box will appear for you to enter a number.
Enter the Number of Colors

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When you have entered a number click OK and GRIDGENR will redisplay the
spectrum with the new settings.

Number of Intervals
You can specify how many label intervals are displayed on a spectrum by
selecting Spectrum/#Intervals from the Screen menu. After selecting this option
the following message box will appear for you to enter a number.
Enter the Number of Intervals

When you have entered a number click ok and GRIDGENR will redisplay the
spectrum with the new settings.

Restoring the Default
You can move the scale or spectrum back to their original orientation by selecting
Spectrum/Default or Scale/Default from the Screen menu. The object is restored
automatically.

Printing the Display
You can print the contents of the drawing area to a printer or plotter using the Print
menu under File.

Printing to a PostScript Printer
To print to a PostScript printer, select the Print/Script option from the File menu,
or press Ctrl-P. You can specify the printer and properties as in most Windows
applications. If the “Print to File” option is checked, then you will be asked to
supply a filename. Otherwise, it will print to your printer.

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Producing Output to CGM Graphics Format
GRIDGENR lets you produce an image of the displayed graph in CGM format —
a common graphics format used in reports and presentations.
The CGM file is saved to a disk file using a filename that you can specify,
followed by the extension .cgm. To produce a CGM file, use the following
procedure:
1. Select Export CGM from the File menu.
CGM file [name] is open. Continue to append?
This message appears if you just created a CGM file and it is still available for
appending more images. Click the Yes button to append the new image to the
existing file, or No to write a new file. If you click Yes, the image is appended
automatically. If you click No, continue with the steps below.

2. Click the mouse pointer at the end of the bottom entry line (Enter name) and
type the desired filename, then click the OK button.
The file is written automatically with a .cgm extension.
File [name] already exists. Overwrite it?
This message appears if you entered a filename that already exists. Click the Yes
button to replace it, or the No button to avoid replacing it. If you select No, you
will have to specify a different filename.

Quitting GRIDGENR
To quit the GRIDGENR program:
1. Select Exit from the File menu.
The GRIDGENR Control Panel and Main Window both close automatically.
File Has Been Modified, Save It Before Exit?
This message appears if an existing file was already open in the GRIDGENR
drawing area and contains modifications which have not yet been saved.
Click the Yes button to save the most recent changes or No to discard the
changes, or Cancel to avoid exiting GRIDGENR.

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Chapter

3
Mapping the Reservoir
Introduction
The first major step in using GRIDGENR is to import all map elements needed to
describe the reservoir under study, including:

Contours defining the top or bottom surface of each zone, the thickness of
each zone, and/or various physical properties of each zone such as porosity,
permeability, initial saturation, etc.

Faults.

Well locations and names.

Descriptive text that makes the maps more readable.

Geologic grids or meshes.

You can import the map elements from other software packages such as Z-MAP
Plus and GeoLink, or draw them freehand into the GRIDGENR drawing area.
Text must be added manually. Once these map elements are displayed in the
GRIDGENR Main Window, you can move, delete, edit, or manipulate them with
total ease and flexibility.
This chapter explains how to add and edit all of the map elements listed above.
Before using this chapter, make sure you understand the material in Chapters 1
and 2. For a quick refresher on mouse and keyboard terminology, turn to the
Preface of this manual.

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Setting the Display Options
Before you start working with contours, wells, or faults — or at any point in the
process — you can use the Options menu to control how these elements are
displayed. Reading this section will also help you understand basic terminology
and how GRIDGENR handles contours, faults and wells.

Contour Options
The contour options let you control various display components, including the
contour line, labels, smoothing, point display, and tolerances.

Contour
lines

Contour
points

2900
2800
2700
Contour labels

Figure 3-1: Contour Display Components

To change the Contour display options, select Contour from the Options menu.1
The following form opens.

1. These options also are available when you select All from the Options menu.

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Click on the available check boxes, fill in the blanks, or adjust the slider bars, as
needed to set the following options:

Show Contour. This option controls the display of contours. This option
should be on whenever you are working with contours.

Show Label. This option controls the display of contour labels.

Show Smooth. If this option is turned on, all digitized contour points are
connected by smooth lines. If off, all digitized contour points are connected
by straight lines.

Show Smooth Off

Show Point. This option controls the display of digitized contour points.

Min/Max Contour Values. These two settings let you readjust the minimum/
maximum contour values shown on the color scale at the top of the drawing
area (if the Spectrum is turned on).

Tautness. This setting controls the smoothness or tautness of the contour
lines. The lower the number, the smoother the curve.

Label Size. This setting controls the relative size of the contour labels (1 =
normal size; 2 = twice the normal size, etc.). The label size is relative to the
zoom magnification: if you zoom in, the same label size may appear larger.

Makcon Tolerance/Scaling/Reset. Even though a contour is represented as a
continuous line, GRIDGENR only considers the contour points themselves
when calculating the values for each gridblock. The goal is to avoid having
too few or too many contour points — too few leads to inaccurate gridblock
values, too many wastes computer power. As you finish drawing each curve,
GRIDGENR automatically adds or deletes points along the contour,
depending on the Makcon settings discussed below. If you change the
Makcon settings, they are not applied to existing curves until you use the
Resmooth option to resmooth curves (see “Resmoothing Curves” on
page 3-139).

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Tolerance. To help you avoid having too many contour points,
GRIDGENR discards any point that is nearly in a straight line with the
others. For example, the following illustration shows three points that are
nearly in a straight line. However, Point 2 can be discarded if it is within
the Makcon tolerance range (discard zone). If the Makcon tolerance is set
to .04 (4 percent), any point less than four feet away from the 100-foot
line (four percent of the straight-line distance) will be discarded. If you do

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not want GRIDGENR to discard any points, then set the tolerance to zero
— effectively closing the discard zone.
Point 2 (outside zone)
Tolerance = 4% (4 ft)
discard zone
Point 1

Straight line (100 ft)

Point 3

Figure 3-2: Understanding Makcon Tolerance

Scaling. To help make sure that you have enough contour points,
GRIDGENR will add points in areas where it determines they are needed.
If Makcon scaling is set to zero, GRIDGENR will determine the optimum
interval for adding points. Otherwise, you can enter a minimum distance
that you want GRIDGENR to use when adding points (for example, 50
would cause GRIDGENR to add points every 50 feet).

Reset Default. The Reset button lets you set the Makcon defaults back to
their original values, which are 0.01 tolerance and 0.00 scaling.

1. When finished setting all options, click the OK button.

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Fault Options
The fault options let you control various display components, including the fault
lines, fault points, and tolerances.
Fault line

Fault
points

Figure 3-3: Fault Display Components

To reset the fault display options, select Fault from the Options menu.1 The
following form opens:

Click on the available check boxes, fill in the blanks, or adjust the slider bars.
When finished setting all options, click the OK button.

Show Fault. This controls the display of all fault components. This option
should be on whenever you are working with faults.

1. These options also are available when you select All from the Options menu.

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Show Point. This option controls the display of fault points.

Show ID. This option controls the display of fault IDs.

Show Trans. This option controls the display of transmissibility factors.

Makcon Tolerance. This setting controls the tolerance for discarding extra
fault points. Tolerance is expressed as a percent deviation from a straight line
(e.g., 0.04 = 4 percent deviation). If any point is within this tolerance when
compared to the two adjacent points, GRIDGENR discards it automatically
(see “Understanding Makcon Tolerance” on page 3-82).

MakCon Scaling. This setting controls the Scaling, the minimum distance
that GRIDGENR will use to add points to a contour, if you fail to digitize
enough points.

Reset Makcon Default. This option lets you set the Makcon defaults back to
their original values, which are zero tolerance and zero scaling.

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Well Options
The well options let you control the display of well names and well symbols.
Well
name

Well 1

Well 2

Well
symbol

Figure 3-4: Well Display Components

To set the well options, select Well from the Options menu.1 The following form
opens:

To use this form, click the available check boxes or adjust the slider bars, then
click the OK button when finished. The options are defined below:

Show Well. This option controls the display of the well symbol. If this option
is on, the symbol for the well is shown on the map.

Show Name. This option controls the display of the well name. If this option
is on, the name of the well is shown on the map.

Well Name Size. This option controls the size of well names, which are
relative. For example, setting the size at 2.00 makes it twice as large as 1.00.
The well name appears larger or smaller as you zoom in or out.

Well Symbol Size. This option controls the size of well symbols, which are
relative. For example, setting the size at 2.00 makes it twice as large as 1.00.
When zooming, however, the symbol appears approximately the same size,
no matter which zoom level you select.

1. These options also are available when you select All from the Options menu.

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Importing Contours, Wells, Faults, and Meshes
You can develop a reservoir map by importing contours, faults, wells, or mesh
grids from other computer applications. If the import files are formatted correctly,
all imported contours appear in the correct displays for the properties and zones
that they represent. Wells and faults also appear in proper context. If both contours
and a mesh are available for the same property, you may consider using the mesh
to describe the property, instead of the contours (see “Meshes vs. Grids” on
page 1-12). You can use a mesh instead of or in addition to the contours for a
given property.

Importing from Stratamodel SGM with GeoLink
You can use GeoLink application as an intermediate tool to import geological
mapping information developed in Stratamodel’s application. Follow these
guidelines:
1. Start GeoLink and use it to import and manipulate the geological model, as
desired. See the GeoLink User’s Guide for details.
2. When finished, use the Export option to export the file as a GDB file.
3. In GRIDGENR, open the file (see “The filename that you choose for the
reservoir case study should reflect in some way the name of the reservoir,
since it will contain most of the basic information about the reservoir structure
and properties. Once you open a new file, you can begin defining the reservoir
structures and properties as described in Chapters 3 and 4.” on page 2-29).
4. Edit the map data, as required, using the editing procedures discussed later in
this chapter (see “Editing Map Elements” on page 3-108).

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Importing Maps from Z-MAP
Follow these guidelines if you plan to import contours, faults, meshes, or wells
from Z-MAP.
1. Select File ➛ New (Import)... ➛ from Zmap File... ➛ from ASCII File...
The Import Zmap Panel dialog box appears.

Filter/select
file(s)

2. Click on a file to select it.
Your selection and some information cells appear in the Import Zmap File
Table panel on the right side of the dialog box.

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3. If you want to import several files, click on the Insert Rows button to add as
many rows as you want. Then, select the different files to import in to the
project.
If you do not insert rows before selecting more than one file, only your last
selection is displayed in the Import Zmap File Table.
Click on the Add All Files button to bring all the available files in to the
project.

All of the files appear in the Import Zmap File Table. If you want to delete a
file from the list of imported Zmap files, simply click on the name of the file
to select it, then click on the Delete button.
You can also click the Reset button to remove all the files from the list.
4. You can display as many zones of your project as you like.
If you are interested in importing only one zone, click on the cell under the
word Zone, then type a number in the cell. Zone 1 is the default zone.

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5. If you are interested in importing a single property for several zones, you can
click the Single Property button to display the Single_Property_Panel.
This panel allows you to quickly choose which zones of your project are
imported.

Enter an End Zone No. in the appropriate panel to change the number of zones
imported for your project, then click on OK.
The Single_Property_Panel closes, and the number of zones that you selected
appears in the Import Zmap File Table.
6. Click the file name in the files panel of the Import ZMAP File Table to fill in
the appropriate Import File table.
7. You can select a single property or several properties for a given zone of your
project. To select a single property, click the cell under the word Property
with Button 3 to display a list of properties available for your project.
8. Click the property that you want to display.
This property is displayed for any and all of the zones of your project. The
default property is TOS (Top of Surface).
9. You might want to display several properties for a zone you select. To select
several properties, click on the Single Zone button to bring up the Single_
Zone_Panel.

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10. Click on the different properties for the zone you are interested in, then click
on OK.
The Single_Zone_Panel closes, and the properties you selected appear in the
Import Zmap File Table.
11. Click on the Import/Merge button to bring up the GridGenr File Selection
dialog box.
(Once you have run an OpenWorks project and you specify a new project, you
can choose to replace the previous data with the new data by clicking the
Import/Replace button.)

12. Select a .gdb file in the Selection box, and click on OK.
The GridGenr File Selection dialog box closes, and the Grid Generator Main
Window displays a property of your project. The property displayed is
determined by what you chose earlier in the exercise.

Defining New Map Elements
You can add new elements to your model by using the mouse to define their
location. Elements that can be added are: contours, faults, and well spots.

Controlling the Reference Points
The reference points that you defined when you first opened the file are stored in
the Control Panel, behind the Reference Point button. If the original reference
point coordinates were not correct or need to be changed for some other reason,
you can change them after the fact. The map elements that you have already
entered will be shifted correctly to the new coordinates (assuming you identify the
fixed points correctly on each map while digitizing, and that the map points are
always at the same coordinates). To change reference points, follow these steps:

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1. Click the Reference Point button on the Control Panel. The following form
opens:

2. Type in the correct coordinates of two fixed reference points.
3. Click the Apply Value Change button. The new reference points appear as
large red symbols at the selected coordinate locations in the drawing area. The
reference point coordinates appear just below the drawing area in the
GRIDGENR Main Window.

Adding New Faults and Contours
You can add new faults and contours to any imported or digitized reservoir map.
When digitizing these map elements, you should always do faults first. Since
many contours may end at a fault, it is easier to join the contours after the fault is
drawn rather than trying to thread a fault through a series of existing contours.

Faults
Contours

Figure 3-5: Reservoir Detail Showing Faults and Contours

The above illustration shows a typical arrangement of faults and contours on a
reservoir map. Notice that ends of many contours lock to fault lines. Any contour
can be drawn as a curve, or as a single point. A curved contour is really a series of
single points connected by a line: you define the points and GRIDGENR
automatically connects the line.

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Types of Contours
You can create contour sets for 17 standard properties and 15 user defined
properties in up to 999 layers or zones. The standard contour properties include:

Top of structure (TOS)

Bottom of structure (BOS)

Gross thickness (GROSS)

Net thickness (NET)

Porosity (POR)

Net-to-Gross Ratio (NTG)

X-Direction Permeability (KX)

Y-Direction Permeability (KY)

Z-Direction Permeability (KZ)

Ratio of Z to X Permeability (KZ-KX)

Connate Water Saturation (SWR)

Critical Gas Saturation (SGR)

Water Saturation at Residual Oil (SWRO)

Gas Saturation at Residual Oil (SGRO)

Oil Saturation (SO)

Gas Saturation (SG)

Water Saturation (SW)

TOS and BOS are contours which define the depth of the top or bottom surface in
each zone. GROSS and NET are contours which define the gross thickness or net
pay of a zone measured from top-to-bottom. All other contours represent either
rock properties or initial saturations. For example, a set of porosity contours
(POR) shows the location of lines along which porosity is constant when
measured areally throughout a zone.

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You may also define other properties if you need to. Each property is digitized as
a separate map in GRIDGENR. Once you enter the property contours for each
property in each zone, you should be able to cycle through the list of properties
and zones on the control panel and see the different contour maps associated with
each.
Required Properties for VIP
When digitizing contours, you do not have to define all the properties on the list.
However, you should at least define the surfaces for each layer as discussed in “Layer
Topography” on page 1-4. GRIDGENR uses the porosity and permeability to calculate pore volumes and transmissibility factors that are essential to VIP reservoir simulation.

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Transmissibility Factors
In older versions of GRIDGENR, faults were defined as either conductive,
sealing, or display only. Starting with version 5.0, faults are described using a
transmissibility factor. The transmissibility factor of the fault relates to the fault’s
ability to communicate (or transmit) fluid flow from gridblock to gridblock across
the fault.
Each surface of a gridblock that interfaces with a fault is assigned a
transmissibility factor that expresses the amount of fluid flow allowed. The
transmissibility factor is expressed by a number from 0 (no fluid flow) to 1
(unobstructed flow). Typical transmissibility factors might be .3, .5 or .9. A
sealing fault can be modeled using a transmissibility factor of zero, whereas a
conductive fault would have a transmissibility factor between 0 and 1.

Associating Faults with Properties
Faults are added to contour maps side-by-side with the contours. Each contour
map should include any associated faults, if applicable. For example, faults will
usually appear in a TOS or BOS contour map, but not in a GROSS. Faults should
appear in porosity, permeability, or other property-related contour maps only if
they represent discontinuities in these properties. On the other hand, if you wanted
to see the location of faults on every map, you could add the faults to the maps
where they belong, then copy them to all the other maps and change their value to
“Display Only” on the maps where they do not have an impact (see “Adding
Contours and Faults by Copying” on page 3-100 and “Changing Data Values” on
page 3-121).

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Fault Locking and Closed Loops
Since some faults and contours are interrupted by faults, GRIDGENR lets you
automatically connect or lock the end of any fault or contour to an existing fault,
as shown in the diagram at left. You can lock the first point, the last point or both
ends of a curve automatically to a fault.
Fault locking has no real effect on the modeling of contours — it is mainly a
cosmetic feature to help you easily join lines. However, fault locking may be
important in joining faults. If two faults actually intersect, you should use the fault
locking feature to make sure they connect properly. The illustration below shows
the difference in gridblock shape that could result from locking or not locking a
fault.

2-D MAP
VIEW

Faults
not locked

Faults
locked
Fault
offset at
gridblock faces
3-D
PERSPECTIVE

Figure 3-6: How Fault Locking Can Affect Gridblock Shape

Closed contours are a similar feature: GRIDGENR automatically connects the
first and last points to form a closed loop — even if the two points are separated
by a gap. You can control fault locking or closed loops in two ways:

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You can start out in Fault Lock or Closed Loop mode by setting the Contour
button on the Control Panel before you start digitizing.

You can switch modes while digitizing by using the MB3 pop-up menu.

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For example, if you are digitizing a curve that begins at a fault but does not end at
a fault, you could set the Contour button to Fault Lock mode before starting to
digitize the curve. While you are digitizing the curve, but before you reach the last
point, you could use MB3 to switch to Free mode so that the last point is not
automatically joined back to the fault.

Defining Procedure for Contours, Faults, or Points
You must define a set of contours for each physical property that you want to
define in each zone. If any of the contours intersect fault lines, you should define
the faults first. You can also definee point contours, which are values at spot
locations, such as a data point in a well. Since contours and faults are similar types
of map elements, the same basic procedure is used for both:
1. Set the following options in the GRIDGENR Control Panel:
Context

Select the Contour option.

Property

Select the type of contour being digitized or the property
that you want the fault to be associated with. This
changes the display to focus on the specific property definition.

Zone No. /
SimLayer No.

Select the zone and simulation layer where the feature is
located. This changes the display to focus on the selected
property in a specific zone.

2. When you are ready to start digitizing, select the Add option on the Edit
menu, then select Add Contour, Add Fault, or Add Points.
3. If you selected Add Contour and the drawing area has no other contours, the
following form opens (otherwise, skip to next step).

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Enter the minimum and maximum values for the current property, then click
the OK button. These entries set the range of contour values associated with
the color spectrum shown at the top of the drawing area. Any contours within
this range will be drawn using an appropriate color. Any values outside the
range will be drawn using the nearest minimum/maximum color.
Minimum Must Be Less Than Maximum
This message appears if you click OK without entering appropriate minimum/
maximum contour values. The minimum value of the contour must be less than the
maximum value.

4. If you are defining contours or points, GRIDGENR displays a panel like the
one shown below:

Specify the numeric contour or point value you want to add to the map, then
click the OK button and go to step 7 below.
5. If you are defining fault values, GRIDGENR displays the following form:

Specify a fault ID and transmissibility factor for the fault you want to add. If
you want the fault added for display purposes only, click the Display Only
button.
6. Click the OK button.
7. GRIDGENR asks you to begin defining a curve of the type just specified. For
example:
Define SEALING fault: (1) Add (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Finish

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8. Click on all the points needed to properly define the curve.
Line Cannot Cross Contour or Fault
This message appears if you try to digitize a point that would cause the curve to
cross an existing fault or contour line. Try selecting the point again. If you started
digitizing near an existing line, there is a chance that you started on the wrong side
of the line. In this case, press MB2 to back up and reposition the first point.

At any point in the defining process, you can click MB3 to view a pop-up
menu and make the following selections:

Not available
for points

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Not available
for faults or points

Beep While Digitizing turns the beeper on or off. The beeper indicates
when you have digitized a point.

Free Contour - No Autolock switches to the Free mode so that the last
point is not joined to the nearest fault. To specify more points, click
Return to Digitizing.

Lock Contour to Fault switches to the Fault Lock mode so that the last
point will be joined to the nearest fault automatically. To specify more
points, click Return to Digitizing.

Close Contour (not available for faults) lets you switch to the Closed
mode so that the last point will be joined to the first point to form a closed
loop. To specify more points, click Return to Digitizing.

Return To Digitizing closes the pop-up menu and lets you continue
defining the curve by clicking.

Finish Current Curve indicates that you have already clicked on the last
point and the curve is completed.

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Abandon This Curve indicates that you want to quit digitizing the curve
and remove it from the screen. GRIDGENR asks you to confirm this
selection:

Click Yes to confirm or No to return to the pop-up menu.
9. When you are finished digitizing the curve, select Finish Current Curve from
the pop-up menu. GRIDGENR returns to the panel shown in step 4 or 5
above.
Error Locking to Fault
This message appears when you try to finish a curve in the Fault Lock mode and
the last point would have to cross existing lines to be joined correctly. If the curve
must end at a fault line, try backing up (MB2) and redraw the curve or move the
last point closer to the fault. If the curve does not need to rejoin the fault, click
MB3 and select No Autolock for Contour; then select either Return to Digitizing to
add more points or Finish Current Curve to end.

10. Repeat the above procedure for each additional contour or fault being added
to the current map. Otherwise, click the Cancel to quit.

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Adding Contours and Faults by Copying
You can create a set of faults or contours by copying the curves from other contour
maps. The curves being copied can be in the same zone or in other zones. Once
the curves are copied, you can edit them using the editing procedures later in this
chapter. When you copy curves from another zone, all curves are copied — there
is no way to copy individual curves. However, you could still delete or edit any
inappropriate curves, as explained later in this chapter. To copy curves:
1. Make sure you are viewing the property/zone where you want the curves to
appear. If not, use the Control Panel to select the correct property and zone.
2. Click on the Context button in the Control Panel and select Contour.
3. Select Copy from the Edit menu.
A series of cascading menus is available. For example:

4. Make the following selections from the menus, as appropriate:

100

Merge

Adds the copied curves to any curves already existing in
the current property/zone.

Replace

Replaces any curves in the current property/zone with
the copied curves.

Copy Curves

Merges or replaces both faults and contours.

Copy Contour

Merges or replaces contours only.

Copy Faults

Merges or replaces faults only.

Copy All

Replaces all faults, contours, and mesh points.

Copy Mesh

Replaces mesh points.

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When you finish making any of these selections, GRIDGENR displays the
following form:

5. Specify the zone and property containing the data you want to copy, then click
the OK button.
The property selections are mutually exclusive. When you click one, it turns
all others off. When you click the OK button, the requested data elements are
copied automatically to the current property.

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User-Defined Properties
If you need to define a property which is not on the standard properties list, you
may add it to the properties list using the user defined properties option. After it
has been added you may import, digitize and modify contours and meshes as if it
were standard property. To add a user-defined property:
1. Click on the User-Defined Property button on the control panel.
The user defined property table will pop-up.

2. Click on Add Entry to add a blank line to the table.
3. Type in the abbreviated property name.
This name is displayed on the property selection list. It is limited to 7 upper
case characters.
4. Type in the full descriptive name.
This is displayed on top of the spectrum. It can be 20 characters long and may
include spaces.
5. Select a calculation method by clicking the Calculation Method field using
the right mouse button. This will give you a list of calculation methods.
Options are:

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Arithmetic: divides the grid cell into 27 (3 x 3 x 3) blocks and calculates
the arithmetic average of the blocks.

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Geometric: divides the grid cell into 27 (3 x 3 x 3) blocks and calculates
the geometric average of the blocks.

Harmonic: divides the grid cell into 27 (3 x 3 x 3) blocks and calculates
the harmonic average of the blocks.

Integer: uses the contour value closest to the grid cell.

Integrate X: Integrates the values moving from the center of the cell to
face in the X direction. Usually used for TX.

Integrate Y: Integrates the values moving from the center of the cell to
face in the Y direction. Usually used for TY.

Integrate Z: Integrates the values moving from the center of the cell to
face in the Z direction. Usually used for TZ.

6. Repeat steps 2 - 5 until you have added all the properties you need.
If you wish to remove one: Select the property you wish to remove by
clicking on the number next to it. Then click on delete selection to remove it.
7. When you are done select OK to save your changes and exit the panel (or on
Cancel to exit the panel without saving your changes).

Adding New Well Locations
You can add well symbols to the reservoir map as needed to represent producing
or injecting locations. A well only needs to be added once for the entire reservoir
— it appears automatically on all maps for all properties and zones. Wells can be
added by indicating their location with the mouse. Any well that you add can be
annotated with a name or number. Once you add a well, you can move it, rename
it, or delete it using the procedures described later in this chapter. To add a well:
1. Set the following option in the GRIDGENR Control Panel:
Context

Select the Well option.

2. Select Add from the Edit menu.

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3. The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Point to well location (1) Select (2-4) Done

Click once at the point on the grid where you want the well located. A
diamond symbol appears at the selected position and the following form
opens:

4. Enter the desired name for this well. The name will be superimposed on the
contour map.
VIP Requirements:
VIP allows a maximum of eight characters for the well name.

5. Click the OK button. The name appears on the grid just above the diamond
symbol and the following prompt reappears.
Point to well location (1) Select (2-4) Done

6. To add more wells, start over at step 3. Otherwise, press MB3 to quit.

Adding New Text
You can add new text annotations to any contour map, all you have to do is type in
the text and then set the attributes. To add text:
1. Set the following options in the GRIDGENR Control Panel:
Context

Select the Text option.

Property

Select the property where the text must appear.

Zone No.

Select the zone where the text must appear.

2. Select Add from the Edit menu.
If you want to add the text at the same location as on the map, click the
reference points on the map (lower left point, then upper right). Otherwise,
click MB3 to view the pop-up menu and select Do Screen Digitizing.

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3. When the following form opens, type the desired text, including spaces and
symbols, then click the OK button:

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The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Point To String Location (1) Select (2) Done (3) Menu (4)
Done

4. To set the text attributes, click MB3 to view the following form. Make the
selections as indicated below:

Text
Top Left
Alignment

Mode

In map mode, the text is inserted in the map and moves with it.
In screen mode, the text does not move as you pan or zoom in a
map — it remains stationary relative to the screen.

Alignment

This controls the relative alignment of the text to the mouse
pointer. For example, Top Left causes the text to be placed below
and to the right of the mouse pointer (i.e., pointer is at top left of
text).

Text Size

1 is regular size, 2 is twice the regular size, etc.

5. Click at the location in the drawing area where you want the text located,
keeping in mind the alignment specified above. The following form
reappears:

6. To add more text, start over at step 3. Otherwise, click Cancel to quit.

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Copying Text from Other Locations
You can also create text by copying it from any other property or zone. The text
that you copy can be merged with the existing text or replace the existing text.
Copying text copies all of the text from a particular map — there is no way to
copy individual groups of text. Once the text is copied, however, you can delete or
edit unwanted portions using the procedures described later in this chapter. To
copy text:
1. Set the following options in the GRIDGENR Control Panel:
Context

Select the Text option.

Property

Select the property where the text must appear.

Zone No.

Select the zone where the text must appear.

2. Click the Edit menu and select Copy/Merge if you want to merge the copied
text with the existing text or Copy/Replace if you want to replace all text for
the current property/zone.
The following form appears:

3. Specify the zone and property containing the text you want to copy, then click
the OK button.
The property selections are mutually exclusive. When you click one, it turns
all others off. When you click OK, the requested text is copied automatically
to the current property.

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Editing Map Elements
GRIDGENR provides a wide array of editing functions for faults and contours, as
described on the following pages.

Moving Points on a Curve
You can move the individual points on any contour or fault (including point
contours). To do this, you must select the contour or fault to be modified, select
the point to be moved, and select a new location for the point, as described below.

To move any points on a curve:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Select Modify/Move Point from the Edit menu. The following message
appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select Curve to Modify: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on the contour or fault that you want to modify. The following message
appears:
Select Point to Move: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

4. Click on the point to be moved. The pointer is attached to the curve by a
rubberband line and the following message appears:
Move Point to New Location: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

5. Click on the new location where you want the point to be moved. The
following message reappears:
Select Point to Move: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for each point to be moved. When finished, click MB3 to
quit. Each click of MB3 brings you back to a previous message. You can
select other curves to modify (step 3) or continue pressing MB3 until the
messages disappear.

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Redrawing Part of a Curve
You can redraw or redigitize any section of an existing contour or fault curve. To
do this, you must select the curve, define the section to be redrawn, and then
redraw each point along the section, as described below.

A

B

To redraw part of a curve:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Select Modify/Edit Group from the Edit menu.
3. When the following message appears at the top of the drawing area, click on
the curve to be redrawn:
Select Curve to Modify: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

The following prompt appears
Select first point of new selection.

4. Click at the first point on the section to be redrawn (see A in illustration):
5. When the following message appears, click at the last point on the section to
be redrawn (see B in illustration):
The following prompt appears
Select last point of new selection

The following prompt appears:
Keep the first point?

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6. To keep the first point that you clicked, answer Y. Otherwise answer N to
discard it.
The following prompt appears:
Keep the last point?

7. To keep the last point that you clicked, answer Y. Otherwise answer N to
discard it.
8. If the curve is a closed loop, the following message appears:
Select Point On Side to Modify: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

Click on any point on the section to be redrawn.
9. The pointer is attached to the curve by a rubberband line and the following
message appears:
Enter Points: (1) Select (2) Delete (3) Menu (4) Finish

10. Click on all the points needed to redefine this section of the curve. Click MB2
if you need to erase a point and back up.
At any point in the digitizing process, you can click MB3 to view a pop-up
menu and make the following selections:

Not available
for faults

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Return To Digitizing closes the pop-up menu and lets you continue
defining the curve by clicking.

Finish Current Curve indicates that you have already clicked on the last
point and the curve is completed.

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Abandon This Curve indicates that you want to quit digitizing the curve
and remove it from the screen. GRIDGENR asks you to confirm this
selection:

Click Yes to confirm or No to return to the pop-up menu.

Beep While Digitizing turns the beeper on or off. The beeper indicates
when you have digitized a point.

Lock Contour to Fault switches to the Fault Lock mode so that the last
point will be joined to the nearest fault automatically. To specify more
points, click Return to Digitizing.

Free Contour - No Autolock switches to the Free mode so that the last
point is not joined to the nearest fault. To specify more points, click
Return to Digitizing.

Close Contour (not available for faults) lets you switch to the Closed
mode so that the last point will be joined to the first point to form a closed
loop. To specify more points, click Return to Digitizing.

Point Contour - Specify Value (not available for faults) switches to the
Point contour digitizing mode. This mode is used to digitize values at spot
locations such as data from wells. If you have already digitized a point, it
becomes the last point. If you have not yet digitized a point, click Return
to Digitizing and specify a single point. In either case, the next step
applies automatically.

11. When you are finished redrawing the curve, select Finish Current Curve from
the pop-up menu. The following message reappears:
Select Curve to Modify: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

12. To redraw parts of other curves, start over at step 3. Otherwise, click MB3 to
quit.

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Deleting Points on a Curve
You can delete any points on an existing contour or fault curve. To do this, you
must select the curve to be modified and then select each point to be deleted, as
described below.

To delete points from a curve:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Select Modify/Delete Point from the Edit menu. The following message
appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select Curve to Modify: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on the curve that you want to modify. The following message appears:
Select Point to Delete: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

Single Point Contours Not Allowed
This message appears if you click on a single-point contour. You can only use this
feature on a curved contour or fault. To delete a single-point contour, use the
Remove option on the Edit menu (see “Deleting Specific Curves” on page 3-140).

4. Click on each point that you want to delete from the curve, then click MB3.
The following message appears:

5. Click Yes to make the deletions or No to avoid deleting the points. If you
select Yes, the curve is redrawn automatically without the deleted points. The
following message reappears:
Select Curve to Modify: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

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6. To delete points from other curves, start over at step 3. Otherwise, press MB3
to quit.

Merging Contours or Faults
You can join the ends of two existing contours or faults. However, you can use
this feature only if all the following conditions are met:

The two curves must be equal value (same type of fault or same contour
value).

You cannot merge a contour and a fault. (However, you can merge two singlepoint contours or a single-point contour and a curved contour.)

The joining segment cannot cross the paths of other faults or contours.

Neither of the curves can be a closed loop. Both must be open.

To join these types of elements, you must identify the elements to be joined. If the
elements are curves (as opposed to single points), you must also identify the ends
to be joined.

8900

A

B

8900

To join two separate elements:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Select Modify/Merge from the Edit menu. The following message appears at
the top of the drawing area:
Select First Curve for Merge (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on the first of the two elements to be joined. If you click on a curve, the
following message appears:
Select End of Curve for Merge (1) Select (2-4) Escape

To answer this message, click on the end point of the curve that you want
joined (A). The following message appears:
Select Second Curve for Merge (1) Select (2-4) Escape

4. Click on the second of the two elements to be joined. If you click on a curve,
the following message appears:
Select End of Curve for Merge (1) Select (2-4) Escape

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5. To answer this message, click on the end point that you want joined on the
second curve (B).
Curves Must Have Same Value
This message appears if you try to join two contours with different values, or a
fault and a contour, or faults of different types. Try again, using two curves of the
same type or value. Or click MB3 to quit.

If you are merging two faults, the following panel appears, showing the IDs
and transmissibility factors for the two faults. You can select which ID and
transmissibility factor you want to apply to the merged fault:

The two elements are joined automatically and the following message
reappears:
Select First Curve for Merge (1) Select (2-4) Escape

6. To join other elements, start over at step 3 above. Otherwise, press MB3 to
quit.

Breaking a Contour or Fault
You can break any existing contour or fault curve into two segments, or open up a
closed loop. To do this, you must identify the curve to be broken and the location
of the break, as described below.

To break a curve:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.

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2. Select Modify/Break from the Edit menu. The following message appears at
the top of the drawing area:
Select Curve to Be Broken (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on the curve to be broken. The following message appears:
Select Place to Break Curve (1) Select (2-4) Escape

Single Point Contours Not Allowed
This message appears if you click on a single-point contour. You can only use this
feature on a curved contour or fault.

4. Click on the spot where you want the curve to be broken. GRIDGENR inserts
two points on either side of the spot, joined by a dashed line, and displays the
following message:

5. Select Yes to break the curve or No to avoid breaking it. If you select Yes, the
curve is broken automatically.
6. If you break a fault in two, you must assign a fault ID to both segments. The
following forms appear in order, to allow you to enter IDs for the first and
second fault segments:

7. Once the curve has been broken, the following message reappears.
Select Curve to Be Broken (1) Select (2-4) Escape

8. To break more curves, start over at step 3 above. Otherwise, press MB3 to
quit.

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Appending Points to a Contour or Fault
You can add more points to the end of any existing contour or fault (including
single-point contours). You cannot append points to a closed loop unless you
break the loop first using the previous procedure.

To add points to a curve, you must identify the curve to be modified and the end of
the curve where the additional points will be added. Then you can add the points,
as described below:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Select Modify/Append from the Edit menu.

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3. When the following message appears at the top of the drawing area, click on
the curve that you want to extend:
Select Curve to Extend (1) Select (2-4) Escape

4. When the following message appears, click at the last point on the end of the
curve where you want to begin adding points:
Select End of Curve to Extend (1) Select (2-4) Escape

The pointer is attached to the curve by a rubberband line.
5. When the following message appears, start defining the new part of the curve.
Enter Points: (1) Select (2) Delete (3) Menu (4) Finish

At any point, you can click MB2 to erase and back up, or click MB3 to select
from the following pop-up menu:

Not available
for faults

Beep While Digitizing turns the beeper on or off. The beeper indicates
when you have digitized a point.

Return To Digitizing closes the pop-up menu and lets you continue
defining the curve by clicking.

Finish Current Curve indicates that you have already clicked on the last
point and the curve is completed.

Abandon This Curve indicates that you want to quit digitizing the curve
and remove it from the screen. GRIDGENR asks you to confirm this
selection:

Click Yes to confirm or No to return to the pop-up menu.

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Lock Contour to Fault switches to the Fault Lock mode so that the last
point will be joined to the nearest fault automatically. To specify more
points, click Return to Digitizing.

Free Contour - No Autolock switches to the Free mode so that the last
point is not joined to the nearest fault. To specify more points, click
Return to Digitizing.

Close Contour (not available for faults) lets you switch to the Closed
mode so that the last point will be joined to the first point to form a closed
loop. To specify more points, click Return to Digitizing.

Point Contour - Specify Value (not available for faults) switches to the
Point contour digitizing mode. If you have already digitized a point, it
becomes the last point. If you have not yet digitized a point, click Return
to Digitizing and specify a single point. In either case, the next step
applies automatically.

6. When you are finished redrawing the curve, select Finish Current Curve from
the pop-up menu. The following message reappears:
Select Curve to Extend: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

7. To extend other curves, start over at step 3. Otherwise, click MB3 to quit.

Closing a Curve
You can automatically join the loose ends of any contour curve. This feature is
most often used to “close the loop” on a curve where the two ends are adjacent. If
used on a straighter curve, it may cause the curve to loop back on itself
unpredictably.

To close a curve, you must select the curve to be joined and then confirm that the
curve should be joined, as described below:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Select Modify/Close from the Edit menu. The following message appears at
the top of the drawing area:
Select Curve to Close (1) Select (2-4) Escape

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3. Click on the curve that you want to close. The following message appears:
Is This Curve Correct? (1) Yes (2-4) No

Selected Contour Must Be Open
This message appears when you click on a curve that forms a closed loop. You can
only close curves that have open ends. Please try again.
Single Point Contours Not Allowed
This message appears if you click on a single-point contour. You can only use this
feature on a curved contour or fault.
Selected Curve Must Be a Contour
This message appears if you click on a fault. You can only close contours.

4. Click again. The curve is closed automatically, and the following message
reappears.
Select Curve to Close (1) Select (2-4) Escape

Line Cannot Cross Itself
Line Cannot Cross Contour or Fault
These messages indicate that the curve cannot be closed because the joining segment would have to cross the curve itself or would have to cross other contours or
faults. Try another method, such as moving points.

5. To close more curves, start over at step 3. Otherwise, press MB3 to quit.

Locking a Curve to a Fault
You can lock the ends of any fault or open contour to a fault. Fault locking
generally is done for cosmetic purposes only, but may affect gridblock shape (see
“Fault Locking and Closed Loops” on page 3-95).
Fault

Contour

To lock a curve to a fault, you must select the desired curve, then select the end
point to be locked, as described below:

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1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Select Modify/Faultlock from the Edit menu. The following message appears
at the top of the drawing area:
Select Curve to Fault Lock (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on the curve that you want to lock. The following message appears:
Select End of Curve to Fault Lock (1) Select (2-4) Escape

Selected Contour Must Be Open
This message appears when you click on a curve that forms a closed loop. You can
only lock curves that have open ends. Please try again.
Single Point Contours Not Allowed
This message appears if you click on a single-point contour. You can only use this
feature on a curved contour or fault.

4. Click at the end point of the curve that you want to be locked. GRIDGENR
asks you to confirm the selection (click Yes to confirm).

The curve is joined to the nearest fault, and the following message reappears.
Select Curve to Fault Lock (1) Select (2-4) Escape

Line Cannot Cross Itself/Contour/Fault
These messages indicate that the curve cannot be locked because the joining segment would have to cross the curve itself or would have to cross other contours or
faults. Try another curve or change the shape of the curve by adding or moving
points.

5. To lock more curves, start over at step 3. Otherwise, press MB3 to quit.

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Changing Data Values
You can change the value of any contour, either by retyping the value, adding a
constant to all contour values, or multiplying all values by a constant. Use the
appropriate procedure below.

Changing a Contour Value or Fault Values
You can change the value assigned to any contour or the ID, type, and
transmissibility factor assigned to any fault. To do this, you must select the desired
element to be changed and reenter the value(s), as explained here.
5200
4850

To reenter a contour value or fault values:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the values to be changed. If
not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property the values
represent.
4. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Set Value/of a Curve. The
following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select Curve to Have Value Changed (1) Select (2-4) Escape

5. Click on the desired contour or fault. The element is highlighted and the
following message appears:
Is This Curve Correct? (1) Yes (2-4) No

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6. If the correct curve is highlighted, click MB1 and continue to the next step. If
not, click MB2 and repeat the last step.
If you are resetting the value of a contour, GRIDGENR displays the following
form, which you can use to enter the new value:

If you are resetting the values of a fault, GRIDGENR displays the following
form, which you can use to enter the fault ID and transmissibility factor
(sealing fault is equal to zero; conductive fault is between 0 and 1; Display
Only if you want the fault to be shown for display purposes only and not be
modeled).

7. The following prompt reappears:
Select Curve to Have Value Changed (1) Select (2-4) Escape

8. To reset the value of another contour or fault, start over at step 5. Otherwise,
click MB3 to quit.

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Changing the Value of a Mesh Point
You can change the value of any mesh point in a zone by simply reentering the
value.
1.25

1.36

1.47

1.27

1.34

1.45

1.29

1.33

1.41

1.48

To change a mesh point value:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the mesh points to be
changed. If not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property the mesh points
represent.
4. On the Edit menu, select Modify/Set Value/of a Mesh Point.
The following prompt appears:
Select Mesh Point to Have Value Changed (1) Define (2-4) Exit

The following form opens, showing the current value of the mesh point and
allowing you to enter a new value:

5. Type in the desired value of the mesh point and click the OK button to change
the value (or Cancel to avoid changing this mesh point).
The following prompt reappears:
Select Mesh Point to Have Value Changed (1) Define (2-4) Exit

6. Click on the next mesh point to change, or click MB3 to quit changing mesh
points.

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Changing the Value of Data In an Area
GRIDGENR lets you mark off any group of contiguous data points on the screen
and change all of their values to the same numeric value. This feature affects all
contour points and mesh points in the selected area.
1.25

1.36

1.47

1.27

1.34

1.45
1.35

1.29

1.33

1.41

To set all data values in an area to the same value:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the values to be changed. If
not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property the values
represent.
4. On the Edit menu, select Modify/Set Value/Data In Area.
The following prompt appears:
Digitize Area to Have Value Changed (1) Define (2) Backup (3)
Menu

5. Use the mouse to draw a box or polygon around the points to be changed.
Click MB1 once on each corner of the area or click MB2 to erase previous
clicks. As you click the mouse, you will see a rubberband line outlining the
box.

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6. When you are finished drawing the boundary around the area, click MB3 to
view the following pop-up menu and select Finish Area Boundary.

You can also select Return to Digitizing if you want to keep drawing the
boundary or Abandon Current Operation if you want to quit without changing
anything.
When you select Finish Area Boundary, the following form opens:

7. Type in the desired value of the data points in the bounded area, then click the
OK button (or click Cancel to avoid changing the data values). If you leave
this box empty and click OK, the operation is terminated.

Changing the Transmissibility Factor of Faults In an Area
GRIDGENR lets you mark off any group of faults on the screen and change all of
their transmissibility factors to the same numeric value.
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the faults to be changed. If
not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. On the Edit menu, select Modify/Set Value/Faults In Area.
The following prompt appears:
Digitize Area to Have Value Changed (1) Define (2) Backup (3)
Menu

4. Use the mouse to draw a box or polygon around the faults to be changed.
Click MB1 once on each corner of the area or click MB2 to erase previous
clicks. As you click the mouse, you will see a rubberband line outlining the
box.

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5. When you are finished drawing the boundary around the area, click MB3 to
view the following pop-up menu and select Finish Area Boundary.

You can also select Return to Digitizing if you want to keep drawing the
boundary or Abandon Current Operation if you want to quit without changing
anything.
When you select Finish Area Boundary, the following form opens:

6. Type in the desired transmissibility factor for the faults in the bounded area,
then click the OK button (or click Cancel to avoid changing the data values).
The transmissibility factor should be a factor between 0 and 1, with 0
representing a sealing fault and any other value representing a conducting
fault.
7. The program asks if you want to modify display-only faults. Click the Yes
button if you want to apply the specified transmissibility factor to all faults,
including those which are meant for display only.

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Changing the Transmissibility Factor of All Faults in the Model
GRIDGENR lets you change the transmissibility factors of all faults in the model
to the same numeric value.
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. On the Edit menu, select Modify/Set Value/Faults In Model. The following
form opens:

3. Type in the desired transmissibility factor for all faults in the model, then click
the OK button (or click Cancel to avoid changing the data values). The
transmissibility factor should be a factor between 0 and 1, with 0 representing
a sealing fault and any other value representing a conducting fault.
4. The program asks if you want to modify display-only faults. Click the Yes
button if you want to apply the specified transmissibility factor to all faults,
including those which are meant for display only.

Viewing the Fault Spreadsheet
GRIDGENR lets you view a spreadsheet of all fault values in the model,
including fault IDs, transmissibility factors, and display type. You can use the
fault spreadsheet to change the data for any given fault:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. On the Edit menu, select Modify/Set Value/Faults Spreadsheet. The following
form opens:

3. Click on any field to view/change it. You can use the MB3 pop-up menu to
change a field or retype the value. The Reset button resets all fields to their
original value, and the Save button saves the current changes. Click OK when
you are finished using the spreadsheet.

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Incrementing All Data Values In a Zone
You can increment all data values in a zone by a constant amount. This feature
affects all contours and mesh points in the zone. For example, you might want to
increase all values by 400. Incrementing values also changes the minimum and
maximum values on the color scale.
4850
5200
+ 400

To increment all values:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the values to be incremented.
If not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property the values
represent.
4. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Add Constant/to Data In Zone.
The following form opens:

5. Type in the desired increment and click the OK button. The values are
incremented automatically.

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Incrementing All Data Values in An Area
GRIDGENR lets you mark off any group of contiguous data points on the screen
and increment all their values by the same amount. This includes all complete
contours or individual mesh points in the selected area.
1.25

1.36

1.47

1.27

1.34

1.45
1.57

1.46
1.29

1.33
1.45

+.12

1.41
1.53

To increment all data values in an area by the same amount:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the values to be incremented.
If not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property the values
represent.
4. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Add Constant/to Data In Area.
The following prompt appears:
Digitize Area to Be Scaled (1) Define (2-4) Exit

5. Use the mouse to draw a box or polygon around the points to be changed.
Click MB1 once on each corner of the area or click MB2 to erase previous
clicks. As you click the mouse, you will see a rubberband line outlining the
box.
6. When you are finished drawing the boundary around the area, click MB3 to
view the following pop-up menu and select Finish Area Boundary.

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You can also select Return to Digitizing if you want to keep drawing the
boundary or Abandon Current Operation if you want to quit without changing
anything.
When you select Finish Area Boundary, the following form opens:

7. Type in the desired value to be added to the data points in the bounded area,
then click the OK button (or click Cancel to avoid changing the data values).
If you leave this box empty and click OK, the operation is terminated.

Incrementing All Fault Transmissibility Factors In a Zone
You can increase or decrease all transmissibility factors of faults in a zone by a
constant amount. For example, you might want to increase all transmissibility
factors by .05. Keep in mind that a transmissibility factor is a number between 0
and 1, with 0 representing a sealing fault and any other number representing a
conducting fault. The GRIDGENR program will not let you increment
transmissibility factors to a number greater than 1 or less than zero.
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the faults to be changed. If
not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Add Constant/to Faults In Zone.
The following form opens:

4. Enter a positive or negative number, depending on whether you want to
increase or decrease the transmissibility factor. Do not enter a value greater
than 1 or -1.
5. Click the OK button. If the constant you enter would cause any
transmissibility factor to be greater than 1 or less than zero, you will get a
message indicating that the faults will be given a value of “no more than 1.0”
or “no less than 0.0.” If this message appears, click Yes to accept the change
within the limits, or No to not accept it.

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6. The program asks if you want to modify display-only faults. Click the Yes
button if you want to apply the specified transmissibility factor increment to
all faults, including those which are meant for display only.

Incrementing All Fault Transmissibility Factors in An Area
GRIDGENR lets you mark off any group of contiguous faults on the screen and
increment all their transmissibility factors by the same amount.
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the values to be incremented.
If not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Add Constant/to Faults In Area.
The following prompt appears:
Digitize Area to Be Scaled (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu

4. Use the mouse to draw a box or polygon around the faults to be changed.
Click MB1 once on each corner of the area or click MB2 to erase previous
clicks. As you click the mouse, you will see a rubberband line outlining the
box.
5. When you are finished drawing the boundary around the area, click MB3 to
view the following pop-up menu and select Finish Area Boundary.

You can also select Return to Digitizing if you want to keep drawing the
boundary or Abandon Current Operation if you want to quit without changing
anything.
When you select Finish Area Boundary, the following form opens:

6. Enter a positive or negative number, depending on whether you want to
increase or decrease the fault transmissibility factors in the bounded area. Do
not enter a value greater than 1 or -1.

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7. Click the OK button. If the constant you enter would cause any
transmissibility factor to be greater than 1 or less than zero, you will get a
message indicating that the faults will be given a value of “no more than 1.0”
or “no less than 0.0.” If this message appears, click Yes to accept the change
within the limits, or No to not accept it.
8. The program asks if you want to modify display-only faults. Click the Yes
button if you want to apply the specified transmissibility factor increment to
all faults, including those which are meant for display only.

Multiplying All Data Values In a Zone
You can multiply all data values in a zone by a constant amount. This includes
both contour points and mesh points. For example, you might want to multiply all
data values by 2 or by a fraction such as 0.75. Multiplying contour values also
changes the minimum and maximum values on the color scale.
4850
5200
x 1.75

To multiply all values:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the values to be multiplied. If
not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property the values
represent.
4. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Multiply/Data In Zone from the
Edit menu. The following form opens:

5. Type in the desired multiplication factor and click the OK button. The values
are multiplied automatically.

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Multiplying All Data Values in an Area
GRIDGENR lets you mark off any group of contiguous data points on the screen
and multiply all their values by the same amount. This includes all complete
contours and individual mesh points within the selected area.
1.25

1.36

1.47

1.27

1.34

1.45
1.16

1.07
1.29

1.33
1.06

x .8

1.41
1.13

To multiply all data values in an area by the same amount:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the values to be multiplied. If
not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property the values
represent.
4. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Multiply/Data In Area.
The following prompt appears:
Digitize Area to Be Scaled (1) Define (2-4) Exit

5. Use the mouse to draw a box or polygon around the points to be changed.
Click MB1 once on each corner of the area or click MB2 to erase previous
clicks. As you click the mouse, you will see a rubberband line outlining the
box.

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6. When you are finished drawing the boundary around the area, click MB3 to
view the following pop-up menu and select Finish Area Boundary.

You can also select Return to Digitizing if you want to keep drawing the
boundary or Abandon Current Operation if you want to quit without changing
anything.
When you select Finish Area Boundary, the following form opens:

7. Enter the desired multiplier to be applied to each of the data points in the
bounded area, then click the OK button (or click Cancel to avoid changing the
data values). If you leave this box empty and click OK, the operation is
terminated.

Multiplying All Fault Transmissibility Factors In a Zone
You can multiply all fault transmissibility factors in a zone by a constant amount.
For example, you might want to multiply all transmissibility factors by 2 or by a
fraction such as 0.75.
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the values to be multiplied. If
not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Multiply/Faults In Zone from the
Edit menu. The following form opens:

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4. Type in the desired multiplication constant and click the OK button. If the
constant you enter would cause any transmissibility factor to be greater than 1
or less than zero, you will get a message indicating that the faults will be
given a value of “no more than 1.0” or “no less than 0.0.” If this message
appears, click Yes to accept the change within the limits, or No to not accept
it.
5. The program asks if you want to modify display-only faults. Click the Yes
button if you want to apply the specified transmissibility factor multiplier to
all faults, including those which are meant for display only.

Multiplying All Fault Transmissibility Factors in an Area
GRIDGENR lets you mark off any group of contiguous faults on the screen and
multiply all their transmissibility factors by the same amount.
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone containing the values to be multiplied. If
not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Multiply/Faults In Area.
The following prompt appears:
Digitize Area to Be Scaled (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu

4. Use the mouse to draw a box or polygon around the faults to be changed.
Click MB1 once on each corner of the area or click MB2 to erase previous
clicks. As you click the mouse, you will see a rubberband line outlining the
box.

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5. When you are finished drawing the boundary around the area, click MB3 to
view the following pop-up menu and select Finish Area Boundary.

You can also select Return to Digitizing if you want to keep drawing the
boundary or Abandon Current Operation if you want to quit without changing
anything.
When you select Finish Area Boundary, the following form opens:

6. Enter the desired multiplier to be applied to each of the fault transmissibility
factors in the bounded area, then click the OK button (or click Cancel to avoid
changing the data values). If you leave this box empty and click OK, the
operation is terminated. If the constant you enter would cause any
transmissibility factor to be greater than 1 or less than zero, you will get a
message indicating that the faults will be given a value of “no more than 1.0”
or “no less than 0.0.” If this message appears, click Yes to accept the change
within the limits, or No to not accept it.
7. The program asks if you want to modify display-only faults. Click the Yes
button if you want to apply the specified transmissibility factor multiplier to
all faults, including those which are meant for display only.

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Converting Mesh Points
Mesh points are different from contour points in that they do not have individual
x,y coordinates. Since mesh points are derived from grids, the location of each
mesh point depends on the coordinates and spacing of the grid. Because mesh
points are part of a larger grid, you cannot move them individually. If you want to
move individual mesh points, you must first convert them.
The conversion process changes each converted mesh point to an independent
data point (i.e., single-point contour) with its own x,y coordinate. Once a mesh
point becomes a contour point, you can move it independently of the other mesh
points in the grid. Moving is just one example of why you might convert mesh
points. You may have your own reason

Converting Individual Mesh Points
To convert a single mesh point or a random group of mesh points:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone where the mesh points are located. If not,
set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property value the mesh
points represent.
4. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Convert Mesh/Single Mesh Point
The following prompt appears:
Select Mesh Point to Be Converted (1) Define (2-4) Exit

5. Click as many mesh points as desired.
The following message appears:
Convert these Mesh Points?

6. Click the Yes button to convert the selected mesh points.

Converting All Mesh Points In an Area
You can mark off any group of contiguous mesh points on the screen and convert
all of them simultaneously. To convert a group of mesh points:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone where the mesh points are located. If not,
set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property value the mesh
points represent.

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4. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Convert Mesh/Mesh Points in
Area.
The following prompt appears:
Digitize Area to Be Converted (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu

5. Use the mouse to draw a box or polygon around the points to be converted.
Click MB1 once on each corner of the area or click MB2 to erase previous
clicks. As you click the mouse, you will see a rubberband line outlining the
selected area.
6. When you are finished drawing the boundary around the area, click MB3 to
view the following pop-up menu and select Finish Area Boundary.

You can also select Return to Digitizing if you want to keep drawing the
boundary or Abandon Current Operation if you want to quit without changing
anything.
When you select Finish Area Boundary, the following message appears:
Convert these Mesh Points?

7. Click the Yes button to convert the selected mesh points.

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Resmoothing Curves
You can resmooth curves to even out the effect of changes in the shape of the
curve or to apply changes in the tautness or Makcon options (for details on these
options, see “Setting the Display Options” on page 3-80). To resmooth curves:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone where you want curves resmoothed. If
not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property value for which
you want curves resmoothed.
4. On the Edit menu, select Modify/Resmooth, then make the appropriate
selection below:
Single Curve

Resmooths a single fault or contour for resmoothing.

Curves In Model

Resmooths all curves (i.e., both faults and contours) in all
zones.

Curves in Zone

Resmooths all curves (i.e., both faults and contours) in
the current zone only.

Faults In Model

Resmooths all faults in all zones.

Faults in Zone

Resmooths all faults in the current zone only.

Contours In Model

Resmooths all contours in all zones.

Contours in Zone

Resmooths all contours in the current zone only.

For most selections, the resmoothing occurs automatically. If you select
Single Curve, the following prompt appears.
Select Curve to Be Smoothed: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

5. Click MB1 on the curve to be smoothed or click MB2 to avoid resmoothing.
The selected curve is highlighted and the following prompt appears:
Is This Curve Correct? (1) Yes (2-4) No

6. Click MB1 to verify that this is the correct curve, or MB2 to reselect the
curve. The following prompt reappears:
Select Curve to Be Smoothed: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

7. To smooth other individual curves, repeat the last two steps. Otherwise, click
MB3 to quit.

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Clean Up Faults in Zone
This feature provides a mechanism for automatically performing several clean up
operations on the faults in a zone. These operations include: deleting duplicate
faults, deleting duplicate points on a single fault, breaking faults where they cross
each other, deleting extraneous points on the ends of faults, and merging faults
that share common end points.
To use this feature, select Modify/Clean Up Faults in Model from the Edit menu,
then select one of the following options:

Ignore Fault Value. This ignores the value of the fault when deciding which
faults may be combined.

Utilize Fault Value. This uses the value of the fault so that two faults would
only be combined if they have the same fault value.

Deleting Data from the Display
GRIDGENR provides a broad range of features you can use to remove data from
the display, including contours, faults, or mesh points.

Deleting Specific Curves
You can delete certain curves from the screen one at a time, including faults,
contours, or both. To delete individual curves:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone where you want data deleted. If not, set
the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property value for which
you want to delete data.
4. Click open the Edit menu and select Remove/Single/Curve.
The following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Point to curve to be removed: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

5. Click on the desired contour or fault to be removed. The element is
highlighted and the following message appears:
Is This Curve Correct? (1) Yes (2-4) No

6. If the correct curve is highlighted, click MB1 to delete it. If not, click MB2
and repeat the previous step. Once you delete an element, the following
message reappears:
Point to curve to be removed: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

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7. To delete more curves, repeat the last two steps. To quit deleting curves, click
MB2.

Deleting Specific Mesh Points
You can remove specific mesh points from the screen one at a time by using the
following steps:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone where you want mesh points deleted. If
not, set the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property value for which
you want to delete mesh points.
4. Click open the Edit menu and select Remove/Single/Mesh Point.
The following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select Mesh Point to Be Removed (1) Define (2-4) Exit

5. Click on all of the individual mesh points to be removed.
6. Click MB3 when you are finished selecting the mesh points to be removed.
The following message appears:
Remove these mesh points?

7. Click Yes to remove the selected mesh points, or click No to avoid removing
them.

Deleting All Data In a Zone
You can delete all contours, faults, and mesh points for a particular property in a
particular zone. To delete these elements:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone where you want data deleted. If not, set
the Zone No. on the Control Panel.
3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property value for which
you want to delete data.

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4. Click open the Edit menu, select Remove/Data In Zone, then finish with the
appropriate selection below:
All

Removes all contours, faults, and mesh points in the zone.

Curve

Removes all contours and faults in the zone.

Contour

Removes contours only in the zone.

Fault

Removes faults only in the zone.

Mesh

Removes mesh points only in the zone.

Selecting any except the first two will prevent you from deleting the wrong
type of element by mistake. GRIDGENR displays a message asking you to
confirm the action. For example:

5. Click Yes to remove the selected contours, or No to avoid removing them. If
you click Yes, the contours are removed automatically.

Deleting all Data In an Area
GRIDGENR lets you remove all data from a selected area on the screen, including
contours, faults, and mesh points.
1.25

1.36

1.47

1.27

1.34

1.45

1.29

1.33

1.41

If any of the data being removed are mesh points, the mesh points are not removed
from the display area. Instead, the mesh values included in the selected area are
set to null (i.e., they still exist, but they have no recorded value). To use these
feature:
1. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Contour.
2. Make sure you are viewing the zone where you want data deleted. If not, set
the Zone No. on the Control Panel.

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3. Set the Property button in the Control Panel to the property value for which
you want to delete data.
4. On the Edit menu, select Remove/Data In Area, then finish with the
appropriate selection below.
All

Removes all data from the specified area, includes contours,
faults, and mesh points.

Curve

Removes all curves (i.e., both contours and faults) from the
specified area.

Contour

Removes all contours from the specified area.

Fault

Removes all faults from the specified area.

Mesh

Removes all mesh points from the specified area.

The following prompt appears:
Digitize Area to Remove Data In (1) Define (2) Backup (3)
Menu

5. Use the mouse to draw a box or polygon around the data to be deleted. Click
MB1 once on each corner of the area or click MB2 to erase previous clicks.
As you click the mouse, you will see a rubberband line outlining the box.
6. When you are finished drawing the boundary around the area, click MB3 to
view the following pop-up menu and select Finish Area Boundary.

You can also select Return to Digitizing if you want to keep drawing the
boundary or Abandon Current Operation if you want to quit without changing
anything.
When you select Finish Area Boundary, GRIDGENR asks you to confirm the
deletion of the appropriate data. For example:
Remove Curves in Area? Yes/No/Cancel

7. Click the Yes button to delete the specified data.

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Moving Wells
You can move any well spot to a new location on the map. To do this, you must
select the well and then select the new location, as described below. Since a well
applies to all zones and contour maps, the new position will be reflected on all
maps in all zones. The well name and well symbol move together.
12

12

WARNING: You cannot move a well out of a gridblock that contains radial refinements.
This causes an error in the program. For details on radial refinement, see
“Refining the Grid” on page 4-228.

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To move a well:
1. Click the Context button in the Control Panel and select Well.
2. Select Modify/Move from the Edit menu. The following message appears at
the top of the drawing area.
Point to location of well to be moved: (1) Select (2-4) Done

3. Click on the desired well. The pointer becomes a rubberband line and the
following message appears:
Point to new location of well: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

4. Click on the location where you want the well to be moved. The well is
moved automatically and the following message reappears:
Point to location of well to be moved: (1) Select (2-4) Done

5. To move more wells, start over at step 3. Otherwise, click MB3 to quit.

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Renaming Wells
You can rename any well spot on the map. To do this, you must select the well and
then retype the name, as described below. Since a well applies to all zones and
contour maps, the new name will be reflected on all maps in all zones.

12 15

To rename a well:
1. Click the Context button in the Control Panel and select Well.
2. Select Modify/Rename from the Edit menu. The following message appears
at the top of the drawing area.
Point to location of well to be renamed: (1) Select (2-4)
Done

3. Click on the desired well. The following form opens:

4. Type a new name or number and click the OK button. The well is renamed
automatically and the following message reappears:
Point to location of well to be renamed: (1) Select (2-4)
Done

5. To rename more wells, start over at step 3. Otherwise, click MB3 to quit.
NOTE:

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Deleting Individual Wells
You can remove wells from the map one at a time. To do this, you must select each
well and then confirm the deletion, as described below. Since a well applies to all
zones and contour maps, the deleted wells are removed from all maps in all zones.

12

To delete individual wells:
1. Click the Context button in the Control Panel and select Well.
2. Select Remove/Single from the Edit menu. The following message appears at
the top of the drawing area.
Point to location of well to be removed: (1) Select (2-4)
Done

3. Click on the desired well. GRIDGENR asks you to confirm the deletion:

4. Click Yes to delete the well or No to avoid deleting it. The well is removed
automatically and the following message reappears:
Point to location of well to be removed: (1) Select (2-4)
Done

5. To remove more wells, start over at step 3. Otherwise, click MB3 to quit.

Deleting All Wells
You can remove all wells, including deviated wells, from the map simultaneously.
To do this, you must simply confirm the deletion, as described below. Since a well
applies to all zones and contour maps, the deleted wells are removed from all
maps in all zones.

12

13

14

To delete all wells:

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1. Click the Context button in the Control Panel and select Well.
2. Select Remove/All from the Edit menu. GRIDGENR asks you to confirm the
deletion:

3. Click Yes to delete the wells or No to avoid deleting them. The wells are
removed automatically.

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Moving Text
You can move any string of text to a new location on the map. To do this, you
must select the text and then select the new location, as described below. Since
text applies only to a specific contour map, the new position will be reflected only
on the current map.

Fault 1

Fault 1

To move text:
1. Click the Context button in the Control Panel and select Text.
2. Select Modify/Move To from the Edit menu. The following message appears
at the top of the drawing area.
Point to string to be moved: (1) Select (2-4) Done

3. Click on the desired text. The pointer becomes a rubberband line and the
following message appears:
Point to new location of string: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

4. Click on the location where you want the text to be moved. The text is moved
automatically and the following message reappears:
Point to string to be moved: (1) Select (2-4) Done

5. To move more text, start over at step 3. Otherwise, click MB3 to quit.

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Revising Text
You can change any string of text on the map. To do this, you must select the text
and then retype it, as described below. Since text applies only to a specific contour
map, the change will be reflected only on the current map.

Fault 1

Fault 2

To retype any text:
1. Click the Context button in the Control Panel and select Text.
2. Select Modify/String from the Edit menu. The following message appears at
the top of the drawing area.
Point to string to be modified: (1) Select (2-4) Done

3. Click on the desired text. The following form opens:

4. Type the new text and click the OK button. The text is changed automatically
and the following message reappears:
Point to string to be modified: (1) Select (2-4) Done

5. To change other text strings, start over at step 3. Otherwise, click MB3 to quit.

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Changing Text Attributes
You can change the attributes of any text on the screen, including the size,
alignment, and the way it is mapped to the screen. To do this, you must select the
text and then reselect the attributes, as described below. Since text applies only to
a specific contour map, the change will be reflected only on the current map.
Fault 2

Fault 2

To change text attributes:
1. Click the Context button in the Control Panel and select Text.
2. Select Modify/Attribute from the Edit menu. The following message appears
at the top of the drawing area.
Point to string: (1) Select (2-4) Done

3. Click on the desired text. The following form opens:

4. Enter the desired attributes as indicated below, then click the OK button.

Text

Mode

In map mode, the text is inserted in the map and moves with it.
In screen mode, the text does not move as you pan or zoom in a
map — it remains stationary relative to the screen.

Alignment

Changing the alignment causes the text to move in relation to
the original alignment point. For example, if the original alignment was Bottom/Left, changing it to Top/Right will cause the
text to move so that the alignment point is at the top right (only
the text moves; the alignment point does not move).

Text Size

1 is regular size, 2 is double the regular size, etc. Changing this
number changes the text size proportionally.

Top Left
Alignment

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5. Click the OK button. The text attributes are changed automatically.

Deleting Text
You can delete any text on the map. To do this, you must select the text and then
confirm the deletion, as described below. Since text applies only to a specific
contour map, the deletion will be reflected only on the current map.

Fault 1
To delete text:
1. Click the Context button in the Control Panel and select Text.
2. Select Remove from the Edit menu. The following message appears at the top
of the drawing area.
Point to string to be removed: (1) Select (2-4) Done

3. Click on the desired text. The following message appears.
Verify removal (1) Verify (2-4) Escape

4. Click MB1 to delete the text or MB2 to avoid deleting it. The following
message reappears:
Point to string to be removed: (1) Select (2-4) Done

5. To remove more text, start over at step 3. Otherwise, click MB3 to quit.

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Viewing Map Specifications
Map Coordinates
You can click at any point in the drawing area or on a paper map and view the
coordinates automatically.
1. Select Coordinate from the Inquire menu.
2. The following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Move Cursor to Desired Point (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on each point where you want to determine coordinates. As you click
each point, the information appears at the top of the drawing area. For
example:
Coordinate: 22864.68,11190.10 (1) Select (2-4) Escape

4. Click MB3 to quit.

Map Distances
You can click on any two points in the drawing area and view the distance
between them automatically.
1. Select Distance from the Inquire menu.
2. GRIDGENR prompts you to click on the two map points that you want to
know the distance between. For example:
Move Cursor to First Point (1) Select (2-4) Escape
Move Cursor to Second Point (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on each set of points where you want to determine. As you click each
set, the information appears at the top of the drawing area, including the
coordinates of each point and the distance between them. For example:
Point 1:32131.3,23642.9 Point 2:32131.3,-2519.5
Distance:26162.4 (1)Select (2-4)Escape

4. Click MB3 to quit.

Map Location
You can type in coordinates and have that location highlighted on the map.
1. Select Location from the Inquire menu.
2. A prompt panel will pop up. Enter the desired coordinate and press OK.

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3. The point will be marked with a yellow asterisk and the prompt panel will be
cleared.
4. If you wish to inquire more locations continue entering coordinates then press
OK.
5. When you are finished, press cancel to exit the loop.

Contour Summary by Zone
You can view a detailed summary of contour data by zone. For each property in
each zone, the report shows the total number of curves, contours, faults, digitized
points, contour points, fault points, and mesh points. Use the following steps to
view the report:
1. Select Contour/Model Summary from the Inquire menu. GRIDGENR
displays the following report:

2. Select Close from the menu bar at the top of the screen to close this window.

Contour Summary
You can view a brief summary of contour totals for the current property/zone. To
view the summary:
1. Select Contour/Zone Summary from the Inquire menu. The information
appears at the top of the drawing area. For example:
Crvs:34 Pts:247 Cnts:31 Cnt Pts:217 Flts:3 Flt Pts:30 (Press

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Button to Continue)

The summary includes the total number of curves (Crvs), total number of
points (Pts), total number of contour points (Cnt Pts), total faults (Flts), and
the total number of fault points (Flt Pts).
2. Press any mouse button to quit.

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Contour Values
You can click on contour lines and view the contour value and total number of
points. To view this information:
1. Select Contour/Value from the Inquire menu. The following message appears
at the top of the drawing area:
Point to Contour/Fault: (1) Select Contour (2-4) Escape

2. Click on each contour line where you want to determine the value and number
of points. As you click each, the information appears at the top of the drawing
area. For example:
Contour with a value of 9300.00. 8 Points (1)Select
(2-4)Escape

3. Click MB3 to quit.

Fault IDs
You can determine the location of faults by specifying the fault ID. To view this
information:
1. Select Contour/by Fault ID from the Inquire menu. The following form
appears:

2. Type in the ID of the fault to be located and click the OK button. When you
do, the fault is highlighted and a descriptive message appears at the top of the
drawing area indicating the type of fault, transmissibility factor assigned to
the fault, and the number of data points. For example:
SEALING fault with a trans. factor of 0.00. 15 Points

3. Keep entering fault IDs for each fault you want to inquire about, or click the
Cancel button to quit.

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Well Summary
You can view a summary of map coordinates and gridblock coordinates for each
well spot on the map. To view this information:
1. Select Well from the Inquire menu. The well summary appears as shown
below:

2. Select Close from the menu bar to close this window.

Text Attributes
You can click on text annotation and view the text attributes. To view this
information:
1. Select Text from the Inquire menu. The following message appears at the top
of the drawing area:
Point to string: (1) Select (2-4) Done

2. Click on each text annotation you want to learn about. As you click each, the
information appears at the top of the drawing area. For example:
MODE:MAP SIZE:1.00 ANGLE:0.00 X-ALIGN:LEFT Y-ALIGN:BOTTOM
(1)Select (2-4)Done

3. Click MB3 to quit.

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Chapter

4
Gridding the Reservoir
Introduction
Once you have defined all contours, faults, and wells for each zone (as described
in the previous chapter), you are ready to define a grid structure for reservoir
simulation. Gridding is deferred until now for good reason: the optimum grid
structure is based on the position of wells and faults in the reservoir. And the final
position of these elements is not assured until you digitize them or import them
into the GRIDGENR Main Window.
When you are ready to start gridding, there are two paths you can take to define a
grid structure for your reservoir:

You can create a customized grid that works best with the existing contour,
fault, and well locations on your maps.

You can digitize an existing grid from a paper source and have it copied into
the GRIDGENR drawing area automatically.

This chapter provides all the information needed to create or digitize a grid.
Before reading this chapter, you should understand the concepts defined in
Chapters 1 and 2 of this manual.

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Gridding Guidelines
When preparing to construct or edit a grid for a reservoir simulation model, you
should take a number of different factors into consideration. Some general
guidelines are provided below. A more detailed discussion of gridding
requirements is provided in the Landmark training course on reservoir simulation.

Guideline #1 - Finish Defining Contours and Wells
Before you start gridding, you should make sure that you have defined all
available surface topography and properties using contour maps. You should also
define the position of all faults and all wells used for production or injection into
the reservoir. These elements must be taken into account when defining the grid.
For this reason, it makes sense to completely finish defining these elements before
beginning the grid.

Guideline #2 - Understand How Grids Are Created and Used
The grids defined in GRIDGENR are actually a way of defining the pattern made
where gridblock corners intersect the top surface of each geological layer or zone.
A typical grid looks like the one in the illustration below.

Figure 4-1: How a Grid Looks In GRIDGENR (2D View Only)

This illustration shows the grid defined for the top layer (Zone 1) of a typical
reservoir. In this case, we are looking down at the top of Zone 1 and seeing the
pattern gridblocks make on that surface (TOS). No matter which property you
view in Zone 1, you will see the same grid displayed in the background. If you
only define a grid for Zone 1, GRIDGENR automatically applies it to all other
zones. However, it does not appear in the other zones in the GRIDGENR display.

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In some cases, you may not want the same grid to apply to all zones. Due to
changes in vertical alignment of faults and other features as you move down
through the layers, you may want the grid to have a slightly different alignment at
the top of each zone. Thus the Zone 1 grid may be copied to the other zones and
edited to make up for differences in alignment.
The grid that you see in GRIDGENR is only a two-dimensional representation
showing the horizontal dimensions of each gridblock. GRIDGENR defines the
vertical dimension automatically by connecting the grids from layer-to-layer, as
shown in the following illustration. If the same grid applies to every layer, the
gridblock sides will be perfectly vertical. If a slightly different grid is defined for
each layer, the gridblock sides will be slanted in places.
Grid for Top of
Zone 1 (at TOS)

ZONE 1
Grid for Top of
Zone 2 (at TOS) or
Grid for Bottom of
Zone 1
ZONE 2
Grid for Bottom
of Zone 2 (at
BOS Zone 2)
= defined by user
= calculated by software

Figure 4-2: Grid Definition for Multiple Zones (3D Perspective)

In the above illustration, notice that even though there are only two layers
represented (Zone 1 and Zone 2), three different grids are shown. This is because:

The grid at the top of Zone 1 defines the top corner points for gridblocks in
Zone 1.

The grid for Zone 2 defines the bottom corner points for gridblocks in Zone 1
and the top corner points for gridblocks in Zone 2. Note that the grids at the
bottom of 1 and the top of 2 must be the same as there is only storage for 1
grid.

The grid for the bottom of Zone 2 defines the bottom corner points for
gridblocks in Zone 2. You may also place this grid at the top of Zone 3.

In the previous illustration, notice how grid corner points in each layer connect
vertically from one surface to the next. GRIDGENR assumes a one-to-one
correspondence between corner points in each zone, and makes the connections

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automatically. The automatic connection of corner points gives each gridblock its
three-dimensional shape. Due to this one-to-one correspondence, however, it is
important that the grids in each zone have exactly the same number of rows and
columns as grids in all other zones. This is easy enough to do, since you can build
the first grid manually, copy it to the other zones, and edit the copies as needed.
If you have grids on several zones but not all of them, then the intervening grids
will be interpolated so that your grid lines will be straight connecting the defined
grids. For example, if you place a grid on zones 1, 3, and 5 of a model then the
grids at zones 2 and 4 will be interpolated. If your model extended past layer 5
then grids for layer 5 would be inherited vertically to the bottom of the model.
Grid for Zone 1 - Defined
Grid for Zone 2 - Generated
Grid for Zone 3 - Generated
Grid for Zone 4 - Defined

Grid for Zone 5 - Generated

Grid for Zone 6 - Defined

Guideline #3 - Understand Gridblock Mechanics and Orientation
Since all properties in a gridblock are assumed to be uniform, all properties —
including pressures, flows, and saturations — are modeled at a single point in the
gridblock (typically the center). The migration of fluid through the reservoir is

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based on the conditions within each gridblock that dictate the direction of flow.
For example, if the pressure is equal in two adjacent gridblocks, no flow will
occur between them. However, if the pressure is lower in an adjacent gridblock,
the fluid will flow to the gridblock with lower pressure.
The direction of flow can have a major impact on grid orientation. Various
simulators may use different techniques to solve for the flow between adjacent
gridblocks. The differences in technique arise over whether this fluid flow is
modeled only in directions perpendicular to the gridblock center, or in all
directions.

Five-Point Formulation. This technique models only the perpendicular flow
between contiguous gridblocks. This technique works faster and is adequate
in models where the flow is generally parallel to the grid. However, problems
may arise in models where the normal flow path is diagonal to the grid
orientation, and especially in cases where the fluid is highly mobile (such as
steam floods).

Five
Point

Nine Point

Figure 4-3: Finite Difference Solution Techniques

Nine-Point Formulation. This technique is more flexible because it models
both perpendicular and diagonal flow between gridblocks. However, it slows
down model performance considerably, since it takes more time to make the
additional calculations. In a 3D reservoir model, this technique requires the
simultaneous calculation of 27 adjacent gridblocks.

The simplest way to overcome the limitations of these methods is to rotate the grid
so that grid lines are generally parallel and perpendicular to expected flow path
(see“Rotating a Grid” on page 4-64). GRIDGENR’s curvilinear gridding features
make it possible for you bend the grid to fit curved flow paths, as discussed next.

Guideline #4 - Follow Natural Boundaries
GRIDGENR’s flexible gridding features let you construct curvilinear grids that
follow the natural boundaries and fault lines in a reservoir. These types of grids
are generally superior to rectangular grids when modeling complex reservoir
structures.

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The Problem with Rectangular Grids
The following illustration shows a reservoir with a uniform rectangular grid
superimposed on it. Notice the grid rows and columns are numbered along the top
side and left sides. The rows (y-lines) run horizontally from left-to-right and
columns (x-lines) run vertically from top-to-bottom.
Top Side

Fault

Fault
Right
Side

Left
Side

Fault

flow path
Fault

Fault

Fault

Bottom Side

Figure 4-4: Rectangular Grid Superimposed On a Reservoir

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The use of a uniform rectangular grid creates several problems:

Unused gridblocks. The grid extends beyond the no-flow boundary of the
reservoir, to areas where no contour data exists. GRIDGENR will try to
calculate values for these areas, based on nearby contours. To avoid this, you
can void unused parts of the grid by drawing zero-value porosity contours
around the void areas.

Diagonal Faults. Because the grid does not follow natural boundaries —
some cells have faults cutting directly through them. During the calculation
step, GRIDGENR will adjust these fault boundaries so that they skirt the
gridblocks, instead of cutting through them (as shown in the following
illustration). This slight distortion in the fault path could distort modeling
results.

User-Specified Grid/Fault Alignment

Same Grid with Fault Adjusted

Figure 4-5: How GRIDGENR Adjusts Faults

Diagonal flows. The fluid flow follows a diagonal path with regard to grid
orientation. If a five-point solution technique is used, flow path would zig-zag
instead of traveling in straight lines, which could distort modeling results.

The Benefits of Curvilinear Grids
All of these problems can be solved by constructing a curvilinear grid over the
reservoir — a grid that follows the natural reservoir boundaries and major fault
lines. The next illustration shows how the same reservoir would look with a
curvilinear grid. Notice that the “top,” “left,” and “bottom” sides are now relative.
The “bottom” side actually covers the entire southern and western edges of the

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reservoir, the “left” side is the northern edge, and the “top” side is the northeastern
edge.
“Top”
Side

“Left” Side
Fault

Fault

Right
Side
Fault

flow path

Fault
“Bottom” Side

Fault

Fault

Figure 4-6: Curvilinear Grid Designed to Match Reservoir Boundaries

In this grid, the top/bottom and left/right directions still apply to rows and
columns. Columns are still numbered along the “top;” rows along the “left.”
Columns still flow from “top” to “bottom;” rows from “left” to right. Notice that
the grid cells are now oriented so they are parallel to most major fault boundaries.
Since it will be impossible in some reservoirs to conform the grid to all faults, you
should concentrate on the faults with the maximum offset. Notice also that the
gridding is coarser in the non-producing regions of the reservoir and finer in
producing regions.
Ultimately, this curvilinear arrangement provides two important advantages.

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More efficiency. The curvilinear grid provides the most efficient use of
gridblocks. Since the gridblocks no longer stretch beyond reservoir
boundaries, this grid has fewer blocks than its rectangular counterpart. The
reduction in the total number of gridblocks translates directly into faster
model performance.

More accurate results. The curvilinear grid produces more accurate results
using the five-point finite difference method discussed earlier in this section.
In the rectangular grid on page 4-164, the flow must follow a zig-zag path
upstream, whereas in the curvilinear grid on page 4-166, the flow is
perpendicular to the gridblock faces with a clearly linear path upstream.

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A curvilinear grid can be constructed in sections by gridding between one set of
faults and then extending the grid laterally to other sections (see “Extending the
Grid” on page 4-204). Or, you could start with a rectangular grid and then regrid
individual sections, as needed (see “Reshaping the Grid Boundary” on
page 4-223).

Guideline #5 - Define Simulation Layers by Splitting or Combining Zones
If it is important to model the vertical effects within a particular geological layer,
such as in gas or water coning studies, you may want to subdivide individual
zones into simulation layers. Likewise, it is often desirable to combine several
zones into one simulation zone. This is defined using the zone modification table
but is not applied until the calculation.
When you create a grid in GRIDGENR, it only applies to an individual geological
layer or zone. Later, during the calculation step, you will be able to split each zone
into more numerous simulation layers and the gridblocks within that zone will be
split accordingly. For more information on grid calculation, see Chapter 5.

Guideline #6 - Make Gridblocks Appropriate Size and Shape
For best results, grid distribution should match the unique requirements of the
modeling study. In general, grid cells should be smaller in areas where there are
significant variations in modeling parameters such as formation pressures, fluid
flows, rock properties, or where wells are closely spaced. GRIDGENR lets you
select the spacing of grid rows and columns while you are creating a grid, or after
the fact.
When you define a grid, all you have to do is specify (1) the shape of the grid
boundary and (2) the edge points where each row/column intersects the grid
boundary. When you are finished, GRIDGENR automatically computes the
optimum shape and size of each grid cell based on an algorithm that you select.

User Specifies Boundary and
Edge Points

Algorithm Calculates Internal
Grid Structure

Figure 4-7: How Gridding Algorithms Work

The illustration above, for example, shows a boundary and edge points defined by
the user for a simple grid (left) and the internal rows and columns produced by a
gridding algorithm (right). For best results, the resulting grid cells should be

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roughly orthogonal, so that the grid faces are perpendicular to the flow. Some of
the gridding algorithms described below are designed to produce an orthogonal
effect:

Linear Transfinite Interpretation. An algebraic technique is used to
calculate a uniform grid. This method works best for grids with rectangular
boundaries.

Zero forcing (Laplace). In this method, the gridblocks generally follow grid
boundaries, but smoothing is applied to make the structure more uniform.
This option will generate grids which are very smooth, but not necessarily
orthogonal.

Boundary Forcing Functions. Internal grid lines are made as parallel as
possible to the nearest grid side. Grid cells are not necessarily orthogonal. Use
when nonuniform edge point spacing is required and the boundary is
acceptably orthogonal.

Orthogonality Forcing Functions. The algorithm establishes conditions of
orthogonality and iteratives with smoothing functions to improve
orthogonality. This method will usually produce grids which are quite similar
to Zero Forcing Functions, but slightly more orthogonal.

Elliptic orthogonal. The algorithm attempts to construct gridblocks with
equal areas that are as orthogonal as possible. This method fixes the boundary
points as defined by the user and works best for uniformly spaced grids.

Elliptic Orthogonal (Free Boundary). This method is the same as Elliptic
Orthogonal except that the boundary points are allowed to move. This can
sometimes improve grid quality when the boundary is very irregular and has
many sharp corners.

Orthogonal (Fixed Boundary). Very similar to Elliptic Orthogonal with a
slightly different algorithm. Grids are usually not quite as smooth but can be
slightly more orthogonal.

Orthogonal (Free Boundary). Same as Orthogonal but with boundary points
free to move.

NOTE:

If a Free Boundary option is used, the boundary points will be modified and
cannot be restored. Do not use this option if you want your boundary points
honored.

The following illustration shows how each algorithm affects the same userspecified grid. Notice that gridblocks can be drawn so that wells are centered
inside of them automatically (see “Setting the Grid Display Options” on
page 4-175). Some algorithms handle well centering differently than others,
depending on the individual constraints of the algorithm. Some trial and error may
be needed to produce the best-fitting grid — if so, you can repeatedly recalculate
the grid using the Regrid option (see “Recalculating a Gridded Area” on

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page 4-219). You can also reshape individual grid cells by moving individual
corner points (see “Moving Corner Points” on page 4-196).

Linear Transfinite
Interpretation

Boundary Forcing

Elliptic Orthogonal

Zero Forcing (Laplace)

Orthogonality Forcing

Orthogonal

Figure 4-8: Effect of Different Algorithms on Same Grid

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Guideline #7 - Optimize Grid Structure
Each gridblock that you create requires a certain amount of computing power to
model. The larger and more complex the grid, the longer it will take to perform a
simulation. For example, the following table shows the effect on simulation run
time of the same study done with varying numbers of gridblocks.

CPU Time on IBM550 (Seconds)

Black Oil, 2 Hydrocarbons
100 Time Steps
2500
2000
1500

IMPES
IMPLICIT

1000
500

1000
4000 16000
Number of Gridblocks

Figure 4-9: Effect of Gridblocks on Computer Performance

For this reason, it is important to optimize the grid structure, making sure that you
have enough gridblocks in areas where they are needed and not too many
gridblocks in areas where they are not needed.
WARNING: When creating grids, you must always be careful to take into full account the
limitations on model size discussed in Chapter 7 of the GRIDGENR
Technical Guide. Failing to do this may produce a grid structure which
overloads the modeling capabilities of your hardware. Some calculation and
balancing may be required to achieve an appropriate grid complexity.

There are two ways to optimize grid structure:

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Coarsening the grid. Gridblocks can be larger in areas of the reservoir that
provide a minimal contribution to the overall fluid flow, especially in regions
containing no wells and only a single mobile phase. For example, gridding
over a homogenous gas cap or aquifer may be much coarser than gridding
over multiphase regions. Even aquifers with water injection wells can be

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coarsely gridded if the injection behavior does not need to be closely
modeled. In the illustration on page 4-166, gridding is much coarser in the
lower regions of the reservoir where no producing wells are located.
There are various ways to coarsen a grid. You can space the rows and columns
wider as you are creating the grid. You can respace edge points on existing
grids. Or you can use the existing grid and delete, for example, every other
row or column in areas where you want the grid to be coarser.

Remove x-lines
(columns)
Remove
y-lines (rows)

Figure 4-10: Coarsening a Grid By Removing Lines

Refining the grid. Gridblocks should be finer in areas where there are large
variations in initial fluid properties, such as oil viscosity, saturation pressure,
or composition. For example, if there is a significant variation in gas
composition within a gas cap, you would want to make the grid finer in those
regions in order to appropriately model gas cycling and blowdown.
Gridblocks should be finer in the vicinity of wells, as needed to model
significant variations in pressure or flow near the well bore.
There are various ways to make a grid finer. You can space the rows and
columns closer as you are creating the grid. You can respace the edge points
on existing grids. Or you can refine individual regions within an existing grid
using GRIDGENR’s refinement option (see “Refining the Grid” on
page 4-226). The illustration below shows a Cartesian refinement method
being used to refine portion of a grid. A radial method is also described later
in this chapter (see page 4-173).

Refined area

Figure 4-11: Refining Part of a Grid (Cartesian Method)

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Guideline #8 - Nullify Fault Regions
GRIDGENR lets you model the true slope of normal faults such as the one in the
following illustration.1 The sloping fault creates a gap in the 2D map projection
view. Since the portion of the grid overlying the fault is not an active area, you
must arrange the grid cells so that the fault throw is covered by a single column or
row of cells, then use the nullify function to nullify that portion of the grid (see
“Nullifying Part of a Grid” on page 4-212). You can repeat this same effect for all
other zones by copying the grid to the other zones then adjusting the null area to
match the fault position in that zone. (Refer to “Starting the Array Calculation
Module” on page 5-262 for further details.)

Null Area in Zone 1 Grid
Surface for
Zone 1 Grid
RESERVOIR
CROSS
SECTION

ZONE 1

ZONE 2

ZONE 1

Surface for
Zone 2 Grid

ZONE 2

Surface for
Zone 3 Grid

ZONE 2
GRID
(MAP
VIEW)

Null Column

Figure 4-12: Using Null Areas to Model Fault Throw

1. Reverse faults must be modeled as vertical faults.

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In each zone, there must be the same number of rows or columns on either side of
the fault so that GRIDGENR can make the proper vertical gridblock connections
without crossing the face of the fault. To do this, you can copy the grid to each
zone and shift the null area as needed.

Guideline #9 - Pay Special Attention to Wells
When modeling wells, there are several major factors that you should take into
consideration:

Center wells on gridblocks. GRIDGENR can automatically center
gridblocks and wells when you create a new grid or regrid any part of an
existing grid. To make this happen, you must set the Options menu to center
the block automatically around the well (see “Setting the Grid Display
Options” on page 4-175).

Make gridblocks more numerous around and between wells. In order to
track the performance of each individual well, you should allow at least two
gridblocks between it and the nearest adjacent well. Also, to get a better idea
of pressure/flow gradients around the wellbore, you can refine the grid in the
area immediately around the well. GRIDGENR’s radial refinement feature
(illustrated below) is particularly suited to wells: it lets you model the exact
well-bore diameter and do precise radial modeling in the well-bore vicinity.
However, radial refinement is limited to the gridblock immediately
surrounding the well. For more details on radial refinement, see “Refining the
Grid” on page 4-226.

Figure 4-13: Refining the Grid Around a Well (Radial Method)

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Watch for grid alignment problems. The flow path between injector and
producer wells can be distorted by the same grid alignment problems
mentioned earlier in this chapter (see page 4-162). If the gridblock orientation
and solution method do not naturally allow for diagonal flow between
communicating wells, this may distort the results obtained from the model.
The effect may not be as important in cases of low fluid mobility. However,

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you can often mitigate this effect by reorienting the grid, refining it, or using a
nine-point solution method.

Injector wells

Flow

Flow

Producer well

Figure 4-14: Distortion in Well Flow Due to Grid Orientation

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Specify appropriate coordinates. When you enter a location for a well spot
in GRIDGENR, the same coordinates apply equally in all zones — thus
implying a vertical well. If you are working with a deviated well, you may
want to specify the well location based on the coordinates of the perforation
rather than the coordinates of the wellhead, or you may wish to model your
deviated well directly by importing it’s coordinates from an import file.

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Setting the Grid Display Options
Before you start working with grids — or at any point in the process — you can
use the Options menu to control how the grid components are displayed. The grid
display options let you control the display of grid lines, grid row and column
numbers, the skip between row/column numbering, grid brightness, line types,
and colors.
Row
numbers

X-skip
2

4

6

8

Column
numbers

2
Grid lines
Y-skip

4

6

Figure 4-15: Grid Display Components

To change the Grid display options:
1. Select Grid from the Options menu.1 The following form appears.

1. These options also are available when you select All from the Options menu.

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2. Click on the available check boxes, fill in the blanks, or adjust the slider bars,
as needed to change the following options:
Show Grid

Controls the display of grid lines.

Show Number

Controls the display of row/column numbers.

Center Block Around
Well

Controls the well centering feature. When any part of
the grid is regridded, gridblocks will be arranged in
such a way that each well is at the center of a gridblock.

Brightness

Controls the brightness of the grid lines (1.00 = maximum brightness, 0.00 = invisible).

X-Skip, Y-Skip

Controls how often row/column numbers will appear
along the edge of the grid. For example, an X-skip of 3
means that every third column will be numbered (3, 6,
9, etc.).

Color

Controls the color of the grid lines.

Line Type

Controls the type of line used to draw the grid (solid,
dashed, etc.).

3. When finished setting all options, click the OK button.

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Creating Reservoir Grids
You can digitize reservoir modeling grids from paper maps, or create them
manually using the mouse. There are several ways to create a grid:

Rectangular grids. You can create a grid with rectangular sides having
uniform or irregular grid spacing, whose sides are parallel to the coordinate
axes.

Rotated rectangular grids. You can create a grid with rectangular sides
having uniform or irregular grid spacing, whose sides are not parallel to the
coordinate axes.

Boundary grids. You can create a grid with irregular sides and uniform or
irregular grid spacing.

Point grids. You can create a grid by defining every corner point in the
structure. This feature is best to use when copying a grid structure from a
paper source.

The following procedures explain how to create each of these grid types. You can
create only one grid per zone. However, you can copy the same grid to different
zones and modify it as needed (see “Creating a Grid by Copying” on page 4-186).
If the same grid must apply to all zones, create or digitize it in Zone 1.

Creating a Rectangular Grid
The easiest type of grid to create is one with a rectangular border. All you have to
do is define two corners of the rectangle and then define the internal gridblocks, as
shown below. You can specify the approximate number of gridblocks, the number
of gridblocks in the X and Y dimensions, or the exact grid interval spacing, as
desired. You can create a single grid for all zones, or a slightly different grid for
each zone. In each zone, however, the grid must have the same number of
gridblocks in the X and Y dimensions. The Z dimension of gridblocks in each
zone is equal to the depth or thickness of the zone. Once the basic grid structure is
created, you can add further refinements using other features discussed later in
this chapter.
Rectangle
corner 2

Rectangle
corner 1

Internal grid
blocks

Figure 4-16: Example of a Rectangular Grid

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To create a rectangular grid:
1. Make sure you are in the correct zone where you want to define the grid. If
not, change the Zone Number on the GRIDGENR Control Panel (use Zone 1
if you want the grid pattern to apply for all zones).
2. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Grid.
3. Select Add/Main Grid/Rectangle from the Edit menu.
The following prompts appear at the top of the drawing area when
GRIDGENR is ready for you to define the corner points of the rectangular
boundary:
Point to Origin of Boundary. (1) Select (2) Escape (3-4) Menu
Point to Maximum Extent of Boundary. (1) Select (2) Escape
(3-4) Menu

4. Click where you want to place the lower left and upper right corners of the
rectangular border. A rubberband box shows the rectangle as you draw it.
NOTE:

You can also specify the exact coordinates or offset of each corner point. See
“Other Ways to Specify Grid Points” on page 4-193.

When you finish defining the border, the following menu opens to let you
define the internal grid structure:

5. To quickly produce a grid within the specified border, select Specify Points
Uniformly Along Border. Below this option, you can enter either approximate
number:

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A specific number of gridblocks in the X and Y directions.

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An approximate number of gridblocks for the entire grid.

GRIDGENR will automatically select the appropriate number of vertical and
horizontal grid increments to produce a uniform grid with nominally square
grid blocks.
NOTE:

If you prefer nonuniform grid spacing, see “Defining a Grid With
Customized Gridblock Spacing” on page 4-188.

When you finish specifying a method for creating the internal grid structure,
GRIDGENR displays the following menu:

6. Select the desired algorithm to be used in drawing the grid (see page 4-167 for
a detailed discussion of gridding algorithms). GRIDGENR draws the internal
grid cells automatically.

Creating a Rotated Rectangular Grid
Another type of rectangular grid is a rotated rectangular grid. This type is created
in the same way with a few exceptions. All you have to do is define two corners of
the rectangle, define the orientation angle and then define the internal gridblocks,
as shown below. You can specify the approximate number of gridblocks, the
number of gridblocks in the X and Y dimensions, or the exact grid interval
spacing, as desired. You can create a single grid for all zones, or a slightly
different grid for each zone. In each zone, however, the grid must have the same
number of gridblocks in the X and Y dimensions. The Z dimension of gridblocks
in each zone is equal to the depth or thickness of the zone. Once the basic grid

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structure is created, you can add further refinements using other features
discussed later in this chapter.

Right

Rectangle
Extent

Top

x axis
Internal grid
blocks

Rectangle
Origin
Bottom
y axis
Left

Figure 4-17: Example of a Rotated Rectangular Grid

To create a rectangular grid:
1. Make sure you are in the correct zone where you want to define the grid. If
not, change the Zone Number on the GRIDGENR Control Panel (use Zone 1
if you want the grid pattern to apply for all zones).
2. Click the Context button on the Control Panel and select Grid.
3. Select Add/Main Grid/Rotated Rectangle from the Edit menu.
The following prompts appear at the top of the drawing area when
GRIDGENR is ready for you to define the corner points of the rectangular
boundary:
Point to Origin of Boundary. (1) Select (2) Escape (3-4) Menu

4. Click where you want to place the origin of the rotated rectangle.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Define Orientation Angle. (1) Select (2) Escape (3-4) Menu

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5. Click on a point along the line which defines the “x-axis” of the rotated
rectangle. This will define your orientation angle. This angle may also be
defined numerically using the pop-up menu from MB3.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Define Boundary Extent (1) Select (2) Escape (3-4) Menu

6. Click on the point which defines the full extent of the rectangular border. A
box will appear to show where you have defined the grid border.
NOTE:

You can also specify the exact coordinates or offset of each corner point. See
“Other Ways to Specify Grid Points” on page 4-193.

When you finish defining the border, the following menu opens to let you
define the internal grid structure:

7. To quickly produce a grid within the specified border, select Specify Points
Uniformly Along Border. Below this option, you can enter either approximate
number:

A specific number of gridblocks in the X and Y directions.

An approximate number of gridblocks for the entire grid.

GRIDGENR will automatically select the appropriate number of vertical and
horizontal grid increments to produce a uniform grid with nominally square
grid blocks.
NOTE:

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If you prefer nonuniform grid spacing, see “Defining a Grid With
Customized Gridblock Spacing” on page 4-188.

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When you finish specifying a method for creating the internal grid structure,
GRIDGENR displays the following menu:

8. Select the desired algorithm to be used in drawing the grid (see page 4-167 for
a detailed discussion of gridding algorithms). For rectangular grids with
uniform spacing and without the well centering option, use Linear Transfinite
or Boundary Forcing function. GRIDGENR draws the internal grid cells
automatically.

Creating a Grid With an Irregular Boundary
You can create a grid with irregular sides by defining the boundary of the grid and
then defining the internal gridblocks, as shown below. You can specify the
approximate number of gridblocks, the number of gridblocks in the X and Y
dimensions, or the exact grid interval spacing, as desired. You can create a single
grid for all zones, or a slightly different grid for each zone. In each zone, however,
the grid must have the same number of gridblocks in the X and Y dimensions. The
Z dimension of gridblocks in each zone is equal to the depth or thickness of the
zone. Once the basic grid structure is created, you can add further refinements
using other features discussed later in this chapter.
Top side
Left side

Right side

Bottom side

Internal grid
structure

Figure 4-18: Example of a Boundary Grid

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To create an irregular boundary grid:
1. Make sure you are in the correct zone.
If not, change the Zone Number on the GRIDGENR Control Panel. You can
create one grid for each zone. If you want one grid to apply to all zones, draw
it in Zone 1.
2. Click the Context button on the GRIDGENR Control Panel and select Grid.
3. Select Add/Main Grid/Boundary from the Edit menu.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area when
GRIDGENR is ready for you to begin defining the grid border:
Enter Top boundary: (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Finish

4. Starting at the top left corner of the grid, use mouse clicks to define the top,
right, bottom, and left borders — in that order.
You can click any number of times to describe the exact curvature of a
particular boundary. A rubberband line helps you visualize the way the border
is shaping up. Once you have defined the last point on any side, click MB3
and select Finish Current Side from the pop-up menu, then start the next side.
To erase any group of selected points on a given side, press MB2 to backup
and then use MB1 to reselect the points.

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NOTE:

Besides clicking with the mouse, you can also specify exact coordinates or
offsets for each point, have a border follow a fault, or have a border follow
an arc. For more details, see “Other Ways to Specify Grid Points” on
page 4-193.

There Must Be At Least 2 Points Per Side
This message appears if you select Finish Current Side without specifying enough
points for the current side. There must be at least two points on every side, to indicate the beginning and ending of that side. Watch the prompt at the top of the
drawing area: it is telling you which side you are currently defining. If a beginning
and ending point have not been specified correctly for the indicated side, you must
specify them before selecting Finish Current Side.

When you finish defining all four sides, the following menu opens to let you
define the internal grid structure:

5. To quickly produce a grid within the specified border, select Specify Points
Uniformly Along Border. Below this option, you can enter either:

A specific number of gridblocks in the X and Y directions.

An approximate number of gridblocks for the entire grid

GRIDGENR will automatically select the appropriate number of vertical and
horizontal grid increments to produce the most uniform grid possible.
NOTE:

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If you prefer nonuniform grid spacing, see “Defining a Grid With
Customized Gridblock Spacing” on page 4-188.

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When you finish specifying a method for creating the internal grid structure,
GRIDGENR displays the following menu:

6. Select the desired algorithm to be used in drawing the grid (see page 4-167 for
a detailed discussion of gridding algorithms). GRIDGENR draws the internal
grid cells automatically.

Creating A Point Grid
You can create a grid by defining each corner point in the grid structure. This
features is most useful if you are digitizing an existing grid from a paper source.
Once the grid is drawn, you can adjust individual corner points and other features
using the Modify option (see “Editing Grids” on page 4-196).
(001,001)

(002,001)

(003,001)

(004,001)

User-specifies all
points

(001,002)

(001,003)

(002,002)

(002,003)

(003,002)

(003,003)

(004,002)

(004,003)

Figure 4-19: Example of a Point Grid

In the illustration above, notice that each point in the structure has a number
assigned to it based on its relative position in the grid. GRIDGENR uses numbers
like these to help guide you through the correct sequence of steps in defining each
row and column.

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To create a point grid:
1. Make sure you are in the correct zone. If not, change the Zone Number on the
GRIDGENR Control Panel.
You can create a grid for each individual zone. If you want one grid to apply
to all zones, draw it in Zone 1.
2. Click the Context button on the GRIDGENR Control Panel and select Grid.
3. Select Add/Main Grid/All Point from the Edit menu.
GRIDGENR displays the following form when you are ready to begin
specifying the grid:

4. Specify the total number of gridblocks that you will be defining in both the x
direction (columns) and the y direction (row). For example, the grid on
page 4-185 has three columns and two rows.
5. Press the OK button. GRIDGENR prompts you to enter each point in the grid.
For example:
Point to (001,001): (1) Select (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Escape

6. Starting at the upper left, define each corner point in the order prompted. For
example, (001,001), (002,001), (nnn, 001), for the top edge; (001,002),
(002,002), (nnn, 002), for the next row; and so forth. See the illustration on
page 4-185 for guidelines.
You can define each point by clicking at the desired location or by specifying
exact coordinates or offsets (see “Entering Next Point Coordinates” on
page 4-194 or “Entering Next Point Offset” on page 4-194).
As you enter each point, rubberband lines show the grid taking shape. When
you are finished entering all of the requested points, the grid is completed.

Creating a Grid by Copying
You can create a new grid by copying an existing grid from a different zone. This
is especially useful if you need to create a series of similar grids for different
zones. For example, you could create one grid using the standard methods

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described on the previous pages, then make copies of this grid for each additional
zone, as explained in the following procedures. Each grid could then be modified
using the standard editing procedures (see “Editing Grids” on page 4-196). To
create a grid by copying:
1. Use the Zone No. setting on the GRIDGENR Control Panel to move to the
zone where you want the grid to be copied.
2. Click the Context button on the GRIDGENR Control Panel and select Grid.
3. Select Copy/Entire Grid from the Edit menu (this option is not available if the
zone already contains a grid).
The following form opens:

4. Enter the number of the zone where the original grid is located and click the
OK button. A copy of the grid appears automatically in the current zone.

Abandoning a Grid In Progress
If you are in the middle of drawing a grid and you want to quit working on it, use
the following steps:
1. Press MB3 and select the Abandon option from the pop-up menu. If any
corner points have already been defined, the following message appears:

2. Select Yes to abandon the grid, or No to keep it. If you select Yes, the grid is
removed from the drawing area automatically.

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Defining a Grid With Customized Gridblock Spacing
Most grids are created with a uniform grid spacing that produces gridblocks of
approximately equal width or height. In some cases, however, you may want the
gridblocks to be larger in some areas than in others. For example, you can
optimize model performance by making the gridblocks larger in areas of low fluid
flow(e.g., along the edges of a reservoir) and smaller in areas of high fluid
flow(e.g., near wells). The following menu, which appears when you are creating
or a editing a grid, lets you define the gridblock widths exactly:

Figure 4-20: Grid Border Spacing Menu

You can specify the internal grid spacing by selecting distinct edge points along
each border of the grid (top, bottom, and both sides). When you define edge points
as shown below, GRIDGENR uses these to determine the total number of
gridblocks in each direction and the exact points where the gridblocks will
intersect the boundary. The actual shape of the gridblocks inside the grid depends
on the gridding algorithm you select (see page 4-169 for details).

User-specified
edge points

Internal grid
blocks

To define customized grid spacing:

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1. Create a grid using the Rectangle or Boundary options as described earlier in
this chapter (see “Creating a Rectangular Grid” on page 4-177 or “Creating a
Rotated Rectangular Grid” on page 4-179).
2. When you see the Grid Border Spacing Menu (shown in Figure 4-20) select
the option titled Digitize Points Along Border and click the OK button.
The following prompt appears:
Define Top grid: (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Finish

3. Click along the top of the grid at the exact locations where you want edge
points to be located. To erase any group of selected points on a given side,
press MB2 to backup and then use MB1 to reselect the points.
4. Once you have defined the last point on the top side, click MB3 and select
Finish Current Side from the pop-up menu shown below.

NOTE:

This menu also lets you space the edge points uniformly along the top or left
side. For details on this option, see “Adding Points Uniformly on a Side” on
page 4-191.

Copy not applicable here
This message appears if you try to select the Copy option on the pop-up menu
while digitizing edge points along the top or left sides of the grid. This feature is
used only for the bottom or right sides, as explained later.

The following prompt appears:
Define Left grid: (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Finish

5. Repeat the same process for the left side of the grid.
The following prompt appears:
Define Bottom grid: (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Finish

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6. Use the mouse to select the edge points for the bottom and right sides of the
grid. These sides must have the same number of edge points as their opposing
sides (top and left). When you finish selecting the required number of points,
the side is finished automatically.
NOTE:

When digitizing the bottom and right sides, you can also use the MB3 popup menu to copy points from the opposite side, as explained on page 4-192.

Not Enough Points Have Been Digitized
This message appears if you select Finish Current Side from the pop-up menu
without specifying enough points for the bottom or right sides of the grid. On the
last two sides, you must have exactly the same number of points digitized as on the
opposite side. Click the OK button and continue digitizing points until the side is
finished.

When you finish digitizing edge points along the right side, GRIDGENR
displays the following menu:

7. Select the desired algorithm to be used in drawing the grid (see page 4-167 for
a detailed discussion of gridding algorithms). GRIDGENR draws the internal
grid cells automatically.

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Adding Points Uniformly on a Side
The previous procedure explained how to add irregular edge points to each side
of a grid. You can also make any group of edge points uniformly spaced by
making the appropriate selection from the MB3 pop-up menu. All you have to do
is specify the total number of points to be evenly spaced, then click at the desired
end point (as illustrated below). The series of points can be drawn either from the
beginning of a side or from the most recent point defined.
Total number of uniform points being added (user-specified)

Beginning of side
or last point
defined

End point in
series (userspecified)

To add points uniformly on a side:
1. Create a grid using the methods described in the previous procedure.
2. When you are ready to start adding uniform edge points, press MB3 and select
Add Points Uniformly On a Side from the pop-up menu. The following form
opens:

3. Enter the number of uniform points on the spacing to be used to be added and
click the OK button. The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing
area:
Point to end of Equally Spaced Region: (1) Point (2) Abort
(3) End of line

NOTE:

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points needed to finish the current side, the points are spaced automatically
out to the end of the current side (i.e., this prompt does not appear). If this
happens, skip the remaining steps.

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4. To add uniform edge points all the way to the end of the current side, click
MB3 anywhere in the drawing area. To add uniform edge points only up to a
specified location, click MB1 at the desired location. To cancel this feature,
click MB2.
GRIDGENR automatically creates a series of equally spaced points up to and
including the point that you specified. If you selected the end of a line (MB3),
then the last point is placed at the end of the current side.
NOTE:

If you clicked MB1in step 4 you may still have to select Finish Current Side
from the pop-up menu before the current side can be finished. If you clicked
MB3 in step 4, the current side is finished automatically.

Copying Points from the Opposite Side
If you have already defined the edge points for one side of a grid, you can copy
the same points to the opposite side, as shown in the illustration below.

This feature is available only if you are defining edge points across from a side of
the grid where edge points are already defined. Use the following procedure:
1. Start creating the grid (see “Creating a Rectangular Grid” on page 4-177 or
“Creating a Rotated Rectangular Grid” on page 4-179). Specify the edge
points for at least the top and left sides of the grid.
2. When GRIDGENR prompts you to enter edge points for the bottom or right
side of the grid, press MB3 and select Copy Points from Opposite Side from
the pop-up menu. The following form opens:

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3. If you want to copy all points from the opposite side, just click the OK button.
If you only want to copy a few points at a time, specify the number of points
to be copied and then click OK. Each time you select this option, the form
shows you the maximum number of points that can be copied from the
opposite side.

Other Ways to Specify Grid Points
Normally, you can specify points on a grid by clicking at the desired location.
However, there are other ways to add points to a grid, which become apparent
when you select one of the pop-up menus shown below. These menus are
sometimes available when you press MB3 while drawing the grid boundary,
internal points, or tie lines.

Figure 4-21: Examples of MB3 Pop-Up Menus

The most commonly selected pop-up menu options are discussed in more detail
on the following pages.

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Entering Next Point Coordinates
In some cases, you can specify the exact coordinates (x,y location) of grid points.
This feature is available from the pop-up menu while you are defining points in a
grid. Use the following steps for each point to be specified:
1. Press MB3 and select Enter Next Point Coordinates from the pop-up menu.
The following form opens:

2. Enter the exact X and Y coordinates at which you want the next point to
appear.
3. Click the OK button. The next point is drawn automatically at the specified
coordinate location.

Entering Next Point Offset
In some cases, you can specify the distance in the X and Y direction that you want
the next point to be offset from the previous point. This feature is available from
the pop-up menu while you are defining points in a grid. Use the following steps
for each point to be specified:
1. Press MB3 and select Enter Next Point Offset from the pop-up menu. The
following form opens:

2. Enter the distance in the X and Y direction that you want the next point to be
offset from the previous point (negative entries are accepted). The distance
must be expressed in UTM coordinate offset.
3. Click the OK button. The next point is drawn automatically at the specified
offset.

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Using an Arc to Define Points
You can draw part of a grid border in the shape of an arc by specifying the center
point and the end point of the arc (first point is assumed to be the last point drawn
or specified). The exact shape of the arc is controlled by the positioning of the
center and end points — some practice may be required to get the correct shape. If
you are unable to produce the desired shape, you can use MB2 to back up and
erase any number of points along the arc.

First point (assumed)

End point (specified)

Center point (specified)

Figure 4-22: Drawing an Arc

This feature is available from the pop-up menu only when you are creating an
irregular grid. To draw an arc:
1. Make sure you have already specified at least one point along the grid border.
2. Press MB3 to view the pop-up menu, and select Use Arc To Define Boundary.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Point to center of arc

3. Click on the desired location for the center point of the arc. The following
prompt appears:
Point to end point of arc

4. Click on the desire location for the end point of the arc. A series of evenly
spaced points appear in the shape of an arc.

Making a Border or Line Follow a Fault
You can have GRIDGENR automatically draw any part of a grid border so that it
follows the exact path of a fault line. All you have to do is select the first and last
points along the fault where you want the grid border to follow.
First point
of contact

Fault path

Grid border
Last point
of contact

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Before using this option, make sure that the fault has already been drawn (see
“Adding New Faults and Contours” on page 3-91). Then use the following steps:
1. Begin creating the grid border using any of the grid creation procedures
earlier in this chapter.
2. At the point where the border will intersect the fault, press the MB3 mouse
button and select Let Boundary Follow a Fault from the pop-up menu. The
following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select 1st Point On Fault (button 2 will exit)

3. Click at the first point where the border intersects the fault. The following
prompt appears:
Select 2nd Point On Fault, (button 2 will back up)

4. Click at the point where the border quits following the fault. GRIDGENR
draws a series of points along the fault between the first and last points that
you selected. You can back up and erase any of the series of points by clicking
MB2.
5. Continue drawing the rest of the grid border, as required.

Returning from the Pop-Up Menu
In some cases, you may have invoked the pop-up menu by mistake or you may
decide that you do not really want to select any of the options. The menu option
titled Return to Digitizing lets you close the pop-up menu and return to the
drawing process.

Editing Grids
Perhaps the most powerful GRIDGENR features are its grid editing and
refinement capabilities. These features are explained in detail on the following
pages.

Moving Corner Points
You can change the position of any corner point in a grid. This feature is useful if
the gridding algorithms have created distorted gridblocks that you want to give a
more uniform appearance. To move a corner point, you must select the point and
then select the new location, as described below. The change is reflected in all

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views of the grid in the current zone, but is not echoed on other grids in other
zones.

When moving a corner point, be careful not to seriously distort the shape of the
adjacent gridblocks, as shown above. The most effective gridblock shape is
orthogonal (sides roughly perpendicular). To move corner points:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Select Modify/Main Grid/Point from the Edit menu. The following message
appears at the top of the drawing area:
Place Cursor on point to be moved: (1)Select (2-4)Escape

3. Click on the point to be moved. The adjacent grid lines become flexible so
that you can see how they are being realigned as the corner point is moved.
The following message appears:
Buttons: (1) set to new location (3-4) restore to old
location

4. Click MB1 at the desired new location, or click MB3 to return the point to its
previous location. The corner point is moved automatically and the following
message reappears:
Place Cursor on point to be moved: (1)Select (2-4)Escape

5. To move more corner points, start over at step 3. Otherwise, press MB3 to
quit.

Pinching a Point
You can change the position of any grid node so that it merges with another
adjacent grid node. This produces pinch points in the x,y dimension of the grid.

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To pinch a point you must select the desired point and move it to the new location
as described below. To move a line:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Select Modify/Main Grid/Pinch Point from the Edit menu. The following
message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select grid point to pinch out: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on the point to be moved. The following message appears:
Select point to snap to (2-4) to abort

4. Move the mouse to the new location and then click MB1 when the point is
positioned in the correct place
5. To continue moving points, repeat the last two steps. Otherwise, press MB2 to
quit.

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Pinching a Line
You can change the position of any line segment in the grid so that it merges with
the nearest adjacent segment. This produces pinch points in the x,y dimension of
the grid that involve multiple gridblocks.

To pinch a line you must select the desired beginning and ending points of the line
segment to be merged and then select the adjacent line that you want it merged
with. To pinch a line:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Select Modify/Main Grid/Pinch Line from the Edit menu. The following
message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select first point of line to merge (Button 2 will exit)

3. Click on the first point of the line segment to be merged. The following
message appears:
Select last point of line to merge (Button 2 will exit)

4. Click on the second point of the line segment to be merged. The following
message appears:
Select Line to Merge to: (1) Select (2-4) Exit

5. Click on the line that you want the selected segment to be merged with.
6. To continue pinching lines, repeat the last three steps. Otherwise, press MB2
to quit.

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Moving a Line
You can change the position of any line on a grid. To move a line you must select
the desired line and move it to the new location as described below. To move a
line:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Select Modify/Main Grid/Move Line from the Edit menu. The following
message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select Line to Move: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on the line to be moved, move the mouse in the direction of the new
location and then click MB1 when the line is positioned in the correct place.
The following message appears:
Select Line to Move: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

4. To continue moving lines, repeat the last step. Otherwise, press MB2 to quit.

Adding to a Grid
GRIDGENR lets you add extra rows or columns within any existing row or
column in a grid and also allows you to refine a section of the main grid. When
you do this, it is like defining a new grid inside the existing grid — all you have to
do is specify the interval to be changed and the method of drawing the grid.
Existing grid

Interval to be changed

Adding Rows or Columns
To add new rows or columns to the inside of a grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.

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2. From the Edit menu, select Add/Internal Grid Lines/In One Section:
Remove All Refinements and Nulls Before Attempting this Operation
This message appears if you try to regrid a model that has refinements or null grid
blocks. ‘Click the OK button, then use the Remove/Refinement/All and Remove/
Null Lines/All options on the Edit menu before trying again.

The following prompt appears:
Select Interval at Boundary: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on the edge of the grid at the interval where you want to add grid lines.
For example, if you click the top edge of the grid at gridblock 4, the
gridblocks in the fourth column will be selected. You can tell the gridblocks
are selected because the area is highlighted.
The following message appears:
Verify Interval: (1) Verify (2-4) Escape

4. Click MB1 again to verify your selection, or any other mouse button to cancel
it and repeat the last step.
5. This displays the Subdivision Factor panel. Enter a number to be used for
subdividing the area and click the OK button. For example, if you want to
subdivide the area into five rows or columns, enter “5.”

6. This displays the following panel. Click OK if you want to add lines to the
grid within the subdivided area and modify all zones. To avoid doing either
operation, type in the word “NO” before clicking OK.

7. To add more rows/columns to the grid, repeat the previous steps, starting at
step 4. Otherwise, click MB3 to quit.

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Subdivide an Area of the Main Grid
To subdivide an area of the main grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Select Add/Internal Grid Lines/Subdivide an Area from the Edit menu:
Remove All Refinements and Nulls Before Attempting this Operation
This message appears if you try to regrid a model that has refinements or null grid
blocks. ‘Click the OK button, then use the Remove/Refinement/All and Remove/
Null Lines/All options on the Edit menu before trying again.

The following prompt appears:
Select Upper Left Corner of Area to Subdivide (Button 2 will
back up)

3. Click on one of the grid points at the corner of the area where you want to
subdivide the grid blocks.
The following prompt appears:
Select Lower Right Corner of Area (Button 2 will backup)

4. Click on the other grid point of the area where you want gridblocks to be
subdivided or select a second point on the same grid line which will imply the
area crosses the grid. You will see the following pop-up menu:

5. On the pop-up menu, select Add X Lines, Add Y Lines, or Add X and Y Lines
(The program will add both directions, simultaneously if you select Add X
and Y Lines).
6. Enter the Subdivision Factor and click Ok. This number must be a positive
integer.
NOTE:

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If the number is too large, i.e., causes there to be too many grid blocks,
GRIDGENR will give a error message.

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7. A pop-up window will appear next with the following messages:

To the first question, enter Yes to add lines, No to select a different area, or
Cancel to cancel this operation. To the second question, enter Yes to modify
all zones, No to modify only the current zone.
8. Repeat steps 3 through 7 to subdivide the grid further.
9. Click MB3 when you are finished.

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Extending the Grid
You can extend any side of an existing grid so that more columns or rows are
added externally. When you do this, it is like creating a new grid — you must
specify new borders and the method for defining the internal grid structure.
Existing grid

New border

New grid

To add new rows or columns to the outside of a grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Select Add/Extend Grid from the Edit menu.
Remove All Refinements and Nulls Before Attempting this Operation
This message appears if you try to regrid a model that has refinements or null grid
blocks. ‘Click the OK button, then use the Remove/Refinement/All and Remove/
Null Lines/All options on the Edit menu. Then, try this option again.

The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select side to extend (Button 2 will exit)

NOTE:

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Alternatively, you can select Add/Extend Rectangle for a simple way to
extend one side of the grid. With this option, it automatically extends the
grid with a rectangle shape. You are not required to specify each side of the
extended rectangle.

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3. Click on the side of the grid you want to extend.
Depending on which side you selected, GRIDGENR prompts you to begin
defining the new borders. For example:
Enter Top boundary: (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Finish

You must define the borders for each of three new sides. The fourth side is
formed by the existing grid. For example, if you are extending the right side
of the grid you must define the top, right, and bottom of the extended area, as
shown in the illustration below.

Existing grid

New borders

4. Use mouse clicks to define the borders in the order prompted, or see the note
below.
You can select any number of points to describe the exact curvature of a side.
A rubberband line helps you visualize the way the border will look as each
point is selected. Once you have defined the last point on any side, click MB3
and select Finish Current Side from the pop-up menu. If the selected points
are not satisfactory, press MB2 to delete each undesirable point and start over.

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NOTE:

Besides clicking with the mouse, you can also (1) specify the exact
coordinates or offsets for each point, (2) have a border follow a fault, or (3)
use an arc drawing method. For more details, see “Other Ways to Specify
Grid Points” on page 4-193.

There Must Be At Least 2 Points Per Side
This message appears if you select Finish Current Side without specifying enough
points for the current side. There must be at least two points on every side, to indicate the beginning and ending of that side. Watch the prompt at the top of the
drawing area: it is telling you which side you are currently defining. If a beginning
and ending point have not been specified correctly for the indicated side, you must
specify them before selecting Finish Current Side.

When you finish defining the shape of the three new borders, a menu opens to
let you define the internal grid structure: For example:

5. To quickly produce a grid within the new area, select Space Points Uniformly
Along Border. Below this option, you can enter a specific number of
gridblocks in the X or Y direction (whichever dimension is not already
constrained by the existing grid). GRIDGENR will automatically select the
appropriate number of vertical and horizontal grid increments to produce the
most uniform grid possible.

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6. If you select the option to Digitize Points Along Border instead, the
GRIDGENR program will prompt you to select points along each of the new
sides, to which grid nodes will be attached. Follow the prompts at the top of
the screen, then select the appropriate selection from the following menu:

When you finish specifying a method for creating the internal grid structure,
GRIDGENR displays the following menu:

7. Select the desired algorithm to be used in drawing the grid (see page 4-167 for
a detailed discussion of gridding algorithms). GRIDGENR draws the internal
grid cells automatically.

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Deleting Grid Lines
WARNING: If you delete an overlay, use the Screen -> Redraw option (CTRL/W) to
refresh the display before proceeding in order to avoid display problems. For
example, if you delete grid lines, the contours will not display properly until
you redraw.

Rows and Columns
GRIDGENR lets you delete any rows or columns in an existing grid. All you have
to do is (1) select the lines to be deleted consecutively by clicking MB1, (2) press
MB2 to end the selection process, and then (3) delete the lines selected.

Existing grid
Deleted line

NOTE:

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To delete rows or columns from inside a grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Select Remove/Grid Line/Single Line from the Edit menu. The following
prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select Lines to delete: (1) Select (2-4) Exit

3. Click on the line(s) you want to delete. Each line you select is highlighted.
When finished selecting the line(s) to be deleted, click MB2 and the following
prompt appears.

4. The first answer lets you delete the lines. The second lets you delete the lines
in all zones. Answer NO in the appropriate fields if you do not want to delete
the selected lines or modify all zones. Then click OK to carry out your
selections.
5. Repeat the last two steps for each row or column to be deleted.
6. Click MB2 to quit when you are finished deleting the desired lines.

Section of Grid
GRIDGENR lets you delete a section of the grid at one time by selecting a section
of the main grid and deleting the lines.
To delete a section of a grid from an existing grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Select Remove/Grid Line/Section of Grid from the Edit menu. The following
prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select Upper Left Corner of Area to Delete (Button 2 will
back up)

3. Click on the main grid line in the upper left corner of the area which you want
to delete. The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select Lower Right Corner of Area (Button 2 will back up)

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4. On the pop-up menu select Delete X-lines or Delete Y-lines, then click OK to
see the following form:

5. The first answer lets you delete the lines. The second lets you delete the lines
in all zones. Answer NO in the appropriate fields if you do not want to delete
the selected lines or modify all zones. Then click OK to carry out your
selections.
6. Repeat the last few steps for each section to be deleted.
7. Click MB2 to quit when you are finished deleting.

Decimate
GRIDGENR allows you to select certain rows to delete and to keep. For example,
you can define GRIDGENR to delete the one column in a selection and keep the
next three and so on. The number of columns to delete and to keep do not have to
be the same, i.e., delete 2 and keep 2 or delete 3 and keep 3.
To delete certain columns from inside a grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. To delete specified columns, select Remove/Grid Line/Decimate from the
Edit menu. The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select the Upper Left Corner of Area to Decimate (Button 2
will back up)

3. Click on the main grid line of the area in which you want to select. The
following prompt appears.
Select the lower right corner of area (Button 2 will back up)

You may select either a grid corner point at the opposite corner of the area you
wish to select or you may select a second point on the same grid line which
implies the area crosses the grid.

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4. A pop-up menu is displayed allowing you to select the X, Y, or X and Y lines
to decimate:

5. Make a selection and press OK. A pop-up menu is displayed to let you define
the pattern to decimate:

a. Enter the number of columns you wish to delete.
b. Enter the number of columns you with to keep.
For example, if you enter 1 and 3, GRIDGENR will delete one column, keep
the next three, delete the next column, keep the next three, etc. Press OK.
6. On the next pop-up menu select Decimate X-lines, Decimate Y-lines, or
Decimate X or Y lines. Press OK. A confirmation form is displayed.

7. Confirm your entries. The first answer lets you delete the lines. The second
lets you delete the lines in all zones. Answer NO in the appropriate fields if
you do not want to delete the selected lines or modify all zones. Then click
OK to carry out your selections.P
8. Repeat the steps 3 to 7 for each area to decimate.
9. Click MB2 to quit when you are finished decimating the grid.

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Nullifying Part of a Grid
GRIDGENR lets you nullify the gridblocks in any row or column of an existing
grid. Nullifying creates a null area in the grid where no values will be calculated.
The borders are redrawn automatically on either side of the nulled area, as shown
in the illustration below. When you create a null area in one grid, it is duplicated
automatically at the same location in all other grids in all other zones.
Existing grid

Null
area

This feature is most useful when modeling normally slanted faults (see
page 4-172 for details). To nullify part of a grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. To nullify a column, select Add/Null Lines from the Edit menu.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Point Along Boundary at Line to Null: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click on the column or row you want to nullify. The area is highlighted and
the following prompt appears.
Nullify Line: (1) Yes (2-4) No

4. Click MB1 again to verify your selection, or any other mouse button to cancel
it. The area is nulled out automatically.
Cannot Null Edges
This message appears if you try to nullify a row or column at the edge of the grid.
This is not allowed. You can only null rows or columns on the inside of the grid.

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Removing Null Lines
Once you create null areas in a grid, you can remove them individually or all at
once. The following procedures explain how.

Reactivating a Single Null Area
GRIDGENR lets you reactivate any null area of the grid. As explained in the
previous procedure, nullifying creates a null area in the grid where no values will
be calculated. Reactivating a null area reconstructs that part of the grid just as
though it were never nullified.
Previously
null area

Existing grid

To reactivate a null area of the grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click open the Edit menu and select Remove/Null Line/Single.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Point Along Boundary at Null to Remove

3. Click on the area you want to reactivate. The area is highlighted and the
following prompt appears.
(1) Confirm Remove (2-4) Abort

Cursor Not On Null Region
This message appears if you try to click on an area that is not nulled out. Try again.

4. Click MB1 again to verify your selection, or any other mouse button to cancel
it. The area is reactivated and regridded automatically.

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Reactivating All Null Areas
GRIDGENR lets you reactivate all null area in a grid at the same time. Follow
these steps:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click open the Edit menu and select Remove/Null Line/All.
The following message appears:
Remove all Nulls?

3. Click the Yes button to reactivate all null areas, or click No to avoid removing
them.

Adding Tie Lines
Occasionally, you may find it desirable to have the edges of internal gridblocks
follow a fault or some other meandering path. If so, you can add a tie line to the
grid that follows the desired path, then force a nearby grid line to follow the path
of the tie line.
Fault path

Tie line

Affected
grid line

Grid Before Tying

Grid After Tying

You can add as many tie lines as you need to rearrange internal grid structure.
WARNING: Be careful not to add too many tie lines at once, or you may end up seriously
distorting the grid. It is usually best to periodically recalculate the grid to see
the impact of the tie lines already defined. This grid can then be used as a
template for further tie line definitions.

To add tie lines to a grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.

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2. Click open the Edit menu and select Add/Tie Lines.
The following messages appear:
Select upper left corner to regrid (Button 2 will exit)
Select lower right corner to regrid (Button 2 will back up)

3. Select the upper left and lower right corner of the grid area that will be
affected by the regridding operation. You must click on grid points or a grid
border and the two points must have a sufficient separation to be meaningful.
The following message appears:
Is it OK to regrid selected region?

4. Click the Yes button to continue or No to reselect the region.
The following messages appear:
Select First Grid Point to Tie. (Button 2 Will Exit)
Select Second Point to Tie. (Button 2 Will Back Up)

5. Select the first and last points along the segment of the grid that you want
rearranged to follow a tie line. Both points must be on the same line. You can
use MB2 to backup and reselect a point.
The following prompt appears:
Enter Tie Line: (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Finish

6. Begin defining the path of the tie line.
You can do this by clicking along the desired path using MB1. To make the tie
line follow a fault, click MB3 and select Let Tie Line Follow a Fault from the
pop-up menu (see “Making a Border or Line Follow a Fault” on page 4-195).
There are other options on this menu you can use to draw the tie line (see
“Other Ways to Specify Grid Points” on page 4-193).

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7. When you are finished drawing the tie line, click MB3 and select Finish Tie
Line from the pop-up menu.
The following prompt reappears.
Select First Grid Point to Tie. (Button 2 Will Exit)

8. Repeat the last two steps for each additional tie line you want to define, or
click MB2 if you are finished defining tie lines.
If you click MB2, the following prompt appears:
Do you want to apply these changes?

9. Click the Yes button to rearrange the grid or No to avoid applying the
changes.
GRIDGENR displays the following menu:

10. Select the desired algorithm to be used in redrawing the grid (see page 4-167
for a detailed discussion of gridding algorithms). GRIDGENR redraws the
internal grid cells automatically so that the selected grid lines follow all the
new tie lines.

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Copying Tie Lines from Another Zone
The previous procedure explained how to rearrange internal grid structure by
creating tie lines. GRIDGENR also lets you copy existing tie lines from other
zones. This feature is especially useful if the same grid structure must be
rearranged across multiple zones. However, you can only use this feature in zones
where a grid already exists and where tie lines do not currently exist.
To copy tie lines:
1. Make sure the Context button on the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Make sure the Zone No. button on the Control Panel is set to the number of
the zone where you want the tie lines to be copied.
3. Click open the Edit menu and select Copy/Tie Lines. This option is not
available unless a grid already exists in the zone.
Tie Lines Must Not Be Defined
This message appears if you try to copy tie lines into a zone that already contains
them. You can only copy tie lines into a zone where none exist. Click OK to continue and try again.

The following form appears:

4. Enter the number of the zone that contains the desired tie lines, then click the
OK button.
The tie lines are copied automatically.

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Removing Tie Lines
Once you create or copy tie lines into a zone, you can remove them as desired.
You can remove individual tie lines, or all tie lines in the current zone, as
explained below.

Removing Individual Tie Lines
To remove one or more individual tie lines from the current zone:
1. Make sure the Context button on the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Make sure the Zone No. button on the Control Panel is set to the number of
the zone where you want the tie line to be removed.
3. Click open the Edit menu and select Remove/Tie Lines/Single.
The following prompt appears:
Point to tie line to be removed: (1) Select (2-4) Exit

4. Click on each tie line to be removed.
5. When you are finished clicking on all tie lines to be removed, click the MB3
mouse button.
The following message appears:
Is it OK to remove tie lines?

6. Click the Yes button to remove all the selected tie lines, or click No to avoid
removing them.

Removing All Tie Lines in a Zone
To remove all of the tie lines in the current zone:
1. Make sure the Context button on the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Make sure the Zone No. button on the Control Panel is set to the number of
the zone where you want all tie lines to be removed.
3. Click open the Edit menu and select Remove/Tie Lines/Current Zone.
The following message appears:
Remove tie lines from zone?

4. Click the Yes button to remove all the tie lines from the current zone, or click
No to avoid removing them.

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Recalculating a Gridded Area
When you first create a grid, the internal grid is calculated automatically based on
an algorithm that you select (see page 4-167 for details). If the internal grid
structure is not satisfactory — or if there is some change in grid boundaries, edge
points, or the number of columns and rows — you can recalculate the grid based
on any desired algorithm. All you have to do is select the upper left and lower
right corner of the area to be recalculated, then select the desired gridding
algorithm. This works for any part of the grid, or the whole grid.
Recalculated
area

Existing grid

To recalculate a grid or any part of a grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Select Modify/Main Grid/Recalculate Grid from the Edit menu. The
following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select upper left corner to regrid (Button 2 will exit)

3. Click at the top left corner of the area to be recalculated. This could be any
point inside the grid, or the top left corner of the grid boundary. The following
message appears
Select lower right corner to regrid (Button 2 will back up)

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4. Click at the bottom right corner of the area to be regridded. This could be any
appropriate point inside the grid, or the bottom right corner of the grid
boundary itself. The following message appears:

Specified Region Too Small To Regrid
This message appears if fail to click correctly at the upper left and lower right of a
selected area. Try again.

5. Click the Yes button to start regridding, or No to reselect the area. If you click
Yes, GRIDGENR displays the following menu:

6. Select the desired algorithm to be used in regridding the area (see page 4-167
for a detailed discussion of gridding algorithms). GRIDGENR regrids the
selected area automatically.

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Respacing Edge Points
You can respace the edge points along all four sides of a grid, as desired. To do
this, you must indicate the affected area, select the new edge points, then select the
desired gridding algorithm.
Existing grid

= new edge point
locations

To redefine the edge points:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click on the Edit menu and select Modify/Main Grid/Respace Edge Points.
The following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select upper left corner to regrid (Button 2 will exit)

3. Click at the top left corner of the grid boundary. The following message
appears
Select lower right corner to regrid (Button 2 will back up)

4. Click at the bottom right corner of the grid boundary. The following message
appears:

Specified Region Too Small To Regrid
This message appears if the area you fail to click correctly at the upper left and
lower right of a selected area. Try again.

5. Click the Yes button to verify the selected area, or No to reselect it.

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GRIDGENR displays the following menu:

6. If you want the grid intersections to be spaced uniformly along the new edge,
select Space Points Uniformly Along Border, click the OK button, and skip to
step 8 (you cannot change the number of blocks). If you want to control the
spacing exactly, select Digitize Points Along Border option, click the OK
button, and continue to the next step.
GRIDGENR asks you to begin redefining edge points for each side of the
grid. For example:
Define Top grid: (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Finish

7. Click at the desired location for the edge points on each side.
Values Must Be Increasing
This message appears if you try to select an edge point between two previous edge
points. Try again.
Not Enough Points Have Been Digitized
This message appears if you fail to define enough edge points on a side which lies
opposite an existing side where edge points have already been defined. You must
define the same number of edge points as already exist on the opposite side of the
grid.

Besides clicking, you can also use the MB3 pop-up menu to add points
uniformly to a side, copy points from the opposite side, and quit (see “Other
Ways to Specify Grid Points” on page 4-193). The number of edge points you

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specify for each side must be the same number as before. As you finish
selecting all the required edge points for a given side, GRIDGENR prompts
you to enter the edge points for the next side.
When you are finished entering all edge points GRIDGENR displays the
following menu:

8. Select the desired algorithm to be used in calculating the internal structure
based on the new edge points (see page 4-167 for a detailed discussion of
gridding algorithms). GRIDGENR draws the internal grid cells automatically.

Reshaping the Grid Boundary
You can change the shape of all four sides of a grid, as desired. To do this, you
must select the affected grid area, define the new grid boundaries, select the new
edge point locations, then select a gridding algorithm to be used in calculating the
internal grid structure.
Existing grid

= new boundary
path
= new edge point
locations

To reshape the boundaries of a grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.

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2. Click on the Edit menu and select Modify/Main Grid/Redefine Edge. The
following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select upper left corner to regrid (Button 2 will exit)

3. Click at the top left corner of the grid boundary. The following message
appears
Select lower right corner to regrid (Button 2 will back up)

4. Click at the bottom right corner of the grid boundary. The following message
appears:
Is it OK to regrid the selected region?

Specified Region Too Small To Regrid
This message appears if the area you fail to click correctly at the upper left and
lower right of a selected area. Try again.

5. Click the Yes button to verify the selected area, or No to reselect it.
GRIDGENR asks you to redefine each grid boundary. For example:
Enter Top boundary: (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Finish

6. Define the new path of each boundary by clicking MB1, or see “Other Ways
to Specify Grid Points” on page 4-193. Use MB2, if needed, to back up and
cancel previously selected points. As you finish defining each side of the grid,
press MB3 and select Finish Current Side from the pop-up menu.
When you finish defining the last side of the grid boundary, GRIDGENR
displays the following menu:

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7. If you want the grid intersections to be spaced uniformly along the new edge,
select Space Points Uniformly Along Border, click the OK button, and skip to
step 9 (you cannot change the number of blocks). If you want to control the
spacing exactly, select Digitize Points Along Border option, click the OK
button, and continue to the next step.
GRIDGENR asks you to begin defining new edge points (grid intersections)
on each side of the new area. For example:
Define Top grid: (1) Define (2) Backup (3) Menu (4) Finish

8. Click at the desired location for the edge points.
Values Must Be Increasing
This message appears if you try to select an edge point between two previous edge
points. Try again.
Not Enough Points Have Been Digitized
This message appears if you fail to define enough edge points on a side which lies
opposite an existing side where edge points have already been defined. You must
define the same number of edge points as already exist on the opposite side of the
grid.

Besides clicking, you can also use the MB3 pop-up menu to add points
uniformly to a side, copy points from the opposite side, and quit (see “Other
Ways to Specify Grid Points” on page 4-193). The number of edge points you
specify for each side must be the same number as before. As you finish
selecting all the required edge points for a given side, GRIDGENR prompts
you to enter the edge points for the next side.
When you are finished entering all edge points GRIDGENR displays the
following menu:

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9. Select the desired algorithm to be used in calculating the internal structure
based on the new edge points (see page 4-167 for a detailed discussion of
gridding algorithms). GRIDGENR draws the internal grid cells automatically.

Refining the Grid
You can make the gridblock spacing finer in any part of the grid. For example,
you may want to add more gridblocks around a well or in a reservoir area where
there is high mobility or variable composition. GRIDGENR provides two types of
grid refinement, as shown below:

Cartesian Refinement

Radial Refinement

Figure 4-23: Cartesian vs. Radial Refinement

Cartesian refinement can be used over any area of the grid; the refinement
applies equally to all grid cells within the selected area. The Cartesian
refinement associated with a selected area remains with that area — even if
you move the underlying grid.

Radial refinement can also be done over any area of the grid, but the
refinement only applies to gridblocks penetrated by wells. Radial refinement
allows you to specify and model each well’s inner diameter (I.D.) and add a
denser cluster of gridblocks right in the near vicinity of the well. Radial
refinement always remains associated with the same well(s) — even if you
move the underlying grid, the refinement is redrawn around the same well
based on the new gridblock dimensions.

You can add radial refinements to areas already refined using the Cartesian
method, and you can add further Cartesian refinements to areas that are already
Cartesian refined. Cartesian refinement can occur in the x, y, or z direction. Radial
refinement can occur in the radial or angular (θ) direction, as well as the x, y, or z
direction. Refinement in the z direction is relative to the simulation grid. That
is it comes after zone splitting, zones combining and setting zones inactive.
The procedures on the following pages explain how to refine a grid using either
method.
WARNING: Local grids must not abut or cross the sloping fault when using The Sloping
Fault Correction (see “Starting the Array Calculation Module” on
page 5-262). The Sloping Fault Correction option has not been integrated
with local grid refinement. Because local grids are relative to the simulation
grid, you must define zone modifications prior to local grid defining.

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Cartesian Refinement Method
To refine the grid using the Cartesian method:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click on the Edit menu and select Add/Refinement/Cartesian. The following
message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select upper left corner to refine

3. Click at the top left corner of the area to be refined. The following message
appears:
Select lower right corner to refine

4. Click at the bottom right corner of the area to be refined. GRIDGENR
displays the following form:

Invalid Grid Corners Chosen
This message appears if the area you fail to click correctly at the upper left and
lower right of a selected area. Try again.

5. Make the following entries, as required.Your entries apply to all grid cells in
the selected area.
Grid Name

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A name to be used for this refinement. This name will
appear in the export file if you export the grid.

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No. Increments in x/y/
z Direction

Enter the number of increments for splitting each gridblock in each direction. For example, if you enter 5 as the
x increment, GRIDGENR will split each selected gridblock into five columns. If you enter 2 as the z increment, each gridblock will be treated as two layers of
equal thickness within the same simulation layer. Enter
any combination of increment variables.

Layers To Be Refined

Enter the range of vertical simulation layers that you
want this refinement applied to. For example, if you
enter 1-3, the refinement is applied equally to the contiguous layers 1, 2, and 3.

6. Click the OK button at the bottom of the form. GRIDGENR applies the
refinement automatically,
Did You Mean to Enter a Null Refinement?
This question appears if you failed to specify more than a single increment in any
of the dimensions. Answer Y if you desire a null refinement, N if you do not.

The following prompt reappears:
Select upper left corner to refine. (button 2 will exit)

7. Start over at step 3 if you want to refine other parts of the grid. Otherwise,
click MB2 to quit refining the grid.

Radial Refinement for Vertical Wells
Radial refinement for vertical wells occurs vertically. Since the well penetrates the
zone vertically, the grid refinements also penetrate through the zone in the vertical
(Z) direction. The following illustration shows how this looks in a threedimensional reservoir model.

Refinement area

z

x

y

Figure 4-24: Radial Refinement in the Z Direction

The radial refinements made using the following procedure actually appear on the
screen as radial gridding around a well. To add radial refinement in the
Z direction:

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1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click on the Edit menu and select Add/Refinement/Radial. The following
message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select upper left corner to refine

3. Click at the top left corner of the area to be refined. The following message
appears:
Select lower right corner to refine

4. Click at the bottom right corner of the area to be refined. The following form
appears:

Invalid Grid Corners Chosen
This message appears if the area you fail to click correctly at the upper left and
lower right of a selected area. Try again.

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5. Make the following entries, as required. Your entries apply to all gridblocks
containing wells in the selected area.
No. of Radial
Refinements

Enter the number of radial increments that you want
interposed between each well and the edge of the gridblock where it is located. For example, the radial increment of 3 is shown in the illustration on page 4-226.

No. of Angular
Refinements

Enter the number of gridblocks you want to see arrayed
around each well. This must be 1 if you want each radial
gridblock to form a ring around the well, or a number
divisible by 4. For example, the well on page 4-226 has
eight gridblocks in the angular direction.

No. of Z Refinements

Enter the number of vertical layers that you want each
gridblock sliced into. For example, if you enter 2, each
gridblock will be treated as two layers of equal thickness
within the same simulation layer.

Well Radius

Enter the wellbore inner radius. The units for the radius
must be consistent with the units for the coordinates —
generally, feet or meters.

Min. Inner Radius

Enter minimum inner radius for the refinement.

Layers to be Refined

Enter the range of simulation layers that you want this
refinement to apply to. For example, if you enter 1-3, the
refinement is applied equally to the gridblocks around
the same wells in layers 1, 2, and 3.

6. Click the OK button at the bottom of the form. GRIDGENR applies the
refinement automatically.
Theta Refinement Must Be 1 Or Divisible By 4
This message appears if you entered an angular refinement that is not 1 or a multiple of 4. Click the OK button and reenter the angular refinement correctly.
No Wells Exist In Area
This message appears if you tried to create a radial refinement over an area where
no wells exist. Click the OK button and start over.
Did You Mean to Enter a Null Refinement?
This question appears if you failed to specify more than a single increment in any
of the dimensions. Answer Y if you desire a null refinement, N if you do not.

The following prompt reappears:
Select upper left corner to refine. (button 2 will exit)

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7. Start over at step 3 if you want to refine other parts of the grid. Otherwise,
click MB2 to quit refining the grid.

Horizontal Radial Refinement
Radial refinement can be defined horizontally in X or Y direction. The following
illustration shows how this looks in a three-dimensional reservoir model.
x

y
Refinement area

z

HX

HY

Figure 4-25: Horizontal Radial Refinement in the X,Y Direction

The radial refinements made using the following procedure actually appear on the
screen as a cross hatched line. To add horizontal radial refinement:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click on the Edit menu and select Add/Refinement/Radial In X or Radial In
Y. The following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select upper left corner to refine

3. Click at the top left corner of the area to be refined. The following message
appears:
Select lower right corner to refine

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4. Click at the bottom right corner of the area to be refined. The following form
appears:

Invalid Grid Corners Chosen
This message appears if the area you fail to click correctly at the upper left and
lower right of a selected area. Try again.

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5. Make the following entries, as required. Your entries apply to all gridblocks
containing wells in the selected area.
Grid Name

Enter the name of the horizontal radial refinement.

No. of Radial
Refinements

Enter the number of radial increments that you want
interposed between each well and the edge of the gridblock where it is located. For example, the radial increment of 3 is shown in the illustration on page 4-226.

No. of Angular
Refinements

Enter the number of gridblocks you want to see arrayed
around each well. This must be 1 if you want each radial
gridblock to form a ring around the well, or a number
divisible by 4. For example, the well on page 4-226 has
eight gridblocks in the angular direction.

No. of Increment
along Axis

Enter the number of layers that you want each gridblock
sliced into. For example, if you enter 2, each gridblock
will be treated as two layers of equal thickness along the
axis selected.

Well radius

Enter the wellbore inner diameter. The units for the
diameter must be consistent with the units for the coordinates — generally, feet or meters.

Minimum Inner
Radius

Enter minimum inner radius for the vertical radial refinement.

6. Click the OK button at the bottom of the form. GRIDGENR applies the
refinement automatically.
Theta Refinement Must Be 1 Or Divisible By 4
This message appears if you entered an angular refinement that is not 1 or a multiple of 4. Click the OK button and reenter the angular refinement correctly.
Did You Mean to Enter a Null Refinement?
This question appears if you failed to specify more than a single increment in any
of the dimensions. Answer Y if you desire a null refinement, N if you do not.

The following prompt reappears:
Select upper left corner to refine. (button 2 will exit)

7. Start over at step 3 if you want to refine other parts of the grid. Otherwise,
click MB2 to quit refining the grid.

Extending Cartesian Refinements
Extend Refinement will allow you to extend the size on any side of the original
refinement to a new location.

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To extend a refinement:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click on the Edit menu and select Add/Extend Refinement. The following
message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select refinement to extend (button 2 will exit)

3. Click on the area where the refinement is located. The following message
appears:
Select side to extend (button 2 will back up)

4. Click anywhere on the side of the refinement which is to be extended. The
following message appears:
Select new edge for refinement (button 2 will back up)

5. Click on the main grid at the position you wish to extend the refinement to.
The following message will appear:
Extend This Grid?

6. Click Yes to extend the refinement or No to select a different side of the
refinement, or Cancel to cancel this operation.
The following message reappears:.
Select side to extend (button 2 will exit)

7. Repeat steps 3 through 6 for each side of the refinement to be extended, or
click MB2 twice to quit extending the refinement.

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Modifying Grid Refinements
The following procedures explain how to modify refinements that you have
already created in a grid.

Omitting Part of an Existing Refinement
You can select a part of a refined area that you want to omit. However, the
boundaries of the omitted refinement area must match the original parent grid. In
the following illustration, for example, the grid refinement covers four gridblocks
in the original grid. In this case, it would be acceptable to omit the refinement in
any one of the four original gridblocks. It would not be acceptable to omit only a
part of the refinement in one of the original gridblocks, or to remove an area of
refinement that partially covers more than one of the original gridblocks.
Original gridblocks
Refined area
Acceptable area for omission

An exception to this rule is a refinement that was created inside a previous
refinement. In this case, the original gridblocks are the grid divisions of the
originally refined area. You cannot only omit parts of the subrefinement that lie
wholly within these originally refined divisions.
NOTE:

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To omit part of a refinement:
1. Make sure that Grid is the selected option in the Context area of the Control
Panel.
2. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Refinement/Omit.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select refinement to modify (Button 2 will exit)

3. Click on the refinement that you want to modify.
Main Grid Cannot Be Modified
This message appears if you click on part of the main grid that does not contain a
Cartesian refinement. This feature applies only to Cartesian refinements as shown
in the previous illustration. Click the OK button and try again.

The following prompt appears:
Select upper left corner to omit. (button 2 will back up)

4. Click the upper left corner of the area to be omitted. This corner must lie on
the original grid.
Corner Is Not On Selected Grid
This message appears if you fail to click on a gridblock corner that lies within or
on the edge of a refined area. Click the OK button and try again.
Corner Must Lie On Parent Grid
This message appears if you fail to click on a gridblock corner that lies within the
original parent grid for this refinement. Click the OK button and try again.

The following prompt appears:
Select lower right corner to omit. (button 2 will back up)

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5. Click the lower right corner of the area to be omitted. This corner must also lie
on the original parent grid.
The following form appears:

6. Specify the number of layers to be effected by the modification and click the
OK button.
The total range of layers is entered here by default, and you can change these
numbers to affect only a certain range of layers.
The following prompt reappears:
Select upper left corner to omit. (button 2 will back up)

7. To omit more areas of the same refinement, start over at step 4. To select a
different refinement, click MB2 once and start over at step 3. To quit
modifying refinements, click MB2 twice.

Including an Omitted Refinement Area
If you have already omitted part of a Cartesian refinement, you can easily include
the missing part back into the originally refined area. In the following illustration,
for example, the original grid refinement covered four gridblocks in the original
grid, but the lower right quadrant was omitted using the Modify/Refinement/Omit
feature. You can easily add this omitted area back to the refinement.
Original gridblocks
Refined area
Omitted area to be reincluded

To reinclude an omitted refinement area:
1. Make sure that Grid is the selected option in the Context area of the Control
Panel.

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2. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Refinement/Include.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select refinement to modify (Button 2 will exit)

3. Click on the refinement that you want to modify.
Main Grid Cannot Be Modified
This message appears if you click on part of the main grid that does not contain a
Cartesian refinement. You cannot use this feature to modify radial refinements.
Click the OK button and try again.

The following prompt appears:
Select upper left corner to include. (button 2 will back up)

4. Click the upper left corner of the area to be reincluded. This corner must lie on
the original grid.
Corner Is Not On Selected Grid
This message appears if you fail to click on a gridblock corner that lies within or
on the edge of a refined area. Click the OK button and try again.
Corner Must Lie On Parent Grid
This message appears if you fail to click on a gridblock corner that lies within the
original parent grid for this refinement. Click the OK button and try again.

The following prompt appears:
Select lower right corner to include. (button 2 will back up)

5. Click the lower right corner of the area to be reincluded. This corner must also
lie on the original parent grid.
The following form appears:

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6. Specify the number of layers to be effected by the modification and click the
OK button.
The total range of layers is entered here by default, and you can change these
numbers to affect only a certain range of layers.
The following prompt reappears:
Select upper left corner to include. (button 2 will back up)

7. To reinclude more areas of the same refinement, start over at step 4. To select
a different refinement, click MB2 once and start over at step 3. To quit
modifying refinements, click MB2 twice.

Changing the X or Y Increment of a Refinement
When you first create a Cartesian refinement, you specify the number of
increments in the X and Y direction. You can change these increments using the
steps outlined below. The change affects all the gridblocks in a given direction.
For example, if you are changing the X increment, this feature changes the
X increments all the way across the refined area (not just in the area selected).
Original gridblocks
Extent of original refined area
Area with new X increment

To change the X or Y increment of a particular refinement area:
1. Make sure that Grid is the selected option in the Context area of the Control
Panel.
2. Click open the Edit menu.
3. Select Modify/Refinement and then select Change X or Change Y.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select refinement to modify (Button 2 will exit)

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4. Click on the refinement that you want to modify.
Main Grid Cannot Be Modified
This message appears if you click on part of the main grid that does not contain a
Cartesian refinement. You cannot use this feature to modify radial refinements.
Click the OK button and try again.

The following prompt appears:
Select upper left corner to modify. (button 2 will back up)

5. Click the upper left corner of the area to be modified. This corner must lie on
the original grid.
Corner Is Not On Selected Grid
This message appears if you fail to click on a gridblock corner that lies within or
on the edge of a refined area. Click the OK button and try again.
Corner Must Lie On Parent Grid
This message appears if you fail to click on a gridblock corner that lies within the
original parent grid for this refinement. Click the OK button and try again.

The following prompt appears:
Select lower right corner to modify. (button 2 will back up)

6. Click the lower right corner of the area to be modified. This corner must also
lie on the original parent grid.
GRIDGENR displays a form requesting the new increment value. or example:

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7. Specify the new number of increments to be applied to the selected dimension
in the selected area., then click the OK button to apply the change.
Invalid Value Entered for New Refinement
This message appears if you fail to enter a proper value for the refinement increment. Click the OK button and try again.

The following prompt reappears:
Select upper left corner to modify. (button 2 will back up)

8. To modify more areas of the same refinement, start over at step 5. To select a
different refinement, click MB2 once and start over at step 4. To quit
modifying refinements, click MB2 twice.

Changing the Z Increment of a Refinement
When you first create a Cartesian refinement, you specify the number of
increments in the Z direction. You can change these increments using the steps
outlined below. The change affects all of the gridblocks in a given refinement
area. To change the Z increment in a refined area:
1. Make sure that Grid is the selected option in the Context area of the Control
Panel.
2. Click open the Edit menu and select Modify/Refinement/Change Z
Increment.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select refinement to modify (Button 2 will exit)

3. Click on the refinement that you want to modify.
Main Grid Cannot Be Modified
This message appears if you click on part of the main grid that does not contain a
Cartesian refinement. You cannot use this feature to modify radial refinements.
Click the OK button and try again.

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GRIDGENR displays a form requesting the range of Z-dimension layers to be
changed and the new Z increment value.

4. Specify the range of layers to change (Minimum Z to Maximum Z) and the
number of increments to apply to each layer in the range (New Z).
5. Click the OK button to apply the new increment to the selected layers.
Invalid Value Entered for New Refinement
This message appears if you fail to enter a proper value for the new Z increment.
Click the OK button and try again.
Invalid Value Entered for Zone Number
This message appears if you enter a zone number outside the range of available
zones. Click the OK button and try again.

The following prompt reappears:
Select refinement to modify (Button 2 will exit)

6. To change the Z increment in a different refinement area, start over at step 3.
To quit modifying refinements, click MB2 to exit.

Changing the X or Y Spacing of a Refinement
When you first create a Cartesian refinement, you specify the spacing in the X or
Y direction. You can change the spacing using the steps outlined below. The
change affects all the gridblocks in a given direction. For example, if you are
changing the X spacing, this feature changes the X spacing all the way across the
refined area.
Original gridblocks
Extent of original refined area
Area with new X spacing

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To change the X or Y spacing of a particular refinement area:
1. Make sure that Grid is the selected option in the Context area of the Control
Panel.
2. Select Modify/Refinement/ and then select Change X or Change Y from the
Edit menu.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select refinement to modify (Button 2 will exit)

3. Click on the refinement that you want to modify.
Main Grid Cannot Be Modified
This message appears if you click on part of the main grid that does not contain a
Cartesian refinement. You cannot use this feature to modify radial refinements.
Click the OK button and try again.

The following prompt appears:
Select parent column to modify. (button 2 will back up)

4. Click on a parent grid column.
Column Does Not Cross Selected Grid
This message appears if you click on part of the grid that does not cross the refinement you selected to modify. Click the OK button and try again.

GRIDGENR displays a form requesting the new spacing value, for example:

5. Specify the new numbers of spacing to be applied to the selected dimension in
the selected area, then click the OK button to apply the change.
6. To modify more areas of the same refinement, repeat the previous two steps.
To select a different refinement, click MB2 once and start over at step 3. To
quit modifying refinements, click MB2 twice.

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Changing the Z Spacing of a Refinement
When you first create a Cartesian refinement, you specify the spacing in the Z
direction. You can change the spacing using the steps outlined below. The change
affects all the gridblocks in a given direction.
To change the Z spacing of a particular refinement area:
1. Make sure that Grid is the selected option in the Context area of the Control
Panel.
2. Select Modify/Refinement/Change Z Spacing from the Edit menu.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select refinement to modify (Button 2 will exit)

3. Click on the refinement that you want to modify.
Main Grid Cannot Be Modified
This message appears if you click on part of the main grid that does not contain a
Cartesian refinement. You cannot use this feature to modify radial refinements.
Click the OK button and try again.

GRIDGENR displays a form requesting the new spacing value, for example:

4. Specify the new numbers of spacing to be applied to the selected dimension in
the selected area, then click the OK button to apply the change.
5. To modify more areas of the same refinement, repeat the previous two steps.
To quit modifying refinements, click MB2 twice.

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Changing a Radial Refinement
When you first create a radial refinement, you specify various parameters, such as
the number of radial and angular refinements, the number of Z refinements, the
well radius, and others. You can change these parameters for any existing radial
refinement using the steps outlined below.
1. Make sure that Grid is the selected option in the Context area of the Control
Panel.
2. Select Modify/Refinement/Change Radial Refinement from the Edit menu.
The following prompt appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select radial refinement to modify (Button 2 will exit)

3. Click on the refinement that you want to modify.
Main Grid Cannot Be Modified
This message appears if you click on part of the main grid that does not contain a
Cartesian refinement. You cannot use this feature to modify radial refinements.
Click the OK button and try again.

GRIDGENR displays a form showing the existing parameters for the selected
radial refinement, for example:

4. Modify the parameters as desired, then click the OK button to apply the
change.
5. To modify other radial refinements, repeat the previous two steps. To quit
modifying refinements, click MB2.

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Removing Grid Refinement
You can easily remove refinements from any grid area that was created using the
options discussed on the previous pages. You can remove either selected
refinements, a section of the refinement, or all refinements in a grid.

Removing Individual Refinements
To remove selected grid refinements:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click on the Edit menu and select Remove/Refinement/Single.
The following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select refinement to remove (button 2 will exit)

3. Click on the area where the refinement is located. The following message
appears:
Is it OK to remove refinement?

4. Click Yes to remove the refinement or No to select a different refinement, or
Cancel to cancel this operation.
The following message reappears:.
Select refinement to remove (button 2 will exit)

5. Repeat the last two steps for each refinement to be removed, or click MB2 to
quit removing refinements.

Removing Sections of Refinements
To remove a section of a grid refinement:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click on the Edit menu and select Remove/Refinement/Section of
Refinement.
The following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Select refinement to delete section of (button 2 will exit)

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3. Click on the area where the refinement is located. The following message
appears:
Select refinement corner for deletion

Point Must be a Corner of the Refinement
This message appears if you do not click on one of the four corners of the refinement. Click the OK button and try again.

4. Click on the one of the corners of the refinement which you wish to delete.
The following message appears:
Select opposite corner for deletion (Button 2 will back up)

GRIDGENR displays a confirmation box with the following message:
Delete this Section of Grid?

5. Click Yes to remove the refinement or No to select a different refinement, or
Cancel to cancel this operation.
The following message reappears:.
Select refinement to remove (button 2 will exit)

6. Repeat steps 3 through 5 for each refinement to be removed, or click MB2
twice to quit removing refinements.

Removing All Refinements
To remove all refinements from the grid system:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click on the Edit menu and select Remove/Refinement/All.
The following message appears:
Remove all refinements?

3. Click Yes to remove the refinements or No to cancel this option.

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Rotating a Grid
You can rotate a grid in any direction. All you have to do is select the rotation axis
point and then indicate the direction and amount of travel by moving the mouse in
any direction. You can also specify a precise rotation angle.

Selected
rotation axis

Before

After

WARNING: Rotating a grid does not rotate the underlying map elements. Any complex
alignments along faults or reservoir boundaries will be lost and null areas
will be shifted away from the original fault paths. For this reason, it is best to
avoid rotating a grid after extensive detail work has been done.

To rotate a grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click on the Edit menu and select Modify/Main Grid/Rotate.
The following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Place Cursor on Point of Rotation: (1) Select (2) Backup
(3-4) Menu

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3. Click on the point that you want to use as the rotation axis. This can be
anywhere in the drawing area — it does not need to be inside the grid. You
can also press MB3 to select the axis location from a pop-up menu:

4. Rotate the grid around the rotation axis by moving the mouse in the desired
direction. For better control over the rotation angle, move the mouse further
away from the rotation axis. Click on MB1 once the grid is positioned in the
desired location. You can also use the MB3 pop-up menu to enter a rotation
angle:

A positive rotation angle rotates the grid counter clockwise; a negative angle
rotates it clockwise.

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Shifting a Grid (Translating)
You can shift a grid in any direction. All you have to do is move the mouse in the
direction you wish to travel and press MB1 when it is positioned where you want
it. You can also enter a precise x,y coordinate offset for translation.

Before

After

WARNING: Shifting a grid does not shift the underlying map elements. Any complex
alignments along faults or reservoir boundaries will be lost and null areas
will be shifted away from the original fault paths. For this reason, it is best to
avoid shifting a grid after extensive detail work has been done.

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To shift a grid:
1. Make sure the Context button in the Control Panel is set to Grid.
2. Click on the Edit menu and select Modify/Main Grid/Translate.
3. Position the cursor on the point of the translation.
4. To shift the grid, move your mouse in the direction in which you wish your
grid to move and then click MB1.
You can also press MB3 to select translation offset from a pop-up menu:

When you enter a translation offset, the entire grid shifts in the indicated
direction. A positive y-translation offset moves the grid upwards on the screen
while a negative y-translation moves it downward. A positive x-translation
moves the grid to the right while a negative x-translation moves it to the left.

Deleting Grids
You can easily delete any grid from the current zone or from all zones in the
current model. If you delete only the grid in the current zone, GRIDGENR will
not remove the refinements and nulls that cross this zone. If you delete the grids
from all zones, GRIDGENR will delete all refinements and nulls as well.
WARNING: This step cannot be reversed. The grid will be lost permanently and
disappears from all zones where it is deleted.

To delete a grid, use the following steps:
1. If you want to delete a grid from a particular zone, make sure you are viewing
the correct zone. If not, change the Zone No. setting on the Control Panel to
the correct zone.
2. Make sure the Context button on the Control Panel is set to Grid.

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3. Click the Edit menu and select Remove/Main Grid/Current Zone or Remove/
Main Grid/All.
An appropriate message appears. For example:
Is it OK to remove grid?

4. Click Yes to delete the grid(s), or click No to avoid deleting the grid(s).

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Viewing Grid Specifications
The Inquire menu provides several different ways to view grid specifications. The
various methods are discussed on the following pages.

Determining Grid Dimensions
You can quickly tell how many rows and columns are in the current grid:
1. Select Grid/Dimension from the Inquire menu.
2. Move the cursor onto the grid area (Main grid or LGR), then click MB1. The
grid dimensions appear at the top of the drawing area:
Grid dimensions for Zone 1 are 19 by 10. (Press any Button to
Continue)

3. Click any mouse button to continue.

Determining Row/Column Numbers
You can click on grid intersections and view the row/column number
automatically:
1. Select Grid/Block from the Inquire menu. The following message appears at
the top of the drawing area:
Point to Grid Block: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

2. Click on each grid cell where you want to determine the row column number.
As you click each, the information appears at the top of the drawing area. For
example:
Grid Block (3,2) (1) Select (2-4) Escape

3. Click MB3 to quit.

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Viewing Zone Coordinates
You can view the x,y coordinates of current zone by selecting the Grid/Info option
on the Inquire menu. The following window opens with the requested
information. Click on Close at the top of this report to close the window.

Point to Grid Block: (1) Select (2-4) Escape

1. Click on each grid cell where you want to determine the row column number.
As you click each, the information appears at the top of the drawing area. For
example:
Grid Block (3,2) (1) Select (2-4) Escape

2. Click MB3 to quit.

Grid Coordinates
You can click at any point in the grid or on a paper map and view the coordinates
automatically. If you want to view coordinates on a paper source, make sure the
Reference Points are defined correctly on the Control Panel (see “Defining New
Map Elements” on page 3-90). Also be sure to select the appropriate Digitizer
option (Table/Bitpad).
1. Select Coordinate from the Inquire menu.
2. If you are using a digitizer, GRIDGENR asks you to click two fixed reference
points on the map. For example:
Move Cursor to lowerleft: (1) Select (2) Use Last Locations:
(3) Menu (4) Escape

These must be the same two reference points defined in the Control Panel (see
“Defining New Map Elements” on page 3-90 for details). Click the lower left
point first, then the upper right. Alternately, you can click MB2 to use the last
reference points digitized, or MB3 to select from a pop-up menu.

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3. The following message appears at the top of the drawing area:
Move Cursor to Desired Point (1) Select (2-4) Escape

Click on each point where you want to determine coordinates. As you click
each point, the information appears at the top of the drawing area. For
example:
Coordinate: 22864.68,11190.10 (1) Select (2-4) Escape

4. Click MB3 to quit.

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Chapter

5
Calculating Gridblock Values
Introduction
The final steps in using GRIDGENR calculate values for each gridblock in the
reservoir and produce an array of data that can be used for reservoir simulation.
GRIDGENR gives you access to a special Array Calculation module that you can
use to:

Calculate gridblock values based on existing contours or meshes.

View and print a graphic display of gridblock values.

View and edit the individual data values.

Create a generic data array file.

Create plain text files containing various types of arrayed data.

Create various output files that can be used to create plots and graphs using
the Landmark 3DVIEW software.

Create a keyword-formatted data array file for input to the VIP-CORE
simulator.

Create a list of well grid locations.

The information in this chapter explains how to perform the various tasks listed
above. Before reading this chapter, you should be familiar with the information
contained in all of the previous chapters.

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How Gridblock Values Are Calculated
In the first chapter of this manual, we explained that each reservoir gridblock is
assumed to have uniform properties throughout its entire volume. This means that
each gridblock will have a single porosity value, a single permeability value, a
single elevation, and so forth. GRIDGENR uses the nearby contours to determine
these values.

A Simple Example without Faults
The following illustration shows three different map views of the same gridblock.
Notice that the same two porosity contours cut through the gridblock in each view.
For calculation purposes, GRIDGENR ignores these contour lines and makes all
its interpolations from the digitized contour points (indicated by the diamond
symbols).
To determine the values in each gridblock, GRIDGENR constructs triangles
between the contour points (as shown by the shaded areas in Figure 5-1). These
triangles are treated as continuous surfaces rising from the lower to the higher
contour values. Depending on your selections, the triangles can be treated as twodimensional surfaces (linear surface fit) or as curved three-dimensional surfaces
(cubic surface fit). Once these triangles are constructed, the value at any point
inside the gridblock can be determined by its position on the surface of the
triangle.
Example 1

Example 2

28

Example 3

28
28

26

27

25

26

28
28

26
24

24

24
Single-Point
Evaluation

24

24
Two-Point
Quadrature

26

27

28

25

26

27

24

25

26

28

24
Three-Point
Quadrature

Figure 5-1: Quadrature Methods for Calculating Gridblocks

The illustration above is somewhat simplified, but it shows the basic theory
behind gridblock calculation. In Example 1, for instance, the gridblock center
point is located halfway between two contour points, so it receives a value
approximately halfway between the two contour values. This single-point method
may be acceptable for most purposes, but it may fail to take into account
significant variations in key properties within each gridblock — especially
transmissibilities. For this reason, GRIDGENR allows more complex methods of
quadrature involving two or three points distributed in both directions

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(Examples 2 and 3). Using these points, GRIDGENR separates pore volume per
block and two half transmissibilities per direction. A single value of porosity and
permeability are back calculated using the block geometry. Additionally,
GRIDGENR can optionally calculate transmissibilities using permeabilities from
a fine scale geological model using the 3D upscaling option. This option
calculates block transmissibilities based on both areal and vertical sub-grid block
variations in permeabilities and is described in Chapter 8 of the GRIDGENR
Technical Guide.
Naturally, since the more complex methods involve more calculations, they also
require more computer time and more computer power. However, you can limit
the more complex calculations to specific zones or properties, as desired. For a
more detailed technical discussion of calculation and upscaling methods, see
Chapters 3, 4 and 8 of the GRIDGENR Technical Guide.

Fault Calculation
To model faults properly, GRIDGENR adjusts the vertical height of the gridblocks
along fault boundaries, so that adjacent gridblocks are slightly offset in the same
way that rock layers would be offset at a fault. If a fault has been drawn through
the middle of a gridblock (see illustration below), GRIDGENR determines the
gridblock interfaces that are closest to the fault, and offsets them accordingly.

A

Fault path

C

B

a

b
D

Figure 5-2: Gridblock Vertical Offset in Vicinity of Faults

The illustration above shows a fault cutting through several gridblocks. Instead of
splitting gridblocks at the fault, GRIDGENR determines the closest gridblock
interfaces to the fault, then adjusts the gridblock elevations accordingly. It does
this by drawing perpendicular lines from the midpoint of each interface to the
gridblock center (see a in illustration above). If the fault intersects any of these
lines, the adjacent interface must be adjusted (in this case, the interface between
B–D, and C–D).

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The amount of adjustment is determined by drawing a diagonal line from the
gridblock centers to their common corner point (see b above). The gridblocks
where the fault cuts this line are adjusted by an amount roughly equal to the fault
elevation at this line. For a detailed technical description of fault adjustment, see
Chapter 3 of the GRIDGENR Technical Guide.

Starting the Array Calculation Module
The Array Calculation module is a separate software program developed for use
with GRIDGENR or with Landmark’s DESKTOP-VIP product. The following
procedure explains how to start Array Calculate from either location.

Starting from GRIDGENR
If you are using GRIDGENR, you can start the Array Calculation module by
using the following steps:
1. Select Calculate from the Calculate menu. The Array Calculation module
interface opens automatically, as shown on page 5-263.

Starting from DESKTOP-VIP
If you are currently using DESKTOP-VIP instead of GRIDGENR, you can start
Array Calculate directly from the DESKTOP VIP menus.
1. Select Array from the Input menu of DESKTOP-VIP, as shown below.

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Using the Array Calculation Module
When you start the Array Calculation module, you will see the Display Window
and Control Panel shown below. The Display Window shows color-coded images
of the reservoir grid and its calculated properties. The Control Panel lets you
control the types of data shown in the Display Window. Both of these components
are explained in more detail on the following pages.

Figure 5-3: The Array Calculation Module Interface

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The Display Window
The Display Window provides an area where you can manipulate and display
graphic images of the calculated data. This window includes a menu bar and
display area that are discussed in more detail below.

Menu Bar. This bar contains a series of pull-down menus that let you select
various calculation options. The following menus are available:
Table 5-1: Menus Used in Array Calculate
Menu

Purpose

File

Open grid files, export grid files to other formats, exit Array
Calculate.

Calculate

Set options and parameters for array calculation; run a calculation.

Edit

Modify calculated data values, restore a data file to its originally calculated values, dump the data to a file.

Graphics

Zoom in or out of the current display, redraw the display, set
display options, print.

3DView

Start the 3DVIEW program for three-dimensional viewing
of calculated grids.

To select any menu option, click on the desired menu and then click the
desired option. For example, to open a grid file, click the word File on the
menu bar, then click the word Open on the menu. Sometimes, selecting from a
menu requires several selections that are shown on a series of cascading
menus – just keep opening menus and making selections until all desired
options are chosen.

Display Area. The central portion of the Array Calculate Display Window
displays the calculated grids using color-coding and other features that make
it easy to visualize the data. The components of this window are listed in the
following table.
Table 5-2: Array Calculate Display Area Components
Component

264

Purpose

Prompts/
messages

Lead you through each step required to calculate, set up, and view
reservoir grid values.

Title

Indicates the data type, zone, and plane being viewed.

Spectrum

Provides a color scale for easy viewing of data ranges. For example, gridblocks with 18-20% porosity might be green.

Filename

Shows the name of the grid file currently displayed.

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The Control Panel
The Control Panel of the Array Calculation module lets you control the display
shown in the Display Window. For example, the settings shown below indicate
that the Display Window currently is showing the top-of-surface elevations for
Zone 3, as indicated by the Context field and the Plane No. settings.
The various Control Panel buttons and settings are explained in the following
table:
Table 5-3: Array Calculate Control Panel Buttons
Button/Field

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Purpose

Context

Shows which calculated data type is currently being viewed in the
Display area.

Depth
Rock
Calc Result
Saturation

Lets you select properties or data types for viewing. The various
available properties and data types are distributed among these four
buttons for your convenience. Selecting from any of the four buttons changes the Context field and the data shown in the Display
Area. The selections are all mutually exclusive – you can only
select a single data type from one of these buttons at a time. The
data will not be available for viewing until you have calculated it,
as explained later in this chapter.

Plane Axis

Lets you change the plane of the grid being viewed. For example,
the Z axis selection provides a map view of the entire zone. The
X axis and Y axis selections let you view a cross section of the gridblock structure (slicing through all available zones) from either the
X or Y axis.

Front/Back

Lets you switch the direction of view. For example, if you are looking at the X axis plane from one side, you can view it from the
opposite side.

Zone No.

Lets you select the exact plane to view. When the Plane Axis is set
to Z, this controls the zone number that you are viewing. For example, to see a map view of Zone 2, select Z as the Plane Axis (above)
and 2 as the Plane Number. When the Plane Axis is set to X or Y,
this number selects the number of gridblocks from the edge at
which you are viewing a cross section (edge = 1, second row of
gridblocks = 2, etc.).

Sim Layer No.

This allows you to select the plane to view when the plane axis is
set to Z. If there are no zone modifications this is the same as Plane
No. If there are zone modifications this controls the simulation
layer. The Plane No. and Sim Layer No. are linked.

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Using Array Calculate for the First Time
If this is the first time that you have used the Array Calculation module, the
following procedure shows the basic steps required. The procedures included later
in this chapter will explain each step in more detail:
1. Open a grid file using the Open option on the File menu.
This step is usually not necessary if you started Array Calculate from
GRIDGENR – the same file is available from both modules. However, if the
Display Window is blank and all menu selections are grayed out, you will
have to open a grid file to access the grids and contours. For more details on
opening files, see “Opening a Grid File” on page 5-267.
2. Select the values to be calculated and the methods to be used in calculating
the values.
For details, see “Specifying the Values To Be Calculated” on page 5-269 and
“Specifying the Calculation Methods” on page 5-271.
3. Run the calculation by selecting Run from the Calculate menu.
The calculated grid values are displayed on the screen as a color-coded
diagram. For details, see “Running the Calculation” on page 5-284.
4. To view different attributes, select them using the first four buttons on the
Control Panel.
You can also view different planes within the three-dimensional grid. For
details, see “Setting Up the Desired View” on page 5-286.
5. To examine and modify the calculated data values, use the Modify option on
the Edit menu.
For details, see “Viewing and Editing the Calculated Data Values” on
page 5-290.
6. To write the calculated data values to an ASCII file, use the Dump option on
the Edit menu. To write the data in other formats (such as VIP-CORE format),
use the Export option on the File menu. For details, see “Exporting the
Calculated Data” on page 5-296.
7. To exit the Array Calculation module, select Exit from the File menu or press
Control-X.

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Opening a Grid File
If you start the Array Calculation module from GRIDGENR, the grid file data is
automatically made available to you in Array Calculate. The only time you would
open a file is if one is not opened already or if you want to open a different grid
file than the one currently open.
You can tell which file is currently open by looking at the bottom line of the
display window. If a file is not open, you will see the message “Array Motif/C++
GUI Shell.” All menu options except File/Open remain grayed out until you open
a file.
Once you open a file, this may or may not change the display shown in the
Display Window. If the file does not already contain calculated values, you will
not see anything in the Display Window until you run the calculation. If the file
does contain calculated values, you will see a color-coded display of the gridded
data (see “Reading and Enhancing the Display” on page 5-288). To open a grid
file:
1. Select the Open/GridGenr File option from the File menu.
The program displays a list of grid files that you can open.

2. Select the desired grid file by double-clicking the name in the Files list.
The grid file opens automatically. If the grid values were already calculated,
you will see the calculated grid in the display area. If not, you will not see
anything until you calculate the grid values, as described later in this chapter.
If you do not see the desired name in the Files list, try navigating through the
directory structure by double-clicking names in the Directory list (doubleclicking the /.. entry takes you up to a higher level in the directory structure).

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The filter on the top line of the display must read *.gdb if you want to view a
list of grid database files only. To reset the filter, type it at the end of the top
line and click the Filter button.
Array Data Requested Not Available...
This message appears when you open a file which does not contain grid data.
Although the file has been opened, the Array Calculate module cannot display the
data until you specify parameters and run the calculation, as described later in this
chapter.

Changing the Case
You can change the case and database file being referenced in the Array
Calculator, without having to return to the DeskTop-VIP menu. Use the following
steps:
1. Select the Open/Study and Case option on the File menu. When you select
this option, you will see the following panel:

2. To select a new study, click on the Study Name button. You will see a file
selection dialog box such as the following:

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3. Select the appropriate study filename (should be a .vdb file) from this list.
When you do it shows the default case under Case Name. If there are others,
you can select them from a pop-up menu by clicking on the Case Name field
label. Click the OK button to accept your selections.

Specifying the Values To Be Calculated
The program assumes that you want all available data types calculated, unless you
select only the specific types to be calculated. To select the data types to be
calculated:
1. Select Calculate/Options from the Calculate menu or press Control-N.
The program displays a form that you can use to select the values to be
calculated.

This form contains a table with the values that can be calculated along the left
side and the available zones along the top. The control buttons at the bottom
of the form let you select or deselect cells, rows, or columns, then specify
whether the selected cells should be calculated or not calculated.
2. Indicate categories to be calculated in each zone (see Table 5-4 for details).
The program will calculate all properties for a particular category in a
particular zone if you see the word ON at the intersection of that category/
zone. For example, to calculate saturations in Zone 2, you should see the word
ON at the bottom of the second column.

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Use Shift-click to select individual cells, MB2 to select entire rows, or
MB3 to select entire columns.

To turn selected cells on or off, click the Set On or Set Off button.

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To toggle the selected cells (i.e., to turn all ON indicators to OFF and vice
versa), click the Toggle button.

The following table explains the properties that will be calculated for each
selected category.
Table 5-4: Data Categories for Calculation
Category
Z Values

Property

Description

TOS/BOS

Top/bottom of structure

GROSS

Gross thickness

NET

Net pay

NG

Net-to-gross ratio

Pore Volume

POR

Porosity

X/Y/X Permeability

KX/KY/KZ

Permeability and transmissibility in the X, Y,
or Z direction

Saturations

SWRO

Water saturation at residual oil

SWR

Irreducible water saturation

SGRO

Gas saturation at residual oil

SGR

Critical gas saturation

SO/SG/SW

Oil/water/gas saturation

If you have specified user defined properties, they will also be available to
calculate.
3. When you are finished specifying the values to be calculated, click the OK
button to save your selections and close this form (or click Cancel to close this
form without saving your selections).

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Specifying the Calculation Methods
The Control Parameters section of the Calculate menu lets you specify the
methods to be used in calculating grid values. These are discussed in more detail
below.

Permeability Averaging Methods
For permeability calculations, the Array Calculate module uses a different
technique that the quadrature methods discussed earlier in this chapter. Instead of
quadrature, it uses averaging techniques to calculate a single permeability value
for each gridblock. You can select the methods to be used in calculating this
average permeability by using the following steps:
1. Select Control Parameter/Permeability Averaging from the Calculate menu.
The program displays a form that you can use to select the averaging methods.

2. Click MB3 on the button to the right of each cell to select the averaging
method for each dimension in each zone.
When the pop-up menu opens, click on the desired selection (or drag the
mouse pointer to the desired selection). The standard averaging method is
integrated. Other methods are discussed in Chapter 3 of the GRIDGENR
Technical Guide.
3. Click the OK button to save your selections and close this form (or click
Cancel to close this form without saving your selections).

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Zone Characteristics
The Array Calculate program lets you control how any zone will be modeled
during the calculation step. You can:

Specify numerical tolerances for calculations made in each zone.

To specify these characteristics:
1. Select Control Parameter/Zone Characteristics from the Calculate menu.
The program displays a form that you can use to specify the zone
characteristics.

2. Specify the desired characteristics for each zone, as explained in the following
table.
Table 5-5: Zone Characteristics

272

Option

Usage

dzmin, dzset

The minimum thickness and the desired minimum value for each
zone. If you want the values to flatten out at a certain minimum,
enter the same value in both fields. If you want areas where the
data reaches a certain minimum not to be calculated at all, set the
dzmin to the minimum value and then set dzset to zero.

shlmin

This is the minimum thickness at which a shale layer will be
taken into account. Shale layers less than this thickness will be
considered nonexistent.

pormin

The minimum porosity value. If the porosity is less than this
value within any gridblock, it will be set to zero within that gridblock.

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3. Click the OK button to save your selections and close this form (or click
Cancel to close this form without saving your selections).

Calculation Parameters
You can specify various parameters used in the calculation, such as the number of
iterations, the method of fit, and so forth. These parameters can be specified for
specific properties or specific zones. These two methods are provided for
convenience: one does not take precedence over the other.

Parameters by Property
To specify the parameters on a property-by-property basis:
1. Select Control Parameter on the Calculate menu, then select Parameters by
Properties from the submenu.
The program displays a form that you can use to specify the parameters.

2. Select a property from the pop-up menu at the top of the form. See Table 5-4
for a list of properties.
3. Enter the calculation parameters that will be used for the selected property in
each zone (see table below).
Table 5-6: Calculation Parameters
Parameter
Quad

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Purpose
Normally, the program uses single-point quadrature (see “How
Gridblock Values Are Calculated” on page 5-260). However, for
more accurate results, you can specify more quadrature points.
Enter 1 for single-point quadrature, 2 for two-point quadrature or
3 for three-point quadrature.

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Table 5-6: Calculation Parameters (Continued)
Parameter

Purpose

Fit

Normally, the program uses a Linear surface fit for triangulation
(see “How Gridblock Values Are Calculated” on page 5-260).
For quicker or more accurate results, use the Quick or Cubic
method, respectively. You can type a partial entry (e.g., Q) or
click MB3 for a menu of possible options.

Iters

Enter the maximum number of iterations used to determine fault
values for linear or cubic fit. Default is 15.

Iterg

Enter the maximum number of iterations used in finding surface
gradients for the cubic fit. Default is 10.

Toliter

Enter a tolerance for the maximum change in fault value during
the iteration to accept the solution as final. A positive value is an
absolute tolerance (e.g., one foot) and a negative value is a relative tolerance (e.g., 0.0005 times depth). Default is –0.0005.

Tolitg

Enter a tolerance for the maximum change in gradient during iterations used to determine cubic fit. Default is 0.001.

Nbound

Number of points on the boundary used to define a pseudo-fault
around the boundary. If extrapolation is not being performed adequately, increasing this number may improve the result. Default
is 32.

Zbound

Normally, the program calculates surface fit based on a global
assessment of trends over the entire region. The ZBOUND
instruction can be used to introduce a fixed value into the global
surface that will make all extrapolated values tend towards that
number.

Prop set

This sets the value for the property of that zone to whatever is
given. Even if a set of contours is defined, it will give this value
to every gridblock in the layer.

4. Select any other properties from the pop-up menu at the top of the form, then
enter the appropriate calculation parameters for them.
5. Click the OK button to save your selections and close this form, or click
Cancel to close this form without saving your selections.

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Parameters by Zone
To specify the parameters on a zone-by-zone basis:
1. Select Control Parameter on the Calculate menu, then select Parameter by
Zone from the submenu.
The program displays a form that you can use to specify the parameters.

2. Select a zone by clicking the slider bar at the top of the form.
3. Enter the calculation parameters that will be used for each property in the
selected zone (see Table 5-6 on page 5-273).
To change a listed parameter, you must first drag the pointer over the existing
entry, retype the entry, then click elsewhere or Tab outside of the cell.
Otherwise, your entry will not be saved as you move from zone-to-zone.
4. Select any other zones from the pop-up menu at the top of the form, then enter
the appropriate calculation parameters for them.
5. Click the OK button to save your selections and close this form, or click
Cancel to close this form without saving your selections.

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Sloping Fault Correction
The sloping fault correction option controls how sloping faults will be corrected
along null sections of the grid. (See “Wells” on page 1-9 for discussion of nulls.)
You can:

Turn the correction off.

Use a linear correction along the fault.

Use a quadratic correction along the fault.

Control the ratio of movement between the vertical component and the areal
component.

To control the correction:
1. Select Control Parameter/Sloping Fault Corrections from the Calculate menu.
The program will display a form that you can use to specify which correction
you prefer.

2. Select your desired options.

276

Use No Sloping Fault Corrections to turn off the correction.

Use Linear Fit Along Sloping Fault to fit a straight line through the
points along the sloping fault.

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Use Quadratic Fit Along Sloping Fault to fit each column of grid points
to a quadratic curve.

Use Fit Curve Along Sloping Faults to fit curve along fault slopes.

Use Default Weight Factor if you want the program to calculate an
optimum ratio between the vertical component and the areal component
of the movement.

Use Enter Weight Factor if you prefer to control the ratio of the
movement. If you use this option you may use the slider to control the
weight factor.

3. Click on the OK button to save your selections and close this form (or click
Cancel to close this form without saving your selections).
For a technical discussion of what the sloping fault correction does see
Chapter 3 of the GRIDGENR Technical Guide.

Figure 5-4: No Correction Applied

Figure 5-5: Quadratic Correction Applied

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Figure 5-6: Linear Correction Applied

Ignore Data Outside Grid
If your grid only covers a small part of your data you may choose to ignore the
data outside the area of the grid. This will make your calculation quicker.
1. Choose Calculate/Control Parameters/Ignore Data Outside Grid.
2. Then choose to ignore faults outside grid, contours outside grid or both.
3. Select OK. The next time you run a calculation your choices will be honored.

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Specify Units of Measurement
You can perform conversion between English and metric units during the
calculation of the data. This is particularly useful when the input to the calculation
has data that is measured in both systems of measurement. If you do not enter data
in this panel, the program will assume that everything is in the English system.
1. Choose Calculate -> Control Parameters -> Specify Units of
Measurement. The following dialog box opens.

2. Select which measurement system the input x and y data are in. This will
affect the areal measurements for all of the input data including wells,
contours, meshes and so forth.
3.

Select which measurement system the z values for structure are at input. This
will affect the z values for the properties TOS, BOS, GROSS and NET.

4. Select the measurement system the z values for the wells are in. This will
affect only the z values for the well path and the perforations.
5. Choose which system you prefer for output. All of the data will be converted
to this system during the calculation phase and it will be in this system for
output.
6. Exit the panel using the OK button once you have selected everything.

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3D Upscaling Options1
Upscaled simulation gridblock attributes, such as porosity, net-to-gross ratio,
permeability and saturation may be calculated in GRIDGENR in one of two ways
depending upon the data available. If the simulation layering has been chosen
outside of GRIDGENR, and only maps or meshes of porosity permeability, net-togross ratio and saturation data for each simulation layer are available, the upscaled
simulation gridblock attributes are calculated by the integration procedure
described in Chapter 3 of the GRIDGENR Technical Guide.
This is illustrated in Figure 5-7 and is essentially an areal upscaling procedure
where vertical upscaling of any vertical heterogeneities within a simulation layer
is assumed to have been done outside of GRIDGENR (for instance in GeoLink).

+

=

Figure 5-7: Areal Integration Procedure

However, if geological model information which provides both areal and vertical
detail at a scale finer than the gridblock scale, is available to GRIDGENR, a 3D
upscaling procedure may be used to calculate gridblock attributes. This procedure

1. Separately licensed option.

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takes account simultaneously of the fine scale areal and vertical heterogeneities
from the geological model when calculating the gridblock attributes. This
upscaling procedure is illustrated in Figure 5-8.

+

=

Figure 5-8: 3D Upscaling Process

Porosity, net-to-gross and saturations are upscaled using elemental volume
weighting of the geological model attributes.
Permeability may be upscaled by a variety of methods which are described in
detail in Chapter 8 of the GRIDGENR Technical Guide. These range from
harmonic sum to the calculation of the permeabilities by direct solution of a
pressure equation or by renormalization. These options are accessed via the
Upscaling Options panel, which you can open from the Calculate menu.

The option to perform no upscaling forces the calculation of permeabilities by
Equation 3-1 in Chapter 3 of the GRIDGENR Technical Guide. This is the only
option available if geological model permeability information is not supplied to
GRIDGENR.

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When a fine scale geological model is supplied to GRIDGENR, both areal and
vertical coarsening information must also be provided. The areal gridding is
performed as described in Chapter 4. The vertical simulation layering may be
chosen externally to GRIDGENR, for example in GeoLink, and imported together
with the geological model into GRIDGENR. The vertical layering can be viewed
and edited in the Zone Modification table described in the the GRIDGENR
Technical Guide. Alternatively, this table can be used to directly enter the
simulation layering information into GRIDGENR.
The Fineness Factor controls the number of subdivisions of each simulator
gridblock that the upscaling process uses. For example in Figure 5-8 the fineness
factor is 4, because the simulator gridblock is subdivided areally into 4x4
elemental blocks. The vertical subdivisions are determined by the layering of the
geological model. The fineness factor should be chosen so that the subdivisions of
the simulator gridblocks are approximately the same areal resolution as the
underlying geological grid.

Figure 5-9: 3D Upscaling of a Geological Grid

For example, Figure 5-9, shows a geological grid (the crosses) overlain by a
simulation grid, the appropriate fineness factor would be 8 because there are
approximately 8x8 geological mesh values areal in each simulation gridblock.
The Zone Modification panel and Upscaling Options control panel are also shown
in Figure 5-9.

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WARNING: It is important to be aware of how settings like the fineness factor can affect
the performance of your model in the simulator. For instance, picking
increasingly high fineness factors increases the calculation requirements of
your model exponentially. When you pick a fineness factor of 16, for
instance, the data per gridblock goes up by 162. Creating models with such
large volumes of data may exceed the computing, memory, and storage
limits of some systems. See Chapter 7 of the GRIDGENR Technical
Guide for details.

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Running the Calculation
Once you have selected the types of data to be calculated and the parameters to be
used in calculating the data (as discussed on the previous pages), you are ready to
begin the calculation process. You can run any one of four calculations in the
Array Calculator Main Window, depending on what you want to calculate.

You may calculate everything using Calculate➛Run➛Do the entire
calculation from the beginning.

You may calculate only the properties and upscaling using
Calculate➛Run➛Calculate properties and upscaling.

If you have already calculated the properties, you may calculate only
upscaling and the wells using Calculate➛Run➛Only recalculate upscaling
and wells.

If you only need to know the well positions, you may determine them using
Calculate➛Run➛Recalculate well positions.

The program automatically interpolates contoured data and calculates a value for
each gridblock based on the principles discussed earlier in this chapter (see “How
Gridblock Values Are Calculated” on page 5-260). The calculations are performed
first by property, then by zone. For instance, the program will compute all
porosities for Zone 1, Zone 2, Zone 3, etc., then all saturations for Zone 1, Zone 2,
Zone 3, etc., and so forth.

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As the calculation progresses, you will see messages indicating the current status
of the calculation displayed on the message line at the top of the Display Window.
You can abort the calculation at any time by clicking the Abort Calculation button
on the progress report panel.

When the calculation is finished, you can view and edit the calculated values
using the procedures on the following pages.

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Viewing the Calculated Grids
Once you have calculated data for a particular reservoir grid, you can view most
features of the calculated data in the Display Area. The Array Calculate module
lets you view only a single calculated property at a time. However, you can easily
switch between different properties, zones, or different sections of the data by
using the buttons and fields on the Control Panel.

Setting Up the Desired View
You must use the Control Panel to set up the view in the Display Window. Follow
these steps:
1. Use the first four buttons on the control panel to select the property or data
type to be viewed. These buttons contain pop-up menus that you can use to
select the desired properties. The following table summarizes the available
selections. When you make a selection, the Context field at the top of the
Control Panel automatically reflects it.
Table 5-7: Data Type Selections on the Control Panel
Button Name
Depth

Available Selections
Top/bottom of structure (elevation)
Zone thickness
Net thickness

Rock

Porosity
X, Y, or Z permeability
Net thickness
Net-to-gross ratio

Calc Result

Pore volume
X, Y, or Z transmissibility

Saturation

Connate water
Water or gas saturation at residual oil
Critical gas saturation
Initial oil/gas/water in place

User Defined

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Array Data Requested Not Available
This message appears if you select a property that was not calculated. If the property was contoured in GRIDGENR, this means you failed to select it from the Calculate/Options window (see “Specifying the Values To Be Calculated” on
page 5-269). If the property was not contoured in GRIDGENR, it cannot be calculated, viewed, or edited.

2. Use the Plane Axis pop-up menu to select the type of plane.
Z axis

Map view of the grid (i.e., zone-by-zone).

X axis

Cross sectional view from the X axis (i.e., row-by-row across all
zones).

Y axis

Cross sectional view from the Y axis (i.e., column-by-column
across all zones).

3. If you selected X or Y axis as the plane, click on Front View or Back View to
indicate whether you want to see the cross section from the front or back.
(These selections do not apply to Z planes, since the Z plane is always viewed
from above.)
4. Specify the Plane Number by retyping the displayed number or dragging the
slider. This setting indicates which layer you want to view. For example:

If you are viewing the Z axis plane, it controls which zone you are
viewing.

If you are viewing the X axis plane, it controls which row of the grid you
are viewing.

If you are viewing the Y axis plane, it controls which column of the grid
you are viewing.

5. Change the view as often as desired to see different properties, zones, or cross
sectional layers.

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Reading and Enhancing the Display
Once you select the desired view from the Control Panel, the property and plane
number appear on the display, along with a color scale for determining grid
values. You can tell from the color scale approximately what value was assigned
to each gridblock, as well as the general distribution of gridblock values across the
reservoir.
If the values were derived from contours, the contours can also be displayed (map
view only). Faults appear in map view as a thick dashed line, unless the original
fault line had to be adjusted. Adjusted faults appear as a thick solid line, with the
original fault path shown as a thick dashed line. In a cross section view, faults and
pinchouts appear literally on the display as a pinching of the gridblock structure or
a vertical offset in gridblocks. Grid lines, contour lines, and contour labels may
not appear if the view options are not set correctly.
1. To set the display options, select Options from the Graphics menu. The
program lets you make the following selections:

288

Show Grid

Turns the grid lines on or off.

Show Contour

Turns contours on or off.

Quick Contour

Provides quicker redrawing of contours, but smoother
contour lines. If you select this method, the contours are
drawn quickly, but they are connected point by point with
straight lines. If turned off, a curve is fitted through the
contour points. If you are using the Cubic Fit method, a
smooth curve will provide a better representation. If
using the Quick Fit method, then the quick contour will
provide a better representation of the data.

Show Contour Labels

Turns the contour labelling on or off.

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Redraw with Expose
Event

Speeds up the ability of the event to redisplay with the
Redraw command.

Scaling factor in Z direction

Defines the zoom factor for the Z value. As you increase
this value, the display is disproportionately enhanced in
the Z direction.

2. To zoom in for an enlarged view of the displayed data, select Zoom In from
the Graphics menu or press Control-Z. The program provides a cross hair you
can use to define the zoom by clicking at the lower left and upper right corner
of the area to be zoomed.
3. To zoom out to a wider view, select Zoom Out from the Graphics menu or
press Control-U. The program prompts you to type in an unzoom factor (1 =
same size, 2 = half the current size, etc.). Click the OK button when you are
finished (or Cancel to avoid zooming out).

4. To restore the display to its original magnification, select Restore from the
Graphics menu or press Control-R.
5. To redraw the display at any time, select Redraw from the Graphics menu or
press Control-W.
6. When you are finished viewing the graphic display, press the Return key to
remove it from the screen. The Observation menu reappears.

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Viewing and Editing the Calculated Data Values
You can view and edit the calculated data value(s) assigned to each gridblock
using the Modify option on the Edit menu. The data you can edit is limited to the
currently selected property/plane. Even after you have edited the data, you can
still restore it to its original calculated values by selecting the Restore option on
the Edit menu or by pressing Control-S.
To use view and edit the calculated data:
1. Make sure the desired property has already been calculated (see “Specifying
the Values To Be Calculated” on page 5-269).
2. Select the desired property and reference plane from the Control Panel (see
“Setting Up the Desired View” on page 5-286).
3. Select the Modify option from the Edit menu or press Control-M. The Edit
window appears, as shown below:

Figure 5-10: Edit Window Showing Porosity Data for Zone 4

This window typically shows the values for each cell in the selected grid
plane, arrayed using the same row/column numbers, and/or layer numbers
used in the GRIDGENR displays. There is one value shown for each
gridblock, except for depth properties (TOS and BOS) which may show
multiple corner point elevations in the z plane.
4. Use the scroll bars to move up/down or left/right through the displayed data.
Use the Tab key or Shift-Tab to move from cell-to-cell.
5. To edit any data value, drag the mouse pointer over the existing value and
then retype it from the keyboard.

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6. When you are finished editing all data, click OK to close this form and save
your changes (or Cancel to close the form without saving your changes).

Inquire Information on a Cell
The inquire option allows you to obtain specific information on a particular cell
on a grid. This option can be accessed by selecting Inquire from the Edit menu.
1. Select Inquire from the Edit menu or press Control-I. The following message
will appear at the top of the display window.
Point to cell (1) Select (2-4) Escape

2. Once the particular cell is selected the cell‘s information will be displayed at
the top of the display window. An example is shown below.
[Root](11,8) 6053.5,6073.4,6018.9,6027.6 (1) Inq (2) Esc

The first value, [Root], describes what part of the grid you have selected. The
next value, (11,8), describes which layers of the grid the cell is located in the x
and y direction.
The next value(s) will be the calculated value of the cell. For Top of Structure
and Bottom of Structure only, Array will display four values, as shown above,
which indicates the calculated value for each corner of the cell starting at the
upper left corner going clockwise. All other options will display one value.

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Transferring the Data to an ASCII File
You can dump the same data values that you view in the Editing window into a
plain ASCII text file for editing outside the Array Calculation module, or for other
purposes. This feature applies only to the currently selected property/plane. To
dump an array:
1. Select the Dump option from the Edit menu or press Control-D. The program
displays a form you can use to specify the dump file.

2. Click at the end of the File Name For Array Dumping field.
3. Enter the filename to be used for the ASCII file. To store the file in a different
directory, retype the entire filename and pathname.
4. Click the OK button to save the data in the specified file (or click the Cancel
button to avoid creating the file).
The array data is saved automatically under the specified filename (with no
extension added) in the specified directory.

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Using 3DVIEW to Analyze the Calculated Data
You can view the calculated data in three-dimensional displays using the
Landmark 3DVIEW program. However, you can use 3DVIEW only if your
company owns a license for the software. To start 3DVIEW, select the View option
from the 3Dview menu. The 3DVIEW program starts automatically. See the
3DVIEW User’s Guide for details on operating 3DVIEW.

Printing the Graphic Displays
You can take the same two-dimensional view of the gridded data that is available
under the View option and also print it to a Postscript printer or save it in a
metafile format for printing to non-Postscript printers.

Printing to a Postscript Printer
You can print the grid displays to a Postscript printer. This feature prints only the
data for the currently selected property/plane. To print the data:
1. Select the desired property and plane from the Control Panel (see “Setting Up
the Desired View” on page 5-286).
2. Select Print/Postscript from the File menu. The program sends the data to the
Postscript printer installed for your system (see Chapter 1 of the GRIDGENR
Technical Guide).

Printing to Non-Postscript Printers or Plotters
If you do not have a Postscript printer, you can save the data in a metafile format
that can be used by Landmark’s Metaplot utility to print to other printers and
plotters, such as Versatec. This feature creates metafiles only for the currently
selected property/plane. To create a metafile:
1. Select the desired property and plane from the Control Panel (see “Setting Up
the Desired View” on page 5-286).

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2. Select Print/Metafile Binary or Print/Metafile Text from the File menu.
Use the Binary method if you plan to use the metafile on your current system
or network. Use the Text method if you want to transport the file to other
systems or networks on portable media. The program displays a file selection
box for you to specify the metafile name. For example:

3. Enter the desired metafile name at the end of the Enter Metafile Name field
(respecify the directory path, if desired), then click the OK button.

Exporting to a CGM File
You can save the data to a file in CGM format if you want to use it for
presentations. This feature creates CGM files only for the currently selected
property/plane. To create a CGM file:
1. Select the desired property and plane from the Control Panel (see “Setting Up
the Desired View” on page 5-286).
2. Select Export/CGM File from the File menu. The Export CGM dialog box
opens.

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Select the following:

Click the Portrait or Landscape toggle to define the orientation of the
graphic.

Click in the entry field to change either the margins or page size. Margins
default to the standard .25 inch. Page size defaults to the standard, depending
on whether you have selected portrait or landscape orientation.

Click in the Output File entry field and enter a path or change the default
filename.

When you click OK, the CGM file is created in the specified directory. This file
can then be imported into third party presentation packages that can read CGM
files.

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Exporting the Calculated Data
The Array Calculation module lets you export the calculated data to external files
for various uses, as explained below.
1. To export files, select Export from the File menu or press Control-P. The
Export File Option Panel opens, as shown below:

2. Select the desired option, based on the descriptions below. The file is written
automatically to a file with the same name as the grid database, but with a
different file extension as shown on the following page.

Caution -- You Are Writing to the Current Case
Note that you always write the .lgr, .cor, and .wij files to the currently active case. Even
if you have saved the .gdb file to another name, these files will be saved within the current case, and will overwrite any existing files.
Table 5-8: Grid Data Export Options

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Option

Type of File Produced

Write VIP-CORE
File

A text file containing the correct keyword
input format for entering array data to VIPCORE. Can be used as part of the data to initialize the VIP reservoir simulator.

File Ext
.cor

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Table 5-8: Grid Data Export Options (Continued)
Option

Type of File Produced

User Corner Point

The CORE file may contain the z values in
either of two formats. It may contain all of
the coordinates for all of the grid blocks
(Use corner point option) or it may contain
only 1 set of X and Y values for each shared
corner (xcorn/ycorn/zcorn). If you have a
simple dataset the xcorn/ycorn/zcorn data
will be sufficient. It will not be sufficient for
a complex grid.

Use XCORN /
YCORN /
ZCORN

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Use Dx, Dy, DZ

A text file containing arrayed depth values,
DX, DY, DZ, and DZNET for each layer.
Can be used for input to VIP-CORE.

.dxy

Use Include VDB
Option

Instead of actually exporting the corner
point and ARRAY data to a file, this option
will create a file that contains the VIP
"VDB" keywords and references the
simulator directly to the vdb file. In this situation the simulator will read the specified
array data directly from the vdb file.

.cor

Use Half Transmissibility

A test file containing half transmissibility
(HT) for X, Y and Z directions.

.HT

Split Corefile

A VIP-CORE file can be split into multiple
smaller files or compressed to save storage
space. You can split the file by LGR (local
grid refinement) or by property, or you can
write a compressed binary version of the
CORE file.

.lgr, .fml

Well IJ Layout

A text file containing gridblock locations
(row/column) for each well. Can be used for
input to VIP-EXEC.

.wij

Well Perforations
(FPERF)

This contains the locations for deviated
wells. It is suitable for use in VIP-EXEC.

.fpf

Well Perforations
(PREXEC)

This contains locations for deviated wells. It
is suitable for input to PREXEC.

.fpx

Write Only lgr
and fml files

Text files containing:
- the grid dimension and local grid
refinement information
- Grid block transmissibility multipliers
associated with faults

.lgr
.fml

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000000Subject Index
A
alignment
text

3-106, 3-153

Alt key

defined xx
use with other keys

xxi

Array Calculate
Edit menu

Dump option 5-292
Modify option 5-290
Restore option 5-290
arrays

defined 1-16
dumping to a text file 5-292
editing data in 5-290
exporting to VIP/SIMOUT 5-296
viewing data in 5-290

B
background color
setting for display area

2-71

Backspace key
defined

xx

bottom-of-structure (BOS)
contour type
how defined

3-92
1-4

boundary forcing algorithm 4-168
boundary grids
definition of 4-177
how to create 4-183

C
Calculate menu 5-262
defined

2-24

Calculation module

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basic features of 1-16
Core option 5-296
Dump option 5-297
editing data values 5-290
exporting data to text file 5-292
File/Export option 5-296
Print option 5-293, 5-294
Split Corefile 5-297
starting from GRIDGENR 5-262
use in preparing VIP input 1-17
viewing data values 5-290
viewing gridded data 5-286
Well option 5-297
what used for 5-259

Cartesian refinement

adding to a grid 4-230
deleting part of 4-238
how handled 4-228
modifying X/Y increment 4-242, 4-245,
modifying X/Y/Z increment 4-244
reincluding a deleted part 4-240
removing 4-249

cascading menus
selecting from

4-247, 4-248

2-24

case studies
building multiple

2-51

CGM graphics format
hardcopy output to

clicking the mouse xix
closing a file 2-52
color bar, see spectrum
columns
defined

1-6

coning studies 4-167
Context button
purpose and operation

2-26

Contour button
switching modes while digitizing

3-96

contour maps

color scale adjustment 3-81
determining distances 3-154
discarding/adding points 3-81–3-82
importing of 3-86
label size 3-81
line smoothing 3-81
line tautness 3-81
setting display options 3-80
use in defining properties 1-5
use in defining topography 1-4

contours

adding by copying 3-100
adding points to curve 3-116
adding to a map 3-91

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auto-drawing of curves 3-92
available types 3-92
changing value of 3-122
closed loop type 3-95
closing a loop 3-119
deleting all in a zone 3-142
deleting all in an area 3-143
deleting points from 3-112
deleting specific ones 3-141
incrementing all in a zone 3-129
incrementing all in an area 3-130
joining the ends of 3-113
locking to a fault 3-120
moving points on a curve 3-108
multiplying all in a zone 3-133
multiplying all in an area 3-134
redrawing 3-109
resmoothing 3-140
setting min/max values 3-96
setting value of all in an area 3-125
single-point 3-92, 3-113, 3-116
splitting in two 3-115
summary report 3-155
use in calculating gridblock values 1-10
viewing totals 3-155
viewing values 3-157

Control key

defined xx
use with other keys

xxi

Control Panel

Context button 2-26
features and operation 2-25–2-26
Layer No. 2-26
Property button 2-26
Reference Point button 2-26
Zone Modification 2-26
Zone setting 2-26

Control-clicking the mouse xix
coordinates
viewing on a map

3-154

corner points
defined

1-6

CPS-3 mapping software
use with GRIDGENR

1-11

setting with the mouse

xix

cubic surface fit 5-260, 5-274
cursor
cursor arrow keys
defined

xx

curvilinear grids 4-164
basic description

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D
data analysis
in 2D
in 3D

5-286
5-293

data arrays, see arrays
Delete key
defined

xx

digitizing
using drawing area for

2-24

display control

Gray-Scale 2-75
Green-Red 2-75
moving the color bar 2-75
moving the color bar to specific location
moving the scale 2-75
number of colors 2-76
panning 2-73
Red-Blue 2-75
redrawing 2-74
restoring the color bar position 2-76
restoring the scale position 2-76
restoring to original size 2-72
reversing the color scale 2-75
setting all options 2-70
setting contour options 3-80
setting fault options 3-83
setting grid options 4-175
setting the background color 2-71
setting well options 3-85
setting zoom restore default 2-73
turning the color bar on/off 2-74
turning the scale on/off 2-74
zooming in 2-72
zooming out 2-72

distances
determining on a map

documentation
other related manuals

2-75

3-154
xxii

double-clicking the mouse xix
dragging the mouse xix
drawing area
changing the size of
defined 2-24

2-22

E
edge points
copying from opposite side
how defined 4-167

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respacing 4-223
uniform spacing of

Edit menu
defined

Subject Index

4-193

2-24

Edit menu (Contour)

Add option 3-96
Copy/Merge options 3-100
Copy/Replace options 3-100
Modify/Add Constant/to Data In Area option 3-130
Modify/Add Constant/to Data in Zone option 3-129
Modify/Add Constant/to Faults In Area option 3-132
Modify/Add Constant/to Faults in Zone option 3-131
Modify/Append option 3-116
Modify/Break option 3-115
Modify/Close option 3-119
Modify/Convert Mesh options 3-138, 3-139
Modify/Delete Point option 3-112
Modify/Edit Group option 3-109
Modify/Fault Lock option 3-120
Modify/Merge option 3-113
Modify/Move Point option 3-108
Modify/Multiply/Data In Area option 3-134
Modify/Multiply/Data In Zone option 3-134
Modify/Multiply/Faults In Area option 3-136
Modify/Multiply/Faults In Zone option 3-135
Modify/Resmooth options 3-140
Modify/Set Value/Data In Area option 3-125
Modify/Set Value/Faults In Area option 3-126
Modify/Set Value/Faults in Model option 3-128
Modify/Set Value/Faults Spreadsheet option 3-128
Modify/Set Value/of a Curve option 3-122
Modify/Set Value/of a Mesh Point option 3-124
Remove/Data In Area options 3-144
Remove/Data In Zone options 3-143
Remove/Single/Curve option 3-141
Remove/Single/Mesh Point option 3-142

Edit menu (Grid)

Add/Extend Grid option 4-206
Add/Extend Refinements option 4-237
Add/Internal Grid Lines options 4-203, 4-204
Add/Main Grid/All Point option 4-187
Add/Main Grid/Boundary option 4-184
Add/Main Grid/Rectangle option 4-178, 4-181
Add/Null Lines option 4-214
Add/Refinement/Cartesian option 4-230
Add/Refinement/Radial option 4-232, 4-234
Add/Tie Lines option 4-217
Copy/Entire Grid option 4-188
Copy/Tie Lines option 4-219
Modify/Main Grid/Move Line option 4-202
Modify/Main Grid/Pinch Line option 4-201
Modify/Main Grid/Pinch Point option 4-200
Modify/Main Grid/Point option 4-199
Modify/Main Grid/Recalculate Grid option 4-221

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Modify/Main Grid/Redefine Edge option 4-226
Modify/Main Grid/Respace Edge Points option 4-223
Modify/Main Grid/Rotate option 4-251
Modify/Main Grid/Translate option 4-254
Modify/Refinement/Change option 4-242, 4-244, 4-246,
Modify/Refinement/Include option 4-241
Modify/Refinement/Omit option 4-239
Remove/Grid Line option 4-211, 4-212
Remove/Main Grid/All option 4-255
Remove/Main Grid/Current Zone option 4-255
Remove/Null Line/All option 4-216
Remove/Null Line/Single option 4-215
Remove/Refinement/All option 4-250
Remove/Refinement/Section option 4-249
Remove/Refinement/Single option 4-249
Remove/Tie Lines/Current Zone option 4-220
Remove/Tie Lines/Single option 4-220

4-247, 4-248

Edit menu (Text)

Add option 3-104
Copy/Merge option 3-107
Copy/Replace option 3-107
Modify/Attribute option 3-152
Modify/Move To option 3-150
Modify/String option 3-151
Remove option 3-153

Edit menu (Wells)

Add option 3-103
Modify/Move option 3-146
Modify/Rename option 3-147
Remove/All option 3-149
Remove/Single option 3-148

editing grid values
basic features

elevations
defining

1-16

1-4

Eliptic Orthogonal (Free Boundary) 4-168
elliptic orthogonal algorithm 4-168
Enter key
defined

xx

error messages

how indicated xxii
purpose of 2-24

Esc key
defined

xx

exporting a file 2-54, 5-297
of arrayed data

5-296

F
F1, F2, etc.
defined

304

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Subject Index

faults

adding by copying 3-100
adding points to curve 3-116
adding to a map 3-91
analyzing result of 5-288
association with properties 3-94
changing values 3-122
deleting all in a zone 3-142
deleting all in an area 3-143
deleting points from 3-112
deleting specific ones 3-141
determining location of 3-157
discarding/adding points 3-84
distortion within grids 4-165
effect on gridblocks 1-3
grid border along 4-198
how GRIDGENR handles 1-7
how modeled 5-261
how to grid around 4-172
importing of 3-86
joining the ends of 3-113
locking contours to 3-95
locking other faults to 3-120
moving points on a curve 3-108
redrawing 3-109
resmoothing 3-140
setting display of 3-83
splitting in two 3-115
vertical alignment of 5-261
viewing spreadsheet of 3-128

file extensions 5-296
File menu

defined 2-23
Exit option 2-77
Export option 2-54
Import from File option 2-56
Open option 2-49
Print/PostScript option 2-76
Save As option 2-51
Save option 2-50

filename/ ref. points
displayed in drawing area

2-25

files

closing files 2-52
exporting a file 2-54
grid database (.gdb) defined 2-29
import format (GTF) 2-53
import onto a new display 2-31
importing text files 2-56
opening an existing 2-49
saving a 2-50
saving under a different name 2-51

flow

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within gridblocks

GRIDGENR USER’S GUIDE

4-163

G
GeoLink software
importing data from

3-86

geological zones, see zones
graphics
basic features provided

1-16

grid database file, see files
gridblocks

effect of fault locking on shape 3-95
how defined 4-167
how values are calculated 1-10, 5-260
optimum size of 4-170
optimum spacing 4-167
relation to zones 1-3
why to nullify 4-172
why/how used 1-2

gridding algorithms

how they work 4-167
how to recalculate 4-221

GRIDGENR

Calculation module 5-259
general features of 1-1

GRIDGENR interface
components defined

2-22–2-26

grids

adding external rows/columns 4-206
adding internal rows/columns 4-202
alignment problems 4-173
border following fault 4-198
boundary grids 4-177

how to create 4-183

boundary/edge definition 4-167
Cartesian refinement 4-228
changing border of 4-225
copying edge points 4-194
copying from other zones 4-188
curvilinear 1-13
curvilinear, discussion of 4-164–4-167
data calculation and analysis 5-259–5-297
defining in multiple zones 4-161
deleting rows/columns 4-210
deletion of 4-254
differentiated from meshes 1-13
display brightness 4-176
display color 4-176
display line type 4-176
editing calculated data 5-290
entering point-by-point 4-177

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Subject Index

exporting data to text file 5-292
how to grid faults 4-172, 4-214
importing of 1-12
modifying refinement increments 4-242,
moving corner points 4-199
moving edge points 4-223
null area reactivation 4-215
nullifying rows/columns 4-214
omitting part of a refinement 4-238
optimization of 4-170
orthogonality 4-168
point grids 4-177

4-244, 4-245, 4-247, 4-248

how to create 4-186, 4-187
projection onto zones 1-6
radial refinement 4-228, 4-231, 4-234
recalculating internally 4-221
rectangular grids

discussion of 4-164, 4-177
how to create 4-177, 4-180
refinement of 1-15, 4-171, 4-228
removing 4-249
reincluding deleted refinements 4-240
rotated rectangular grids

discussion of 4-177

rotating about an axis 4-251
rotation of 4-251
row/column numbering 4-176
setting display of 4-175
shifting position of (translate) 4-253
terminology defined 1-6
uniform edge points 4-193
using arc to draw border 4-197
using rotation to improve 4-164
viewing calculated data 5-290
viewing calculated grid 5-286
viewing coordinates 4-257
viewing dimensions of 4-256
voiding unused parts 4-165
x,y translation 4-253

gross thickness (GROSS)
contour type 3-92
use in defining zones

1-4

GTF files

defined 2-53
how to export
how to import

2-54
2-56

H
hardcopy
printing to a Postscript printer

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307

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GRIDGENR USER’S GUIDE

producing CGM files (graphics format)

2-77

horizontal refinement
adding to a grid

how to define 2-30

4-234

I
icons
converting to/from a window

Import
ZMAP file from Openworks

xxi
2-31

importable text files, see GTF files
importing files
from Openworks 2-58
GTF format 2-56
onto a new display 2-31

importing map data

general discussion of 1-11
how to 3-86
in text format 2-56
third-party formats 2-69

initial state
description of

1-2

Inquire menu

Contour/by Fault ID option 3-157
Contour/Model Summary option 3-155
Contour/Value option 3-157
Contour/Zone Summary option 3-156
Coordinate option 3-154, 4-257
defined 2-24
Distance option 3-154
Grid/ Info option 4-257
Grid/Block option 4-256
Grid/Dimension option 4-256
Text option 3-158
Well option 3-158

ISM mapping software
use with GRIDGENR

1-11

iterations
controlling during gridblock calculation

5-274

K
keys
names and locations

xx

KX/KY/KZ, see permeability

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L
Layer No.
purpose and operation

2-26

layers, see zones
linear surface fit 5-260, 5-274
linear transfinite algebraic interpretation 4-168

M
Main Window
defined

2-23

Makcon tolerance and scaling

for contours 3-81–3-82
for faults 3-84
resmoothing options 3-140

map coordinates
viewing

3-154

map mode 3-106, 3-152
mapping software
definition of layer topography

1-4

MB3 pop-up menu, see pop-up menu
menu bar
defined

2-23

menus

definition of pull-down 2-23
selecting from pull-down 2-24
viewing/selecting from pop-up (MB3)

xix

mesh grids

defined 1-13
importing of 2-69, 3-86
used as contours 1-13

mesh points

changing value of 3-124
converting to contour points 3-138
deleting all in a zone 3-142
deleting all in an area 3-143
deleting specific points 3-142
incrementing all in a zone 3-129
incrementing all in an area 3-130
multiplying all in a zone 3-133
multiplying all in an area 3-134
setting value of all in an area 3-125

messages
purpose of

2-24

Meta key

defined xx
use with other keys

xxi

metafiles
saving gridded data to

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309

Subject Index

GRIDGENR USER’S GUIDE

mode
text annotation

3-106, 3-152

modeling techniques
five-point formulation
nine-point formulation

4-163
4-164

modeling, see reservoir simulation
Motif window manager
how to operate

xxi

mouse

button definitions xviii
overview of buttons and operations

xviii–xix

N
net pay (NET)
relation to topography

1-4

net thickness (NET)
contour type

3-92

net-to-gross ratio (NTG)
contour type

3-92

O
opening an existing file 2-49
OpenWorks
Import ZMAP file from

Openworks
Importing from

2-31

2-58

Options menu

All option 2-70
Contour option 3-80
defined 2-24
Fault option 3-83
Grid option 4-175
Well option 3-85

Orthogonal (Fixed Boundary) 4-168
Orthogonal (Free Boundary) 4-168
orthogonality forcing functions 4-168
output files 5-297

P
panning the display 2-73
permeability (KX, KY, KZ)

contour type 3-92
how calculated 5-260
use in reservoir simulation

1-2

permeability ratio (KZ-KX)
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GRIDGENR USER’S GUIDE

contour type

PgDn key
defined

PgUp key
defined

Subject Index

3-92

xx
xx

pinchouts

analyzing result of 5-288
how calculated 1-7
relation to zone 1-3

plane
viewing calculated values in a

5-287

point grids

definition of 4-177
how to create 4-186,

4-187

pop-up menu (MB3)

Abandon option 4-189
Add Points Uniformly option 4-193
Copy Points option 4-194
Enter Next Point Offset option 4-196
Enter Next Point option 4-196
how to view xix
Let Boundary Follow Fault option 4-198
Return to Digitizing option 4-198
Use Arc option 4-197

pore volume
calculation of

1-3

porosity (POR)

contour type 3-92
how calculated 5-260
use in reservoir simulation

PostScript printing
basic features described

printing
basic features described
grid displays 5-293
see hardcopy

1-2

1-14
1-14

producing zones, see zones
Prompts
purpose of

2-24

prompts
how to respond

xix

properties

list of available types 3-92
modeling within gridblocks 4-163
required for VIP 3-93
selecting for calculation 5-269
selecting in Calculation module 5-286
use in reservoir simulation 1-2
user-defined 3-102

Property button
purpose and operation

2-26

pull-down menus, see menus

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Q
quadrature 5-260
specifying method

5-273

quick surface fit 5-274
quitting the GRIDGENR program 2-77

R
radial gridblocks
basic discussion of

1-15

radial refinement

adding to a grid 4-231
general discussion 4-173
how handled 4-228
removing 4-249

rectangular grids

definition of 4-177
discussion of 4-164
how to create 4-177,

4-180

redrawing the display 2-74
Reference Point button
general description

reference points 2-30

2-26

symbols in drawing area

refinement
extend Cartesian

2-30

4-237

refinements

removing a section of 4-249
removing selected 4-249

refining grids
basic discussion

1-15

reservoir simulation

basic concepts of 1-2
using VIP for 1-17

resmoothing curves 3-140
restoring display to original size 2-72
Return key
defined

xx

rock properties, see properties
rotated rectangular grids
definition of

rows
defined

4-177

1-6

S
saturation

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Subject Index

connate water (SWR) 3-92
critical gas (SGR) 3-92
gas (SG) 3-92
gas at residual oil (SGRO) 3-92
oil (SO) 3-92
use in reservoir simulation 1-2
water (SW) 3-92
water at residual oil (SWRO) 3-92

saving a file 2-50
saving a file under a different name 2-51
scale
defined

2-74

scale, in drawing area

moving 2-75
purpose of 2-24
restoring the default 2-76
turning on/off 2-74

Screen menu

Background Color option 2-71
defined 2-24
Pan/(Left/Right/etc.) option 2-73
Pan/Factor option 2-73
Redraw option 2-74
Reset Default Window option 2-73
Restore option 2-72
Scale/Default option 2-76
Scale/Display option 2-74
Scale/Move option 2-75
Spectrum/#Colors option 2-76
Spectrum/Border option 2-74
Spectrum/Bottom option 2-75
Spectrum/Default option 2-76
Spectrum/Display option 2-74
Spectrum/Gray-Scale option 2-75
Spectrum/Green-Red option 2-75
Spectrum/Left option 2-75
Spectrum/Move option 2-75
Spectrum/Red-Blue option 2-75
Spectrum/Right option 2-75
Spectrum/Swap option 2-75
Spectrum/Top option 2-75
Zoom In option 2-72
Zoom Out option 2-72

screen mode 3-106, 3-152
selecting
from pull-down menus
with the mouse xix

2-24

SGM mapping software

files that can be imported 2-69
importing data from 3-86

Shift key
defined

xx

Shift-clicking the mouse xix

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shifting the display 2-73
simulation layers

1-3

addition of

single-point quadrature 5-273
smoothing contour lines 3-81
spacebar
defined

spectrum
defined

xx

2-74

spectrum (color bar)

adjusting min/max values 3-81
flipping 2-75
Gray-Scale 2-75
Green-Red 2-75
moving 2-75
moving to a specific location 2-75
number of colors 2-76
purpose of 2-24
Red-Blue 2-75
restoring the default 2-76
turning on/off 2-74

starting GRIDGENR 2-21
surface fit
specifying

5-274

T
Tab key
defined

text

xx

setting the cursor in xix
shading with the mouse xix

text annotation

adding by copying 3-107
adding to a map 3-104
alignment 3-153
alignment of 3-106
basic description of 1-14
changing 3-151
changing attributes of 3-152
deleting 3-153
mode 3-106, 3-152
moving 3-150
size of 3-106
viewing attributes 3-158

text files

exporting 2-54
importing 2-56
see also GTF files

3DVIEW
using to analyze data

314

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Subject Index

three-point quadrature 5-260, 5-273
tie lines
adding to a grid 4-216
copying from another zone 4-219
removing from a zone 4-220

tolerances
controlling during gridblock calculation

5-274

top-of-structure (TOS)
contour type
how defined

translation
of grids

3-92
1-4

4-253

transmissibility 5-260

calculation of 1-3
reduction in fault zones

1-8

transmissibility factor

changing for all faults in an area 3-126
changing for all faults in model 3-128
defined, how used 3-94
incrementing for all faults in area 3-132
incrementing for all faults in zone 3-131
multiplying for all faults in area 3-136
multiplying for all faults in zone 3-135

triple-clicking the mouse xix
2D graphics
viewing

5-286

2-D/3-D viewing, see graphics
two-point quadrature 5-260, 5-273

U
units
basic discussion of

user-defined
properties

1-14

3-102

UTM coordinates
conversion of

1-14

V
viewing grid values
basic features

VIP

1-16

getting more info 1-17
input file extensions 5-297
keyword format 1-16–1-17
preparing output for 5-297
properties required for 3-93
requirements of 1-17

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using GRIDGENR with 1-16,
well requirements 3-104

1-17

W
wells

adding to a map 3-103
appropriate coordinates 4-174
automatic centering of 4-168, 4-173
automatic centering on/off 4-176
defining I.D. of 4-233, 4-236
deleting all 3-149
deleting single wells 3-148
deviated 4-174
flow distortion near 4-174
importing of 3-86
moving on a map 3-145
producer and injector modeling 4-174
radial refinement around 4-173
renaming 3-147
setting display options 3-85
summary report 3-158
VIP requirements 3-104
why to center 4-173

windows

how to move, resize, etc. xxi
resizing GRIDGENR’s 2-22

X
x,y coordinate
of corner points

1-6

x,y translation
of grids

4-253

Z
z value

1-6
1-6
zero forcing algorithm 4-168
how determined
of corner points

Z-MAP Plus mapping software
importing data from

3-87

Zone Modificaton
purpose and description

Zone No setting
purpose and operation

2-26

2-26

zones

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Subject Index

defining surface of 1-4
definition of 1-3
grid definition across zones 4-161
relation to gridblock corners 4-160–4-162
relation to properties 3-92
subdividing into more layers 1-3
summary of contours in 3-155
surface topography of 1-4

zoom restore, setting the default 2-73
zoom scale factor 2-72
zooming in 2-72
zooming out 2-72

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318

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