DESKTOP-PVT

User Guide
© 2001 Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 159677 R2003

September 2001

Trademarks
Landmark, Landmark logo, 3DVIEW, ARIES, Automate, BLITZ, BLITZPAK, CasingSeat, COMPASS, Contouring Assistant,
Decision Suite, Decisionarium, DecisionDesktop, DepthTeam, DepthTeam Explorer, DepthTeam Express, DepthTeam Extreme,
DepthTeam Interpreter, DESKTOP-PVT, DESKTOP-VIP, DEX, DFW, DIMS, Discovery, Drillability Suite, DrillModel, DSS,
EarthCube, EdgeCa$h, FastTrack, FZAP!, GeoDataLoad, GeoGraphix, GeoLink, GES, GESXplorer, GRIDGENR, I2 Enterprise,
iDims, LeaseMap, LogEdit, LogPrep, MathPack, OpenBooks, OpenExplorer, OpenJournal, OpenSGM, OpenVision, OpenWorks,
PAL, Parallel-VIP, PetroWorks, PlotView, Point Gridding Plus, Pointing Dispatcher, PostStack, PostStack ESP, PRIZM, PROFILE,
ProMAX, ProMAX 2D, ProMAX 3D, ProMAX 3DPSDM, ProMAX MVA, ProMAX VSP, RAVE, Reservoir Framework Builder,
RESev, ResMap, RMS, SafeStart, SeisCube, SeisMap, SeisModel, SeisVision, SeisWell, SeisWorks, SeisXchange, SigmaView,
StrataMap, Stratamodel, StratAmp, StrataSim, StratWorks, StressCheck, SynTool, SystemStart, SystemStart for Clients,
SystemStart for Servers, SystemStart for Storage, T2B, TDQ, TERAS, TOW/cs, TOW/cs The Oilfield Workstation, Trend Form
Gridding, VIP, VIP-COMP, VIP-CORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-EXECUTIVE, VIP-Local Grid Refinement, VIPPOLYMER, VIP-THERM, Wellbase, Wellbore Planner, WELLCAT, WELLPLAN, WellXchange, ZAP! and Z-MAP Plus are
trademarks or registered trademarks of Landmark Graphics Corporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.


Table of Contents
Preface

About This Manual
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
Mouse Buttons (Interactive Graphics)
xvi
Mouse Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Key Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Keyboard Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
Cursor Movement Control Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
F2 Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
F5 Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
For More Information... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
Chapter 1

Introduction
1.1 Program Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.2 Hardware/Software Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Chapter 2

Getting Started
2.1 Starting DESKTOP-PVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
2.2 Main Screen Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
2.2.1 Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
2.3 Data Entry Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
2.4 Pop-Up Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
2.4.1 File Box Popup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
2.4.2 Text Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
2.4.3 Single Item Selection Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10

R2003.0 - Landmark

iii

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

2.4.4
2.4.5
2.4.6
2.4.7
2.4.8

Multiple Item Selection Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option Flag/Confirm Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List Entry Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rectangular List Entry Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Triangular Table Entry Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-15

2.5 Invoke Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
2.6 Get Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
2.7 File Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.1 Batch Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.2 Database File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.3 EOS Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.4 Report Text File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.5 PostScript Output File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-16
2-16
2-17
2-17
2-18
2-18

Chapter 3

Input Data File
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3.2 Last Run - Recall Data From Backup File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3.3 Open - Load Batch File Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.4 New - Initialize Data To Default Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.5 Save - Save Data Into Batch Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.6 Load Database - Load Data From Database File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.7 Save Database - Save Data To Database File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.8 Exit - Terminate DESKTOP-PVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Chapter 4

Setup Simulation Environment
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
4.2 System Info - Add Descriptive Text For Data Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
4.3 EOS - Equation-of-State Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
4.4 Binary Coeff - Binary Interaction Coefficients Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
4.5 Test Type - Laboratory Tests Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
4.6 Regression - Automatic Parameter Adjustment Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
4.7 Pseudoization - Pseudoization Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
4.8 Thermal - Thermal Application Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28
4.9 Water-In-Oil - Water in Oil Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29
4.10 Heavy - Heavy Fraction Characterization Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29
iv

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

4.11 Run-Time Compos - Run-Time Composition Specification Option . . . . . 4-29
Chapter 5

Equation-of-State Properties
5.1 Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 System - Select Component From System Default Table . . . . . . .
5.1.2 User - Make User-Defined Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 Volatile - Define Volatile Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.4 Composition - Global Reference Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.5 Load EOS - Load Component From File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.6 Append EOS - Append Component From File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-31
5-31
5-32
5-33
5-33
5-34
5-34

5.2 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Property - EOS Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temperature & Pressure Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Property Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volume Shift Parameters (D & E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 Binary Coeff - Binary Interaction Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Gas Enthalpy - Ideal Gas State Enthalpy Coefficients . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.4 LBC Visc - Lohrenz-Bray-Clark Viscosity Correlation . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5 Pedersen Visc - Pedersen Viscosity Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.6 K-Value Correl - Component K-Value Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.7 CO2TAB Correl-Correlation of CO2 Saturated Water Properties

5-35
5-36
5-36
5-36
5-38
5-38
5-39
5-41
5-42
5-44
5-44

Chapter 6

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-49
6.2 Heavy - Heavy Fraction Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 Parameter - Input For Heavy Fraction Characterization . . . . . . .
6.2.2 Calculate - Activate Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3 Graphics - Graphic Results of Extended Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.4 Review - Tabular Results of Pseudo-Components . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.5 Save EOS - Save EOS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.6 Append EOS - Add Heavy Fraction Components to System . . . .
6.2.7 Replace EOS - Load Heavy Fraction Components to System . . .

6-50
6-50
6-56
6-57
6-57
6-57
6-57
6-57

6.3 Pseudo - Pseudoization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Pseudo Name - Assign Pseudo-Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Parameter - Input for Pseudoization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3 Calculate - Activate Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.4 Review - Tabular Results of Pseudoization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.5 Save EOS - Save EOS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.6 Replace EOS - Load Pseudo Components To System . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.7 Append EOS - Add Pseudo Components To System . . . . . . . . . .

6-58
6-58
6-59
6-60
6-60
6-60
6-61
6-61

6.4 Regres - Automatic Parameter Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-62

R2003.0 - Landmark

v

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

6.4.1 Variable - Regression Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-62
6.4.2 Limits - Upper and Lower Bounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-69
6.4.3 Control - Calculation and Output Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-70
Chapter 7

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-73
7.2 Common Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.2 Laboratory Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.3 Temperature Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.4 Pressure Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.5 Density Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6 Gas-Oil Ratio Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.7 Enthalpy Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.8 Saturation Pressure Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.9 Weight Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7-74
7-74
7-75
7-75
7-76
7-76
7-76
7-77
7-77
7-77

7.3 Input Data for Laboratory Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-78
7.3.1 Z-Factor: Gas Compressibility Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-79
7.3.2 Density: Liquid Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-81
7.3.3 Vapor Pressure: Pure Component Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-83
7.3.4 Sat Pressure: Mixture Dew/Bubblepoint Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-85
7.3.5 Viscosity: Liquid/Vapor Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-87
7.3.6 Cnst Composition: Constant Composition Expansion . . . . . . . . . 7-88
7.3.7 Cnst Volume: Constant Volume Depletion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-92
7.3.8 Swelling: Swelling Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-97
7.3.9 Differential: Differential Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-99
7.3.10 Multi-Contact: Multiple Contact Vaporization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-102
7.3.11 Phas Envlop/Psat: Dew/Bubblepoint Phase Envelope . . . . . . 7-104
7.3.12 Gas Enthalpy: Gas Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-107
7.3.13 Liquid Enthalpy: Liquid Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-109
7.3.14 Water Property: Liquid Water Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-111
7.3.15 Sat Pressure/H2O: Bubblepoint Pressure of Mixture
With Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-112
7.3.16 Distillation: Distillation Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-114
Distillation Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-116
Molecular Weight Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-117
Residue API Gravity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-118
Distillate Property Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-119
Blend API Gravity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-122
Viscosity Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-123
7.3.17 Steam Distillatn: Steam Distillation Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-127
7.3.18 Separator/No Reg: Multistage Separators Without Regression 7-130
7.3.19 Separator/Reg: Laboratory Separator Test With Regression . . 7-132

vi

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.3.20
7.3.21
7.3.22
7.3.23
7.3.24

Phas Envlop/Full: Complete Phase Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ZGRAD: Composition Variations With Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CO2TAB: Properties of Carbon Dioxide Saturated Water . . . .
Steam Vaporizatn: Multiple Contact Steam Vaporization . . . .
Two Phase Isothermal Flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7-136
7-137
7-141
7-145
7-152

Chapter 8

Calculation of Laboratory Procedures
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-155
8.2 Activate Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-156
8.3 Selection of Calculation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-156
8.4 Control Parameters for Saturation Pressure Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-157
8.5 Control Parameters for Flash Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-158
8.6 Control Parameters for Expansion Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-159
8.7 Debug Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-160
Chapter 9

Report - Calculation Results
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-161
9.2 Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1 Selecting Test Procedure for Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2 Interactive Graphic Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ZOOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VALUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L_TYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COLOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRINTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REDRAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HIGHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9-162
9-162
9-165
9-166
9-168
9-168
9-168
9-169
9-171
9-171
9-171

9.3 GraTitle - Running Title for Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-172
9.4 SavGraph - Save Graphic Report to File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-172
9.5 GetGraph - Get Graphic Report from File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-173
9.6 Table - Review Tabular Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-173
9.7 PrtTable - Print Tabular Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-173
9.8 SavTable - Save Tabular Report to File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-173
9.9 GetTable - Get Tabular Report from File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-174
9.10 SaveEOS - Save PVT (EOS) Properties to File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-174

R2003.0 - Landmark

vii

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

9.11 SaveKval - Save K-value Tables to File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-174
9.12 SaveVisc - Save Component Viscosity Tables to File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-175
9.13 SaveZgrd - Save Composition-vs-Depth Table to File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-175
9.14 SaveCO2T - Save CO2-Saturated-Water-Property Table to File . . . . . . . 9-175
9.15 SaveBOE - Save Black Oil Table to File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-175
Chapter 10

Tutorial
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-177
10.2 Heavy Ends Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-177
10.3 Default Fluid Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-179
10.4 Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-183
10.5 Component Pseudoization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-185
10.6 Regression After Pseudoization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-188
10.7 Regression on Viscosity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-190
Appendix A

References
Subject Index

viii

Landmark - R2003.0


List of Figures
Preface

About This Manual
Chapter 1

Introduction
Chapter 2

Getting Started
Figure 2-1: An Example of Rectangular Push Buttons for
Multiple Item Selection Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Figure 2-2: An Example of Square Toggle Buttons for Multiple
Item Selection Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Chapter 3

Input Data File
Chapter 4

Setup Simulation Environment
Figure 4-1: EOS Item Selection Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Figure 4-2: Test Type Selection Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Figure 4-3: Composition Sor List Entry Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28
Figure 4-4: Run Sequence Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30
Chapter 5

Equation-of-State Properties
Figure 5-1: System-Defined Component Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-32
Figure 5-2: User Defined Fluid Component Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33
Figure 5-3: Volatile Component Selection Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33
Figure 5-4: Global Reference Composition Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-34
Figure 5-5: Equation-of-State Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-36

R2003.0 - Landmark

ix

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 5-6: EOS Property Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-37
Figure 5-7: Binary Exponent Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-39
Figure 5-8: Gas Enthalpy Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-40
Figure 5-9: Coefficients of Lohrenz-Bray-Clark Viscosity Correlation . . . . . . 5-41
Figure 5-10: k-coefficients of Pedersen Viscosity Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-43
Figure 5-11: Tc-Binary Interaction Coefficient of Pedersen
Viscosity Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-43
Figure 5-12: Component Coefficients of K-Value Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-44
Figure 5-13: Correlation Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide Saturated
Water Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-45
Figure 5-14: Correlation Coefficients of Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in
Pure Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-45
Figure 5-15: Adjusting the Salinity Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-47
Figure 5-16: Calculating Carbon Dioxide Saturation Water Density . . . . . . . . 5-48
Chapter 6

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres
Figure 6-1: Parameter Options Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-51
Figure 6-2: Pseudoization Parameter Options Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-59
Figure 6-3: Regression Variable Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-63
Figure 6-4: EOS Regression Variable Definition Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-63
Figure 6-5: Binary Coeff Regression Variable Definition Table . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-64
Figure 6-6: Composition Regression Variable Definition Table . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-64
Figure 6-7: k-Coefficient of Lohrenz-Bray-Clark Viscosity Correlation . . . . . 6-65
Figure 6-8: k-Coefficient of Pedersen Viscosity Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-65
Figure 6-9: Tc-Binary Interaction Coefficient of Pederson
Viscosity Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-66
Figure 6-10: Component Coefficients of K-Value Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-66
Figure 6-11: Correlation Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide Saturated
Water Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-67
Figure 6-12: Correlation Coefficients of Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in
Pure Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-67
Figure 6-13: Assigning Regression Variables to s0 and s1 Coefficients . . . . . . 6-68
Figure 6-14: Assigning Regression Variable to Coefficient d1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-68
Figure 6-15: Regression Limits Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-69

x

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 6-16: Regression Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-70
Chapter 7

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures
Figure 7-1: Gas Z-Factor Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-79
Figure 7-2: Data Entry Table for Gas Z-Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-80
Figure 7-3: Liquid Density Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-81
Figure 7-4: Data Entry Table for Liquid Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-82
Figure 7-5: Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-83
Figure 7-6: Data Entry Table for Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-84
Figure 7-7: Saturation Pressure Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-85
Figure 7-8: Data Entry Table for Saturation Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-86
Figure 7-9: Viscosity Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-87
Figure 7-10: Data Entry Table for Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-88
Figure 7-11: Constant Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-89
Figure 7-12: Data Entry Table for Constant Composition Expansion . . . . . . . 7-91
Figure 7-13: Constant Volume Depletion Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-92
Figure 7-14: Data Entry Table for Constant Volume Depletion . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-94
Figure 7-15: Black Oil Table Generation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-95
Figure 7-16: Separator Definition for Black Oil Table Generation. . . . . . . . . . . 7-95
Figure 7-17: Saturation Pressures at which black oil data is generated. . . . . . 7-96
Figure 7-18: Pressure levels above the saturation pressure
at which black oil data is generated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-96
Figure 7-19: Swelling Test Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-97
Figure 7-20: Data Entry Table for Swelling Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-98
Figure 7-21: Differential Expansion Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-99
Figure 7-22: Data Entry Table for Differential Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-101
Figure 7-23: Multiple Contact Vaporization Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-102
Figure 7-24: Data Entry Table for Multiple Contact Vaporization . . . . . . . . . 7-104
Figure 7-25: Phase Envelope Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-105
Figure 7-26: Gas Enthalpy Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-107
Figure 7-27: Data Entry Table for Gas Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-108
Figure 7-28: Liquid Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-109

R2003.0 - Landmark

xi

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-29: Data Entry Table for Liquid Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-110
Figure 7-30: Water Property Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-111
Figure 7-31: BubblepointPressure of Mixture with H2O Menu . . . . . . . . . . . 7-112
Figure 7-32: Data Entry Table for Bubblepoint Pressure of
Mixture with H2O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-113
Figure 7-33: Distillation Test Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-114
Figure 7-34: Data Entry Table for Distillation Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-116
Figure 7-35: Data Entry Table for Distillation Molecular
Weight Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-117
Figure 7-36: Data Entry Table for Distillation Residue API Gravity . . . . . . . 7-118
Figure 7-37: Data Entry Table for Distillate Property Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-119
Figure 7-38: Data Entry Table for Distillation Distillate API Gravity . . . . . . 7-119
Figure 7-39: Data Entry Table for Distillate K-Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-120
Figure 7-40: Weight Factor for Distillate K-Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-121
Figure 7-41: Weight Factor for Distillate K-Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-121
Figure 7-42: Data Entry Table for Distillation Blend API Gravity . . . . . . . . . 7-122
Figure 7-43: Viscosity Data for Distillation Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-123
Figure 7-44: Data Entry Table for Crude Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-124
Figure 7-45: Data Entry Table for Residue Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-124
Figure 7-46: Data Entry Table for Distillate Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-125
Figure 7-47: Data Entry Table for Blend Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-126
Figure 7-48: Steam Distillation Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-127
Figure 7-49: Data Entry Table for Steam Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-129
Figure 7-50: Multi-State Separator Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-130
Figure 7-51: Data Entry Table for Multi-Stage Separator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-131
Figure 7-52: Laboratory Separator Test Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-133
Figure 7-53: Data Entry Table for Laboratory Separator Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-135
Figure 7-54: Complete Phase Envelope Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-136
Figure 7-55: Composition Variations with Depth Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-138
Figure 7-56: Optional Input for Composition Variables with Depth . . . . . . . 7-140
Figure 7-57: Calculating Properties of Carbon Dioxide Saturated Water . . . 7-142
Figure 7-58: Laboratory Measured Data for SATWAT Option . . . . . . . . . . . 7-143
Figure 7-59: Measured Data of Carbon Dioxide Saturated Water . . . . . . . . . 7-144

xii

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-60: Simulating the MCSVAP Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-146
Figure 7-61: Laboratory Measured MCSVAP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-147
Figure 7-62: Viscosity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-149
Figure 7-63: Measured Initial Oil Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-150
Figure 7-64: Measured PVT Cell Oil Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-151
Figure 7-65: Laboratory Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-152
Figure 7-66: Laboratory Measurements Vertical List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-153
Chapter 8

Calculation of Laboratory Procedures
Figure 8-1: Calculation Method Selection Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-156
Figure 8-2: Control Parameters for Saturation Pressure Calculation . . . . . . . 8-157
Figure 8-3: Control Parameters for Flash Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-158
Figure 8-4: Control Parameters for Expansion Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-159
Figure 8-5: Debug Option Selection Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-160
Chapter 9

Report - Calculation Results
Figure 9-1: Selecting Test for Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-162
Figure 9-2: Example Plot with Graphic Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-163
Figure 9-3: Example Plot with the Control Item Selected on the Graphic Menu Bar
9-165
Figure 9-4: Example Plot with Zoom Control Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-166
Figure 9-5: Example Plot with Text Edit Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-169
Chapter 10

Tutorial
Appendix A

References
Subject Index

R2003.0 - Landmark

xiii

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

xiv

Landmark - R2003.0

Preface


About This Manual
Purpose
This manual describes the functions of DESKTOP-PVT™, a program
designed to simulate the behavior of hydrocarbon fluid mixtures.
DESKTOP-PVT’s purpose is to generate PVT properties or develop a
mathematical model which can be used in a compositional reservoir
simulator such as VIP-COMP to analyze oil and gas production
characteristics.

Audience
This manual is intended to assist new and experienced users of
DESKTOP-PVT in the generation of PVT properties where laboratory data
is limited, or the development of a mathematical model that agrees with
experimental data.

Organization
The information in this manual is arranged in a logical manner for
maximum ease-of-use. The following chapters are included:

R2003.0 - Landmark

Introduction. A general description of DESKTOP-PVT’s functions,
including hardware and software requirements.

Getting Started. An explanation of the DESKTOP-PVT interfaces
including program initialization, basic menu types and basic menu
operations.

Input Data File. An explanation of the procedures for creating, saving,
and retrieving data files.

Setup Simulation Environment. An explanation of the procedures for
defining the simulation environment, including required input and
calculation methods.

Equation-of-State Properties. An explanation of the procedures for
defining the components of the fluid system, and defining the
characteristics of individual components.

xv

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Heavy/Pseudo/Regress. An explanation of the procedures for
assigning equation-of-state components and their properties for a fluid
mixture, as well as the functions used to obtain or modify component
properties.

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures. An explanation of the
procedures for entering data from laboratory measurements.

Calculation of Laboratory Procedures. An explanation of the
procedures for activating laboratory test calculations, selecting phase
behavior calculation methods, and specifying control parameters.

Report - Calculation Results. An explanation of the procedure for
creating graphical and tabular reports.

Tutorial. A complete step-by-step example of a fluid characterization
using DESKTOP-PVT.

Conventions
This manual uses certain conventional methods to indicate the correct
mouse button and keyboard usage.

Mouse Buttons (Interactive Graphics)
MB1

MB2

MB3

Three-Button Mouse
(Right-Handed)

MB1 MB2 MB3 MB4

Four-Button Mouse
(Right-Handed)

The buttons on the mouse are named MB1, MB2, MB3, etc. as shown in the
illustrations above. Button arrangement may be reversed for left-handed
mouses (e.g., MB1 on far right). Typical uses for each button are described
below.

Mouse Button
MB1

xvi

Typical Uses
Used to select menu options, push buttons in the application interface, etc.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Mouse Button

Typical Uses

MB2

Used to clear the menu area so it will not appear on a
screen dump. Also redisplays menu area.

MB3

Used to toggle on and off a help message for the highlighted item in the Graphics option. Also used to access
Option Flag windows.

MB4

Used to toggle on and off a help message for the highlighted item.

Mouse Operations
You can use the mouse by rolling it across the surface of the mouse pad or
desk (except on Sun). As you move the mouse, the pointer moves to a
corresponding location on the screen. The following terms are used to
describe various mouse operations:

Mouse Operation

Instructions

Click

Press MB1 and release rapidly.

Double-click

Press MB1 two times rapidly.

Triple-click

Press MB1 three times rapidly.

Control-click

Hold down Control key and click once.

Shift-click

Hold down Shift key and click once.

Drag

Hold down MB1 and move the mouse, then release
when pointer reaches desired location.

Select

Click once or double-click at the indicated location.

Shade

Drag the mouse pointer across a group of text, or double-click to shade a word, or triple-click to shade a line
or a paragraph.

Set cursor

Click in text at the location where you want to begin
typing.

Key Combinations
Some keys such as the Control key and Alt key are used in combination
with others. For example, you can press Control-D by holding down the
Control key and pressing the D key. The same applies to combinations like
Alt-F4, Meta-F4, etc. Always hold down the first key before pressing the
second.

R2003.0 - Landmark

xvii

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Combining keys may also be used with mouse clicks. For example,
Control-click means to hold down the Control key and click MB1. ControlShift-click means to hold down the Control key and the Shift key before
clicking once with MB1.

Keyboard Operation
Cursor Movement Control Keys
The keys used to control cursor movement include the up, down, left, and
right arrow keys. If the cursor reaches the boundary of a multiple-page
table, a further arrow key movement in the same direction will make the
table scroll in that direction. In addition, the left and right arrow keys
allow the user to move the cursor in the data field to edit previously
entered data.

F2 Key
Depending on the occasion, the F2 function key can serve one of two
functions:
1. In composition entry tables, the F2 key will copy fluid compositions
from other sources. (see Section 7.2.1)
2. In the fluid property table, the F2 key will load default component
properties, i.e., either from system default tables or using interpolation
calculations. (see Section 5.2.1)

F5 Key
In a list entry panel, the F5 function key will either display a cascade table
for additional data entry, or a selection menu for the user to specify an
option (see Section 2.4.6). The user must first place the mouse cursor over
the box cell for the F5 function key work.

For More Information...
The following manuals provide more information related to the material
in this manual. For more information, please consult the appropriate
manual listed below.

xviii

DESKTOP-PVT Keyword Reference Manual.

Landmark - R2003.0

Chapter

1
Introduction
1.1 Program Function
DESKTOP-PVT™ is an interactive phase behavior program designed to
simulate the behavior of hydrocarbon fluid mixtures subjected to any
variety of laboratory procedures. The fluids may be either liquid or vapor,
and may undergo phase changes during the simulated experiments.
DESKTOP-PVT is designed to be user friendly through employing an
event-driven interface with pull-down menus and pop-up windows.
DESKTOP-PVT allows the user to enter data directly on screen or import
data from an existing batch-type input file. It is easy to assign fluid
properties and experimental conditions in DESKTOP-PVT. An extensive
data bank of fluid properties and default values for laboratory procedures
is built into DESKTOP-PVT. Only minimum data entry is required to
complete a simulation. In addition, DESKTOP-PVT provides tools to
create, save, and retrieve files containing input data and results
interactively. The graphical and tabular simulation results can be viewed
interactively on screen or sent to hardcopy devices. DESKTOP-PVT also
provides a batch mode option which can be employed when interactive
simulation is not feasible.
DESKTOP-PVT can be used, in a purely predictive mode, to generate PVT
properties where laboratory data is limited, or it can be used to develop a
mathematical model that agrees with experimental data. In the latter case,
the mathematical model of the fluid system can be used in a compositional
reservoir simulator such as VIP-COMP to analyze oil and gas production
characteristics. In addition, the tabular data necessary to define fluid
behavior in VIP-ENCORE may be generated by DESKTOP-PVT.
To aid in developing a fluid model that matches experimental data, a
nonlinear regression package is provided as an integral part of DESKTOPPVT. This facilitates the adjustment of unknown or uncertain parameters
that affect fluid behavior.
Any or all of the various laboratory procedures can be simulated in
arbitrary sequence. Fluid samples can vary in composition from one
procedure to another, and operating temperature and pressure may
change. Multiple fluid samples can be analyzed with a single laboratory
procedure by sequentially simulating the same procedure for each
different sample.

R2003.0 - Landmark

1-1

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

The PVT properties of both vapors and liquids are predicted by
DESKTOP-PVT by a cubic equation of state. To completely define fluid
properties it is only necessary to specify fluid composition and various
properties of individual components. The properties of a large number of
components have been internally coded. These properties are
automatically assigned unless the user elects to override the default.
DESKTOP-PVT provides a method for calculating a heavy fraction
characterization from laboratory measured properties of the heavy
fraction. The results of the heavy fraction component properties can be
added to the fluid composition to complete the fluid description.
DESKTOP-PVT also provides a calculation to combine components
through a process called pseudoization. The original fluid system is
reduced to a pseudo system by specifying which of the original
components will be lumped into which pseudo component.
The simulation data for DESKTOP-PVT is divided into six major parts:
1. Components and compositions assignment
2. Equation-of-state properties
3. Laboratory procedures
4. Automatic parameter adjustment
5. Heavy fraction characterization
6. Pseudoization
In addition, optional input is available for selecting the calculation
methods and parameters.
In the next chapter, the commands to initialize DESKTOP-PVT operation,
the basic menu types, and basic menu operations are discussed. The
detailed functions of each menu item are described in Chapters 3 to 9.
Finally, the major DESKTOP-PVT operation features using an example
simulation of a hydrocarbon reservoir fluid are presented in Chapter 10.

1-2

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

1.2 Hardware/Software Requirements
DESKTOP-PVT runs on many UNIX platforms using the X-Window
System. It requires version X11R5 of the X-Window System, a X-server
(workstation display or X-terminal) for the display of the menus and
graphics and Motif 1.2. DESKTOP-PVT utilizes 16 colors and to avoid
color map problems with the window manager, the X-server should be
capable of displaying 256 simultaneous colors.
DESKTOP-PVT also now runs on Intel-based PC’s running Microsoft
Windows 2000. It must be used in conjunction with a third-party X-server
program.
Hardcopy can be generated on PostScript printers.
The following is a list of the currently supported platforms:

R2003.0 - Landmark

UNIX Workstations

IBM RS/6000

Silicon Graphics Iris Family

Sun SparcStation (Solaris)

Microsoft Windows 2000

1-3

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

1-4

Landmark - R2003.0

Chapter

2
Getting Started
2.1 Starting DESKTOP-PVT
The DESKTOP-PVT can be initialized in different ways by utilizing
various command line options.
1. At the command line prompt, type dtpvt and press the Enter key.
The program will display the main window known as the Display
Window, which contains the DESKTOP-PVT header. The user must
enter all input data through the menu process or import data from an
existing data file. Refer to Chapter 3 for details regarding the
procedure for importing an existing file through the File menu.
2. At the command line prompt, type dtpvt {file} and press the Enter key.
Here {file} is the name of a batch-type data file. Refer to Section 2.7 for
a detailed description of a batch-type data file. The data contained in
the file will be loaded into memory upon initialization and will be
ready for editing and calculation.
3. At the command line prompt, type dtpvt -b {file} and press the Enter
key.
Again, {file} is the name of a batch-type data file. The command line
option -b will direct the program to execute in the batch mode and no
further user interaction will be necessary. With this option, the user
loses the ability to review the results in the interactive graphic mode
and only the tabular report given as dtpvt.out will be generated.

R2003.0 - Landmark

2-5

Getting Started

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

2.2 Main Screen Layout
When DESKTOP-PVT is started, a Display Window appears, as shown
below. The Display Window provides an area for viewing the graphic
reports, plus various pull-down menus (known as the Menu Bar) for
selecting program options.
Display Window

Menu Bar

Graphic
Display
Area

2.2.1 Menu Bar
The Menu Bar contains a series of pull-down menus that lets the user
select any of the available program options. The following menus are
available:
Table 2-1: DESKTOP-PVT Display Window Menus
Menu Name

2-6

Description

See
Chapter

File

Open files; load last run; save data; loads
and saves database files

3

Config

Setup the simulation environment

4

Component

Define the components of the fluid system.

5

Heavy

Calculating heavy fraction characterization from laboratory measured properties.

6

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Getting Started

Table 2-1: DESKTOP-PVT Display Window Menus
Menu Name

Description

See
Chapter

Pseudo

Used to combine and reduce original fluid
components.

6

Regres

Enter parameters for non-linear regression
calculation.

6

Fluid

Define the PVT characteristics of individual
components.

5

Tests

Enter data from laboratory measurements.

7

Run

Activating laboratory test calculations;
selecting phase behavior calculation methods; and specifying control parameters.

8

Report

Graphic and tabular reports for calculated
results.

9

To select any menu option, just click on the desired menu and select the
desired option (or drag the mouse pointer to it). For example, to open a
file, with MB1 click the word File on the Menu Bar, then click the word
Open on the pull-down menu. A pop-up window appears which displays
a list of file names to be opened.
Some menu items may not be available for users to access if the items in
the Config menu are not adequately defined. For example, the Heavy
menu will not be accessible if the Heavy option in the Config menu is not
turned on. This is because the Menu Bar has been set up so that irrelevant
menu items will not be displayed and cannot be accessed. There are four
optional menus: Heavy, Pseudo, Regres, and Tests. The appearance of the
first three menus are controlled by the corresponding items in the Config
menu using a yes/no flag, i.e., the flag will be used to turn on/off the
appropriate menu items. The Tests menu has a dynamic arrangement,
such that only the tests which have been selected in the Test Type selection
window in the Config menu will be highlighted. Refer to Chapter 4 for a
detailed description of the Config menu.
Although there is no strict rule for the order of data entry, a typical
simulation will follow a "left to right" sequence in DESKTOP-PVT. For
example, a user may first retrieve an input data file using Open in the File
menu. The user can then reconfigure the simulation environment by
invoking the items in the Config menu. Components may be added/
deleted through the Component menu, or component properties may be
modified through the Fluid menu. The conditions of laboratory
procedures may be changed through the Tests menu. Once all changes are
completed, the user selects Go from the Run menu to start the calculation

R2003.0 - Landmark

2-7

Getting Started

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

process. Finally, the user may review the results by selecting Graphics
from the Report menu.

2.3 Data Entry Methods
Both keyboard and mouse operations are employed by DESKTOP-PVT.
Several function keys, which are frequently used during data entry, are
described in the Preface. Descriptions of mouse operations for the graphic
session are discussed in Chapter 10.

2.4 Pop-Up Windows
For each Menu Bar item, there is a pull-down menu associated with the
item (Section 2.2). To access an item in the menu, the user must point the
mouse cursor over the desired item and click MB1. A pop-up window will
then be displayed and ready for data editing. Due to the variety of data
entry requirements, pop-up windows have several different layouts and
characteristics.

2.4.1 File Box Popup
This type of window displays a list of files which the user may open, load,
append, or save. To access a file, point the cursor to the desired filename
and double-click the desired item with MB1. One example of a File Box
Pop-up is the Open window, which is activated by selecting Open from
the File menu.

2-8

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Getting Started

2.4.2 Text Entry
The sole function of a text-entry window is to accept the text information
as entered. An example of this kind of window is the System Info item in
the Config menu. This window provides a place for the user to enter
descriptive information to identify the simulation input data.

R2003.0 - Landmark

2-9

Getting Started

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

2.4.3 Single Item Selection Panel
A single item selection panel is displayed in a single column format and
the selection items are displayed with the corresponding help message.
Only single selection is allowed at a time. To make a selection, the user
move the mouse pointer to the diamond button beside the desired item
and click with MB1 and then click the OK button. One example is the EOS
option in the Config menu for an equation-of-state selection.

2-10

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Getting Started

2.4.4 Multiple Item Selection Panel
A multiple item selection panel is displayed in a multiple column format
and more than one selection may be made at one time. The selection items
are displayed in two different ways. In one instance the options have a
rectangular push button beside each option, and the user may select as
many as needed. An example of this type of panel is the Laboratory Tests
Selection Panel as shown in Figure 2-1. The other type of multiple
selection is with a square toggle button. The square toggle button may be
clicked with MB1 which will toggle the option on and off. An example of
this type of panel is the Fluid Component Selection Panel (Figure 2-2).

Rectangular
Push
Button

Figure 2-1: An Example of Rectangular Push Buttons for Multiple Item
Selection Panel

Square
Toggle
Button

Figure 2-2: An Example of Square Toggle Buttons for Multiple Item Selection
Panel

R2003.0 - Landmark

2-11

Getting Started

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

2.4.5 Option Flag/Confirm Dialog
An option-flag or confirm dialog window provides a mechanism for users
to toggle on/off certain simulation configurations. The standard setup for
this kind of window is a Yes/No question dialog box. For example, the
Regression item in the Config menu allows the user to turn on/off the
automatic parameters adjustment feature.

2-12

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Getting Started

2.4.6 List Entry Panel
A list entry panel provides a place for users to enter and edit data. The
window is displayed in a single column fashion. The window allows the
user to scroll data by using the slider bar, when applicable. An example
for the list entry panel is the test data entry for saturation pressure
calculation. Three types of data may exist in these windows:

Numeric Data - The data displayed in the data entry field can be an
integer or a real number.

Alphanumeric Menu Item - Text is displayed in the data entry field. By
pressing MB3 a list of options will be displayed from which to choose
the desired item.

Cascade Table Entry - When the data entry box indicates more data is
available, the user can access it by pressing the F5 function key or
clicking the button with MB1 while the mouse cursor is on the desired
box cell.

Cascade
Table
Entry
Numeric
Date

Alphanumeric
Menu Item

R2003.0 - Landmark

2-13

Getting Started

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

2.4.7 Rectangular List Entry Panel
This type of window provides a multiple-column, multiple-row table for
editing data. This window allows the user to scroll and edit data by using
the slider bar on either side of the table.
One example of rectangular list entry panel is the EOS component
properties table. The size of the component properties table is fixed once
the equation of state and the components are specified. The user cannot
change the table size inside the window.

Slider Bar
For certain rectangular data entry windows, the size of the table may be
dynamically varied inside the window. An example of these dynamic
windows is the table for entering laboratory measurements in the
saturation pressure calculations. In this table, the number of columns (for
temperature stages) can be increased by pressing the AddColAfter or
AddColBefore button, and reduced by pressing the DeleteCol button.

2-14

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Getting Started

2.4.8 Triangular Table Entry Panel
This type of window provides a special table format to deal with
symmetric matrix data entries. One example is the window for component
binary interaction coefficients as shown below. Since these entries are
symmetric with the diagonal, DESKTOP-PVT will display the lower
triangular portion and only allow cursor movement in this area. This
window allows the user to scroll and edit data by using the slider bars.

R2003.0 - Landmark

2-15

Getting Started

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

2.5 Invoke Calculation
After the user sets up the input data, either by importing a batch data file
or direct data entry, DESKTOP-PVT is ready to perform the calculation
task. The user can invoke the phase behavior calculations by selecting Go
from the Run menu.

2.6 Get Results
DESKTOP-PVT provides an interactive graphics environment for the user
to manipulate the calculation results in graphical form. The user can
review the results on a graphic terminal and manipulate them before
dumping the graphics to hardcopy devices. The graphic results can be
saved into a metafile for future reference, if desired.

2.7 File Type
Due to the complexity of the file requirements, six different types of files
are used in DESKTOP-PVT.

2.7.1 Batch Data File
A batch data file is a text file (i.e., in ASCII format), which is used as an
input data file for DESKTOP-PVT phase behavior calculations. A batch
data file can contain input data such as component equation-of-state
properties, regression variables, and laboratory measured data, etc. This
kind of file can be accessed by an operating system editor, for example, the
vi text editor in the unix system. The data entries in a batch data file
should comply with the format described in the companion reference
manual, DESKTOP-PVT Keyword Reference Manual.
A batch data file can be created either through the Save process in
DESKTOP-PVT, i.e., by selecting Save from the File menu, or the editing
process using an operating system editor. The Save process will convert all
input data in memory into a proper keyword format. The data will be
stored in a file with a name specified by the user. On the other hand, the
user may select Open from the File menu to load data in a batch data file
into memory.
Although there is no strict restriction on the filename specification, the
total length of the filename should not exceed twelve letters. The filename
should comply with the rules of the operating system. The default file
extension for batch data files in DESKTOP-PVT is ".dat", which is also
used as the default searching pattern during the file listing step in the
Open file process.
A batch data file can be used for a direct batch process run as discussed in
Section 2.1.

2-16

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Getting Started

2.7.2 Database File
A database file stores information in a random access format, i.e., in binary
format. Both input data and calculated results are saved in a database file.
One advantage of using database files is that the data can be accessed
more efficiently. It also provides a mechanism for users to access results
from previously calculated runs without reactivating the calculation
process. Database files also serve as a buffer for handling intermediate
data during the data entry process.
Load Database and Save Database in the File menu are used to manipulate
the database files. With the exception of the target file extension, the basic
functions of the Load Database and Save Database are the same as the
Open and Save processes, respectively. The default file extension for the
database files in DESKTOP-PVT is ".dbf", which is also used as the default
searching pattern during the file listing step in the Load Database file
process.
SavGraph and GetGraph in the Report menu work the same as Load
Database and Save Database, respectively. Both processes access a
database file and prepare the data for manipulating the results under an
interactive graphics environment.

2.7.3 EOS Data File
An equation-of-state (EOS) data file contains component EOS properties
such as molecular weight, critical temperature, critical pressure, and
composition (in mole fraction), etc. The EOS data files may serve as an
interface to a compositional reservoir simulator such as VIP-COMP. The
file is in ASCII format, i.e., a text file, which is arranged to comply with the
format of the VIP simulators. This data file can be generated in three ways:

Heavy Fraction Characterization

Pseudoization Process

Regular Run

DESKTOP-PVT also provides mechanisms to read EOS data file so that the
EOS data generated in the previous runs can be used as the initial input
for the next run. See Sections 5.1.5 and 5.1.6 for details of reading EOS data
files.

R2003.0 - Landmark

2-17

Getting Started

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

2.7.4 Report Text File
Once calculations are completed, DESKTOP-PVT will generate an output
file in text format. This file is accessible through the system editor and can
be sent to a line printer for obtaining a hardcopy. The user can review this
file by selecting Table from the Report menu without leaving the
DESKTOP-PVT environment. This task is accomplished by invoking a
system editor to access this file through a subprocess mechanism. The file
can also be sent to a system line printer directly by selecting PrtTable from
the Report menu.

2.7.5 PostScript Output File
A PostScript output file is generated for printing on a PostScript printer
when the PRINTER option is chosen. The output filename will be set to
the environment variable VIPPSOUT (or “psout.ps" if it is not defined).
The output file is automatically routed through the print queue, defined
by VIPPRINTER, to the printer defined by the environment variable
VIPPOST.

2-18

Landmark - R2003.0

Chapter

3
Input Data File
3.1 Introduction
The File menu in the Menu Bar provides a means for creating, saving and
retrieving files containing simulation input data and results. There are
seven selection items in this menu:

Last Run

Open

New

Save

Load Database

Save Database

Exit

3.2 Last Run - Recall Data From Backup File
The Last Run option is used to recall the input data from the most recent
simulation run. This option is activated by selecting Last Run from the File
menu. No data entry is required. To recall data from the last run,
DESKTOP-PVT reads input data from the file dtpvt.ini which is saved
when the user exits DESKTOP-PVT normally by selecting Exit from the
File menu. In addition, this file is also created for the simulator’s
calculation engine while the user activates the calculation process. In this
way, the user will have a backup copy of input data after a system crash.
These options allow the user to quit DESKTOP-PVT simulation
temporarily without losing his current input data set.

R2003.0 - Landmark

3-19

Input Data File

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

3.3 Open - Load Batch File Data
The user can view a list of input data files in the working directory, and
instruct DESKTOP-PVT to read a specified file using the Open option. By
default, DESKTOP-PVT will list all files with the file extension ".dat" in the
working directory. To select and read an input data file, select the desired
item by clicking the file name with MB1 and then click the Ok button.
Before loading the data into memory, DESKTOP-PVT checks the contents
and format of the file. DESKTOP-PVT will display a warning message if
erroneous data is detected.

3.4 New - Initialize Data To Default Values
Unlike the Open option, no files will be opened when the New option has
been selected. The main purpose of the New option is to initialize all data
in memory to the DESKTOP-PVT default values. This option allows the
user to redesign the simulation conditions from scratch. The New option
is automatically processed each time the user activates DESKTOP-PVT;
therefore, it is not necessary to select New to load the default values for a
fresh simulation. No additional data entry is required.

3.5 Save - Save Data Into Batch Data File
The Save option allows the user to save the input data currently in
memory to a file in the working directory. The user is asked to enter a file
name. A maximum length of twelve letters is allowed for an input data file
name. DESKTOP-PVT lists input data files with the extension ".dat" by
default in the Open process. It is recommended that the file extension .dat"
be used when saving an input data file.

3.6 Load Database - Load Data From Database File
The Load Database option is similar to the Open option, except now a
database file is read and loaded into memory. A database file contains
input data and simulation results. The default database file extension is
".dbf", and by default these files are automatically listed when the Load
Database option is selected.

3.7 Save Database - Save Data To Database File
The current input data and simulation results can be saved in a database
file using the Save Database option. The user is asked to enter a file name
with a maximum length of twelve letters. This option works very similar
to that of the Save option, except now a database file is saved. It is
recommended that the file extension ".dbf" be used to name a database
file.

3-20

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data File

3.8 Exit - Terminate DESKTOP-PVT
The Exit option allows the user to exit DESKTOP-PVT normally. No data
entries are required. In addition to terminating the working environment,
DESKTOP-PVT automatically saves the current data in memory in a file
named dtpvt.ini. The file dtpvt.ini can be loaded into memory through
the Last Run option.

R2003.0 - Landmark

3-21

Input Data File

3-22

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Landmark - R2003.0

Chapter

4
Setup Simulation Environment
4.1 Introduction
The major function of the Config menu is to define the global simulation
environment. Through the Config menu selections, the user dictates the
required input and the calculations DESKTOP-PVT will perform later. The
simulation details, however, are not required to input at this stage. For
example, the Regression entry in the Config menu is used to activate (or
deactivate) the DESKTOP-PVT nonlinear regression function which
allows automatic adjustment of the equation-of-state properties of
individual components. When the Regression option is on (activated), the
corresponding menu for nonlinear regression will be displayed on the
Menu Bar entitled Regres. The Regres menu requires the specification of
regression parameters.
There are twelve items under the Config menu.

R2003.0 - Landmark

System Info

EOS

Binary Coeff

Test Type

Regression

Pseudoization

Thermal

Water-In-Oil

Heavy

Run-Time Compos

Composition Sor

Run Sequence

4-23

Setup Simulation Environment

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Two of the items, Composition Sor and Run Sequence, will be displayed
only if the Pseudoization and Run-Time Compos options are activated,
respectively. Because of their calculation features, the functions of
Regression, Pseudoization and Heavy are mutually exclusive, i.e., only
one of the three functions can be activated at a time.

4.2 System Info - Add Descriptive Text For Data Set
The System Info option allows the user to add descriptive text to identify
the current data set. A maximum of 10 lines with 50 letters each is allowed.

4.3 EOS - Equation-of-State Selection
The EOS option is for the equation-of-state (EOS) selection. The specified
equation-of-state will be used to describe the fluid properties for all
laboratory procedures. The available equations of state include PengRobinson (PR), Original Peng-Robinson (PRORIG), Soave-Redlich-Kwong
(SRK), Redlich-Kwong (RK), Zudkevitch-Joffe-Redlich-Kwong (ZJRK),
and the three-parameter (3P) versions of PR, SRK and RK. The default is
the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR).
Figure 4-1 shows the EOS selection panel. To make a selection, the user
clicks the diamond button next to the desired item, and then click the Ok
button.

Figure 4-1: EOS Item Selection Panel

4-24

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Setup Simulation Environment

4.4 Binary Coeff - Binary Interaction Coefficients Options
Two methods are available for defining binary interaction coefficients (djk)
in DESKTOP-PVT. The Binary Coeff option is used for this selection. The
binary interaction coefficients are read in explicitly if the "YES" option is
selected, otherwise they are computed from a correlation. The default is to
read djk explicitly.
A triangular table under the Binary Coeff item of the Fluid menu is
provided for data entry if djk is read in explicitly. Otherwise, the binary
interaction coefficients are computed using the correlation
1⁄6

1 ⁄ 6 djkcor

2v cj ⋅ v ck
djk = 1 – --------------------------1⁄3
1⁄3
v cj + v ck

where vcj and vck are the critical volumes for component j and k,
respectively, and djkcor is an input exponent.

4.5 Test Type - Laboratory Tests Selection
The Test Type option is used to specify the simulated laboratory test
procedures. Figure 4-2 shows the Test Type selection panel. The user must
select at least one test procedure. Both multiple selections of the various
laboratory procedures, and multiple runs of a laboratory procedure are
allowed. A maximum of nine runs is allowed for each test procedure. The
total number of runs for all test procedures cannot exceed twenty-four.

Figure 4-2: Test Type Selection Panel

The numerical key 1 can be used to specify one run for a selected test
procedure or the user can click the name of the desired item and an
asterisk will appear in the cell box. The asterisk indicates that one test run
has been defined. To specify multiple runs for a test procedure, the
numerical keys 2 to 9 are used to edit the number of runs in the data entry
field to the left of the test type name. Whenever any data exists in the data
entry field, click the test type name button to clear the field.

R2003.0 - Landmark

4-25

Setup Simulation Environment

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

The available laboratory procedures are:

4-26

Z-factor. Gas compressibility factor (Z-FACTOR)

Density. Liquid density (LIQDEN)

Vapor Pressure. Vapor pressure of a pure component (VP)

Sat Pressure. Saturation Pressure (dew point or bubble point) of a
mixture (PSAT)

Viscosity. Liquid and gas viscosity (VISC)

Cnst Composition. Constant composition expansion procedure
(CCEXP)

Cnst Volume. Constant volume depletion procedure (CVDEP)

Swelling. Swelling test procedure (SWELL)

Differential. Differential expansion procedure (DIFF)

Multi-Contact. Multiple contact vaporization test (MCVAP)

Phas Envlop/Psat. Phase envelope calculation (dew point and bubble
point calculation) (ENVELOPE)

Gas Enthalpy. Gas enthalpy (ENTHV)

Liquid Enthalpy. Liquid enthalpy (ENTHL)

Water Property. Liquid water properties of density, enthalpy, viscosity
and fugacity coefficient (WATPRP)

Sat Pressure/H2O. Bubble point pressure of a mixture in the presence
of water (PSATW)

Distillation. Distillation test (DISTIL)

Steam Distillatn. Steam distillation procedure (STMDIS)

Separator/No Reg. Multistage separators without regression option
(SEPARATOR)

Separator/Reg. Laboratory separator test with regression option (SEP)

Phas Envlop/Full. Complete phase envelope calculation (ENVPT)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Setup Simulation Environment

ZGRAD. Composition variations with depth (ZGRAD).

CO2TAB. Properties of CO2 saturated water (CO2TAB).

Steam Vaporizatn. Multiple contact steam vaporization (MSCVAP).

Two Phase Flash. Isothermal two phase flash (FL2I).

4.6 Regression - Automatic Parameter Adjustment Option
The Regression option is used to activate (or deactivate) the nonlinear
regression function for automatic adjustment of the equation-of-state
properties of individual components. The default is no regression. When
the regression option is activated, the data entry menu for nonlinear
regression will be displayed on the Menu Bar entitled Regres. The user
must specify the regression parameters in the Regres menu.

4.7 Pseudoization - Pseudoization Option
Pseudoization is a calculation procedure used to combine and reduce
original fluid components to a pseudo system by specifying which of the
original components will be lumped into which pseudo component. The
Pseudoization option in the Config menu is used for selecting this option.
The default is no pseudoization calculations. Similar to the Regression
option, a data entry menu for pseudoization calculation will be displayed
on the Menu bar entitled Pseudo.
In DESKTOP-PVT, pseudoization can be performed as a stand-alone
calculation, or in conjunction with laboratory procedures. An additional
selection item, Composition Sor, will be displayed in the Config menu if
the pseudoization option is activated. Figure 4-3 is an example of the
Composition Sor List Entry Panel. This option is used to specify the fluid
composition (source) of laboratory procedures either as unpseudoized
(Original selection) or pseudoized (Pseudo selection) when pseudoization
is run together with laboratory procedures. Regardless of any Pseudo
selections in the Composition Sor window, the pseudoization calculation
will be performed if the Pseudoization option is activated. The
pseudoization input requirements and the procedures for stand-alone
pseudoization are discussed in Chapter 6.

R2003.0 - Landmark

4-27

Setup Simulation Environment

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 4-3: Composition Sor List Entry Panel

4.8 Thermal - Thermal Application Option
The Thermal option is a thermal application function designed for VIPTHERM. By default, this option is not activated. The Thermal option is
restricted to Peng-Robinson equation of state when activated.
Two special actions will be taken when this option is activated. First, a
special equation-of-state PVT properties file for VIP-THERM will be
created. Second, extra menus for binary interaction coefficients of H2O
(water) and other fluid components, both in regression variables (Regres
menu) and fluid properties (Fluid menu) assignments, will be displayed.
These menus allow the user to specify the binary interaction coefficients of
H2O and other components even if H2O is not specified as a component.
Furthermore, DESKTOP-PVT will load other H2O equation-of-state
properties automatically for thermal applications.
These binary interaction coefficients and H2O properties are pertinent
only to the steam distillation test, multiple contact steam vaporization test
and saturation pressure calculation with water.

4-28

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Setup Simulation Environment

4.9 Water-In-Oil - Water in Oil Option
The Water-In-Oil option is a thermal application function designed for
VIP-THERM. Using the Water-In-Oil option, water may be allowed to
partition into the oil phase in the multiple contact steam vaporization test,
steam distillation test, and the saturation pressure with water calculation.
In all of these tests, water is an implicitly defined component and, for VIPTHERM applications, should not be defined as a component by the user in
the component properties data. Other tests are not affected by the
selection of this option. By default, this option is not activated. The WaterIn-Oil option can be turned on (Yes Selection) only if the Thermal option is
activated.

4.10 Heavy - Heavy Fraction Characterization Option
The Heavy option is used to perform a heavy fraction characterization
from laboratory measured properties of the heavy fraction. The heavy
fraction characterization procedure is a stand-alone calculation, and
cannot run with other calculations. By default, this option is not activated.
Refer to Chapter 6 for more information regarding the heavy fraction
characterization.

4.11 Run-Time Compos - Run-Time Composition Specification
Option
There are two options available for specifying unpseudoized fluid
compositions (mole fractions) in DESKTOP-PVT. Usually, the fluid
compositions are entered directly for each laboratory procedure under the
Composition entry of the test data window. In some cases, the
composition required for a test calculation is actually the vapor, liquid, or
overall composition of some intermediate step in another laboratory test.
The Run-Time Compos option is provided for these special applications.
The default for this option is No, and all fluid compositions should be
entered directly.
The laboratory tests for which this composition specification is available
include constant composition expansion, constant volume depletion,
swelling, differential expansion and composition variations with depth.
The restriction for the intermediate step composition specification is that
the reference to the composition from a type of test must pertain to the
most recently entered test of that type in the data stream.
The Run Sequence option, which will be displayed when the Run-Time
Compos option is activated, is used for the "referenced" composition
specifications. Figure 4-4 is an example of the Run Sequence window. In
this window, the first column lists the laboratory procedures (Test), and
the second column displays the run numbers (Run ID) for each laboratory
procedure. Data may not be entered in these columns. The third column

R2003.0 - Landmark

4-29

Setup Simulation Environment

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

(Intermed Comp) is used to specify if the composition of a test calculation
is from the Liquid, Vapor, or Overall composition of some intermediate
step in another test. The default is to enter composition directly (No
selection). Numerical numbers are entered in the Run Sequence entries to
specify the order of the test runs. A smaller number has a higher priority
in the run sequence. The user must pay special attention to the run order,
i.e., a test must be run before its liquid, vapor, or overall compositions can
be referenced by other tests.

Figure 4-4: Run Sequence Panel

4-30

Landmark - R2003.0

Chapter

5
Equation-of-State Properties
5.1 Component
The Component menu allows the user to define the components of the
fluid system used for phase behavior simulation. The component
information is one of the bases of the fluid system. Many input data in
DESKTOP-PVT are dependent upon components specification. Thus,
components should be defined before accessing other data screens. There
are six items available in the Component menu for defining fluid
components:

System

User

Volatile

Composition

Load EOS

Append EOS

5.1.1 System - Select Component From System Default Table
The System option in the Component menu allows the user to select
components whose properties are internally coded in DESKTOP-PVT.
Default properties, such as critical properties, binary interaction
coefficients, and ideal gas state enthalpy coefficients, will be automatically
loaded upon exiting this menu. These properties can be edited to override
the default values.
Upon selecting the System option, a multiple item selection panel
(Figure 5-1) will be displayed. The panel contains system-defined
component names. Select the options by clicking the square button next to

R2003.0 - Landmark

5-31

Equation-of-State Properties

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

the desired option. When finished, click the OK button to return to the
display window.

Figure 5-1: System-Defined Component Panel

5.1.2 User - Make User-Defined Component
The User option in the Component menu allows the user to define
components different from those of system-defined. The component
properties, however, are not supplied by the program and the user must
provide the component properties in the Fluid menu for each component.
In the user-defined fluid component table, click the AddRowAfter (or
AddRowBefore) button to add components, and click the DeleteRow
button to remove components (Figure 5-2). For each added component,
the user must give a name that is different from the System. If a name is

5-32

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Equation-of-State Properties

not given, DESKTOP-PVT will automatically assign a default name
starting with "USR".

Figure 5-2: User Defined Fluid Component Table

5.1.3 Volatile - Define Volatile Component
Volatile is a special option for thermal applications. This option is used to
select the volatile components for thermal simulations, i.e., steam
distillation and bubble point pressure calculation of a mixture in the
presence of water. All components are volatile by default. To select a
volatile component, click the square button next to the desired button.
Figure 5-3 is an example of the volatile component selection panel.

Figure 5-3: Volatile Component Selection Panel

5.1.4 Composition - Global Reference Composition
The fluid composition is a required input for all laboratory test
procedures. DESKTOP-PVT provides a mechanism so one test can load
the composition directly from another test. The Composition item
provides a global buffer for all tests to access a common composition.
When the user opens a batch data file the global composition is loaded

R2003.0 - Landmark

5-33

Equation-of-State Properties

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

with the composition of the first test. Figure 5-4 is an example menu for
entering global composition.

Figure 5-4: Global Reference Composition Panel

5.1.5 Load EOS - Load Component From File
The Load EOS option is used to open an EOS data file and load its
information into memory. An EOS data file contains information such as
component names, component critical properties, component
composition, etc. The user needs to be aware that all component data in
memory will be replaced on activating Load EOS. This option can be used,
for example, to import the component properties from a previous
(pseudoization or regression) run as the fluid properties for the next run
(e.g. different test procedures or temperatures).
The Load EOS option works similarly to the Open option in the File menu,
except now an EOS data file is read and loaded into memory. The default
EOS file extension is ".eos", and by default these files are automatically
listed on activating Load EOS.

5.1.6 Append EOS - Append Component From File
Different from Load EOS, the option Append EOS will access the data
contained in an EOS file and append its information to the current fluid
description. The components in the file will be merged into the current
component pool. The Append EOS procedures are the same as those of
Load EOS.

5-34

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Equation-of-State Properties

5.2 Fluid Properties
Fluid Properties data are entered to define the PVT characteristics of
individual components. These are combined by appropriate mixing rules
and used with the equation of state to determine the properties of
mixtures. Default properties for system-defined components, as discussed
in Section 5.1.1, are internally coded. However, the user may elect to
override the defaults.
There are nine items in the Fluid menu.

Property

Binary Coeff

Binary Exponent

H2O Binary Coef

Gas Enthalpy

LBC Visc

Pedersen Visc

K-Value Correl

CO2TAB Correl

These items can be accessed only if fluid components have been defined in
the Component menu, as described in Section 5.1. The following sections
discuss the options on this menu in more detail.

R2003.0 - Landmark

5-35

Equation-of-State Properties

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

5.2.1 Property - EOS Property
The Property option in the Fluid menu is used to access the component
EOS properties. After selecting Property, three items will be listed in the
data entry window (Figure 5-5). However, five items will be displayed if a
three-parameter equation-of-state has been specified.

Figure 5-5: Equation-of-State Properties

Temperature & Pressure Unit
The first two items are used to define the temperature and pressure units
for values in the property table. To select the temperature or pressure unit,
the user may either type the options in directly or click the entry cell with
MB3 to access an option window. When the option window is accessed,
click the diamond button next to the desired item and click the OK button
to return to the previous menu.

Property Table
The table entries are dependent upon the equation-of-state being selected
in the Config menu. When selected the Property Table will display a
rectangular table for entering critical properties. In general, there are eight
entries for each table:

5-36

MW. Molecular weight.

Tc. Critical temperature.

Pc. Critical pressure.

Zc. Critical z-factor.

Acentric. Acentric factor.

Omega A. Omega A.

Omega B. Omega B.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Equation-of-State Properties

g

1⁄4

⋅ cm

3

Parachor. Parachor, --------------------------- .

s

1⁄2

⋅ mole

For a three-parameter EOS, there is one more table entry available:

Vshft. Volume shift parameter.

For ZJRK EOS, three more table entries are available:

Tb. Normal boiling temperature.

Spec Grav. Specific gravity of component at Tref.

Tref. Reference Temperature for specific gravity.

The default values for system-defined components are loaded
automatically while they are defined as described in Section 5.1.1, yet the
user can elect to override those values in this table. For user-defined
components, however, the user should supply at least the molecular
weights. The properties left as zero will be considered as the default
values, and the program will apply table look-up through molecular
weight to calculate these default properties while the user leaves the
property table. The program also provides a mechanism such that the user
can manually load up the default values for cursor-positioned component
by pressing the F2 function key. Figure 5-5 shows an example of the
property table.

Figure 5-6: EOS Property Table

R2003.0 - Landmark

5-37

Equation-of-State Properties

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Volume Shift Parameters (D & E)
If the user selects a three-parameter EOS, two additional items, D and E,
will be shown on the property data window for editing. These parameters
D and E are used to compute volume shift parameter, s,

s = 1 – D ⋅ MW

–E

where MW is component molecular weight.

5.2.2 Binary Coeff - Binary Interaction Coefficients
The binary interaction coefficients (djk) are used in the mixing rules that
determine the A parameter of the EOS. Two methods are available for
defining djk’s in DESKTOP-PVT. The Binary Coeff option in the Config
menu is used to specify how djk’s will be defined (see Section 4.4). The
Binary items in the Fluid menu is dependent on the option selected by the
user. If the flag for the Binary Coeff item of the Config menu is set to YES,
the Binary Coeff option will be highlighted in the Fluid menu, otherwise
the option Binary Exponent will be highlighted.
The Binary Coeff option in the Fluid menu allows the user to edit djk data
explicitly. A window with a triangular djk data table will be displayed for
editing data. A list of component names defined in the Component menu
will be displayed at the top of the table, except for the last component. The
first column will display the component names without the first
component. The F2 function key can be used to load the default djk’s for
the entire data row where the cursor is positioned. The default djk
between system-defined components will be automatically loaded when
they are selected in the Component menu. All binary combinations
between nonsystem-defined components will be assigned default values
of zero.
If the Thermal option is activated (Section 4.8), the H2O Binary Coef menu
will be displayed. This menu allows the user to specify the binary
interaction coefficients of H2O and other components even if H2O is not
specified as a component explicitly.
The Binary Exponent option in the Fluid menu provides another means
for defining djk values. In this option, all binary interaction coefficients
are computed using the correlation
1⁄6

1 ⁄ 6 djkcor

 2v cj ⋅ v ck 
-
djk = 1 –  -------------------------- v 1cj⁄ 3 + v 1ck⁄ 3 

where vcj and vck are the critical volumes for component j and k,
respectively, and djkcor is an input exponent. Selecting the Binary

5-38

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Equation-of-State Properties

Exponent option will display a data window for entering djkcor (Figure 57). The default value of djkcor is 1.0.

Figure 5-7: Binary Exponent Panel

5.2.3 Gas Enthalpy - Ideal Gas State Enthalpy Coefficients
The Gas Enthalpy option in the Fluid menu allows the user to define
component ideal gas state enthalpy coefficients. The ideal gas state
enthalpy for each component is computed by the fifth degree polynomial
2

3

4

H i = h io + h i1 ⋅ T + h i2 ⋅ T + h i3 ⋅ T + h i4 ⋅ T + h i5 ⋅ T

5

where Hi is the ideal gas state enthalpy of component i in Btu/lb-mole, T
is the temperature in degree Rankin, and hin is the ideal gas state enthalpy
coefficient of component i in Btu/lb-mole-(R)n.
The pure component Passut-Danner ideal gas state enthalpy coefficients
have been internally coded. These values will be automatically loaded
when the corresponding component names are selected in the Component
menu. For all other components, default ideal gas state enthalpy
coefficients are calculated using the Kesler and Lee correlation. This
correlation is not always applicable. It fails if the component critical
temperature is less than 60 ˚F. The correlation requires component specific
gravity. If the component is a gas at standard conditions, then the density
at the vapor pressure at standard temperature is used. For the relatively
heavy components commonly used in thermal reservoir simulation, these
shortcomings are not a problem. Any of the default values for ideal gas
state enthalpy coefficients may be overriden by the user. On selecting the
Gas Enthalpy option, a data entry window will be displayed (Figure 5-8),

R2003.0 - Landmark

5-39

Equation-of-State Properties

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

and the user can edit the gas enthalpy coefficients, hin, for each
component.

Figure 5-8: Gas Enthalpy Panel

5-40

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Equation-of-State Properties

5.2.4 LBC Visc - Lohrenz-Bray-Clark Viscosity Correlation
00

The Lohrenz-Bray-Clark viscosity calculation is as follows:
2

00

00

00

00

3

4 4

–4

µ = µ b + ζ ( [ C 1 + C 2 ρ r + C 3 ρ r + C 4 ρ r + C 5 ρ r ] – 10 )
where µ is the phase viscosity, µ b is a base viscosity, ζ is a function of
pseudo critical pressures, pseudo critical temperatures, and mixture
molecular weight, and ρ r is a pseudo reduced phase density.
By default, the coefficients are:
C1 = 0.1023
C2 = 0.023364
C3 = 0.058533
C4 = -0.040758
C5 = 0.0093324
The user may change these default coefficients by selecting the LBC Visc
menu item, and changing the value in the dialog box (Figure 5-9).

Figure 5-9: Coefficients of Lohrenz-Bray-Clark Viscosity Correlation

R2003.0 - Landmark

5-41

Equation-of-State Properties

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

5.2.5 Pedersen Visc - Pedersen Viscosity Correlation
The Pedersen et al. viscosity correlation is based on the corresponding
states principle. A group of substances obeys the corresponding states
principle if these substances have the same reduced viscosity at the same
reduced density and reduced temperature. In such case, only
comprehensive viscosity data for one component (the reference
component) in the group are needed. Others can be calculated from the
reduced viscosity. The Pedersen et al. viscosity correlation uses methane
as a reference substance.
This correlation is useful for heavy oils where the Lohrenz-Bray-Clark
correlation fails to give a proper viscosity prediction for some cases. To
invoke the Pedersen et al. viscosity option, the VISPE option should be
selected in the Calc Method menu. The user has the option of specifying
the k-coefficients, k1 to k7 (Figure 5-10), for calculating the viscosity of the
reference component and binary interacting coefficients Xkj (Figure 5-11)
for calculating the mixture pseudo-critical temperature used in the
viscosity correlation. The default values are zero for all the interacting
coefficients Xkj and the following values for the k-coefficients.
k1 = 9.74602
k2 = 18.0834
k3 = 4126.66
k4 = 44.6055
k5 = 0.976544
k6 = 81.8134
k7 = 15649.9

5-42

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Equation-of-State Properties

Figure 5-10: k-coefficients of Pedersen Viscosity Correlation

Figure 5-11: Tc-Binary Interaction Coefficient of Pedersen Viscosity Correlation

R2003.0 - Landmark

5-43

Equation-of-State Properties

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

5.2.6 K-Value Correl - Component K-Value Correlation
In DESKTOP-PVT the component K-values are usually computed using
an equation of state. For distillation test, a correlation is available to
compute K-values of distillates.
The component K-value is expressed as

Ki =

–Di
B
A i + -----i + C i ⋅ P ⋅ EXP  ---------------
 T – E i
P

(5-1)

where Ai to Ei are constant coefficients for component i, P is pressure in
psia and T is temperature in Rankin. Figure 5-12 shows an example of the
data entry table for the component coefficients of the K-value correlation.

Figure 5-12: Component Coefficients of K-Value Correlation

5.2.7 CO2TAB Correl-Correlation of CO2 Saturated Water Properties
Correlations were developed to calculate properties of carbon dioxide
saturated water as functions of temperature, pressure and salinity. These
properties include carbon dioxide solubility, formation volume factor,
compressibility and viscosity.
Figure 5-13 shows the main data entry menu for entering correlation
coefficients of carbon dioxide saturated water properties. The selection
items are for the correlation of carbon dioxide solubility in pure water, the
correlation to adjust the effects of salinity on carbon dioxide solubility in
water, and the correlation to calculate density of carbon dioxide saturated

5-44

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Equation-of-State Properties

water. The density correlation is used in computing water formation
volume factor.

Figure 5-13: Correlation Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide Saturated Water
Properties

Figure 5-14 shows the data entry table for entering correlation coefficients
of solubility of carbon dioxide in pure water. The coefficients are a0 to a4,
b0 to b4, and c0 to c4 to be discussed next. Default values are available for
all coefficients.

Figure 5-14: Correlation Coefficients of Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Pure
Water

The solubility of carbon dioxide in pure water is calculated as a function of
temperature and pressure.

π
c⋅P
R sw = a ⋅ P 1 – b ⋅ sin  --- ⋅ --------------------
 2 c ⋅ P + 1

R2003.0 - Landmark

if P < P

o

5-45

Equation-of-State Properties

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

and
o

o

R sw = R sw + m ⋅ ( P – P )

if P ≥ P

o

where
4

a =

∑ ai ⋅ ( 10 –3 ⋅ T )

i

i=0
4

b =

∑ bi ( 10 –3 T )

i

and

0<b<1

i=0
4

c =

10 –3

∑ ci ( 10 –3 T )

i

i=1
2

2
sin–1 ( b )
p = --- ⋅ -------------------------------------------π
2
2
c 1 – --- sin–1 ( b )
π
o

o

o

3

R sw = a ⋅ P ⋅ ( 1 – b )
 π c ⋅ Po  π c ⋅ Po
 π c ⋅ Po  

--------------------- 
-m = a  1 – b ⋅ sin  --- --------------------+

cos

 --- -------------------- 2 c ⋅ P o + 1 2 c ⋅ P o + 1
 2 c ⋅ P o + 1 

with Rsw in scf of carbon dioxide per stb water, temperature (T) in degree
Fahrenheit, pressure (P) in psia and
a0 =1.16306, a1 =-16.6304, a2 = 111.07305, a3 =-376.85925, a4 =524.88916
b0 =0.96509, b1 = -0.27255, b2 = 0.09234, b3 = -0.10083, b4 = 0.09979
c0 =1.28030, c1 =-10.75660, c2 = 52.69622, c3 = -222.39488, c4 =462.67255
This correlation matches the solubility data of Wiebe (1941)1 for liquid and
supercritical carbon dioxide in water within ±10 scf/stb for temperatures
between 54 and 212 degrees Fahrenheit and pressures up to 10,000 psia.
The calculated solubility in pure water is further adjusted for the effects of
salinity to obtain the solubility of carbon dioxide in brine

R sb
log  -------- = s o S T s1
 R sw

5-46

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Equation-of-State Properties

where S is salinity of brine in weight percent of solid, T is temperature in
degree Fahrenheit and
s0 = -0.028037
s1 = -0.12039
The measured data in NaCl Solutions from Malinin and Savelyeva (1972)2,
Malinin and Kurovskaya (1975)3, and McRee (1977)4 were used to obtain
parameters s0 and s1.
Figure 5-15 shows the data entry table for entering s0 and s1 coefficients
for adjusting the salinity effects on the carbon dioxide solubility in water.

Figure 5-15: Adjusting the Salinity Effects

The formation volume factor of carbon dioxide saturated water (or brine)
is calculated using

1
B w = ------ [ ρ w, sc + 0.02066 ⋅ R sb ]
ρw
ρ w = ρ w, atm + 0.001 ⋅ d 1 ⋅ R sb
where d1 = 5.8, Bw is in rb/stb, ρw,sc is water density at standard
temperature in lb/cu ft and ρw,atm is water density at temperature and 14.7
psia in lb/cu ft. Both ρw,sc and ρw,atm are calculated using the correlation
from Rowe and Chou (1970)5. The correlation of carbon dioxide saturated
water density is developed using the data of Parkinson and De Nevers
(1969)6, and Sayegh and Najman (1987)7.

R2003.0 - Landmark

5-47

Equation-of-State Properties

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 5-16 shows the data entry table for entering coefficient d1 for
calculating carbon dioxide saturated water density. The default value is
5.8.

Figure 5-16: Calculating Carbon Dioxide Saturation Water Density

For pressures less than 5000 psia the water compressibility is calculated
using the correlation from Rowe and Chou (1970)5. For pressures greater
than 5000 psia,

1
1
------- = ------------------ + 7.033 ( P – 5000 )
Cw
C w, 5000
where Cw,5000 is water compressibility at temperature and 5000 psia from
Rowe and Chou correlation in 1/psia. The above correlation is derived
from the water compressibility correlation by Osif (1988)8.
Water viscosity is calculated from Kestin et al. correlation (1978)9. The
effects of carbon dioxide solubility are ignored in both compressibility and
viscosity calculations.

5-48

Landmark - R2003.0

Chapter

6
Heavy/Pseudo/Regres
6.1 Introduction
The mechanisms for assigning equation-of-state components and their
properties for a fluid mixture are discussed in Chapter 5. In this chapter,
we discuss three functions that can be used to obtain or modify some of
the component properties. These functions are represented by three items
in the main menu, i.e., Heavy, Pseudo, and Regres.
The Heavy function is used for calculating heavy fraction characterization
from laboratory measured properties for the heavy fraction. Pseudo is
used to reduce the original fluid system into a pseudo system by
specifying which of the original components will be lumped into which
pseudo component. Regres is a nonlinear regression package that
facilitates the adjustment of unknown or uncertain parameters that affect
fluid behavior. These menus are available only if their corresponding
option flags, Heavy, Pseudoization and Regression items in the Config
menu, are activated. Because of their distinctive calculation features, these
functions are mutually exclusive, i.e., only one of the three functions can
be activated at a time.

R2003.0 - Landmark

6-49

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

6.2 Heavy - Heavy Fraction Characterization
The Heavy menu on the Menu Bar is used for calculating heavy fraction
characterization from laboratory measured properties of the heavy
fraction. The program generates an extended analysis using a probability
distribution function that is based on user supplied heavy fraction
molecular weight and specific gravity. The extended analysis can be
pseudoized into a user specified number of components, or into a
program calculated number of components.
The heavy fraction characterization procedure is a stand-alone calculation.
The Heavy menu is available only if the Heavy option in the Config menu
is active. The Parameter option in the Heavy menu is used for entering
heavy fraction data. Once data entry is completed, Calculate is selected to
activate the calculation procedure. Graphics is used for reviewing the
results of the extended analysis in graphic mode. The equation-of-state
(EOS) properties of the pseudoized heavy fraction components can be
reviewed using Review. Save EOS is used to save the EOS properties of the
pseudoized heavy fraction components into a file. The EOS properties can
be added, or existing EOS properties can be replaced using Append EOS
or Replace EOS, respectively.

6.2.1 Parameter - Input For Heavy Fraction Characterization
Measured heavy fraction properties as well as calculation options are
entered using the Parameter option. At least three numbers, molecular
weight, specific gravity and mole fraction of the heavy fraction, must be
entered for heavy fraction characterization.
An extended analysis of the heavy fraction is calculated assuming the
carbon numbers in the heavy fraction follow a gamma distribution
function. The user must define the shape of the gamma function. For
example, the ALPHA entry for gamma function should be specified. By
default, ALPHA is 1. This gives an exponential distribution. Alpha values
should be in the range of 0.5 (accelerated exponential distribution) to 1.5
(skewed normal distribution).
The extended analysis can be entirely predictive or can be compared to
experimental distillation data. If distillation data of mole (or weight)
fraction distribution are available, an option can be activated to compute
an optimal ALPHA. This will minimize the differences between the
experimental and calculated distributions.
The gamma distribution function gives the mole fraction and molecular
weight for each single carbon number (SCN) of the extended fractions.
The calculated mole fraction and molecular weight of the last carbon
number in the extended analysis are adjusted so the computed mole
fraction and molecular weight of the heavy fraction are matched to the
observed data. The gamma function can be calculated using either a
constant molecular weight interval or variable molecular weight intervals.
6-50

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

A constant Watson characterization factor is used for all carbon numbers
in the heavy fraction. If a Watson factor is entered, the input number is
used to compute the specific gravity of all carbon numbers. If a Watson
factor is not entered, this number is adjusted so the computed specific
gravity of the heavy fraction is matched to observed. Figure 6-1 is an
example of the Parameter Options Form.

Figure 6-1: Parameter Options Form

R2003.0 - Landmark

6-51

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

NOTE:

To edit data indicated as <F5> on this form, either click MB1 over the
button next to the desired item or position the mouse cursor over the
box cell for the desired item to edit to make the F5 key accessible.
Any items that give you choice to make, move the mouse pointer
over the desired box cell and click MB3 to access a separate options
window. Choose the desired item and then click Ok to return to the
previous window.

Molecular Weight. The molecular weight of the heavy fraction. This is
required input.

Specific Gravity. The specific gravity of the heavy fraction, measured
at 14.7 psia and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. This is required input.

Mole Fraction. The mole fraction of the total fluid sample contained in
the heavy fraction. This is required input.

Mole/Weight Fraction Option. Text label specifying the type of
distillation data. This is required input.

WEIGHT. Weight fraction distribution

MOLE. Mole fraction distribution (Default)
The WEIGHT option requires the user to enter the weight fraction
of the heavy fraction in the total fluid sample as well as the mole
fraction of the heavy fraction. The MOLE/WEIGHT option
controls whether mole or weight fraction distillation data should
be entered in the Distillation Data Table.
The program always calculates the mole fraction distribution
regardless of the option selected. The weight fraction distribution,
which is converted from the computed mole fractions, is calculated
only if the WEIGHT option is selected. This conversion requires
the user to enter the weight fraction of the heavy fraction in the
fluid sample. If the automatic ALPHA calculation option is
activated, the MOLE/WEIGHT option will control whether mole
or weight fraction data are used in computing optimal ALPHA.

6-52

Weight Fraction. The weight fraction of the total fluid sample
contained in the heavy fraction. Do not enter any number unless the
WEIGHT option has been selected. A number must be entered if the
WEIGHT option has been selected.

First Single Carbon No. The first single carbon number (FSCN) of the
heavy fraction to be considered in the extended analysis, i.e., for C7+
enter 7, for C10+ enter 10. This number must be greater than 6. This is
required input. (Default is 7)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

R2003.0 - Landmark

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

Last Single Carbon No. The carbon number of the last component to
be considered in the extended analysis for the heavy fraction. This is
required input. (Default is 45)

Pseudo-Component No. & Name. The number and names of pseudo
component groups in the final fluid description for the heavy fraction.
The program will compute an optimal number of components if the
pseudo component groups are not specified. (Calculated by default)

Bracket M.W. for Grouping. Bracket molecular weights for the
purpose of regrouping the extended fractions into pseudocomponents. This table is available only if the number of pseudocomponents (Ng) for the extended fractions are defined in the PseudoComponent No. & Name entry. For a specified value of Ng, Ng-1
molecular weight values must be entered. For example, if Ng is 3, two
values must be entered. All extended fractions with molecular weight
less than or equal to the first value will be lumped into pseudocomponent 1. All extended fractions with molecular weight less than
or equal to the second value, but greater than the first, will be lumped
into pseudo-component 2. All remaining fractions will be lumped into
pseudo-component 3. (Calculated by default)

ALPHA, for Gamma Function. The alpha parameter in the gamma
distribution function. The gamma function becomes an exponential
distribution if alpha is 1. If alpha is less than one, the gamma function
is an accelerated exponential distribution. If alpha is greater than one,
it is a skewed normal distribution. This is required input. (Default is
1)

Regression on ALPHA (Y/N). Text label that activates the option for
automatic ALPHA calculation. If this option is activated, the
distillation data must be entered before calculation begins.

YES. The ALPHA parameter in the gamma function is calculated
to minimize the differences between the experimental and
calculated values of distillation data. The input ALPHA parameter
is used as the initial estimate.

NO. The input ALPHA parameter is used without any adjustment
for the extended analysis. (Default)

Max. ALPHA in Regression. The maximum ALPHA parameter
allowed during automatic adjustment. This value is used only if the
ALPHA regression option has been activated. (Default is 3)

Min. ALPHA in Regression. The minimum ALPHA parameter
allowed during automatic adjustment. This value is used only if the
ALPHA regression option has been activated. (Default is 0.5)

6-53

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Maximum Iteration Number. The maximum number of iterations
allowed for automatic calculation of an optimal ALPHA parameter in
the extended analysis to match experimental distillation data. (Default
is 20)

Minimum Molecular Weight. The minimum molecular weight
expected to occur in the heavy fraction. The default value of 92 is
computed from

14 × FSCN – 6
where FSCN is the default first single carbon number, 7, discussed
above. This is required input.

6-54

M.W. Interval Option. Text label specifying the type of molecular
weight interval used in calculating the extended analysis.

CONSTANT. Constant molecular weight interval (Default)

VARIABLE. Variable molecular weight interval

C6 to C7 M.W. Boundary. The molecular weight boundary between
C6 and C7. This value is used only when the option for constant
molecular weight interval (CONSTANT) has been selected. The
molecular weight boundaries of higher carbon numbers are calculated
by adding the corresponding molecular weight increment to this
value. For example, the molecular weight boundary between C7 and
C8 is calculated by adding the constant molecular weight interval (e.g.
12) to this number. (Default is 92)

Constant M.W. Interval. The constant molecular weight interval for
computing the extended analysis. This value is used only when the
option for constant molecular weight interval (CONSTANT) has been
selected. (Default is 12)

Variable M.W. Boundaries. A menu for specifying variable molecular
weight boundaries between carbon numbers, e.g., C7 to C8. These
numbers are used only if the option for variable molecular weight
interval (VARIABLE) has been selected.

Watson Characterization Factor. The average Watson characterization
factor for the entire heavy fraction. If a Watson factor is not entered, it
will be calculated so the computed specific gravity of the heavy
fraction will match the observed data. If a number is entered, it is used
to compute the specific gravity of all single carbon numbers without
any adjustment. Reasonable values are between the range of 10 to 13.

EOS Property Calc Method. Text label specifying the method of
calculating equation-of-state (EOS) parameters for critical
temperature, critical pressure, critical z-factor, and acentric factor for
single carbon numbers of extended fractions.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

CORRELATION. EOS parameters are calculated from correlations.
(Default)

GENERALIZED. EOS parameters are obtained by table look-up
from the generalized property data bank.

EOS Property Data Source. Text label specifying whether the
calculated or experimental data of molecular weight, boiling point
temperature, and specific gravity, etc. are used to calculate EOS
parameters for single carbon numbers of extended fractions.

SIMULATION. EOS parameters are computed using calculated
data of single carbon numbers. (Default)

EXPERIMENT. EOS parameters are computed using experimental
data of single carbon numbers which are entered in the Distillation
Data Table.

Tc Correlation. Text label specifying a correlation option for
calculating critical temperature.

RIAZI-DAUBERT. Riazi-Daubert correlation (Default)

KESLER-LEE. Kesler-Lee correlation

CAVETT. Cavett correlation
This selection is active only if the CORRELATION option has been
selected in EOS Property Calc Method.

Pc Correlation. Text label specifying a correlation option for
calculating critical pressure.

RIAZI-DAUBERT. Riazi-Daubert correlation (Default)

KESLER-LEE. Kesler-Lee correlation

CAVETT. Cavett correlation
This selection is active only if the CORRELATION option is
selected in EOS Property Calc Method.

Zc Correlation. Text label specifying a correlation option for
calculating critical z-factor.

RIAZI-DAUBERT. Riazi-Daubert correlation (Default)

RIEDEL-PITZER. Riedel-Pitzer correlation
This selection is active only if the CORRELATION option is
selected in EOS Property Calc Method.

R2003.0 - Landmark

6-55

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Acentric Factor Correlation. Text label specifying a correlation option
for calculating acentric factor.

EDMISTER. Edmister correlation (Default)

KESLER-LEE. Kesler-Lee correlation

WHITSON. Whitson correlation
This selection is active only if the CORRELATION option is
selected in EOS Property Calc Method.

EOS Property Adjust Option. Text label specifying an adjustment
option for the calculated SCN equation-of-state parameters from
correlations.

NO. All EOS parameters are calculated from correlations and no
further adjustment is needed. (Default)

PC/ACENTRIC. Initial EOS parameters are calculated from
correlations. Critical pressure and acentric factor are adjusted so
the boiling point temperature and specific gravity calculated by
EOS match the values that have been used in correlations to
compute EOS parameters.

VSH/ACENTRIC. Initial EOS parameters are calculated from
correlations. Acentric factor and volume shift parameter are
adjusted so the boiling point temperature and specific gravity
calculated by EOS match the values that have been used in
correlations to compute EOS parameters.

Distillation Data Table. Table used for entering experimental
distillation data. The measured data of molecular weight, mole (or
weight) fraction, specific gravity, and boiling point temperature in
degrees Fahrenheit for each single carbon number can be entered in
this table.

6.2.2 Calculate - Activate Calculation
The Calculate option in the Heavy menu is used to activate the calculation
procedure for heavy fraction characterization. Once the calculation task is
completed, the user may proceed to Graphics for reviewing the results of
the extended analysis.

6-56

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

6.2.3 Graphics - Graphic Results of Extended Analysis
The Graphics option in the Heavy menu allows the user to review the
calculation results of the extended analysis in graphic mode. The plots for
the extended analysis include molecular weight, mole fraction, weight
fraction, specific gravity, boiling point temperature, critical temperature,
critical pressure, critical z-factor, acentric factor, volume shift parameter,
and binary interaction coefficients of methane and the extended fractions.
Refer to Section 9.2 for information on graphics operations.

6.2.4 Review - Tabular Results of Pseudo-Components
The equation-of-state parameters and mole fractions of the pseudoized
components of the extended fractions are displayed in tabular form using
Review. This table displays calculated results only, and any changes to this
table will not be stored in memory.

6.2.5 Save EOS - Save EOS Parameters
Save EOS allows the user to save equation-of-state parameters for the
pseudoized components of the extended fractions in a file. Refer to Section
9.10 for details of the Save EOS operation. It is required that the user must
activate heavy fraction calculation before selecting Save EOS.

6.2.6 Append EOS - Add Heavy Fraction Components to System
Append EOS allows the user to append the calculated EOS parameters of
the pseudoized components into the current fluid description. The heavy
fraction components will be merged into the current component pool. This
option can be selected only if the Calculate option has been activated.

6.2.7 Replace EOS - Load Heavy Fraction Components to System
Replace EOS allows the user to overwrite the current fluid description
with the calculated EOS parameters of the pseudoized heavy fraction
components. This option can be selected only if the Calculate option has
been activated.

R2003.0 - Landmark

6-57

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

6.3 Pseudo - Pseudoization
Pseudoization is a calculation procedure used to combine and reduce
original fluid components to a pseudo system by specifying which of the
original components will be lumped into which pseudo-component. The
Pseudo function is used for performing this pseudoization procedure.
The pseudoization process is consistent with both the equation-of-state
and the viscosity correlation, in that the density and viscosity of the
original fluid system is preserved in the pseudo system. Experience has
shown that the saturation pressure of the pseudo-system may be slightly
in error. This can easily be adjusted through regression. The pseudoization
process, however, cannot be performed simultaneously with the
regression process.
In DESKTOP-PVT, pseudoization can be a stand-alone calculation, or it
can be performed in conjunction with laboratory procedures. The input
data are entered using the Pseudo Name and Parameter options,
regardless of the method used for running pseudoization. To run a standalone pseudoization, the user must select Calculate from the Pseudo menu
after all data has been entered. If pseudoization is to be performed in
conjunction with laboratory procedures, the user should first select
Composition Sor from the Config menu to specify either unpseudoized or
pseudoized fluid system for laboratory procedures. The user then selects
Calculate from the Pseudo menu after all data has been entered.
DESKTOP-PVT will automatically load the pseudoized fluid composition
to those laboratory procedures chosen to use pseudo system. It is
recommended that all laboratory procedures are simulated with the same
fluid composition if the above mentioned procedure is followed.
Otherwise the user must enter the fluid composition directly. After
completing all test data entries, the user should select GO from the Run
menu.

6.3.1 Pseudo Name - Assign Pseudo-Components
Pseudo Name allows the user to enter the number and names of the
pseudoized components. This is required input for pseudoization, and no
defaults are provided. To add data click the AddRowBefore or
AddRowAfter button as many times as necessary to add the appropriate
number of rows needed. To delete a row, place the cursor in the row to be
deleted and click the DeleteRow button.
Since both the number and names of the pseudo-components are required
in the Parameter menu, they must be specified before entering other
pseudoization data. However, if a name is not given by the user, the
program will provide a default name for it automatically.

6-58

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

6.3.2 Parameter - Input for Pseudoization
Parameter is used for entering data for pseudoization. The required data
include original fluid composition, temperature, saturation pressure and
assignments for lumping the original components into pseudocomponents. Figure 6-2 is an example of the Parameter Options Form.

Figure 6-2: Pseudoization Parameter Options Form
NOTE:

To edit data indicated as <F5> on this form, either click MB1 over the
button next to the desired item or position the mouse cursor over the
box cell for the desired item to edit to make the F5 key accessible.
Any items that give you choice to make, move the mouse pointer
over the desired box cell and click MB3 to access a separate options
window. Choose the desired item and then click Ok to return to the
previous window.

R2003.0 - Landmark

Original Composition. The fluid composition in mole fraction of the
unpseudoized system. Only direct composition specification is
allowed. Refer to Section 7.2.1 for more information about composition
specification. This is required input.

6-59

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Temperature Unit. The temperature units used in the pseudoization
calculation. Refer to Section 7.2.3 for more information about
temperature units specification. This is required input. (Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The fluid temperature. This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units used in pseudoization calculation.
Refer to Section 7.2.4 for more information about pressure units
specifications. This is required input. (Default is PSIA)

Sat Pressure Type. Alpha label specifying the saturation pressure
type. This is required input.

DEWPT. Dew point pressures

BUBPT. Bubble point pressures (Default)

Saturation Pressure. The measured saturation pressure at the
specified temperature. This is required input.

Pseudo-Comp Pseudo-Name Lump. Panels for specifying which of
the original components will be lumped into a pseudo component.
There is a multiple item selection panel of this type for each pseudocomponent. The panels list the original components which have been
assigned to a pseudo-component and all original components which
have not been assigned to any pseudo-components. The original
components which have been assigned to a pseudo-component are
indicated by the square toggle button being turned on. This is
required input.

6.3.3 Calculate - Activate Calculation
The Calculate option in the Pseudo menu is used to activate the
calculation procedure for pseudoization. No input data is required. Once
the calculation task is completed, the user may select Review for
examining the pseudoization results.

6.3.4 Review - Tabular Results of Pseudoization
The equation-of-state parameters and mole fractions of the pseudoized
components are displayed in tabular form using Review. This table is only
used for examining the calculated results. Any changes to this table will
not be stored in memory.

6.3.5 Save EOS - Save EOS Parameters
Save EOS allows the user to save equation-of-state parameters for the
pseudoized components in a file. Refer to Section 9.10 for details of the
Save EOS operation. It is required that the user must activate calculation
before selecting Save EOS.

6-60

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

6.3.6 Replace EOS - Load Pseudo Components To System
Replace EOS allows the user to overwrite the current fluid description
with the EOS parameters of the pseudoized components. This option can
be selected only if the Calculate option has been activated.

6.3.7 Append EOS - Add Pseudo Components To System
Append EOS allows the user to append EOS parameters of the
pseudoized components to the current fluid description. The pseudo
components will be merged into the current component pool. This option
can be selected only if the Calculate option has been activated.

R2003.0 - Landmark

6-61

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

6.4 Regres - Automatic Parameter Adjustment
The Regres menu on the Menu Bar is used for entering parameters for the
nonlinear regression calculation. The Regres menu is active only if the
Regression option in the Config menu has been selected.
There are three options available in the Regress menu, Variable, Limits,
and Control. Variable is used for specifying the equation-of-state
parameters to be adjusted during nonlinear regression. Limits allows the
user to specify the lower and upper bounds of the regression parameters.
Control is used for specifying calculation tolerance and output quantity.

6.4.1 Variable - Regression Parameters
The parameters for each component that will be adjusted during
regression are marked as positive integers in these menus. The number 0
indicates the parameters will not be changed during regression. The
positive integers will be referred to as regression variables. A regression
variable, e.g. 1, can be assigned to any location in any of these menus,
provided it indicates the regressed parameter. A single variable can be
used to modify the same property of multiple components. The various
components using the same regression variable should be closely related,
such as heavy fractions. For example, regression variable 1 can be
assigned to all binary interaction coefficients of methane and heavy
fractions.
The total number of regression variables is computed as the maximum
integer given in these menus. If only a regression variable of 3 is entered,
the program will try to perform the regression calculation starting with
three regression variables even through regression variables 1 and 2 are
not assigned to any parameters. It is suggested that contiguous integers
starting from one are used to assign regression variables.
Adjusting too many parameters simultaneously is likely to create an illconditioned problem. Physically meaningless values for some parameters
may be generated as a result. Therefore, it is desirable to limit the number
of variables.

6-62

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

The parameters available for regression are categorized into ten types as
shown in Figure 6-3.

Figure 6-3: Regression Variable Panel

These are:

EOS Property. Equation-of-state parameters of molecular weight,
critical temperature, pressure and z-factor, acentric factor, omega A,
omega B, and parachor (Figure 6-4). If a three-parameter EOS is
selected, this table will include volume shift parameter.

Figure 6-4: EOS Regression Variable Definition Table

R2003.0 - Landmark

6-63

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Binary Coeff. Component binary interaction coefficients (Figure 6-5).

Figure 6-5: Binary Coeff Regression Variable Definition Table

Composition. Component composition in mole fraction. This option
can be used only if fluid compositions in all laboratory procedures are
the same. A maximum of Nc-1 components may be regressed, where
Nc is the number of fluid components. A regression variable of 99
must be assigned to a component composition used to preserve the
mole fraction constraint (Figure 6-6).

Figure 6-6: Composition Regression Variable Definition Table

6-64

Volume Shift. The D and E parameters of the correlation for
calculating volume shift parameters. This menu is available only if a
three-parameter EOS has been specified.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

H2O Binary. Binary interaction coefficients for water (H2O) and all
other components. This menu is available only if Thermal in the
Config menu has been activated, and the H2O component has not
been assigned as a fluid component.

LBC Visc. The Lohrenz-Bray-Clark viscosity coefficients.

Figure 6-7: k-Coefficient of Lohrenz-Bray-Clark Viscosity Correlation

VISP k-Coef. The k-coefficients (k1 to k7) for calculating the viscosity
of the reference component in the Pedersen et al. viscosity correlation
(Figure 6-8).

Figure 6-8: k-Coefficient of Pedersen Viscosity Correlation

R2003.0 - Landmark

6-65

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

VISP Tc-Binary. The binary interaction coefficient for calculating
mixture pseudo-critical temperature used in the Pedersen et al.
viscosity correlation (Figure 6-9).

Figure 6-9: Tc-Binary Interaction Coefficient of Pederson Viscosity Correlation

K-Value Correl. The component coefficients of K-value correlation.
The correlation is expressed as

Ki =

–Di
B
A i + -----i + C i ⋅ P ⋅ EXP  ---------------
 T – E i
P

(6-1)

where Ai to Ei are constant coefficients for component i, P is pressure
in psia and T is temperature in Rankin (Figure 6-10).

Figure 6-10: Component Coefficients of K-Value Correlation

6-66

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

CO2TAB Correl. The correlations for calculating properties of carbon
dioxide saturated water are given in Section 5.2.7.
Figure 6-11 shows the main data entry menu for assigning regression
variables to correlation coefficients of carbon dioxide saturated water
properties. The selection items are for the correlation of carbon dioxide
solubility in pure water, the correlation to adjust the effects of salinity
on carbon dioxide solubility in water, and the correlation to calculate
density of carbon dioxide saturated water. The density correlation is
used in computing water formation volume factor.

Figure 6-11: Correlation Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide Saturated Water
Properties

Figure 6-12 shows the data entry table for assigning regression
variables to correlation coefficients of solubility of carbon dioxide in
pure water. The coefficients are a0 to a4, b0 to b4, and c0 to c4 give in
Section 5.2.7.

Figure 6-12: Correlation Coefficients of Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Pure
Water

R2003.0 - Landmark

6-67

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 6-13 shows the data entry table for assigning regression
variables to s0 and s1 coefficients for adjusting the salinity effects on
the carbon dioxide solubility in water.

Figure 6-13: Assigning Regression Variables to s0 and s1 Coefficients

Figure 6-14 shows the data entry table for assigning regression
variable to coefficient d1 for calculating carbon dioxide saturated
water density.

Figure 6-14: Assigning Regression Variable to Coefficient d1

6-68

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

6.4.2 Limits - Upper and Lower Bounds
The Limits option is used to set the initial value of each regression variable
and establish upper and lower bounds for each variable (Figure 6-15). The
Initial column in the Limits menu is used for entering the initial values of
regression variables. The Minimum and Maximum columns are used for
entering the lower and upper bounds of regression variables. The default
values for initial, minimum, and maximum are 1, 0.8, and 1.2, respectively.
The initial value is normally 1 for the first regression attempt. If additional
runs are made, the last set of values from a previous run may be used.

Figure 6-15: Regression Limits Panel

Regression variables are used to alter the initial values of various EOS
properties. Most of the EOS properties are adjusted by multiplying their
initial values with regression variables. The exceptions are binary
interaction coefficients, composition and volume shift parameters, where
subtraction is used instead of multiplication. For this treatment of
regression variables, using values equal to 1 for all regression variables is
equivalent to using the unaltered EOS properties.

R2003.0 - Landmark

6-69

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

6.4.3 Control - Calculation and Output Control
The Control option contains data for controlling the nonlinear regression
process. In most cases the default values should be used, omitting any
modifications in the Control menu. Figure 6-16 is an example of the menu.

Figure 6-16: Regression Control Panel

6-70

Max Number of Iterations. The maximum number of iterations
allowed in regression. This is required input. (Default is 5)

Print-Out Control. Alpha label specifying the quantity of output for
regression. This is required input.

Basic. Only the values of the objective function and the regression
variables at each regression iteration are printed.

Intermediate. In addition to the Basic output, a table of calculated
and observed values is printed. (Default)

Detail. Adds details of the internal regression calculation to the
output.

Initial Search Vector Length. The initial value of the search vector
length in the regression calculation. This is required input. (Default is
0.2)

Minimum Length of Search Vector. A tolerance used as convergence
criterion. The required length of a search vector must be greater than
this number. This is required data. (Default is 0.001)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

R2003.0 - Landmark

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

Increment For Derivative Calculation. Increment used to perturb
variables to compute numerical derivatives. This is required input.
(Default is 0.001)

Required Reduction in Sum-of-Square. A tolerance used as a
convergence criterion. The required reduction in the sum-of-square
from one iteration to the next must be greater than this number. This is
required input. (Default is 0.01)

Regression Use Non-Volumetric Data Only. Alpha label specifying if
only non-volumetric data are to be used in the regression.

YES. Only non-volumetric observed data are used in the
regression.

NO. All observed data are used in the regression. (Default)

6-71

Heavy/Pseudo/Regres

6-72

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Landmark - R2003.0

Chapter

7
Input Data for Laboratory Procedures
7.1 Introduction
The Tests menu on the Menu Bar is used for entering data from laboratory
measurements. The Tests menu has a dynamic arrangement so only the
tests selected in the Test Type selection window in the Config menu will be
highlighted. The user must enter all required data for all selected tests, but
may enter data in any sequence.
The user can request the data entry menu for a test by clicking on the
desired item with MB1. If the test has multiple runs, an additional menu
containing run numbers will be displayed. The user must select a run
before the data entry menu can be accessed.
In Section 7.2, commonly used data for laboratory procedures are
described. The data set for each laboratory procedure is discussed in
Section 7.3.

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-73

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.2 Common Input Data
In this section, the input data used by most of the laboratory procedures
are discussed. An example of these data is the fluid composition required
for all laboratory procedures. Not all of the data discussed here are
required input. They can be optional or required. Some of the required
data have been given default values in the program.

7.2.1 Composition
The fluid composition is required for most of the laboratory test
procedures. As discussed in Section 4.11, there are two ways to specify the
fluid composition in DESKTOP-PVT. The fluid composition for a test can
be entered directly, or the liquid, vapor, or overall composition of an
intermediate step in another test can be loaded. The latter method is
referred to as an indirect composition specification. For direct composition
specification, the user must enter the numerical values of the fluid
composition in mole fraction. For indirect composition specification, the
user must specify the referenced test and its particular step. Both
specifications are completed through the Composition item in the data
entry menus for laboratory procedures.
For all tests, there is a Composition entry field. To access the composition
entry menu, the user should position the cursor on the field, and press the
F5 function key or click the field with MB1.
For direct composition specification, the entry menu has a two-column
format for most of the tests. The first column, which is not used for data
entry, lists the component names under the Component header. The
second column, under the Mole Fraction header, is used for entering fluid
composition in mole fraction. There are a few tests, for example swelling
and multiple contact vaporization tests, which require specification of
both the fluid and the injected gas compositions. A three-column
composition menu is provided for these tests. The fluid composition is
entered in the second column with the Fluid Mixture header, and the third
column, with the Injected Gas header, is used for entering the injected gas
composition.
In a composition entry menu, the F2 function key can be used to copy a
previously entered fluid composition of other laboratory test procedures.
A menu of abbreviated test names will be displayed once the user presses
the F2 function key. By clicking the button next to the desired test and then
click the Ok button, the program is instructed to copy the fluid
composition from that test. This copy composition function can save data
entry efforts for simulating several tests with the same fluid composition.
For indirect composition specification, the composition assignment is a
two-step procedure. A menu of abbreviated test names will be displayed
when the user presses the F5 function key in the Composition entry field

7-74

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

or clicking the Composition entry field with MB1. The user must select a
test which references one of its liquid, vapor, or overall compositions.
The user must provide the run sequence of all laboratory procedures if the
test compositions are to be indirectly specified. In the Run Sequence menu
the user also specifies which tests will use indirect composition
specification. DESKTOP-PVT will process the user specifications in the
Run Sequence menu, and list the tests that can be referenced. The tests
menu lists a subset of all the laboratory tests specified in the Test Type
selection window of the Config menu.
A second menu will be displayed once the user has selected a test in the
abbreviated test names menu. This menu lists the pressure stages for the
selected test. The user should position the cursor on the desired pressure
stage and press Enter to complete the indirect composition specification.

7.2.2 Laboratory Conditions
In addition to the fluid compositions, the user must specify other
conditions for laboratory procedures. The user has to specify either the
system temperature or pressure which is kept constant through the entire
simulation. The user should then specify the pressure stages if the system
temperature is fixed (if the system pressure is fixed, the temperature
stages must be specified). In the menus for entering laboratory
measurements, to create additional data entry columns or rows for
pressure (or temperature) stages click either the AddRowBefore or
AddRowAfter button. To delete data entry columns or rows, click the
DeleteRow button. When the user is finished adding or deleting data, click
Ok to exit a data entry menu.

7.2.3 Temperature Units
The temperature units are required input for most laboratory procedures.
Default units are provided in the program. There are four temperature
units in DESKTOP-PVT:

F. Degrees Fahrenheit

C. Degrees Centigrade

K. Degrees Kelvin

R. Degrees Rankin

To change the temperature units, the user can either enter one of the unit
identifiers (F, C, K or R) directly, or select the temperature units menu by
clicking MB3 in the temperature units specification field. A selection menu
will be displayed. Select the desired item by the diamond button next the
that item and then click Ok to return to the previous menu.

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-75

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.2.4 Pressure Units
The pressure units are required input for most laboratory procedures.
Default units are provided in the program. There are four pressure units in
DESKTOP-PVT:

PSIA. Pounds per square inch, absolute

PSIG. Pounds per square inch, Gauge

KPA. Kilo-Pascals

KGCM2. Kilo-grams per square centimeter

To change the pressure units, the user can either enter one of the unit
identifiers (PSIA, PSIG, KPA or KGCM2) directly, or select the pressure
units menu by click MB3 in the pressure units specification field. A
selection menu will be displayed. Select the desired item by the diamond
button next the that item and then click OK to return to the previous
menu.

7.2.5 Density Units
The density units are required input for certain laboratory procedures.
Default units are provided in the program. There are two density units in
DESKTOP-PVT:

LB/FT3. Pound Mass per cubic foot

GM/CC. Gram per cubic centimeter

To change the density units, the user can either enter one of the unit
identifiers (LB/FT3 or GM/CC) directly, or select the density units menu
by clicking MB3 in the density units specification field. A selection menu
will be displayed. Select the desired item by the diamond button next the
that item and then click OK to return to the previous menu.

7.2.6 Gas-Oil Ratio Units
The gas-oil ratio (GOR) units are required input for certain laboratory
procedures. Default units are provided in the program. Two units options
are available:

7-76

SCM/STCM. Metric units of standard cubic meter of gas per cubic
meter of stock tank oil

SCF/STB. Field units of standard cubic feet of gas per barrel of stock
tank oil

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

To change the GOR units, the user can either enter one of the unit
identifiers (SCM/STCM or SCF/STB) directly, or select the GOR units
menu by clicking MB3 in the GOR units specification field. A selection
menu will be displayed. Select the desired item by the diamond button
next the that item and then click OK to return to the previous menu.

7.2.7 Enthalpy Units
The enthalpy units are required input for some laboratory procedures.
Default units are provided in the program. Options are:

KBTU/LBMOLE. Kilo-btu per pound-mole

J/KGMOLE. Joule per kilogram-mole

To change the enthalpy units, the user can either enter one of the unit
identifiers (KBTU/LBMOLE or J/KGMOLE) directly, or select the
enthalpy units menu by clicking MB3 in the enthalpy units specification
field. A selection menu will be displayed. Select the desired item by the
diamond button next the that item and then click OK to return to the
previous menu.

7.2.8 Saturation Pressure Type
For certain tests, the saturation pressure type is required input. This input
is an alpha label for one of two options:

DEWPT. Dewpoint pressures

BUBPT. Bubblepoint pressures

To change the saturation pressure type, the user can either enter one of the
unit identifiers (DEWPT or BUBPT) directly, or select the saturation
pressure type menu by clicking MB3 in the saturation pressure type
specification field. A selection menu will be displayed. Select the desired
item by the diamond button next the that item and then click Ok to return
to the previous menu.

7.2.9 Weight Factors
There is a corresponding weight factor entry for each observed data. The
weight factors are used in the nonlinear regression process so the user can
control the quality of the match between observed data and simulated
phase behavior. Unless otherwise stated, the weight factor for saturation
pressure is 10, and the default weight factor is 1 for other measured
quantities.

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-77

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.3 Input Data for Laboratory Procedures
The input requirements for all laboratory procedures are discussed in
detail in this section. The Tests menu only highlights the tests which have
been selected in the Test Type selection window in the Config menu. In the
following sections, for each test there is a short description with an
example of the corresponding menu. Also included is a list of all options
for the specified test menu, with a definition for each option. There are a
total of twenty-three test to choose from, where are:

7-78

Gas Z-Factor

Liquid Density

Vapor Pressure

Saturation Pressure

Viscosity

Constant Composition Expansion

Constant Volume Depletion

Swelling

Differential Expansion

Multi-Contact Vaporization

Phase Envelope/Psat

Gas Enthalpy

Liquid Enthalpy

Water Property

Saturating Pressure/H2O

Distillation

Steam Distillation

Separator/No Reg

Separator/Reg

Phase Envelope/Full

Composition Variations with Depth

Properties of Carbon Dioxide Saturated Water

Multiple Contact Steam Vaporization

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7.3.1 Z-Factor: Gas Compressibility Factor
The gas compressibility factor (Z-FACTOR) of a gas mixture is calculated
as a function of pressure and temperature. Figure 7-1 shows the input
menu for calculating the compressibility factor of gas mixtures.

Figure 7-1: Gas Z-Factor Menu

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The composition of the gas mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The temperature at which all data are measured in this
test. This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Density Unit. The density units which are the same for all density
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is LB/FT3)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). Pressing the F5 function key or
clicking MB1 will display the table for entering laboratory measured
data, i.e., pressure, density, z-factor and viscosity. The detailed table
entries are discussed later.

7-79

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
measured data. (Default is 1)

Figure 7-2 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory measured
data. In this example the gas z-factors are measured at two pressure
stages.

Figure 7-2: Data Entry Table for Gas Z-Factor

7-80

Pressure. The pressure stages at which data were measured. This is
required input.

Gas Dens. The gas densities measured at the pressure stages.

Z-Factor. The gas z-factors measured at the pressure stages.

Gas Visc. The gas viscosities (cp) measured at the pressure stages.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7.3.2 Density: Liquid Density
The liquid density of a liquid mixture (LIQDEN) is calculated as a
function of pressure and temperature. Figure 7-3 shows the input menu
for calculating the density of liquid mixtures.

Figure 7-3: Liquid Density Menu

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The composition of the liquid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The temperature at which all data are measured in this
test. This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Density Unit. The density units which are the same for all density
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is LB/FT3)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including pressure, density, z-factor and viscosity. The detailed table
entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
measured data. (Default is 1)

7-81

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-4 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory measured
data. Liquid densities are measured at two pressure stages in this
example.

Figure 7-4: Data Entry Table for Liquid Density

7-82

Pressure. The pressure stages at which data were measured. This is
required input.

Liq Dens. The liquid densities measured at the pressure stages.

Z-Factor. The liquid z-factors measured at the pressure stages.

Liq Visc. The liquid viscosities (cp) measured at the pressure stages.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7.3.3 Vapor Pressure: Pure Component Vapor Pressure
The vapor pressure of a pure component (VP) is calculated as a function of
temperature in this test. Figure 7-5 shows the input menu.

Figure 7-5: Vapor Pressure

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The fluid composition in mole fraction. The fluid can
consist of multiple components, but only one component can have a
nonzero value for mole fraction. This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Density Unit. The density units which are the same for all density
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is LB/FT3)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including temperature, vapor pressure, density, and z-factor. The
detailed table entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
measured data. The default weight factors are 10 for vapor pressures,
and 5 for both densities and z-factors.

7-83

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-6 shows an example of the table for entering vapor pressure data.
The vapor pressures are measured at two temperature stages in this
example.

Figure 7-6: Data Entry Table for Vapor Pressure

7-84

Temp. The temperatures at which vapor pressures are measured in
this test. This is required input.

Vapor Pres. The measured vapor pressures at the temperature stages.
This is required input.

Density. The saturated fluid densities measured at the stage
temperatures and vapor pressures.

Z-Factor. The saturated fluid z-factors measured at the stage
temperatures and vapor pressures.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7.3.4 Sat Pressure: Mixture Dew/Bubblepoint Pressure
The dewpoint, or bubblepoint, pressure of a mixture (PSAT) is calculated
as a function of temperature in this test. Figure 7-7 shows the input menu.

Figure 7-7: Saturation Pressure Menu

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Saturation Pressure Type. Alpha label specifying the type of the
measured saturation pressures. This is required input. (Default is
BUBPT)

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Density Unit. The density units which are the same for all density
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is LB/FT3)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including temperature, saturation pressure, density, and z-factor. The
detailed table entries are discussed later.

7-85

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
measured data. The default weight factors are 10 for saturation
pressures, and 5 for both densities and z-factors.

Figure 7-8 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory measured
data. The saturation pressures are measured at one temperature stage in
this example.

Figure 7-8: Data Entry Table for Saturation Pressure

7-86

Temp. The temperatures at which saturation pressures are measured
in this test. This is required input.

Dewpoint or Bubble Pt. The measured saturation pressures at the
temperature stages. A realistic value should be entered, even if no data
is available, since it will be used as the starting value for the saturation
pressure calculation. A poor estimate can result in convergence failure.
This is required input.

Density. The saturated fluid densities measured at the stage
temperatures and saturation pressures.

Z-Factor. The saturated fluid z-factors measured at the stage
temperatures and saturation pressures.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7.3.5 Viscosity: Liquid/Vapor Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid mixture (VISC) is calculated as a function of
pressure and temperature. Figure 7-9 shows the input menu for
calculating the viscosity of fluid mixtures.

Figure 7-9: Viscosity Menu

R2003.0 - Landmark

Fluid Type. Alpha label specifying the fluid mixture type. This is
required input.

LIQUID. The fluid is liquid. (Default)

VAPOR. The fluid is vapor.

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The temperature at which all data are measured in this
test. This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

7-87

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Density Unit. The density units which are the same for all density
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is LB/FT3)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including pressure, density, z-factor and viscosity. The detailed table
entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
measured data. (Default is 1)

Figure 7-10 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory
measured data. The viscosities are measured at two pressure stages in this
example.

Figure 7-10: Data Entry Table for Viscosity

Pressure. The pressure stages at which data were measured. This is
required input.

Density. The densities measured at the pressure stages.

Z-Factor. The z-factors measured at the pressure stages.

Viscosity. The viscosities measured at the pressure stages.

7.3.6 Cnst Composition: Constant Composition Expansion
This test may also be called flash vaporization, flash liberation, pressurevolume relations, or flash expansion.
The constant composition expansion (CCEXP) procedure begins with a
fluid sample at a pressure above its saturation pressure. Pressure is
reduced in a sequence of discrete steps until the saturation pressure is
reached. After each pressure reduction, the volume is measured and
normalized relative to the volume at the saturation pressure.
Pressure is reduced below the saturation pressure in a further sequence of
discrete steps. After each pressure reduction the vapor-liquid mixture is
equilibrated. The total volume of the mixture is normalized relative to the
7-88

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

volume at the saturation pressure. Sometimes the volume fraction of
liquid is measured. The CCEXP procedure is performed at a constant
temperature. Figure 7-11 shows the input menu for simulating the CCEXP
procedure.

Figure 7-11: Constant Composition

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The cell temperature at which all data are measured in
this test. This is required input.

7-89

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7-90

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Saturation Pressure Type. Alpha label specifying the type of
measured saturation pressures. This is required input. (Default is
BUBPT)

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Saturation Pressure (Psat). The measured saturation pressure at the
cell temperature. This is required input.

Weight Factor/Psat. The regression weight factor of the measured
saturation pressure. (Default is 10)

Z-factor@ Psat (Z-Psat). The measured fluid compressibility factor (Zfactor) at the cell temperature and saturation pressure.

Weight Factor/Z-Psat. The regression weight factor of the measured Zfactor at the cell temperature and saturation pressure. (Default is 1)

Liq Volume Fraction Type. Two options are available to define the
reference volume used for normalizing measured liquid volumes. This
data is used to select the reference volume and define the volume
fraction of liquid. Volume fraction of liquid is defined as the liquid
volume measured at a pressure stage divided by the reference volume.
This is required input.

MEAS PRES. The reference volume is the total cell volume at the
pressure stage at which the liquid volume is measured.

SATURATION. The reference volume is the total cell volume at the
saturation pressure. (Default)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data include
pressure, total cell volume, volume fraction of liquid, gas z-factor, oil
z-factor, oil viscosity, gas viscosity, oil density, and gas density. The
detailed table entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
laboratory measured data. (Default is 1)

Oil Compositions (OComp). The oil phase compositions in mole
fraction at the pressure stages.

Weight Factor/OComp. The regression weight factors of the measured
oil phase compositions. (Default is 1)

Gas Compositions (GComp). The gas phase compositions in mole
fraction at the pressure stages.

Weight Factor/GComp. The regression weight factors of the measured
gas phase compositions. (Default is 1)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Figure 7-12 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory
measured CCEXP data.

Figure 7-12: Data Entry Table for Constant Composition Expansion

R2003.0 - Landmark

Pressure. The pressure stages at which data were measured. This is
required input.

Relative Vol. The total volume of the fluid mixture measured at the
pressure stages divided by the volume measured at the saturation
pressure.

LVol Frac. The measured volume fraction of liquid at the pressure
stages. See Liq Volume Fraction Type above for the definition of
volume fraction of liquid.

Gas Z-Fac. The gas z-factors measured at the pressure stages.

Oil Z-Fac. The oil z-factors measured at the pressure stages.

VISCo. The oil viscosities measured at the pressure stages, in
centipoise.

VISCg. The gas viscosities measured at the pressure stages, in
centipoise.

DENo. The oil densities measured at the pressure stages, in gm/cc.

DENg. The gas densities measured at the pressure stages, in gm/cc.

7-91

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.3.7 Cnst Volume: Constant Volume Depletion
The constant volume depletion (CVDEP) procedure begins with a fluid
sample, usually a condensate, at its saturation pressure and temperature
of interest. The pressure is then reduced in a series of discrete steps
allowing the fluid to expand. After each expansion, the PVT cell is
equilibrated and returned to its original volume by withdrawing vapor at
a constant pressure.
Data measured and reported at each pressure level includes the
composition of the produced gas, the molecular weight of the heavy
fraction (C7+) of the produced gas, the gas z-factor, the cumulative
production of gas as a fraction of the original gas in the PVT cell, and the
fraction of the cell volume occupied by the liquid after returning to the
original volume. Figure 7-13 shows the input menu for simulating the
CVDEP procedure.

Figure 7-13: Constant Volume Depletion Menu

7-92

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

R2003.0 - Landmark

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The cell temperature at which all data are measured in
this test. This is required input.

Saturation Pressure Type. Alpha label specifying the type of
measured saturation pressures. This is required input. (Default is
BUBPT)

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Saturation Pressure (Psat). The measured saturation pressure at the
cell temperature. This is required input.

Weight Factor/Psat. The regression weight factor of the measured
saturation pressure. (Default is 10)

Z-factor @ Psat (Z-Psat). The measured fluid compressibility factor (Zfactor) at the cell temperature and saturation pressure.

Weight Factor/Z-Psat. The regression weight factor of the measured Zfactor at the cell temperature and saturation pressure. (Default is 1)

First Heavy Component Name. The component name of the lowest
molecular weight component in the heavy fraction for which
molecular weight is being reported. Typically the molecular weight of
the C7+ fraction is reported.

Last Heavy Component Name. The component name of the highest
molecular weight component in the heavy fraction for which
molecular weight is being reported.

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including pressure, the molecular weight of the heavy fraction of the
produced gas, gas z-factor, oil z-factor, cumulative gas produced,
volume fraction of oil, oil viscosity, gas viscosity, and oil density. The
detailed table entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
laboratory measured data. (Default is 1)

Oil Compositions (OComp). The oil phase compositions in mole
fraction at the pressure stages.

Weight Factor/OComp. The regression weight factors of the measured
oil phase compositions (Default is 1)

Gas Compositions (GComp). The produced gas phase compositions
in mole fraction at the pressure stages.

7-93

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Weight Factor/GComp. The regression weight factors of the measured
gas phase compositions (Default is 1)

Black Oil Table Generation. The dialog window for generating black
oil table data.

Figure 7-14 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory
measured CVDEP data.

Figure 7-14: Data Entry Table for Constant Volume Depletion

7-94

Pressure. The pressure stages at which data were measured. This is
required input.

Gas M.W.+. The molecular weight of the heavy fraction of the
produced gas.

Gas Z-Fac. The produced gas z-factors measured at the pressure
stages.

Oil Z-Fac. The oil z-factors measured at the pressure stages.

Cum Gas Prod. The cumulative gas produced after returning the PVT
cell to its original volume at the pressure stages. This is expressed as a
mole fraction of the gas originally in the PVT cell.

Oil Vol Frac. The measured volume fractions of oil after returning the
PVT cell to its original volume at the pressure stages.

VISCo. The oil viscosities measured at the pressure stages, in
centipoise.

VISCg. The viscosities of the produced gas measured at the pressure
stages, in centipoise.

DENo. The oil densities measured at the pressure stages, in gm/cc.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Figure 7-15 shows the dialog window used to enter black oil table
generation parameters.

Figure 7-15: Black Oil Table Generation Parameters

Algorithm. The user may select between NONE or WHITSON or
COATS for the method used to generate the black oil data table. If the
NONE option is selected, no table is generated. The WHITSON option
generates the black oil table by the algorithm described by Whitson
and Torp 10. The COATS option generates the black oil table by the
algorithm described by Coats11.

Separator Conditions. The separator conditions used to generate the
black oil data. An example is shown in Figure 7-16. Multi-stage
separator conditions are specified in the same manner as other
separator tests. For a full description, of the data fields, see the input
description of the Separator tests.

Figure 7-16: Separator Definition for Black Oil Table Generation.

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-95

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Saturated Pressure Table. A table of saturated pressure data is
automatically generated from the laboratory data. However, the user
may manually define the pressure levels at which saturated data is
generated. The dialog window is shown in Figure 7-17. The program
will ignore pressures above the saturation pressure of the initial
composition. It will extrapolate to pressures above the initial
saturation pressure by adding equilibrium gas to the initial
composition.

Figure 7-17: Saturation Pressures at which black oil data is generated.

Delta Pressure Table. The pressure levels above saturation pressure at
which undersaturated data is calculated. An example is shown in
Figure 7-18.

Figure 7-18: Pressure levels above the saturation pressure at which black oil
data is generated.

7-96

Output Units. A choice can be made between FIELD or METRIC or
LAB units for output.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Viscosity. The user can choose to output either experimental data,
where available, or computationally generated viscosity data.
Viscosity data is often more difficult to match than volumetric data, so
the user may wish to retain his original experimental viscosity values
when they are available.

7.3.8 Swelling: Swelling Test
The swelling test (SWELL) begins with a fluid sample, usually a liquid, at
its saturation pressure and temperature of interest. A lean vapor is injected
into the fluid sample in a series of discrete stages, causing an elevation of
saturation pressure. For a liquid sample, the fluid may switch from a
bubblepoint to a dewpoint between two stages thereby spanning a critical
mixture.
Data measured and reported at the end of each stage includes the
saturation pressure of the new mixture, the type of saturation pressure
(dewpoint or bubblepoint), and the volume of the saturated mixture
relative to the saturated volume of the original sample. Figure 7-19 shows
the input menu for simulating the SWELL procedure.

Figure 7-19: Swelling Test Menu

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture and injected gas in
mole fraction. This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

7-97

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Temperature. The cell temperature at which all data are measured in
this test. This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including moles of injected gas, volume of the new saturated mixture,
saturation pressure, and the type of saturation pressure. The detailed
table entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
laboratory measured data. The default weight factors are 1.5 for the
saturation pressures, and 1 for the volumes of the saturated mixtures.

Figure 7-20 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory
measured SWELL data.

Figure 7-20: Data Entry Table for Swelling Test

Inj Gas Frac. Moles of injected gas in the mixture divided by the total
number of moles in the mixture at the end of any stage. This is
required input.

Sat Vol Frac. The volume of the saturated mixture at the end of any
stage divided by the saturated volume of the original mixture.

Sat Pressure. The measured saturation pressure of the mixture at the
end of any stage.

Sat Pres Type. Alpha label specifying the type of measured saturation
pressures. This is required input.

7-98

DEWPT. Dewpoint pressures

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

BUBPT. Bubblepoint pressures (Default)

7.3.9 Differential: Differential Expansion
The differential expansion experiment, also called differential liberation or
differential vaporization, is normally performed on black oils. The
differential expansion (DIFF) procedure begins with an oil sample at its
saturation pressure and temperature of interest. The pressure is reduced in
a series of discrete steps allowing the fluid to expand. After each
expansion, the PVT cell is allowed to equilibrate and all evolved gas is
removed from the cell at the constant pressure.
Data measured and reported at each pressure level includes the solution
gas-oil ratio, relative oil volume, oil density, z-factor of the withdrawn gas,
and gravity of the withdrawn gas.
Figure 7-21 shows the input menu for simulating the DIFF procedure.

Figure 7-21: Differential Expansion Menu

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

7-99

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7-100

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The cell temperature at which all data are measured in
this test. This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIA)

Bubblepoint Pressure (BUBPT). The measured bubblepoint pressure
at the cell temperature. This is required input.

Weight Factor/BUBPT. The regression weight factor of the measured
bubblepoint pressure. (Default is 10)

Standard Temperature. Standard temperature. (Default is 60)

Standard Pressure. Standard pressure. (Default is 14.7)

Gas-Oil Ratio (GOR) Unit. The units for all gas-oil ratio
measurements. This is required input. (Default is SCF/STB)

GOR Calculation Option. Alpha label specifying the definition of gasoil ratio. This is required input.

EVOLVED. Cumulative standard volume of gas evolved at a
pressure level per volume of residual oil at standard temperature
and pressure.

SOLUTION. Standard volume of gas still in the oil at a pressure
level per volume of residual oil at standard temperature and
pressure. (Default)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including pressure, relative oil volume, gas-oil ratio, gas z-factor, oil
viscosity, gas viscosity, oil density, and gas gravity. The detailed table
entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
laboratory measured data. (Default is 1)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Figure 7-22 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory
measured DIFF data.

Figure 7-22: Data Entry Table for Differential Expansion

R2003.0 - Landmark

Pressure. The pressure stages at which data were measured. This is
required input.

Rel Oil Vol. The relative oil volumes (oil formation volume factor, Bo),
barrels of oil at a pressure level per barrel of residual oil at 60 ˚F.

GOR. The gas-oil ratio at a pressure level. See GOR Calculation
Option above for the definition of gas-oil ratio.

Gas Z-Fac. The z-factors of the produced gas measured at the pressure
stages.

VISCo. The oil viscosities measured at the pressure stages, in
centipoise.

VISCg. The viscosities of the produced gas measured at the pressure
stages, in centipoise.

DENo. The oil densities measured at the pressure stages, in gm/cc.

Gas Gravity. The produced gas gravity at the pressure stages.

7-101

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.3.10 Multi-Contact: Multiple Contact Vaporization
The multiple contact vaporization (MCVAP) procedure begins with an oil
sample at a given pressure and temperature. The MCVAP test can perform
either a gas-cycling process or an oil-cycling process. In a gas-cycling
process, gas will be injected into oil in a series of steps at constant
pressure. By default this process is differential, i.e., all gas is removed at
the end of each contact step. The user can decide not to remove any gas by
specifying the process as constant composition. In an oil-cycling process,
after an initial contact of injected gas with oil, the remaining oil is removed
from the cell. For subsequent steps, the original oil is added to the gas
phase remaining from the previous step.
Data measured and reported at each contact step includes moles of gas (or
oil) removed, gas (or oil) z-factor, and liquid volume fraction. In addition,
the program can construct a pseudo-ternary diagram if the user defines
three pseudo-components (light, intermediate and heavy).
Figure 7-23 shows the input menu for simulating the MCVAP procedure.

Figure 7-23: Multiple Contact Vaporization Menu

7-102

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture and injected gas in
mole fraction. This is required input.

Type of Cycling Process. Alpha label specifying the type of cycling
process, This is required input.

R2003.0 - Landmark

GAS. Gas cycling process (Default)

OIL. Oil cycling process

Constant Composition Process. Alpha label specifying the type of
MCVAP test. This is required input.

YES. Constant composition MCVAP test

NO. Differential MCVAP test (Default)

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The cell temperature at which all data are measured in
this test. This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Bubblepoint Pressure (BUBPT). The measured bubblepoint pressure
at the cell temperature. This is required input.

Weight Factor/BUBPT. The regression weight factor of the measured
saturation pressure. (Default is 10)

Test Operating Pressure. The operating pressure of the multiple
contact vaporization test. This is required input.

Pseudo Component Assignment. Define three pseudo-components
by specifying which original components will be lumped into which
pseudo component. The pseudo-ternary is constructed only if pseudocomponents are defined. The process of defining pseudo-components
is identical to the pseudoization function discussed in Chapter 6.

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including moles of fluid (gas or oil) added, moles of fluid (gas or oil)
removed, gas z-factor, and liquid volume fraction. The detailed table
entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
laboratory measured data. (Default is 1)

7-103

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-24 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory
measured MCVAP data.

Figure 7-24: Data Entry Table for Multiple Contact Vaporization

Moles Added. The number of moles of fluid (gas or oil) added at each
contact step. It is assumed the oil originally in the PVT cell is one mole.
This is required input.

Moles Removed. The number of moles of fluid (gas or oil) removed
after equilibration at each contact step.

Gas Z-Factor. The z-factors of the removed gas at each contact step.

Liq Vol Frac. The liquid volume fraction before gas removed at each
contact step.

7.3.11 Phas Envlop/Psat: Dew/Bubblepoint Phase Envelope
The phase envelope calculation (ENVELOPE) consists of a series of
bubblepoint and dewpoint calculations delineating the boundary of the
two-phase region. The calculation may be performed for both oil and gas
fluid systems.
Convergence of the saturation pressure calculations using an equation of
state is dependent upon the starting pressure at a given temperature. As a
result, data which define starting values for pressure and temperature
must be specified. These starting values are defined by specifying a range
of pressures and temperatures for both the upper and lower portions of
the phase envelope. The program will perform a saturation pressure
calculation for each temperature specified in this range. The program will
continue trying specified starting values for pressure until a calculation
converges. The critical point of the fluid system can easily be estimated by

7-104

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

noting the change in saturation pressure type from bubblepoint to
dewpoint.
Figure 7-25 shows the input menu for simulating the dew/bubblepoint
phase envelope calculation.

Figure 7-25: Phase Envelope Calculation

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Lowest Temp /Upper Envelope. The lowest temperature used to
calculate saturation pressure for the upper portion of the phase
envelope. This is required input. (Default is 0)

7-105

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7-106

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Highest Temp /Upper Envelope. The highest temperature used to
calculate saturation pressure for the upper portion of the phase
envelope. This is required input. (Default is 800)

Temp Increment/Upper Envelope. The increment used to select
values from the lowest to the highest temperature for the upper
portion of the phase envelope. This is required input. (Default is 50)

Lowest Temp /Lower Envelope. The lowest temperature used to
calculate saturation pressure for the lower portion of the phase
envelope. This is required input. (Default is 400)

Highest Temp /Lower Envelope. The highest temperature used to
calculate saturation pressure for the lower portion of the phase
envelope. This is required input. (Default is 800)

Temp Increment/Lower Envelope. The increment used in selecting
temperature values from the lowest to the highest temperature for the
lower portion of the phase envelope. This is required input. (Default
is 50)

Lowest Pres /Upper Envelope. The lowest pressure used to initialize
the saturation pressure calculation for the upper portion of the phase
envelope. This is required input. (Default is 2000)

Highest Pres /Upper Envelope. The highest pressure used to initialize
the saturation pressure calculation for the upper portion of the phase
envelope. This is required input. (Default is 6000)

Pres Increment /Upper Envelope. The increment used to select
pressure values from the lowest to the highest pressure for the upper
portion of the phase envelope. This is required input. (Default is
2000)

Lowest Pres /Lower Envelope. The lowest pressure used to initialize
the saturation pressure calculation for the lower portion of the phase
envelope. This is required input. (Default is 100)

Highest Pres /Lower Envelope. The highest pressure used to initialize
the saturation pressure calculation for the lower portion of the phase
envelope. This is required input. (Default is 300)

Pres Increment /Lower Envelope. The increment used to select
pressure values from the lowest to the highest pressure for the lower
portion of the phase envelope. This is required input. (Default is 100)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7.3.12 Gas Enthalpy: Gas Enthalpy
The enthalpy of a gas mixture (ENTHV) is calculated as a function of its
temperature and pressure. Figure 7-26 shows the input menu for
calculating the enthalpy of gas mixtures.

Figure 7-26: Gas Enthalpy Menu

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The composition of the gas mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The temperature at which all data are measured in this
test. This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Enthalpy Unit. The enthalpy units which are the same for all enthalpy
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is KBTU/
LBMOLE)

Density/Z-Factor Option. Alpha label specifying whether density or
z-factor is measured and reported. This is required input.

7-107

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Density. Density is measured.

Z-Factor. Z-Factor is measured. (Default)

Density Unit. The density units which are the same for all density
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is LB/FT3)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including pressure, enthalpy, and density or z-factor. The detailed
table entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
measured data. (Default is 1)

Figure 7-27 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory
measured gas antelope data. The data are measured at two pressure stages
in this example.

Figure 7-27: Data Entry Table for Gas Enthalpy

7-108

Pressure. The pressure stages at which data were measured. This is
required input.

Enthalpy. The gas enthalpies measured at the pressure stages.

Z-Factor or Density. The gas z-factors, or densities, measured at the
pressure stages.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7.3.13 Liquid Enthalpy: Liquid Enthalpy
The enthalpy of a liquid mixture (ENTHL) is calculated as a function of its
temperature and pressure. Figure 7-28 shows the input menu for
calculating the enthalpy of liquid mixtures.

Figure 7-28: Liquid Enthalpy

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The composition of the liquid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The temperature at which all data are measured in this
test. This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Enthalpy Unit. The enthalpy units which are the same for all enthalpy
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is KBTU/
LBMOLE)

Density/Z-Factor Option. Alpha label specifying whether density or
z-factor is measured and reported. This is required input.

7-109

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Density. Density is measured.

Z-Factor. Z-Factor is measured. (Default)

Density Unit. The density units which are the same for all density
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is LB/FT3)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including pressure, enthalpy, and density or z-factor. The detailed
table entries are discussed later.

Figure 7-29 shows an example of the table for entering laboratory
measured liquid antelope data. The data are measured at two pressure
stages in this example.

Figure 7-29: Data Entry Table for Liquid Enthalpy

7-110

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
measured data. (Default is 1)

Pressure. The pressure stages at which data were measured. This is
required input.

Enthalpy. The liquid enthalpies measured at the pressure stages.

Z-Factor or Density. The liquid z-factors, or densities, measured at the
pressure stages.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7.3.14 Water Property: Liquid Water Property
The liquid water properties (WATPRP) of density, enthalpy, viscosity and
fugacity coefficient are calculated as a function of pressure and
temperature. Figure 7-30 shows the input menu for calculating the liquid
water property.

Figure 7-30: Water Property Menu

R2003.0 - Landmark

Pressure. Pressure, in psia. This is required input.

Temperature. Temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit. This is required
input.

7-111

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.3.15 Sat Pressure/H2O: Bubblepoint Pressure of Mixture With Water
The bubblepoint pressure of oil in the presence of water (PSATW) is
calculated as a function of temperature in this test. If the water-in-oil
option has been selected, then the bubblepoint pressure may also be a
function of the amount of water present (only if the oil is undersaturated
with water). For this option, the COMPOSITION entry specifies the waterfree oil composition. Since DESKTOP-PVT loads the water component
and its properties automatically for this test, it is not necessary to input
water (H2O) as a component in the component assignment process. An
input menu for the binary coefficients of water and other components will
be displayed by activating the Thermal option in the Config menu.
Figure 7-31 shows the input menu for calculating the bubblepoint
pressure of oil in the presence of water.

Figure 7-31: BubblepointPressure of Mixture with H2O Menu

7-112

Composition. The composition of the water-free oil in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Density Unit. The density units which are the same for all density
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is LB/FT3)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including temperature, overall water mole fraction, bubblepoint
pressure, density, and z-factor. The detailed table entries are discussed
later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
measured data. The default weight factors are 10 for bubblepoint
pressures, and 5 for both densities and z-factors.

Figure 7-32 also shows an example of the table for entering bubblepoint
pressures of oil in the presence of water. The bubblepoint pressures are
measured at one temperature stage in this example.

Figure 7-32: Data Entry Table for Bubblepoint Pressure of Mixture with H2O

R2003.0 - Landmark

Temp. The temperature at which bubblepoint pressures are measured
in this test. This is required input.

Zwat. Overall water mole fraction in the water/oil system. This is
required input.

Bubble Pt. The measured bubblepoint pressures at the temperature
stages. A realistic value should be entered even if no data is available.
This data is used as the starting value for the bubble pressure
calculation. A poor estimate can result in convergence failure. This is
required input.

Density. The saturated fluid densities measured at the stage
temperatures and bubblepoint pressures.

Z-Factor. The saturated fluid z-factors measured at the stage
temperatures and bubblepoint pressures.

7-113

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.3.16 Distillation: Distillation Test
The laboratory distillation (DISTIL) test starts with an oil sample at its
boiling point temperature. The oil sample is distilled by increasing
temperature in a sequence of discrete steps at a constant pressure. The
distillate is condensed, and its volume or weight is measured and
reported. Figure 7-33 shows the input menu for simulating the distillation
test.

Figure 7-33: Distillation Test Menu

7-114

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

R2003.0 - Landmark

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Operating Pressure. The operating pressure of the distillation test.
This is required input. (Default is 0)

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Boiling Point Temperature (Tbp). The boiling point temperature
(temperature at zero distillate volume or weight fraction) of the oil
sample. This is required input.

Weight Factor/Tbp. The regression weight factor of the measured
boiling point temperature. (Default is 2)

Standard Temperature. Standard temperature. (Default is 60)

Standard Pressure. Standard pressure. (Default is 0)

Distillate Fraction Option. Alpha label specifying the units of the
distillate fraction on the distillation curve. This is required input.

VOLUME. Volume fraction. Cumulative volume distillated
divided by initial oil volume with all volumes measured at the
standard conditions. (Default)

WEIGHT. Weight fraction. Cumulative weight distillated divided
by initial oil weight.

Distillation Curve. The laboratory measured distillation data
including temperature and distillate volume, or weight, fraction. The
detailed table entries are discussed later. This is required input.

Temp Increment In Calculation. The temperature increment used in
stepping through the distillation curve calculation. This is required
input. (Default is 5)

Molecular Weight Measurements. The laboratory measured
molecular weights of the heavy fraction in the crude oil and residues,
and the weight fraction of the heavy fraction in the crude oil. The
detailed table entries are discussed later.

Crude API Gravity (APIc). The measured API gravity of original
crude.

Weight Factor/APIc. The regression weight factor of the measured API
gravity of the original crude. (Default is 1)

Residue API Gravity Table. The measured API gravities of residues
on distillation curve. The detailed table entries are discussed later.

7-115

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Distillate Property Tables. Tables of distillate API gravity, distillate
component K-values, and weight factor tables of the measured
distillate component K-values. The detailed table entries are discussed
later.

Blend Fraction Option. Alpha label specifying the units for which
fractions of the original crude, residue and distillate are mixed in
preparing the blend. This is required input.

VOLUME. Volume fractions are used to specify the amount of
original crude, residue, and distillate in the blend. (Default)

WEIGHT. Weight fractions are used to specify the amount of
original crude, residue, and distillate in the blend.

Blend API Gravity Table. The measured API gravities of blends. The
detailed table entries are discussed later.

Viscosity Measurements. The measured viscosities of the original
crude, residues, distillate and blends. The detailed table entries are
discussed later.

Distillation Curve
Figure 7-34 shows the menu for entering laboratory measured distillation
data.

Figure 7-34: Data Entry Table for Distillation Curve

7-116

Temperature. The temperature on distillation curve. The temperature
must be in increasing order. This is required input.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Volume Frac or Weight Frac. The distillate volume or weight fraction
on distillation curve. See Distillate Fraction Option above for the
definition of the volume and weight fractions.

Weight Factor. The regression weight factors of the measured distillate
volume or weight fraction. (Default is 1)

Molecular Weight Measurements
Figure 7-35 shows an example of the table for entering molecular weight
data for the heavy fraction.

Figure 7-35: Data Entry Table for Distillation Molecular Weight Measurements

R2003.0 - Landmark

M.W., Crude Heavy Frac (MWc). The molecular weight of the heavy
fraction of the original crude.

Weight Factor/ MWc. The regression weight factor for the measured
molecular weight of the heavy fraction of the original crude. (Default
is 1)

First Heavy Component Name/MWc. The component name of the
lowest molecular weight component in the heavy fraction for which
molecular weight of the crude heavy fraction is being reported.

7-117

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Last Heavy Component Name/MWc. The component name of the
highest molecular weight component in the heavy fraction for which
molecular weight of the crude heavy fraction is being reported.

M.W., Residue Heavy Fraction. This table is used for entering the
measured molecular weight of the heavy fraction of the residues. The
entries are the same as the above four items, except the data entry
number on the distillation curve may also be input.

Wt Frac, Crude Heavy Frac (Wt). The measured weight fraction of the
crude heavy fraction in the original crude.

Weight Factor/Wt. The regression weight factor for the measured
weight fraction of the crude heavy fraction in the original crude.
(Default is 1)

First Heavy Component Name/Wt. The component name of the
lowest molecular weight component in the heavy fraction for which
weight fraction of the crude heavy fraction is being reported.

Last Heavy Component Name/Wt. The component name of the
highest molecular weight component in the heavy fraction for which
weight fraction of the crude heavy fraction is being reported.

Residue API Gravity Data
Figure 7-36 shows the menu for entering residue API gravity data.

Figure 7-36: Data Entry Table for Distillation Residue API Gravity

7-118

Residue API. The measured API gravity of residue on the distillation
curve.

Weight Factor. The regression weight factor for the measured API
gravity of residue. (Default is 1)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Dstl Curve No. The data entry number on the distillation curve.

Distillate Property Tables
There are four tables available for data entry (Figure 7-37):

Distillate API Gravity

Component K-Value Table

Weight Factor/Component K-Value (vs. EOS K-Value)

Weight Factor/Component K-Value (vs. Correlation K-Value)

Figure 7-37: Data Entry Table for Distillate Property Tables

A file contains computed distillate K-values will be generated, can be
saved later. The format of the file is syntactically correct for input into VIPTHERM.

Distillate API Gravity
Figure 7-38 shows the menu for entering distillate API gravity data.

Figure 7-38: Data Entry Table for Distillation Distillate API Gravity

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-119

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Distillate API. The measured API gravity of distillate. The
temperature range of the distillate is specified by Start Curve No. and
End Curve No.

Weight Factor. The regression weight factor for the measured API
gravity of the distillate. (Default is 1)

Start Curve No. The data entry number on the distillation curve which
defines the starting temperature of the distillate.

End Curve No. The data entry number on the distillation curve which
defines the ending temperature of the distillate.

Component K-Value Table
Figure 7-39 shows the menu for entering component K-values of the
distillate.

Figure 7-39: Data Entry Table for Distillate K-Value

Distillate No. Distillate fraction number.

All other columns. Component K-values.

Weight Factor/Component K-Value (vs. EOS K-Value)
Figure 7-40 shows the menu for entering regression weight factors for the
measured component K-values. This weight factor is applied to the
residuals of equation-of-state computed K-values and measured K-values.

7-120

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

To accommodate the large variation in component K-values, the logarithm
of the K-values are used in computing the residuals.

Figure 7-40: Weight Factor for Distillate K-Value

Weight Factor/Component K-Value (vs. Correlation K-Value)
There is another regression weight factor table for the measured K-values
but is applied only to the residuals of correlation computed K-values and
measured K-values (Figure 7-41). To accommodate the large variation in
component K-values, the logarithm of the K-values are used in computing
the residuals. This weight factor will not affect the adjustment of equationof-state parameters in regression.

Figure 7-41: Weight Factor for Distillate K-Value

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-121

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Blend API Gravity Data
Figure 7-42 shows the menu for entering blend API gravity data.

Figure 7-42: Data Entry Table for Distillation Blend API Gravity

7-122

Crude Frac. The volume or weight fraction of the original crude in the
blend.

DstCurve No. The data entry number on the distillation curve for the
residue used in the blend.

Resd Vol Fr or Resd Wt Fr. The volume or weight fraction of the
residue with the temperature specified by DstCurve No.

Distillate No. The data entry number of the distillate in the Distillate
API Gravity Table for the distillate used in the blend.

Dstl Vol Fr or Dstl Wt Fr. The Volume or weight fraction of the
distillate specified by Distillate No.

Blend API. The measured API gravity of the blend.

Wt Factor. The regression weight factor for the measured API gravity
of the blend. (Default is 1)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Viscosity Measurements
Figure 7-43 shows the menu for entering viscosity data.

Figure 7-43: Viscosity Data for Distillation Test

Minimum Viscosity (cp). The limiting viscosity (cp) as temperature
approaches infinity. The default value is 0.2. This value is used only in
plotting the viscosity data in the form of

ln ( ln ( µ + 1 – v min ) ) = A + B ln ( T )

(7-1)

where T is absolute temperature.

R2003.0 - Landmark

Crude Viscosity (cp). The data table for the measured viscosities of the
original crude.

Residue Viscosity (cp). The data table for the measured viscosities of
the residues.

Distillate Viscosity (cp). The data table for the measured viscosities of
the distillates.

Blend Viscosity (cp). The data table for the measured viscosities of the
blends.

7-123

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-44 shows the data table for the original crude viscosity.

Figure 7-44: Data Entry Table for Crude Viscosity

Temp. Temperature of the measured viscosity. The units are the same
as those specified in the main menu of the distillation test.

Pres. Pressure of the measured viscosity. The units are the same as
those specified in the main menu of the distillation test.

Visc. Measured viscosity (cp) of the original crude.

Wt Factor. The regression weight factor for the measured viscosity of
the original crude.

If one of the Twu viscosity correlations is selected, a viscosity data file will
be generated. This file will contain component viscosity data at the
temperatures specified in the crude viscosity table. The file can be saved
later and used in VIP-THERM.
Figure 7-45 shows the menu for entering residue viscosity.

Figure 7-45: Data Entry Table for Residue Viscosity

7-124

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Curve No. The data entry number on the distillation curve.

Temp. Temperature of the measured viscosity. The units are the same
as those specified in the main menu of the distillation test.

Pres. Pressure of the measured viscosity. The units are the same as
those specified in the main menu of the distillation test.

Visc. Measured residue viscosity (cp).

Wt Factor. The regression weight factor for the measured residue
viscosity.

Figure 7-46 shows the menu for entering distillate viscosity.

Figure 7-46: Data Entry Table for Distillate Viscosity

R2003.0 - Landmark

Distl. No. The distillate fraction number.

Temp. Temperature of the measured viscosity. The units are the same
as those specified in the main menu of the distillation test.

Pres. Pressure of the measured viscosity. The units are the same as
those specified in the main menu of the distillation test.

Visc. Measured distillate viscosity (cp).

Wt Factor. The regression weight factor for the measured distillate
viscosity.

7-125

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-47 shows the menu for entering blend viscosity.

Figure 7-47: Data Entry Table for Blend Viscosity

7-126

Blend No. The blend number.

Temp. Temperature of the measured viscosity. The units are the same
as those specified in the main menu of the distillation test.

Pres. Pressure of the measured viscosity. The units are the same as
those specified in the main menu of the distillation test.

Visc. Measured blend viscosity (cp).

Wt Factor. The regression weight factor for the measured blend
viscosity.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7.3.17 Steam Distillatn: Steam Distillation Test
The laboratory steam distillation (STMDIS) test is performed with an oil
sample at constant pressure and temperature. The oil sample is distilled
by continuous injection of superheated or saturated steam with a quality
of one. The distilled fluid is condensed and its volume is measured and
reported.
Since DESKTOP-PVT will load the water component and its properties
automatically for this test, it is not necessary to input water (H2O) as a
component in the component assignment process. An additional input
menu for the binary coefficients of water and other components can be
displayed by activating the Thermal option in the Config menu.
Figure 7-48 shows the input menu for simulating the steam distillation
test.

Figure 7-48: Steam Distillation Menu

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-127

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7-128

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Operating Pressure. The operating pressure (pressure of the injected
steam) of the steam distillation test. The program will calculate the
steam saturation pressure at the injected steam temperature. If the
calculated steam saturation pressure is less than the input operating
pressure, the calculated saturation pressure is used as the operating
pressure in the calculation. This is because the injected steam must
either be superheated or saturated with a quality of one. This is
required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature of Injected Steam. The temperature of the injected
steam. This is required input.

Standard Temperature. Standard temperature. (Default is 60)

Standard Pressure. Standard pressure. (Default is 0)

No. of Equilibrium Stages. Number of equilibrium stages used for
simulating the steam distillation process. A maximum of five stages is
allowed. (Default is 1)

Injected Steam Rate. Injected steam rate, in gm/hr. This is required
input.

Initial Oil Volume In Cell. The volume of crude oil initially injected
into the PVT cell, in cubic centimeters (cc). This is required input.

API Gravity, Initial Oil (APIo). The API gravity of the original crude.
This is required input.

Weight Factor/APIo. The regression weight factor of the measured
API gravity of the original crude. (Default is 1)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The table for entering laboratory
measured data such as injected steam volume, steam distillation yield
and density of the distilled oil. The detailed table entries are discussed
later.

Weight Factor/ Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
measured data (Default is 1)

Time-Step Size. Time-Step size, in hours, used for simulating the
steam distillation process. This is required input.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Figure 7-49 shows the table for entering laboratory measured steam
distillation data.

Figure 7-49: Data Entry Table for Steam Distillation

R2003.0 - Landmark

Inj Steam Volume. Steam Distillation factor. Cumulative volume of
injected steam in the equivalent water volume divided by the initial oil
volume. This is required input.

Distil Yield. Steam distillation yield. Cumulative volume of oil
distilled divided by the initial oil volume, with all volumes measured
at standard conditions. Distilled oil is assumed to be all liquid at
standard conditions. This may not be adequate for light oils since gas
may be produced.

Oil Dens. Density of distillate fraction at standard conditions, in gm/
cc.

7-129

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.3.18 Separator/No Reg: Multistage Separators Without Regression
DESKTOP-PVT can model the behavior of multistage surface separator
facilities (SEPARATOR) in predictive mode. Each separator battery may
contain an arbitrary number of stages. Each stage contains one feed stream
and two output streams, one vapor and one liquid. Each of the two output
streams can be split into two streams that may be fed into a downstream
separator stage, the gas sales line or the oil sales line.
Figure 7-50 shows the input menu for simulating the multistage
separators.

Figure 7-50: Multi-State Separator Menu

7-130

Separator Battery No. The separator battery number. This is required
input. (Default is 1)

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Produced Volume Units: In English units, produced gas is reported in
SCF; GOR is reported in SCF/STB; and stage liquid production is
reported in RB. In metric units, produced gas is reported in standard
cubic meters; GOR is reported in standard cubic meters of gas per
standard cubic meters of oil; and stage liquid production is reported in
reservor cubic meters. (Default is ENGLISH)

Separator Conditions. The separator conditions data including the
number of separator stages, the temperature and pressure of each
stage, and the destinations of the output streams. The detailed table
entries are discussed later.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Figure 7-51 also shows the table used for entering the separator conditions
data. For each stage, a maximum of two destinations can be assigned for
each of the two output streams (vapor and liquid). For example, the liquid
stream leaving a separator can be sent to the oil sales line, or a fraction of
the liquid stream can be sent to the oil sale line with the rest of the liquid
stream sent to a downstream separator. If the output streams are sent to
two destinations, then two data cards, one for each destination, are
required for a complete description of the stage conditions (type 1 and
type 2 data cards). Otherwise, only one data card is needed for each stage
(type 1 card). Type 2 data cards, if required, must immediately follow type
1 data cards for each stage.

Figure 7-51: Data Entry Table for Multi-Stage Separator

R2003.0 - Landmark

Stage No. The separator stage number. Every separator must have an
(positive) integer stage number. The nonzero stage number indicates a
type 1 data card. If a type 2 data card is required for a separator stage,
enter 0 for the Stage No. This is required input.

Temperature. The operating temperature of a separator stage. A
temperature value is required for type 1 data cards. Enter 0 for type 2
data cards. This is required input.

Pressure. The operating pressure of a separator stage. A pressure
value is required for type 1 data cards. Enter 0 for type 2 data cards.
This is required input.

Vapor Frac. The fraction of the vapor stream leaving a separator stage
is sent to the destination indicated in Vapor Dest. Values must lie in the
range of 0 to 1. If the value for a type 1 data card is less than one, a type
2 data card must be provided for this stage. This is required input.

7-131

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Vapor Dest. Defines the destination of the vapor stream leaving a
separator stage. Destinations include a downstream separator stage
and the gas sales line. Enter the alpha label GAS if the destination is
the gas sales line, otherwise enter a downstream separator stage
number. This is required input.

Liquid Frac. The fraction of the liquid stream leaving a separator stage
is sent to the destination indicated in Liquid Dest. Values must lie in
the range of 0 to 1. If the value for a type 1 data card is less than one,
then a type 2 data card must be provided for this stage. This is
required input.

Liquid Dest. Defines the destination of the liquid stream leaving a
separator stage. Destinations include a downstream separator stage
and the oil sales line. Enter the alpha label OIL if the destination is the
oil sales line, otherwise enter a downstream separator stage number.
This is required input.

7.3.19 Separator/Reg: Laboratory Separator Test With Regression
A laboratory separator (SEP) test may be calculated in DESKTOP-PVT as a
prediction, or through regression where experimental data is matched.
The user may enter equation-of-state parameters of omega A and/or
omega B for either reservoir calculations or surface calculations. These
omega A and omega B parameters override the ones entered in the Fluid
Properties table. The user must explicitly override the reservoir omega A
and omega B parameters by responding YES to the dialog box.
During a regression run, if either separator or reservoir parameters are
overriden, they will remain constant for the separator calculations even if
they are selected as regression variables. In this way, regressions can be
run to independently match reservoir and separator parameters. For
example, if the user wished to regress on separator omega A and B and
wished to keep the reservoir omega A and B constant, the user should
click on the reservoir buttons, optionally change the values, and then enter
YES when prompted. On the other hand, if the user wished to regress on
reservoir omega A and B while keeping the separator omega A and B
constant, the user should click on the reservoir buttons, and respond NO
when prompted, and the user should manually enter omega A and B
values for the separator.

7-132

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Figure 7-52 shows the input menu for simulating the laboratory separators
test.

Figure 7-52: Laboratory Separator Test Menu

R2003.0 - Landmark

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Omega A & B/Reservoir. The components, omega A and B, of
equation-of-state parameters at reservoir conditions. The default
values are the same as the initial values in the Property table in the
Fluid menu. If the user changes any of the values in the table, the user
must explicitly choose that these values remain constant for them to
take effect. Conversely, the user can choose that these values remain
constant even if they have not been changed from the initial values.

7-133

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7-134

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Omega A /Separator. The component, omega A, of equation-of-state
parameters at separator conditions. The default values are the same as
the initial values in the Property table in the Fluid menu.

Omega B /Separator. The component, omega B, of equation-of-state
parameters at separator conditions. The default values are the same as
the initial values in the Property table in the Fluid menu.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature/Reservoir. The reservoir temperature. This is required
input.

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIA)

Saturation Pressure Type. Alpha label specifying the type of
measured saturation pressures. This is required input. (Default is
BUBPT)

Saturation Pressure. The measured saturation pressure at the
reservoir temperature. This is required input.

Gas-Oil Ratio (GOR) Unit. The units for all gas-oil ratio
measurements. This is required input. (Default is SCF/STB)

Density Unit. The density units which are the same for all density
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is LB/FT3)

Oil Density or Gas Z-Factor. Oil density (for bubblepoint fluid) or Gas
Z-factor (for dewpoint fluid) at reservoir temperature and saturation
pressure.

Standard Temperature. Standard temperature. (Default is 60)

Standard Pressure. Standard pressure. (Default is 14.7)

Oil/Gas Formation Volume Factor: Bo/Bg. Oil formation volume
factor (for bubblepoint fluid) in barrels of saturated oil at bubble-point
pressure and reservoir temperature per barrel of stock tank oil at
standard conditions, or gas formation volume factor (for dewpoint
fluid) in barrels of gas at dewpoint pressure and reservoir temperature
per thousand standard cubic feet of gas.

Weight Factor/Bo or Bg. The regression weight factor of the oil or gas
formation volume factor. (Default is 1)

Stock Tank Oil API Gravity. The API gravity of stock tank oil at
standard conditions.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Weight Factor/Oil API. The regression weight factor of the API
gravity of stock tank oil at standard conditions. (Default is 1)

Total Gas-Oil Ratio (TGOR). The total gas-oil ratio, in standard cubic
feet of gas per stock tank barrel of oil, calculated by separation through
all stages to surface conditions.

Weight Factor/TGOR. The regression weight factor of total gas-oil
ratio. (Default is 1)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including pressure, temperature, gas-oil ratio, separator volume factor,
and gas specific gravity. The detailed table entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
measured data. (Default is 1)

Figure 7-53 shows the table for entering laboratory measured separator
data.

Figure 7-53: Data Entry Table for Laboratory Separator Test

R2003.0 - Landmark

Pressure. The operating pressure of a separator stage. This is required
input.

Temperature. The operating temperature of a separator stage. This is
required input.

GOR/Stage P&T. Gas-oil ratio in cubic feet of gas at standard
conditions per barrel of oil at stage pressure and temperature.

GOR/Std P&T. Gas-oil ratio in cubic feet of gas at standard conditions
per barrel of stock tank oil at standard conditions.

Oil Vol Fact. Separator volume factor in barrels of oil at stage pressure
and temperature per barrel of stock tank oil at standard conditions.

Gas Gravity. Specific gravity of stage flashed gas.

7-135

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.3.20 Phas Envlop/Full: Complete Phase Envelope
The boundary of the two-phase region and the quality lines inside the
two-phase region are calculated in complete phase envelope (ENVPT).
The quality lines can be specified as either liquid mole fraction or liquid
volume fraction. The step-sizes for temperature and pressure are adjusted
automatically so the computation can be performed in an efficient manner
while giving a clear picture of the phase envelope.
Figure 7-54 shows the input menu for calculating phase envelope.

Figure 7-54: Complete Phase Envelope Menu

7-136

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIA)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Lowest Temperature. The lowest temperature used to calculate
equilibrium pressure. This is required input. (Default is 0)

Highest Temperature. The highest temperature used to calculate
equilibrium pressure. This is required input. (Default is 800)

Temperature Increment. The maximum temperature increment
allowed in calculating phase envelope. This is required input.
(Default is 25)

Lowest Pressure. The lowest pressure used to calculate equilibrium
temperature and initialize equilibrium pressure calculation. This is
required input. (Default is 14.7)

Highest Pressure. The highest pressure used to calculate equilibrium
temperature and initialize equilibrium pressure calculation. This is
required input. (Default is 8014.7)

Pressure Increment. The maximum pressure increment allowed in
calculating phase envelope. This is required input. (Default is 250)

Liquid Fraction Type. Alpha label specifying either liquid mole
fraction or liquid volume fraction quality line. This is required input.

LIQMF. Calculate liquid mole fraction quality line. (Default)

LIQSAT. Calculate liquid volume fraction quality line.

Liquid Fraction Table. The values of liquid qualities in fraction. This
is required input. (Defaults are 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0)

7.3.21 ZGRAD: Composition Variations With Depth
Considerable variations of hydrocarbon composition with depth have
been observed in several near critical reservoirs. In the top part of the
reservoir, the compositions are such that the fluid is classified as a gas
condensate. The heavy component composition increases as a function of
depth so that the fluid would be classified as a volatile oil at the bottom of
the reservoir. At some depth in the reservoir, the fluid would change
classification from gas to oil, but there is no classical gas-oil contact and no
two-phase region. This is because the hydrocarbon compositions are
always at temperatures and pressures that do not cross the equilibrium
two-phase envelope.
The composition variations of hydrocarbon fluids in an isothermal
reservoir are calculated in this test. We assume that the fluid has reached
the stationary state and no two-phase region exists in the reservoir. Only
the fluid component fugacities and gravity forces are considered in
calculating the composition variations. In addition to the tabular and
graphical reports, a file is written at the end of calculation and can be save

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-137

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

later. This file contains the composition information that can be exported
directly to VIP-COMP.
Figure 7-55 shows the input menu for calculating composition variations
with depth. The input data are reservoir temperature, pressure and
hydrocarbon composition at a reference depth.

Figure 7-55: Composition Variations with Depth Menu

7-138

Composition. The hydrocarbon composition at the reference depth in
mole fraction. This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input.
(Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The reservoir temperature. This is required input.
(Default is 100)

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIA)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Reservoir Pressure. The reservoir pressure at the reference depth. This
is required input. (Default is 2000)

Saturation Pressure Type. Alpha label specifying the type of
measured saturation pressures. This is required input. (Default is
BUBPT)

Saturation Pressure. The measured saturation pressure at the
reference depth. This is required input.

Depth Unit. The depth units which are the same for all depth
measurements. This is required input. (Default is FT)

Reference Depth. The reference depth where composition,
temperature, pressure and saturation pressure are measured. This is
required input.

Option For Entering Depth. Two options are available to enter the
depths where compositions are calculated.

R2003.0 - Landmark

Dvalue. The numerical values of depth will be entered directly.

Dinc. The numerical values of depth are computed by specifying
the maximum, minimum and increment of depth. This is required
input. (Default is Dvalue)

Depth. The reservoir depth (positive downward) if Dvalue above is
selected, or the maximum depth, minimum depth and depth
increment if Dinc above is selected. This is required input.

Equilibrium Composition (ZCOMP). The measured overall
compositions in mole fraction at depth entries.

Weight Factor/ZCOMP. The regression weight factors of measured
overall compositions. (Default is 1)

Optional Input. An item for activating the optional input menu for
this test. The detailed entries are discussed later.

7-139

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-56 shows the Optional Input menu for calculating composition
variations with depth.

Figure 7-56: Optional Input for Composition Variables with Depth

7-140

Calculation Method. Two calculation methods available.

NEWTON. Newton-Raphson method (Default)

SS. Successive-substitution method

Max No. of Iterations. The maximum number of iterations allowed to
compute composition at a depth. (Default is 40)

Max Pressure Change /Iter. The maximum change in pressure for an
iteration. (Default is 10)

Max Composition Change/Iter. The maximum change in composition
for an iteration. (Default is 0.01)

Pressure Convergence Tol. Convergence tolerance for pressure
change between iterations. (Default is 0.01)

Composition Convergence Tol. Convergence tolerance for
composition change between iterations. (Default is 0.00001)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Min Damping Factor. Convergence tolerance for the damping factor
of the pressure and composition changes between iterations. The
composition calculation will fail if the computed damping factor is less
than the tolerance. (Default is 0.001)

Min Depth Interval for Calc. The minimum depth interval allowed in
the composition calculation. If the computed depth interval is less than
this minimum value, the calculation will be reported as a failure.
(Default is 1)

Max Depth Interval for Calc. The maximum depth interval allowed in
the composition calculation. If the user specified depth interval is
greater than this value, the compositions at additional intermediate
depths will be performed with this depth interval between the user
specified depths. (Default is 100)

Depth Interval Reduction Scale. The factor for reducing the size of
depth interval when a composition calculation fails. If the composition
calculation which failed was of size of ∆D, the next intermediate
composition calculation will be of size ∆D times this factor. (Default is
0.2)

Debug Output Option. The user may request additional output of
composition calculation by turning on the debug output option.

ON. Activate printing of detailed calculation output.

OFF. Deactivate printing of detailed calculation output (Default).

7.3.22 CO2TAB: Properties of Carbon Dioxide Saturated Water
Properties of carbon dioxide saturated water are calculated using
correlations in this test. The correlations are shown in Section 5.2.7. These
properties include carbon dioxide solubility, formation volume factor,
compressibility and viscosity. In addition to the tabular and graphical
reports, a file named “co2tab.log” is written at the end of calculation. This
file contains the properties of carbon dioxide saturated water that can be
exported directly to VIP-COMP.

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-141

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-57 shows the input menu for calculating properties of carbon
dioxide saturated water.

Figure 7-57: Calculating Properties of Carbon Dioxide Saturated Water

Format of Data Table. Alpha label specifying the table format to enter
carbon dioxide saturated water properties. This is required input.
(Default is SATWAT) Only SATWAT option will generate enough data
in “co2tab.log” file to be used by VIP-COMP, and is explained in the
documentation.
Seven options are available:

7-142

SATWAT saturated water properties of solubility, formation
volume factor, compressibility and viscosity as a function of
pressure at specified temperature and salinity.

PTTAB solubility of carbon dioxide in water as a function of
pressure (row entry) and temperature (column entry) at a specified
salinity.

TPTAB solubility of carbon dioxide in water as a function of
temperature (row entry) and pressure (column entry) at a specified
salinity.

PSTAB solubility of carbon dioxide in water as a function of
pressure (row entry) and salinity (column entry) at a specified
temperature.

SPTAB solubility of carbon dioxide in water as a function of
salinity (row entry) and pressure (column entry) at a specified
temperature.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

TSTAB solubility of carbon dioxide in water as a function of
temperature (row entry) and salinity (column entry) at a specified
pressure.

STTAB solubility of carbon dioxide in water as a function of
salinity (row entry) and temperature (column entry) at a specified
pressure.

Salinity Units. The brine salinity units. There are two options

WT% weight percent of solid

PPM parts per million of solid

This is required input. (Default is WT%)

Temperature Units. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default
is F)

Pressure Units. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIA)

Laboratory Data. The laboratory measured data for SATWAT option
include salinity, temperature and properties of carbon dioxide
saturated water.

Figure 7-58 shows the input menu for entering laboratory measured data
for SATWAT option.

Figure 7-58: Laboratory Measured Data for SATWAT Option

R2003.0 - Landmark

Salinity (WT%). Salinity of the brine in the units shown in
parentheses. This is required input. (Default is 0)

7-143

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Temperature. The temperature at which all data are measured. This is
required input. (Default is 0)

Properties of CO2. The laboratory measured data for carbon dioxide
Saturated Water saturated water include solubility, formation volume
factor, compressibility and viscosity. The detailed entries are discussed
later.

Weight Factor. The regression weight factors for the measured data of
carbon dioxide saturated water. (Default is 1)

Figure 7-59 shows the input menu for entering measured data of carbon
dioxide saturated water.

Figure 7-59: Measured Data of Carbon Dioxide Saturated Water

Pressure. Pressures at which data were measured. The pressures must
be in decreasing order. This is required input.

Rsw. solubility of carbon dioxide in water at the specified pressure,
temperature and salinity. The units are scf/stb if the pressure units are
psia and are scm/stcm if the pressure units are kpa.

Bw. Formation volume factor of carbon dioxide saturated water. The
units are rb/stb if the pressure units are psia and are cm/stcm if the
pressure units are kpa.

Cw. Compressibility of carbon dioxide saturated water. The units are
inverse of pressure units.

7-144

Viscosity. Viscosity of carbon dioxide saturated water in cp.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7.3.23 Steam Vaporizatn: Multiple Contact Steam Vaporization
A multiple contact steam vaporization (MCSVAP) test is a stepwise batch
experiment which can be calculated as a prediction or through regression
where experimental data is matched.
A specified initial amount of oil and optionally a specified initial amount
of water are charged into the PVT cell. For each contact, a specified
amount of steam (or water) is injected into the PVT cell and the fluids are
brought to equilibrium at a temperature, pressure and cell volume such
that a vapor phase is formed. A liquid water phase may or may not be
formed. The total cell volume, the amount of vapor phase formed at
equilibrium and the equilibrium gas, oil and water saturations are
measured. Then the vapor phase is completely removed from the PVT cell
and is flashed to standard conditions. The produced amounts of gas, oil
and water are measured.
The amounts of initial oil and water, the injected steam, and produced
fluids may be expressed in mass (default), volumetric or molar units. For
the volumetric unit option, the units are cubic centimeter (cc). The initial
volume of oil, and the produced volumes of gas, oil and water are
measured at standard conditions. The volumes of initial water and
injected steam are expressed in terms of H2O cwe (cold water equivalent).
Only the vapor phase volume at equilibrium is measured at PVT cell
conditions. For cases in which the initial oil is saturated at standard
conditions, the volumetric unit option should not be used. This condition
is not checked by the program.
Optionally, oil viscosities of the initial oil (crude), and of the PVT cell oil
and the produced oil for any contact may also be calculated as predictions
or through regression to match experimental data. Care should be taken to
insure that the specified temperatures and pressures at which viscosities
are to be calculated correspond to undersaturated conditions for the
relevant fluid composition. This is not checked by the program.
The program utilizes rigorous three phase flash algorithms for
equilibrium calculations both in the PVT cell and the separator. For most
heavy oils, the fluid in the separator will be an undersaturated oil/water
mixture (no produced gas). If this condition is detected by calculation of
the bubblepoint, the separator flash calculation is of course bypassed.
Water is allowed to partition into the oil phase in all equilibrium/
bubblepoint calculations if the water-in-oil option has been selected.
Normally, H2O should not be defined as a component by the user. H2O is
defined implicitly and is treated by the equation of state as a component in
the gas and (optionally) oil phase with fixed properties which are
consistent with those used in VIP-THERM. The only properties associated
with H2O which may be modified by the user are the binary interaction
coefficients.

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-145

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-60 shows an example of the main input menu for simulating the
MCSVAP test.

Figure 7-60: Simulating the MCSVAP Test

7-146

Composition. The composition of the initial oil in mole fraction. This
is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
temperature measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default
is F, degree Fahrenheit.)

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIA)

Stream Unit. The stream units which are the same for all stream
measurements in this test, including the amounts of initial oil and
water, the injected steam, and produced fluids. This is required input.
(Default is G, grams.)

Standard Temperature. Standard temperature. (Default is 60)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Standard Pressure. Standard pressure. (default is 14.7)

API Gravity of Initial Oil (APIo). The API gravity of the initial oil.
Use only if initial oil is undersaturated.

Weight Factor/APIo. The regression weight factor of the measured
API gravity of the initial oil. (Default is 1)

Initial Quantity of Oil in Cell. Initial amount of oil in PVT cell in the
units specified by Stream Unit. This is required input. (Default is 100)

Initial Quantity of H2O in Cell. Initial amount of water in PVT cell in
the units specified by Stream Unit. (Default is 0)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured MCSVAP
data at each contact including temperature, pressure, amount of water
injected, total cell volume, amount of vapor phase at equilibrium, gas
and oil Z-factors, oil and water saturations, water mole fractions in the
oil and gas phases, amount of oil, gas and water produced, and the
API of the produced oil. The detailed table entries are discussed later.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
laboratory measured MCSVAP data. (Default is 1)

Viscosity Measurements. The measured viscosities of the initial oil
and of the PVT cell oil and the produced oil for any contact. The
detailed table entries are discussed later.

Figure 7-61 shows an example of the data table for entering laboratory
measured MCSVAP data.

Figure 7-61: Laboratory Measured MCSVAP Data

R2003.0 - Landmark

7-147

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7-148

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Temperature. Temperature for each contact. This is required input.

Pressure. Pressure for each contact. This is required input.

H2O Injected. Amount of H2O injected into PVT cell for each contact
in the units specified by Stream Unit. This is required input.

Cell Vol(cc). Total cell volume in cc for each contact at equilibrium
after injection of H2O.

Cell Vapor. Amount of equilibrium vapor formed for each contact and
then withdrawn in the units specified by Stream Unit.

Gas Z-factor. Z-factor of equilibrium vapor formed for each contact.

Oil Z-factor. Z-factor of equilibrium cell oil for each contact.

Oil Satn. PVT cell oil saturation in fraction at equilibrium for each
contact before withdrawal of vapor.

Water Satn. PVT cell liquid water saturation in fraction at equilibrium
for each contact before withdrawal of vapor.

H2O M.F./Oil. Mole fraction of H2O in the PVT cell oil phase for each
contact before withdrawal of vapor. This number is calculated only if
the water-in-oil option is activated.

H2O M.F./GAS. Mole fraction of H2O in the PVT cell vapor phase for
each contact before withdrawal of vapor. This number is calculated
only if the water-in-oil option is activated.

Oil Prod. Amount of oil produced at standard conditions for each
contact in the units specified by Stream Unit.

GAS Prod. Amount of gas produced at standard conditions for each
contact in the units specified by Stream Unit.

Water Prod. Amount of liquid water produced at standard conditions
for each contact in the units specified by Stream Unit.

Prod Oil API. API gravity of produced oil for each contact.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Figure 7-62 shows the menu for entering viscosity data.

Figure 7-62: Viscosity Data

Minimum Viscosity (cp). The minimum value of viscosity used for
plotting viscosity vs. temperature data on logarithmic scale:

ln ( ln ( µ + 1 – µ min ) ) = A + B ln ( T )
where T is absolute temperature. The default value is 0.2. This value
will be internally reset to 0 if any input or calculated viscosity value is
less than the input value.

R2003.0 - Landmark

Initial Oil Viscosity(cp). The data table for the measured viscosity of
the initial oil.

Cell Oil Viscosity(c). The data table for the measured viscosity of the
PVT cell oil.

Produced Oil Viscosity(cp). The data table for the measured viscosity
of the produced oil.

7-149

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Figure 7-63 shows the data table for entering the measured initial oil
viscosity.

Figure 7-63: Measured Initial Oil Viscosity

7-150

Temp. Temperature of the measured viscosity. The temperature units
are the same as those defined in the MCSVAP main menu.

Pres. Pressure of the measured viscosity. The temperature units are the
same as those defined in the MCSVAP main menu.

Viscosity. Measured viscosity (cp) of the initial oil.

Wt Factor. The regression weight factor for the measured viscosity of
the initial oil.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Figure 7-64 shows the data table for entering the measured PVT cell oil
viscosity. The same data format is also used for produced oil viscosity.

Figure 7-64: Measured PVT Cell Oil Viscosity

R2003.0 - Landmark

Contact No. Contact number in the multiple contact steam injection
test.

Temp. Temperature of the measured viscosity. The temperature units
are the same as those defined in the MCSVAP main menu.

Pres. Pressure of the measured viscosity. The temperature units are the
same as those defined in the MCSVAP main menu.

Viscosity. Measured viscosity (cp) of the PVT cell oil.

Wt Factor. The regression weight factor for the measured viscosity of
the PVT cell oil.

7-151

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

7.3.24 Two Phase Isothermal Flash
This test allows the user to flash a specific composition at a constant
temperature and pressure. The resulting output will be the phase mole
fractions and phase compositions and properties.
The user may choose one of three flash calculation techniques:

Successive substition

Newton-Raphson

Gibbs free energy minimization

Figure 7-61 shows the test parameter input table.

Figure 7-65: Laboratory Measurements

7-152

Composition. The composition of the fluid mixture in mole fraction.
This is required input.

Temperature Unit. The temperature units which are the same for all
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is ˚F)

Temperature. The cell temperature at which all data are measured in
this test. This is required input.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

Pressure Unit. The pressure units which are the same for all pressure
measurements in this test. This is required input. (Default is PSIG)

Lab Measurements (Lab Data). The laboratory measured data
including pressure, oil(liquid) phase mole fraction, gas z-factor, oil zfactor, oil viscosity, gas viscosity, oil density, and gas density. The
detailed table entries are discussed later. The pressure column of this
table is required input.

Weight Factor/Lab Data. The regression weight factors of the
laboratory measured data. (Default is 1)

Oil Compositions (OComp). The oil phase compositions in mole
fraction at the pressure stages.

Weight Factor/OComp. The regression weight factors of the measured
oil phase compositions (Default is 1)

Gas Compositions (GComp). The produced gas phase compositions
in mole fraction at the pressure stages.

Weight Factor/GComp. The regression weight factors of the measured
gas phase compositions (Default is 1)

Figure 7-62 displays the laboratory data input table.

Figure 7-66: Laboratory Measurements Vertical List

R2003.0 - Landmark

Pressure. The pressure at which flashes are to be done. This is
required input.

LMol Frc. Liquid (oil) phase mole fraction at the pressure stages.

Gas Z-Fac. The gas z-factors measured at the pressure stages.

Oil Z-Fac. The oil z-factors measured at the pressure stages.

7-153

Input Data for Laboratory Procedures

7-154

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

VISCo. The oil viscosities measured at the pressure stages, in
centipoise.

VISCg. The gas viscosities measured at the pressure stages, in
centipoise.

DENo. The oil densities measured at the pressure stages, in gm/cc.

DENg. The gas densities measured at the pressure stages, in gm/cc.

Landmark - R2003.0

Chapter

8
Calculation of Laboratory Procedures
8.1 Introduction
The Run menu contains items for activating laboratory test calculations,
selecting phase behavior calculation methods, and specifying control
parameters for phase behavior calculations. There are six items in the Run
menu:

GO

Calc Method

Psat Tol

Flash Tol

Expansion Tol

Debug

Except for the GO item, a window for entering data will be displayed
when an item is selected. The GO entry is used to activate the phase
behavior calculation. The remaining menu items are used to select
calculation parameters.
The default values for the phase behavior calculation parameters in
DESKTOP-PVT are adequate for most fluid systems. However, for
difficult near-critical fluid systems, some parameters in the saturation
pressure and flash calculations may need to be changed. DESKTOP-PVT
allows the user to change any of these parameters for any of the simulated
tests. The changes in a test will effect only that particular test. Each test
may have its own set of parameters for phase behavior calculations.

R2003.0 - Landmark

8-155

Calculation of Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

8.2 Activate Calculation
DESKTOP-PVT calculations are activated by selecting GO. No input data
is required. When the calculation procedure is completed, DESKTOP-PVT
is ready to display the graphic reports for reviewing results. In addition to
activating calculation, DESKTOP-PVT saves the input data in memory
into a file named dtpvt.ini. As discussed in Section 3.2, the input
information stored in dtpvt.ini is loaded into memory when the user
selects the Last Run item in the File menu. The capability to recall the last
run data can be used, for example, to restore input data after a system
crash.

8.3 Selection of Calculation Method
The Calc Method option allows the user to select alternative flash and
viscosity calculation methods. For flash calculations in DESKTOP-PVT,
the user may select the Newton-Raphson method (NEWTON), the method
of accelerated successive-substitution (SS) or the Gibbs energy
minimization method (GIBBS). The Newton-Raphson method is the
default. The fluid viscosity can be calculated using the Lohrenz, Bray and
Clark (LBC) viscosity correlation (default), a viscosity correlation
described by Reid, Prausnitz and Sherwood (RPS), the Pedersen et al.
(VISPE) viscosity correlation, or the Twu viscosity correlations [TWU1 or
TWU2]. Figure 8-1 is an example of the calculation method selection
window. This menu is displayed when the Calc Method item is selected.

Figure 8-1: Calculation Method Selection Panel

8-156

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Calculation of Laboratory Procedures

8.4 Control Parameters for Saturation Pressure Calculation
The Psat Tol option is used for changing any of the parameters which
control the convergence of the saturation pressure calculation. Figure 8-2
is an example of the selection window for specifying saturation pressure
calculation parameters. This window is displayed when the Psat Tol
option is selected. For each laboratory procedure, seven parameters can be
changed for controlling the convergence of the saturation pressure
calculation.

Figure 8-2: Control Parameters for Saturation Pressure Calculation

R2003.0 - Landmark

Max Iter. The maximum number of iterations. (Default is 40)

Max Dp. The maximum change in pressure (psia) for an iteration.
(Default is 500)

Max Dz. The maximum change in composition for an iteration.
(Default is 0.05)

Tol Dp. Convergence tolerance for pressure (psia) change between
iterations. (Default is 0.01)

Tol Dz. Convergence tolerance for composition changes between
iterations. (Default is 0.000001)

Tol Kval. Convergence tolerance for the heavy component K-value.
The saturation pressure calculation will fail if the heavy component Kvalue is greater than 1.0 - tolerance. (Default is 0.00001)

Tol DampF. Convergence tolerance for the damping factor of the
pressure and composition changes between iterations. The saturation
pressure calculation will fail if the damping factor is less than the
tolerance. (Default is 0.00001)

8-157

Calculation of Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

8.5 Control Parameters for Flash Calculation
The user may change any of the parameters which control the
convergence of the flash calculations by selecting Flash Tol. Figure 8-3 is
an example of the selection menu for specifying the flash calculation
parameters. For each laboratory procedure, six parameters can be changed
for controlling the convergence of the flash calculations.

Figure 8-3: Control Parameters for Flash Calculation

8-158

Max Iter. The maximum number of iterations. (Default is 20)

Max Dz. The maximum change in composition and liquid/vapor
fraction for an iteration. (Default is 0.05)

Max DLV. The maximum deviation in liquid/vapor fraction from the
limiting values of zero and one for an iteration. (Default is 0.01)

Tol Dz. Convergence tolerance for composition and liquid/vapor
changes between iterations. (Default is 0.000001)

Tol Kval. Convergence tolerance for the heavy component K-value.
The flash calculation will fail if the heavy component K-value is
greater than 1.0 - tolerance. (Default is 0.00001)

Tol DampF. Convergence tolerance for the damping factor of the
composition and liquid/vapor fraction changes between iterations.
The flash calculation will fail if the damping factor is less than the
tolerance. (Default is 0.00001)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Calculation of Laboratory Procedures

8.6 Control Parameters for Expansion Tests
The Expansion Tol option is used for improving flash calculation
convergence in constant composition expansion, constant volume
depletion, and differential expansion procedures. The parameters in the
Expansion Tol window are used to control the pressure interval used in
flash calculation for the three laboratory procedures. Figure 8-4 is an
example of Expansion Tol window.

Figure 8-4: Control Parameters for Expansion Test

R2003.0 - Landmark

Max Expn Dp. The maximum pressure interval allowed, in psia, in
flash calculation of the expansion tests. If the pressure drop in a
expansion test stage is greater than this interval, additional
intermediate flashs will be performed with this pressure decrement
between the specified pressure stages. (Default is 500)

Dp Factor. The factor for reducing the size of a pressure interval when
an intermediate flash fails. If the flash which failed was of size ∆P, the
next intermediate flash calculation will be of size ∆P times this factor.
(Default is 0.1)

Min Expn Dp. The minimum pressure interval, in psia, to be used in
flash calculation. If the pressure decrement is less than this interval,
the calculation will be reported as a failure. (Default is 0.001)

8-159

Calculation of Laboratory Procedures

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

8.7 Debug Output
The user may request additional output of saturation pressure and flash
calculations using the Debug option. This output provides detailed
information for each iteration of the calculations with phase compositions,
z-factors, residuals, and scale factors for each pressure stage. The volume
of output can be quite large, so the user is cautioned to use this option
with discretion. Figure 8-5 is an example of the Debug selection menu. The
default Debug option is OFF, i.e., no additional output for both saturation
pressure and flash calculations. This Debug option can be activated by
entering ON for the corresponding laboratory procedure in the selection
menu.

Figure 8-5: Debug Option Selection Panel

8-160

Landmark - R2003.0

Chapter

9
Report - Calculation Results
9.1 Introduction
Graphic and tabular reports for the calculated results are created from the
Report menu. At the termination of the phase behavior calculation, the
program is ready to proceed to the Graphics option in the Report menu,
and the results are ready to be examined. In addition, the user can
generate reports by retrieving a database file. See Sections 2.7, 3.6, and 3.7
for more information about database file manipulation. There are fourteen
options in the Report menu.

R2003.0 - Landmark

Graphics

GraTitle

SavGraph

GetGraph

Table

PrtTable

SavTable

GetTable

SaveEOS

SaveKval

SaveVisc

SaveZgrd

SavCO2T

SaveBOE

9-161

Report - Calculation Results

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

9.2 Graphics
The graphic module provides an environment for users to graphically
display calculated results and observation data. This is an interactive
environment that provides a wide range of control over the graphical
presentation of calculated results and observation data. The graphic
module is activated by selecting Graphics from the Report menu.

9.2.1 Selecting Test Procedure for Plot
DESKTOP-PVT simulates a variety of laboratory procedures with the
multiple runs option for all of the laboratory procedures. For the graphic
reports, one set of data for a laboratory procedure is displayed on the
graphic device at a time. The user must select a laboratory procedure for
graphic presentation. The items displayed in the selection window are
identical to the test types specified in the data input procedure. If the
selected laboratory procedure has multiple runs defined, a window with a
list of run numbers will be displayed, and the user is requested to select
the desired run number. To select a test or run, click the button beside the
desired item and then click the OK button. Figure 9-1 is an example of the
laboratory-procedure selection menu for graphic presentation.

Figure 9-1: Selecting Test for Plot

When a laboratory procedure is selected for a graphic session, a Graphic
Menu Bar will be displayed at the bottom of the screen with a picture of
the first plot item automatically displayed on the graphic area. This
selection menu gives a list of plots available for the test and control items.
The selection procedure for the graphics menu depends on the hardware
configuration.
1. Graphic Device with Cursor Device (Mouse):
Point to the desired item by moving the mouse pointer until it is on the
desired item. On some devices, the item will be highlighted. Press MB1
to make the selection.

9-162

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Report - Calculation Results

If the cursor device has buttons in addition to MB1, the use of other
buttons will be context dependent. However, it is generally true that
MB3 and MB4 (if available) can be used to toggle on and off a help
message for the highlighted item. Pressing MB2 will clear away the
menu area so it will not appear on a screen dump. To redisplay the
graphics selection menu area again press MB2.
2. Graphic Device with Only a Keyboard: (Not applicable for X-Window
Terminals)
Point to the desired item by using the left and right arrow keys, and
press the Enter key to select the item. The user may type the first few
letters which are unique enough to distinguish one item from another
to make a selection. Toggle the help message with the ? key.
The exact items of the Graphic Menu Bar are dependent on laboratory
procedures. Figure 9-2 is an example plot with the Graphic Menu Bar.
Usually, the first several items in the menu are the fluid properties
available for review. A selection of these items will immediately display
the corresponding plot on the screen. The solid curve with dots represents
the calculated results. The dots indicate the calculated points. The
observation data points, if present on the same plot, will be shown as cross
marks. If there are too many menu items to fit in one row, >> MORE will
be displayed at both ends of the menu. The >> MORE item indicates
additional items are available for selection. The user can position the
cursor on >> MORE to display additional items for selection.

Figure 9-2: Example Plot with Graphic Menu Bar

R2003.0 - Landmark

9-163

Report - Calculation Results

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

The last two items on the graphics selection menu are CONTRL and EXIT.
The EXIT item allows the user to quit the current graphic session for the
selected laboratory procedure, and return to the previous menu for
selecting another laboratory procedure for graphic reports. The CONTRL
item provides a method for users to manipulate graphic attributes
interactively.

9-164

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Report - Calculation Results

9.2.2 Interactive Graphic Control
The CONTRL item in the graphics selection menu provides a way for the
user to interactively manipulate the graphic attributes. Any attribute
changes will be immediately reflected on the screen. Only the attributes of
color and line-type, are preserved when the user selects another property
plot. Any changes in color and line type stay effective until the user exits
the graphic report session. Figure 9-3 shows an example plot with the
Control item selected on Graphic Menu Bar.

Figure 9-3: Example Plot with the Control Item Selected on the Graphic Menu
Bar

R2003.0 - Landmark

9-165

Report - Calculation Results

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

ZOOM
The ZOOM option allows the user to select and display sections of the plot
scene for close detail observations. Several options (Figure 9-4) are
provided to specify the area of interest.

Figure 9-4: Example Plot with Zoom Control Option

9-166

IXscale. The IXscale option allows the user to specify the horizontal
extent (x-axis) to be zoomed interactively. The graphic cursor will be
overlayed with a vertical line to indicate the area boundary. To define
the desired boundary, position the vertical line at the desired location
of the first boundary and press MB1. Move the vertical line to the
second boundary position and press MB1. The zoomed picture will be
displayed upon specification of both boundaries.

IYscale. The IYscale option allows the user to specify the vertical
extent (y-axis) to be zoomed interactively. The graphic cursor will be
overlayed with a horizontal line to indicate the area boundary. To
define the desired boundary, position the horizontal line at the desired
location of the first boundary position and press MB1. Move the
vertical line to the second boundary position and press MB1. The
zoomed picture will be displayed upon specification of both
boundaries.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Report - Calculation Results

WINDOW. The WINDOW option allows the user to zoom the
interested rectangular area interactively. When this option is selected,
the following prompt appears below the Menu Bar:
Point to Origin of Window
Position the cursor at the lower left corner of the desired area and
press MB1. The following prompt will appear:
Point to Extent of Window
Expand the window from the lower left to the upper right until the
required window area is achieved and press MB1. The scene will be
redrawn with only the windowed area in the scene.

KXscale. The KXscale option allows the user to specify the horizontal
extent (x-axis) to be zoomed through keyboard entry. When KXscale is
selected, the following prompt appears above the graphic area:
Enter scale min & max for x-axis:
The user must enter two values indicating the new x-axis extent. Enter
the minimum value first followed by a space, then enter the maximum
value and press the Enter key.
This feature is most useful when the user wishes to zoom out the
plotting area. The zoomed picture will be displayed upon completing
keyboard entries.

KYscale. The KYscale option allows the user to specify the vertical
extent (y-axis) to be zoomed through keyboard entry. When KYscale is
selected, the following prompt appears above the graphic area:
Enter scale min & max for y-axis:
The user must enter two values indicating the new y-axis extent. Enter
the minimum value first followed by a space, then enter the maximum
value and press the Enter key.
This feature is most useful when the user wishes to zoom out the
plotting area. The zoomed picture will be displayed upon completing
keyboard entries.

R2003.0 - Landmark

RESTORE. The RESTORE option is used to return the zoomed picture
to its original scales.

HIGHER. The HIGHER option returns the user to the previous menu.

9-167

Report - Calculation Results

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

VALUE
The VALUE option provides a means of obtaining X, Y plot location data
from the plot scene. The following prompt will appear:
Select Point [1=Select, 2=Escape]
Position the cursor at the desired location within the scene and press MB1.
The value(s) for the selected point are presented below the menu bar. Two
y-axis values will be shown; however, the value of RY-axis, which shows
the value of the right-hand side y-axis, is immaterial. When the user is
finished, press MB2 to exit the value option.

L_TYPE
The L_TYPE option allows the user to change the line style. The line style
can vary from a solid line to different length line segments. The change
will be effective through the entire graphic report session until a different
line style is selected. To change the line style, select L_TYPE and continue
depressing MB1 until you find the desired line style.

COLOR
The COLOR option allows the user to change the line color. The change
will be effective through the entire graphic report session until a different
line color is selected. To change the color, select color and continue
depressing MB1 until you find the desired color.

9-168

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Report - Calculation Results

TEXT
The TEXT option allows the user to add text to the display screen at any
location. This feature provides a mechanism for the user to customize his
plots. When the Text option is selected, the following options (Figure 9-5)
will be displayed on the Graphic Menu Bar.

Figure 9-5: Example Plot with Text Edit Option

ADD. The ADD option allows the user to add text to the screen. The
following prompt will appear above the graphic area:
Enter Text:
Type in the desired text (up to 80 characters per line) and press the
Enter key. The following prompt will appear:
Enter Scale Factor [Default=1.0]:
This prompt allows you to set the size of the text before it is added to
the screen. A default size will be used if you press Enter; otherwise,
enter the desired size. Then the following prompt will appear:
Select Bottom-Center Point For Text
Position the cursor at the location around which the text should be
centered. Press MB1 and the text will be drawn on the screen.

R2003.0 - Landmark

9-169

Report - Calculation Results

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

NOTE:

Up to 50 lines of text can be added to the screen.

MOVE. The MOVE option allows the user to change the location of
text. When MOVE is selected, the following prompt appears below the
Menu Bar:
Point To Text With Cursor [1=Select 2-4=Escape]
The selected text will be highlighted and the following menu appears:
OK HIGHER
Select OK if the highlighted text is the appropriate text to be moved.
The following prompt will appear below the Menu Bar:
Select Bottom-Center Point For Text
Position the cursor at the desired new location and press MB1. The text
will be moved to the new location.

SCALE. The SCALE option provides a way to change the scale (size)
of text. When SCALE is selected, the following prompt appears below
the Menu Bar:
Point To Text With Cursor [1=Select 2-4=Escape]
Position the cursor over the desired text and press MB1. The selected
text will be highlighted (highlighting is yellow on multi-color screens).
Select OK from the next menu to confirm the selection. The following
prompt will appear:
Enter Scale Factor:
Enter the desired new scale factor. For example, with the current text
scale displayed considered 1, a scale factor entry of 2 will double the
text size. An entry of 0.5 will halve the size.

DELETE. The DELETE option allows the user to remove user defined
text from the plot. When DELETE is selected, the following prompt
appears below the Menu Bar:
Point To Text With Cursor [1=Select 2-4=Escape]
Position the cursor over the desired text and press MB1. The selected
text will be highlighted. Select OK from the menu to confirm the
deletion.

9-170

REDRAW. To refresh the screen and remove the effects of text being
moved, etc., select the REDRAW option.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Report - Calculation Results

PRINTER
Selection of the PRINTER option will produce output for the PRINTER
device. The output will be saved in a postscript file named psout.ps in the
directory in which the program was started. This file may be
automatically routed by the VIPPRINTER command to the print queue
specified by the environment variable VIPPOST.

REDRAW
To refresh the screen, and remove the effects of graphic attributes being
changed, select the REDRAW option.

HIGHER
This option will return the user to a higher level menu, i.e., to graphic item
selection menu.

R2003.0 - Landmark

9-171

Report - Calculation Results

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

9.3 GraTitle - Running Title for Plot
GraTitle provides a way for users to customize the title of the plot. The
title will be placed on the top of the plot for identification purposes. Upon
selection of this item, a text entry data field will be displayed. The user can
enter up to 50 characters to identify the plot.

NOTE:

This option is not available while in Graphics mode. Access this
option prior to selecting Graphics in the Report menu or exit
Graphics and proceed to the GraTitle option.

9.4 SavGraph - Save Graphic Report to File
The calculated results, as well as the corresponding raw input data, can be
saved into a database file for future reference. The SavGraph option is
used to save these data into a database file. Upon selecting SavGraph, a
Filebox pop-up window will be displayed for entry of a filename. The file
extension ".dbf" is suggested, though not restricted, since the file
retrieving mechanism in GetGraph uses this file extension as a default
filter to display a file list for selection. The total length of the filename
allowed is restricted to 12 characters.
NOTE:

9-172

This option is not available while in Graphics mode. Access this
option prior to selecting Graphics in the Report menu or exit
Graphics and proceed to the SavGraph option.

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Report - Calculation Results

9.5 GetGraph - Get Graphic Report from File
The database saved in the SavGraph option can be retrieved by the
GetGraph option. The data retrieved will be ready for a report session, i.e.,
the user can go directly to the Graphics option without invoking the
calculation process. However, since the input data used to generate the
results will be retrieved as well, the data in memory prior to the retrieving
process will be overwritten. The user needs to be aware of this situation to
avoid accidentally destroying input data.
After selecting the GetGraph option, a Filebox pop-up window will be
displayed showing a list of files with the extension ".dbf". To select the
desired file, double-click on the filename.

9.6 Table - Review Tabular Report
After the calculation task is completed, a text output file will be generated.
The Table item provides a way for users to review the calculated results in
table format without leaving the DESKTOP-PVT environment. After
reviewing the result, the user should click the close menu item on the
menu bar of the text window to close the table window. If the user choose
to keep the window and a new calculation run has been performed, the
window content will be updated only if the user hit this Table button
again.

9.7 PrtTable - Print Tabular Report
The table of calculated results can be sent to a printer for hardcopy. No
data entry is required.

9.8 SavTable - Save Tabular Report to File
The table of calculated results can be saved in a text file for future
reference. The SavTable option is used to save these data in a text file.
After selecting SavTable, a Filebox pop-up window will be displayed for
users to enter a filename. The file extension ".tab" is suggested, though not
restricted, since the file retrieving mechanism in GetTable uses this file
extension as a default filter to display a file list for selection. The total
length of the filename is restricted to 12 characters.

R2003.0 - Landmark

9-173

Report - Calculation Results

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

9.9 GetTable - Get Tabular Report from File
The calculated results saved in the SavTable option can be retrieved by the
GetTable option. The data retrieved will be ready for a report session, i.e.,
the user can go directly to the Table item without invoking the calculation
process.
After selecting the GetTable option, a Filebox pop-up window will be
displayed showing a list of files with the extension ".tab". To select the
desired file, double-click on the filename.

9.10 SaveEOS - Save PVT (EOS) Properties to File
The equation-of-state (EOS) file can serve as an interface to other
simulators, e.g., VIP-COMP. When the calculations are completed, an EOS
output file will be created, however, it is not automatically saved unless
this option is selected.
An EOS file contains EOS descriptions for a fluid such as component
names, critical properties and composition, etc. The functions SaveEOS,
Load EOS and Append EOS can be used to transfer the EOS descriptions
of a run to another.

9.11 SaveKval - Save K-value Tables to File
DESKTOP-PVT writes a disk file which contains K-value tables for use in
VIP-ENCORE. The format of the file is syntactically correct for input into
VIP-ENCORE for isothermal tests and into VIP-THERM for thermal tests.
However, the file is not automatically saved until the user tells DESKTOPPVT to do so. The SaveKval option is used to save the K-value tables file.
After selecting SaveKval, a Filebox pop-up window will be displayed for
users to enter a filename. The file extension ".kvf" is suggested, though not
restricted. The total length of the filename is restricted to 12 characters.
This file will contain the K-value tables from all constant volume depletion
tests, differential expansion tests, separator tests, and distillation tests.

9-174

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Report - Calculation Results

9.12 SaveVisc - Save Component Viscosity Tables to File
A component viscosity file is generated if the crude oil viscosity table in
the Distillation Test and one of the Twu viscosity correlations (TWU1 or
TWU2) are specified. This file will contain computed component viscosity
data at the conditions specified in the crude oil viscosity table of the
Distillation Test. The format of the file is syntactically correct for input into
VIP-THERM. However, the file is not automatically saved until the user
instructs DESKTOP-PVT to do so. The SaveVisc option is used to save the
component viscosity file. After selecting SaveVisc, a Filebox pop-up
window will be displayed for users to enter a filename. The file
extension".vsf" is suggested, though not restricted. The total length of the
filename is limited to 12 characters.

9.13 SaveZgrd - Save Composition-vs-Depth Table to File
A Composition-vs-Depth file will be generated if the test of Composition
Variations with Depth (ZGRAD) is selected. This file will contain
computed component compositions in mole fraction at the depths
specified in the ZGRAD test. The format of the file is syntactically correct
for input into VIP-COMP. However, the file is not automatically saved
until the user instructs DESKTOP-PVT to do so. The SaveZgrd option is
used to save the composition file. After selecting SaveZgrd, a Filebox popup window will be displayed for users to enter a filename. The file
extension".zgf" is suggested, though not restricted. The total length of the
filename is limited to 12 characters.

9.14 SaveCO2T - Save CO2-Saturated-Water-Property Table to
File
A file contains the properties of carbon dioxide saturated water will be
generated if the test of solubility of carbon dioxide in water (CO2TAB) is
selected. The format of the file is syntactically correct for input into VIPCOMP. However, the file is not automatically saved until the user instructs
DESKTOP-PVT to do so. The SaveCO2T option is used to save the
saturated water property file. After selecting SaveCO2T, a Filebox pup-up
window will be displayed for users to enter a filename. The file extension
“.co2” is suggested, though not restricted. The total length of the filename
is limited to 12 characters.

9.15 SaveBOE - Save Black Oil Table to File.
Selecting this option will save an ASCII keyword file that can be included
within a VIP-CORE input file. The file will define the black oil properties
generated from a constant volume depletion test. The default file name is
boetab.inc, but any name with a total length of 12 characters may be used.

R2003.0 - Landmark

9-175

Report - Calculation Results

9-176

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Landmark - R2003.0

Chapter

10
Tutorial
10.1 Introduction
This tutorial presents a complete step-by-step fluid characterization
example. The data required for entry into the program are presented in
Tables 10-1 to 10-5. The fluid characterization procedure is:
1. Heavy Ends Characterization
2. Default Fluid Predictions
3. Regression on Default Predictions
4. Component Pseudoization
5. Regression on Pseudoized Description
6. Regression on Viscosity data

10.2 Heavy Ends Characterization
The objective of this procedure is to describe the heavy components of the
oil (the Heptanes plus components) using the limited C7+ data. The heavy
ends characterization assumes the C7+ part of the oil can be described as
an extended distribution of components, using a smooth probability
distribution function. This extended description is lumped together into
the desired number of heavy components using mixing rules for critical
properties and molecular weights. In this tutorial example, the heavy ends
will be described using three components.
1. Start DESKTOP-PVT, by typing dtpvt.
2. Select EOS from the Config menu and select Peng-Robinson Equationof-State.
3. Turn on the Heavy ends characterization option by selecting Heavy
from the Config menu and choose Yes.
4. Enter the heavy ends parameters by selecting Parameter from the
Heavy menu.

R2003.0 - Landmark

10-177

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

a. Enter the Molecular Weight, Specific Gravity, and Mole Fraction
from Table 10-1. The number of heavy components is specified by
giving names for the pseudo-components. The data entry window
can be accessed by selecting Pseudo-Component No. & Name. In
this example, the three pseudo-components will be named HVY1,
HVY2, and HVY3. Add three new lines to input the pseudocomponent names.
NOTE:

No data should be entered in the Pending category.

Enter the name of the pseudo components to be created. When
finished, click OK to return to the previous menu.
b. In this example, cut-off molecular weights between heavy
component groups will be specified. Select the option Bracket
M.W. for Grouping. Enter 125.00 as the Bracket No. 1 cut-off, and
300.00 as the Bracket No. 2 cut-off. Click OK to return to the
previous menu.
c. For the option C6 to C7 M.W. Boundary, replace the default value
92 with 90.
d. For this example, default entries for all other options at this level
will be accepted. Click OK to return to the display window.
5. Calculate the pseudo-component properties by choosing Calculate
from the Heavy menu.
6. Inspect the calculated pseudo-component properties by selecting
Review from the Heavy menu. Click OK to return to the display
window.
7. Save these calculated equation-of-state values in a separate file by
selecting Save EOS from the Heavy menu. Name the file HEAVY.EOS.
8. Save the data used to create this heavy ends characterization by
selecting Save from the File menu. Name the file HEAVY.DAT.
The HEAVY.EOS and HEAVY.DAT files are shown in Tables 10-6 and
10-7.
9. Select Heavy from the Config menu and choose No to turn off heavy
ends characterization.

10-178

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

10.3 Default Fluid Predictions
This step will combine the results from the heavy ends characterization
with the pure component information to obtain a default fluid
characterization.
1. If the program has been exited, start DESKTOP-PVT and select PengRobinson Equation of State from the Config menu.(as in Steps 1-2 in
the Heavy Ends Characterization Section). If you have not exited the
program, proceed to step 2.
2. Select Test Type from the Config menu. Select Density, Sat Pressure,
Cnst Composition, Cnst Volume as the PVT experiments to be
simulated. Click OK to return to the display window.
3. Select System from the Component menu and choose the pure light
components corresponding to those shown in Table 10-1. Select CO2,
C1, C2, C3, NC4, IC4, NC5, IC5, C6, and click OK. The program will
use the default EOS properties for these components.
4. Load the EOS properties for the heavy components by selecting
Append EOS from the Component menu. Select HEAVY.EOS and click
OK to return to the display window. There will be a delay while the
program retrieves the file.
5. Enter the pure component mole fractions as mole fractions derived
from the Well Stream Mole % figures in Table 10-1 into the Global
reference composition by selecting Composition from the Component
menu.
NOTE:

The values for HVY1, HVY2, and HVY3 should already be present.

Click OK to return to the display window. The sum of the mole
fractions should equal unity. If the message Sum of Composition Not
Equal To 1.0, Normalize? (Y/N) is displayed, the values were not
entered correctly. Answer, No to this question and check the input
values. The example below shows what the composition window
should look like.

R2003.0 - Landmark

10-179

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

6. Enter the data for the individual tests to be simulated; Density,
Constant Composition, Saturation Pressure, and Constant Volume.
a. Select Density from the Tests menu.
Enter the composition, either re-type the overall composition, or
press F2 and load the global reference composition. Click OK to
return to the previous menu. Change density unit to gm/cc (move
mouse point to Density Unit and click MB3, select gm/cc, and click
OK).
NOTE:

Before pressing F2, your mouse pointer must be on the entry box.

Enter the temperature of 276˚F. Enter the Laboratory Measured
values for density at 6000 and 4375 psig from Table 10-2. Add as
many columns as necessary to input the data. Check to insure the

10-180

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

density units are correct. Entries for quantities not measured, such
as Z-factor and Liquid Viscosity in this example, should be left as
zero. Click OK to return to the previous menu.
When finished click OK to return to display window.
b. Select Cnst Composition from the Tests menu.
Enter the composition, either re-type the overall composition, or
press F2 and load the global reference composition. Click OK to
return to the previous menu. Enter the temperature (276 ˚F) and
Bubble Point Pressure (4375 psig). Set Liquid Volume Fraction
Type to saturation (while the mouse pointer is over the data cell
click MB3 to access the Liquid Volume Fraction Type window.
Click OK to return to the previous menu).
Under Laboratory Measurements enter the Relative Oil Volume
and the Volume of Liquid Phase between the bubble point and the
first depletion level. In continuously decreasing values of pressure,
enter all the data from Table 10-2 and enter the data from pressure
4375 to 3960 psig from Table 10-4. Data entry into the test should
exclude viscosity data. Otherwise property regression would
thereby include viscosity, thus reducing the match of the other
property data. Click OK to return to the previous menu.
When finished click OK to return to the display window.
c. Select Sat Pressure from the Tests menu.
Enter the composition, either re-type the overall composition, or
press F2 and load the global reference composition. Click OK to
return to the previous menu. Under Laboratory Measurements,
enter the temperature (276 ˚F) and Bubble Pt Pressure (4375 psig).
Click OK to return to the previous menu.
When finished click OK to return to the display window.
d. Select Cnst Volume from the Tests menu.
Enter the composition, either re-type the overall composition, or
press F2 and load the global reference composition. Click OK to
return to the previous menu. Enter the temperature (276 ˚F), and
Saturation Pressure (4375 psig).
Next, name the lightest and heaviest components which contain
heptanes plus. In this example, First Heavy Component Name is
HVY1 and the Last Heavy Component Name is HVY3.
Under Laboratory Measurements enter the measured data. Add as
many columns as needed and enter the data for this test from
Tables 10-3 to 10-4. Enter the pressure, the gas z-factor, gas phase

R2003.0 - Landmark

10-181

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

produced (gas phase produced should be derived from the Gas
Phase Produced Cum. % from Table 10-3), and the oil volume
fraction (oil volume fraction should be derived from the Liquid
Phase Volume % of Volume from Table 10-4). Click OK to return to
the previous menu.
When finished click OK to return to the display window.
7. Run the program by selecting Go from the Run menu.
8. View the results graphically by selecting Graphics from the Report
menu. The resulting figures should look like:
Figure 10-1

Liquid density from Density Test.

Figure 10-2

Saturation pressure from Saturation Pressure Test.

Figure 10-3

Liquid volume fraction from the Constant
Composition Expansion Test.

Figure 10-4

Cumulative gas produced from the Constant
Volume Depletion Test.

NOTE:

For the Constant Composition Expansion, select SLIQ from the
Graphics Menu Bar to display the liquid saturation. For the Constant
Volume Depletion, select GPROD from the Graphics Menu Bar to
display the cumulative gas produced.

9. Save the data for this run by selecting Save from the File menu. Name
the file DEFAULT. DAT.

10-182

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

10.4 Regression
As shown in Figures 10-1 to 10-4, the default predictions, using the
combined heavy ends characterization and the pure component data,
often does a poor job reproducing the experimental data. Therefore,
regression on some of the equation of state parameters is necessary. Start
with the data in the file, DEFAULT.DAT. We will regress on Omega A and
Omega B for the 3 heavy components and C1, and the binary interaction
parameters for C1 with the 3 heavy components. The order in which the
regression variables are defined is not important. However, please note
that the regression variables are numbered as follows in this tutorial:
Regression Variable

Number

Omega A-HVY1

1

Omega A-HVY2

2

Omega A-HVY3

3

Omega A-C1

4

Omega B-HVY1

5

Omega B-HVY2

6

Omega B-HVY3

7

Omega B-C1

8

Interact. Param. C1-HVY1

9

Interact. Param. C1-HVY2

10

Interact. Param. C1-HVY3

11

1. If the program has been exited, start DESKTOP-PVT, and retrieve the
file, DEFAULT.DAT, by selecting Open from the File menu. If you are
continuing from Section 10.3, skip this step as the data from
DEFAULT.DAT is still loaded in the program.
2. Turn on regression by selecting Regression from the Config menu and
choose Yes.
3. To set the regression variables select Variable from the Regres menu.
a. Select EOS Property and click OK. Enter the number for the
regression variable in the appropriate place in the EOS property
table for regression variables 1-8 (see above table). Click OK to
return to the previous menu.

R2003.0 - Landmark

10-183

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

b. Select Binary Coeff and click OK. Enter the numbers for the binary
interaction parameter regression variables in the appropriate
places in the table for variables 9-11 (see above table). Click OK to
return to the previous menu.
c. Select Exit and click OK to return to the display window.
4. From the Regres menu select Limits. Leave the initial value for all the
variables as 1.0. Change the Minimum to 0.7 and the Maximum to 1.3
for all the regression variables. This allows 30% change in each
regression variable.Click OK to return to the display window.
5. Select Control from the Regres menu. Change the Max Number of
Iterations to 20. Click OK to return to the display window.
6. Run the program by selecting Go from the Run menu. It will take
substantially longer to run this regression calculation compared with
the previously calculated default prediction.
7. The results can be viewed graphically by choosing Graphics from the
Report menu. The resulting figures should look like:
Figure 10-5

Liquid density from Density Test.

Figure 10-6

Saturation pressure from Saturation Pressure Test.

Figure 10-7

Liquid volume fraction from the Constant
Composition Expansion Test.

Figure 10-8

Cumulative gas produced from the Constant
Volume Depletion Test.

NOTE:

For the Constant Composition Expansion, select SLIQ from the
Graphics Menu Bar to display the liquid saturation. For the Constant
Volume Depletion, select GPROD from the Graphics Menu Bar to
display the cumulative gas produced.

8. From the Report menu select Save EOS to save these calculated
equation-of-state values in a separate file. Name this file
REGRESS.EOS.
9. Save the data for this run by selecting Save from the File menu. Name
this file REGRESS.DAT.

10-184

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

10.5 Component Pseudoization
The twelve component description, with tuned equation of state
parameters, created in the previous sections is too detailed for most
reservoir simulation applications. It is usually necessary to pseudoize, or
"lump", components together to create a phase behavior description with
less components. The goal of such a process is to create an equation of
state characterization which honors all the compositional and PVT data.
The procedure used in this program is based on a method described by
Coats (Ref: SPE 10512). This procedure is performed internally within
DESKTOP-PVT. The only required user specification is how the
components will be lumped. In this tutorial example, the 12 component
description will be lumped down to a 5 component description, and the
components will be grouped as follows:
Pseudo-Components

Original Components

P1

CO2, C1

P2

C2, C3, IC4, NC4

P3

IC5, NC5, C6, HVY1

P4

HVY2

P5

HVY3

1. If the program has been exited, start DESKTOP-PVT, and retrieve the
file REGRESS.DAT by selecting Open from the File menu. If you are
continuing from Section 10.4, skip this step and goto step 3, as the data
from REGRESS.DAT is still loaded in the program.
2. Replace the equation of state characterization with the results from the
previous regression section by selecting Load EOS from the
Component menu and choosing REGRESS.EOS. There will be a delay
while the program processes the file.
3. Turn off regression by selecting Regression from the Config menu and
choosing No.
4. Check to insure that the properties have been loaded properly, by
running the program. Select Go from the Run menu. (This calculation
should be very fast.) View the results be selecting Graphics from the
Report menu. The picture for liquid saturation for the Constant
Composition Expansion should look like Figure 10-7. (You may wish
to save this file by selecting Save from the File menu and name the file
FILENAME.DAT.)
5. Turn pseudoization on by selecting Pseudoization from the Config
menu and choosing Yes.

R2003.0 - Landmark

10-185

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

6. From the Pseudo menu select Pseudo Name. Click AddRowAfter five
times to add five new rows and fill in the rows with the names of the
new pseudo-components. Click OK to return to the display window.
7. From the Pseudo menu select Parameter.
a. Select Original Composition to enter the composition being
pseudoized. Press F2, select Global Ref Comp and then select OK.
Click OK to return to the previous menu.
b. Enter the temperature (276 ˚F) and Bubble Pt Pressure (4375 psig).
c. Change Unit Pressure to psig by clicking the box cell with MB1.
Select PSIG and click OK to return to the previous menu.
d. Select Pseudo-Comp P1 Lump. Turn on CO2 and C1 by clicking
the button beside the desired option. Click OK to return to the
previous menu.
e. Repeat the previous step to define each pseudo-component, P2, P3,
etc. (Refer to the table on the previous page.)
f.

Click OK to return to the display window.

8. Select Calculate from the Pseudo menu to calculate the pseudocomponent properties.
9. Save the equation of state parameters in the file by selecting Save EOS
from the Pseudo menu. Name the file PSEUDO.EOS.
10. Save the file which created the pseudo components by selecting Save
from the File menu. Name the file CREATPSD.DAT.
11. Replace the existing 12 component equation of state characterization
with the newly created 5 component description by selecting Replace
EOS from the Pseudo menu.
12. By performing the previous step, the global reference composition has
been replaced with its corresponding pseudo-component values. This
can be checked by selecting Composition from the Component menu.
Click OK to return to the display window. All the compositions for the
simulated tests, however, must be reset.
13. Turn pseudoization off, by selecting Pseudoization from the Config,
menu and choosing No.
14. Re-enter the composition data for the individual tests to be simulated.
a. Select Density from the Tests menu. Select composition, press F2
and load the global reference composition. Click OK to return to
the previous menu. All the remaining data should be correct. Click
OK to return to the display window.

10-186

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

b. Select Cnst Composition from the Tests menu. Select composition,
press F2 and load the global reference composition. Click OK to
return to the previous menu. Click OK to return to the display
window.
c. Select Sat Pressure from the Tests menu. Select composition, press
F2 and load the global reference composition. Click OK to return to
the previous menu. Click OK to return to the display window.
d. Select Cnst Volume from the Tests menu. Select composition, press
F2 and load the global reference composition. Click OK to return to
the previous menu. Next, rename the lightest and heaviest
components which contain heptanes plus. The First Heavy
Component Name is now P3 and the Last Heavy Component
Name is P5. Click OK to return to the display window.
15. Run the program by selecting Go from the Run menu.
16. The results can be viewed graphically by selecting Graphics from the
Report menu. The resulting figures should look like:
Figure 10-9

Liquid density from Density Test.

Figure 10-10

Saturation pressure from Saturation Pressure Test.

Figure 10-11

Liquid volume fraction from the Constant
Composition Expansion Test.

Figure 10-12

Cumulative gas produced from the Constant
Volume Depletion Test.

NOTE:

For the Constant Composition Expansion, select SLIQ from the
Graphics Menu Bar to display the liquid saturation. For the Constant
Volume Depletion, select GPROD from the Graphics Menu Bar to
display the cumulative gas produced.

17. Save the data for this run by selecting Save from the File menu. Name
the file PSEUDO.DAT.

R2003.0 - Landmark

10-187

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

10.6 Regression After Pseudoization
The match of experimental data for undersaturated conditions is usually
not as good after performing the pseudoization step. In this example,
Figures 10-7 and 10-8 display a much improved data match compared
with Figures 10-11 and 10-12. Again, regression can be used to tune the
equation of state parameters. In this section, regression will be on the
analogous variables used in the previous regression step. These variables
are Omega A and Omega B for the 3 heaviest components (P3, P4, and P5)
and the lightest component (P1), and the binary interaction parameters for
the P1 with the 3 heaviest components. Therefore, the following regression
variables will be used:
Regression Variable

Number

Omega A-P3

1

Omega A-P4

2

Omega A-P5

3

Omega A-P1

4

Omega B-P3

5

Omega B-P4

6

Omega B-P5

7

Omega B-P1

8

Interact. Param. P1-P3

9

Interact. Param. P1-P4

10

Interact. Param. P1-P5

11

1. If the program has been exited, start DESKTOP-PVT, and retrieve the
file PSEUDO.DAT by selecting Open from the File menu. If you are
continuing from Section 10.5, Component Pseudoization, skip this step
as the data from PSEUDO.DAT is still loaded in the program.
2. From the Config menu select Regression and choose Yes to turn
regression on.
3. Select Variable from the Regres menu to set the regression variables.
a. Select EOS Property and click OK. Enter the number for the
regression variable in the appropriate place in the EOS property
table for regression variables 1-8 (refer to the above table).

10-188

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

NOTE:

There may already be numbers in this table. These are carried in the
program memory from the regression in Section 10.4. If numbers are
present, they are probably incorrect, and must be reset.

Click OK to return to the previous menu.
b. Select Binary Coeff and click OK. Enter the numbers for the binary
interaction parameter regression variables in the appropriate
places in the table for variables 9-11 (refer to the table on the
previous page).
NOTE:

As above, there may already be numbers in this table. If numbers are
present, they are probably incorrect and must be reset.

Click OK to return to the previous menu.
c. Select Exit and click OK to return to the display window.
4. From the Regres menu select Limits. Leave the initial value for all the
variables as 1.0. Change the Minimum to 0.7 and the Maximum to 1.3
for all the regression variables to allow for 30% changes in each
regression variable. Click OK to return to the display window.
5. From the Regres menu select Control. Change the Max Number Of
Iterations to 20. Click OK to return to the display window.
6. Run the program by selecting Go from the Run menu. This regression
step should be quicker than the regression step in Section 10.4, as the
equation of state characterization now uses only 5 components
compared with 12 in Section 10.4.
7. The results can be viewed graphically by selecting Graphics from the
Report menu. Select Cnst Composition and click OK. From the
Graphics Menu Bar select SLIQ to display the liquid saturation. The
picture for liquid saturation for the Constant Composition Expansion
should look like Figure 10-7.
8. From the Report menu select Save EOS to save these calculated
equation-of-state values in a separate file. Name this file
PSDREG.EOS.
9. Save the data for this run by selecting Save from the File menu. Name
this file PSDREG.DAT.
10. Overwrite the equation of state parameters with the results of the
regression step by selecting Load EOS from the Component menu and
select PSDREG.EOS.

R2003.0 - Landmark

10-189

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

11. Turn regression off by selecting Regression from the Config menu and
choose No.
12. Run this file by selecting Go from the Run menu.
13. The results can be display by selecting Graphics from the Report menu
and should look like:
Figure 10-13

Liquid density from Density Test.

Figure 10-14

Saturation pressure from Saturation Pressure Test.

Figure 10-15

Liquid volume fraction from the Constant
Composition Expansion Test.

Figure 10-16

Cumulative gas produced from the Constant
Volume Depletion Test.

NOTE:

For the Constant Composition Expansion, select SLIQ from the
Graphics Menu Bar to display the liquid saturation. For the Constant
Volume Depletion, select GPROD from the Graphics Menu Bar to
display the cumulative gas produced.

14. Save this in a separate file by selecting Save from the File menu. Name
this file 5CMPTUNE.DAT

10.7 Regression on Viscosity Data
The final step in data preparation is the calibration of the viscosity model.
One of the parameters which affect the viscosity calculation is the Critical
Compressibility Factors, Zc. In fact, Zc only affects the viscosity
calculation. This allows the viscosity to be tuned separately after all the
other experimental data has been matched. In this example, we will tune
Zc for all 5 pseudo-components. Therefore, the following regression
variables will be used.
Regression Variable

10-190

Number

Zc Component P1

1

Zc Component P2

2

Zc Component P3

3

Zc Component P4

4

Zc Component P5

5

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

1. If the program has been exited, start DESKTOP-PVT, and retrieve the
file 5CMPTUNE.DAT by selecting Open from the File menu. If you are
continuing from Section 10.6, Regression After Pseudoization, skip
this step as the data from 5CMPTUNE.DAT is still loaded in the
program.
2. Viscosity data is measured in a Constant Composition Expansion
Experiment. Therefore, select Test Type from the Config menu.
Deselect all tests except Cnst Composition by deleting the number
beside the desired item. Click OK to return to the display window.
3. From the Config menu select Regression and choose Yes to turn
regression on.
4. From the Regres menu select Variable to set the regression variables.
a. Select EOS Property and click OK. Enter the number for the
regression variable in the appropriate Zc column in the EOS
property table. Note, there may already be numbers in this table in
the columns for Omega A and Omega B. These are carried in the
program memory from the previous regressions. If they are
present, they must be reset to zero. Click OK to return to the
previous menu.
b. Select Binary Coeff and click OK. Zero out any numbers which
may be present. Click OK to return to the previous menu.
c. Select Exit and click OK to return to the display window.
5. Select Limits from the Regres menu. Set the Minimum to 0.5 and the
Maximum to 2.0 for all five variables. Click OK to return to the display
window.
6. From the Regres menu select Control. Change the Max Number of
Iterations to 20. Click OK to return to the display window.
7. Enter the data for the simulated experiment. From the Tests menu
select Cnst Cmposition.
a. Check that the composition has been set by pressing F5 while your
mouse pointer is over the desired item. If the composition is not set

R2003.0 - Landmark

10-191

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

correctly (see below), then copy the global reference composition
by pressing F2. Click OK to return to the display window.

b. Check that the temperature is set to 276 ˚F and the bubble point
pressure is 4375 psig.
c. Select Laboratory Measurements. Erase all the present data by
pressing DeleteRow until all the Pending Row is the only row left.
Add 18 new rows by pressing AddRowAfter or AddRowBefore.
Enter the pressures and oil viscosities from Table 10-5. Click OK to
return to the previous menu. Click OK to return to the display
window.
8. From the Run menu select Go to run the program
9. The results can be viewed graphically by selecting Graphics from the
Report menu. Select Cnst Composition and click OK. From the
Graphics Menu Bar select VISCo to display the oil viscosity. The
picture for oil viscosity for the Constant Composition Expansion
should look like Figure 10-17.
10. Select Save EOS from the Report menu to save the calculated equationof-state values in a separate file. Name this file VISTUNE.EOS. This
will be the PVT file containing the equation of state parameters for
input to a reservoir simulator.
11. Save the data for this run by selecting Save from the File menu. Name
this file VISTUNE.DAT.

10-192

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

Table 10-1: Compositional Data
Component Name
Carbon Dioxide
Methane

5.84
50.43

Ethane

9.65

Propane

8.75

iso-Butane

2.36

n-Butane

3.53

iso-Pentane

1.58

n-Pentane

1.37

Hexanes

2.29

Heptanes Plus
Heptanes Plus - Molecular Weight
Heptanes Plus - Specific Gravity

R2003.0 - Landmark

Well Stream: Mole %

14.2
183.
0.8345

10-193

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Table 10-2: Pressure-Volume Relations of Reservoir Fluid at 276 ˚F
(Constant Composition Expansion)
Pressure
(PSIG)

10-194

Relative
Volume

(Used in)

6000

0.92

CCEXP

5000

0.9386

CCEXP

4500

0.9909

CCEXP

4375 (Bubble Pt)

1.0000

CCEXP

4328

1.0052

CCEXP

4267

1.0117

CCEXP

4230

1.0158

CCEXP

4059

1.0368

CCEXP

3709

1.0883

CCEXP

3408

1.1472

CCEXP

2688

1.3595

CCEXP

1962

1.7834

CCEXP

1271

2.7310

CCEXP

951

3.6866

CCEXP

Density
gm/cc (Used in)
0.4924 CCEXP

0.4530 CCEXP

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

Table 10-3: Depletion Study at 276 ˚F
Pressure
(PSIG)

R2003.0 - Landmark

M.W.
Heptanes
Plus

Gas Z-Factor

Gas Phase
Prod. (Cum %)

Used In

4375

183

Not Avail.

0

CVDEP

3700

138

0.893

8.753

CVDEP

3000

129

0.858

19.629

CVDEP

2200

120

0.860

35.179

CVDEP

1400

115

0.892

52.727

CVDEP

700

116

0.939

69.232

CVDEP

10-195

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Table 10-4: Volume of Liquid Phase at 276 ˚F
Pressure
(PSIG)
4375

(Bubble Pt)

Used In

100.00

CCEXP

4300

65.1

CCEXP

4150

57.0

CCEXP

3960

53.0

CCEXP

50.1

CVDEP

3000

45.0

CVDEP

2200

41.4

CVDEP

1400

37.6

CVDEP

700

33.3

CVDEP

3700

10-196

Liquid Phase Volume
% of Volume at Bubble Pt

(First Depletion Level)

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

Table 10-5: Viscosity at 276 ˚F From a CCEXP Experiment
Pressure
(PSIG)
6200

0.106

5780

0.102

5415

0.098

4980

0.095

4620

0.093

4375

R2003.0 - Landmark

Liquid Viscosity
(Centipoise)

(Bubble Pt)

0.091

4225

0.099

4100

0.101

3900

0.105

3700

0.109

3400

0.114

3000

0.125

2600

0.137

2200

0.153

1800

0.172

1400

0.199

1000

0.231

700

0.260

10-197

Tutorial

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Table 10-6: HEAVY.EOS File
EOS
PR
COMPONENTS
HVY1
HVY2 HVY3
PROPERTIES
COMP
MW
TC
PC
ZC
ACENTRIC OMEGAA
HVY1
107.94 570.43
424.66
0.26346 0.30783
X
HVY2
188.08 805.44
278.66
0.24256 0.52090
X
HVY3
397.52 1226.32 147.94
0.20137 1.09954
X
DJK C1
HVY1
0.037935
HVY2
0.049365
HVY3
0.065926
ENDEOS
C
C PLUS FRACTION PSEUDO COMPONENT COMPOSITIONS
C
COMPOSITION
0.044272 0.084232 0.013497

10-198

OMEGAB
X
X
X

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Tutorial

Table 10-7: HEAVY.DAT File
SPLIT
MWPLUS
GPLUS
ZPLUS
NG
183.00
0.8345
0.1420
3
PROPERTY CORRELATION SIMULATION
TC
RIAZI-DAUBERT
PC
RIAZI-DAUBERT
ACENTRIC EDMISTER
ZC
RIAZI-DAUBERT
CONMWI
MWC6C7
90.00
MWINC
12.000
END

R2003.0 - Landmark

MWGRP
125.00

300.00

10-199

Tutorial

10-200

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

R2003.0 - Landmark

Tutorial

10-201

Tutorial

10-202

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

R2003.0 - Landmark

Tutorial

10-203

Tutorial

10-204

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Landmark - R2003.0

Appendix

A
References
1. Wiebe, R.: “The Binary System Carbon Dioxide-Water Under
Pressure,” Chemical Reviews, 29 (1941) 475-481.
2. Malinin, S.D. and Savelyeva, N.I.: “The Solubility of CO2 in NaCl and
CaCl2 Solutions at 25, 50, and 75˚ Under Elevated CO2 Pressures,”
Geochemistry International, (1972) 410-418.
3. Malinin, S.D. and Kurovskaya, N.A.: “Solubility of CO2 in Chloride
Solutions at Elevated Temperatures and CO2 Pressures,” Geochemistry
International, (1975) 199-201.
4. McRee, B.C.: “CO2: How It Works, Where It Works,” Petroleum
Engineers, (Nov. 1977) 52-63.
5. Rowe, A.M. and Chou, J.C.: “Pressure-Volume-TemperatureConcentration Relation of Aqueous NaCl Solutions,” J. of Chemical and
Engineering Data, Vol. 15, No. 1 (1970) 61-66.
6. Parkinson, W.J. and De Nevers, N.: “Partial Model Volume of Carbon
Dioxide in Water Solutions,” I & EC Fundamentals, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Nov.
1969)709-713.
7. Sayegh, S.G. and Najman, J.: “Phase Behavior Measurements of CO2SO2- Brine Mixtures,” The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol.
65 (April 1987) 314-320.
8. Osif, T.L.: “The Effects of Salt, Gas, Temperature, and Pressure on the
Compressibility of Water,” SPE Reservoir Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Feb.
1988) 175-181.
9. Kestin, J., Khalifa, H.E., Abe, Y, Grimes, C.E., Sookiazian, H. and
Wakeham, W.A.: “Effect of Pressure on the Viscosity of Aqueous NaCl
Solutions in the Temperature Range 20-150 ˚C”, J. of Chemical and
Engineering Data, Vol. 23, No. 4 (1978) 328-336.
10. Whitson, C. H. and Torp, S. B.: “Evaluating Constant Volume
Depletion Data”, JPT, (Mar., 1983), 610-620.
11. Coats, K. H.: “Simulation of Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance”,
JPT, (Oct., 1985), 1870-1886.

R2003.0 - Landmark

A-205

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

A-206

Landmark - R2003.0


000000Subject Index
A

C

accelerated successive-substitution 8-156
acentric factor
entry in property table 5-36
plotting 6-57
use in heavy fraction 6-56
annotation
adding to a plot 9-169
API gravity data
entering for distillation test 7-122
appending an EOS file 5-34

calculation
how activated 8-156
how to invoke 2-16
of phase envelope 4-26
calculation method
selecting 8-156
carbon dioxide
saturated water properties 5-44
carbon dioxide saturated water
entering property correlations 6-67
saving data in file 9-175
carbon dioxide solubility 5-44
how calculated 5-45
Cavett correlation 6-55
click and drag
definition of xvii
CO2 saturated water 4-27
component K-value
entering for distillation test 7-120
Component menu
Append EOS option 5-34
Load EOS option 5-34
overview of 5-31
System option 5-31
User option 5-32
Volatile option 5-33
components
setting default 5-31
user-defined 5-32
volatile 5-33
composition 4-30
loading from another test 5-33
saving data in file 9-175
composition expansion procedure 4-26
composition source
defining 4-27
composition specification 4-29
composition variation test 4-29
composition variations with depth 4-27

B
batch data file
definition of 2-16
batch mode 2-5
bibliography xviii, A-205
binary coefficients
specification of 5-38
binary exponents
defining 5-38
binary interaction coefficients
entering for nonlinear regression 6-64, 6-65
how to define 4-25
plotting 6-57
use in mixing rules 5-38
binary interaction coefficients of H2O
how to specify for thermal 4-28
blend API gravity data
entering for distillation test 7-122
boiling point temperature
entry in property table 5-37
plotting 6-57
bracket molecular weights 6-53
bubble point pressure 4-26, 7-85
of pseudo components 6-60
oil-water 7-112

R2003.0 - Landmark

Subject-207

Subject

compressibility
of water, how calculated 5-48
Config menu
Binary Coeff option 4-25, 5-38
Composition Sor option 4-27, 6-58
EOS option 4-24
Heavy option 4-29
overview of 4-23
Pseudoization option 4-27
Regression option 4-27
Run Sequence option 4-29
Run-Time Compos option 4-29
System Info option 4-24
Test Type option 4-25
Thermal option 4-28
Water-In-Oil option 4-29
confirmation dialog
how to use 2-12
constant composition expansion test 4-29
constant composition test 7-88
constant volume depletion procedure 4-26, 7-92
constant volume depletion test 4-29
Control key combinations xviii
correlation
Cavett 6-55
Edmister 6-56
Kesler-Lee 6-55
Riazi-Daubert 6-55
Riedel-Pitzer 6-55
use to calculate EOS 6-55
Whitson 6-56
critical pressure
entry in property table 5-36
plotting 6-57
use in heavy fraction 6-56
critical temperature
entry in property table 5-36
plotting 6-57
critical z-factor
entry in property table 5-36
plotting 6-57
crude viscosity data
entering for distillation test 7-124
cursor movement control xviii

D
dat file extension 2-16

Subject-208

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

data
generating table of 9-173
printing a table of 9-173
retrieving from database 9-173
retrieving tabular data 9-174
saving table of 9-173
saving to a database 9-172
data entry
general guidelines 2-7
data file
how to open new 3-20
data set
adding descriptive text 4-24
database file
definition of 2-17
how to open 3-20
saving 3-20
debugging information 8-160
defaults
component 5-31
density
laboratory procedures 4-26
liquid 7-81
density correlation 5-45
entering for nonlinear regression 6-67
density units
use as input in test procedures 7-76
derivative calculation
in regression 6-71
DESKTOP-PVT
batch mode 2-5
how to exit 3-21
Overview 1-1
starting the program 2-5
dew point pressure 7-85
of pseudo components 6-60
differential expansion procedure 4-26
differential expansion test 4-29, 7-99
differential liberation test 7-99
differential vaporization test 7-99
Display Window
description of 2-6
distillate API gravity
entering for distillation test 7-119
distillation curve
entering 7-116
distillation table
use in heavy fraction 6-56
distillation test 4-26, 7-114
dtpvt.ini file 3-19, 3-21

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

E
Edmister correlation 6-56
enthalpy 4-26
gas, how to specify 5-39
of a gas mixture 7-107
of a liquid mixture 7-109
enthalpy units
use as input in test procedures 7-77
EOS data file
appending 5-34
definition of 2-17
opening and loading 5-34
EOS parameters
calculation for heavy fraction 6-55
equation-of-state
calculation in heavy fraction 6-54
how to specify 4-24
saving calculations 9-174
use in DESKTOP-PVT 1-2
use in pseudoization 6-58
equation-of-state data file
definition of 2-17
equation-of-state parameters
appending for pseudo components 6-61
appending to a file 6-57
entering for nonlinear regression 6-63
overwriting 6-57
overwriting for pseudo components 6-61
review in table format 6-60
review in tabular form 6-57
saving 6-57
saving for pseudo components 6-60

F
File Box Pop-up
how to use 2-8
File menu
Exit option 3-21
Last Run option 3-19
Load Database option 2-17, 3-20
New option 3-20
Open option 2-16, 3-20
overview of 3-19
Save Database option 2-17, 3-20
Save option 2-16, 3-20
file types
summary of 2-16

R2003.0 - Landmark

Subject

first single carbon number
entry of 6-52
flash calculation convergence
improving 8-159
flash calculations
control parameters for 8-158
flash expansion test 7-88
flash liberation test 7-88
flash vaporization test 7-88
fluid characterization
tutorial on 10-179
fluid composition
loading from another test 5-33
of pseudo components 6-59
requirements for tests 7-74
unpseudoized 4-29
Fluid menu
Binary Coeff option 4-25, 5-38
Binary Exponent option 5-38
CO2TAB Correlation option 5-44
Gas Enthalpy option 5-39
K-Value Correlation option 5-44
overview of 5-35
Pedersen Visc option 5-42
Property option 5-36
fluid properties
how to specify for thermal 4-28
specifying 5-36
fluid property table 5-36
fluid temperature
of pseudo components 6-60
formation volume factor
calculation for CO2 saturated water 5-47
fraction characterization
use in DESKTOP-PVT 1-2
fugacity coefficient 7-111
function keys (F1, F2, etc.) xviii

G
gamma distribution function 6-50
alpha parameter 6-53
for heavy fractions 6-50
gas compressibility factor 4-26, 7-79
gas enthalpy
how to specify 5-39
of a mixture 7-107
gas-oil ratio units
use as input in test procedures 7-76
Gibbs method 8-156

Subject-209

Subject

global reference composition 5-33
graphic analysis
of heavy fraction 6-57
graphic attributes
setting 9-165
graphic module 9-162

H
H2O Binary Coef menu
display of 5-38
H2O equation-of-state properties
how loaded 4-28
hardware/software requirements 1-3
heavy ends characterization
tutorial on 10-177
heavy fraction
review results 6-57
heavy fraction characterization 6-49
how to activate 4-29
use in generating EOS data 2-17
heavy fraction properties
entry of 6-50
Heavy function
overview 6-49
Heavy menu
Append EOS option 6-57
Calculate option 6-56
Graphics option 6-57
overview 6-50
Parameter option 6-50
Replace EOS option 6-57
Review option 6-57
Save EOS option 6-57
hydrocarbon composition
variation with depth 7-137

I
ideal gas state 5-39
input data
recalling from last simulation 3-19
input data file 2-16
opening and reading 3-20
item selection panel
how to use 2-10, 2-11
iteration
for nonlinear regression 6-70

Subject-210

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

K
Kesler-Lee correlation 6-55
K-value correlation
specifying for nonlinear regression 6-66
K-values
entering for distillation test 7-120
how computed 5-44
saving tables of 9-174

L
laboratory distillation test 7-114
laboratory procedures 4-29
bubble point pressure 4-26
CO2 saturated water 4-27
common input data for 7-74
composition expansion 4-26
composition variation 4-27
constant volume depletion 4-26
density 4-26
differential expansion 4-26
distillation test 4-26
enthalpy 4-26
gas compressibility factor 4-26
multiple contact vaporization 4-26
phase envelope calculation 4-26
saturation pressure 4-26
separators 4-26
specifying other conditions 7-75
steam distillation 4-26
steam vaporization 4-27
swelling test 4-26
use in simulation data 1-2
vapor pressure 4-26
vaporization test 4-26
viscosity 4-26
water properties 4-26
laboratory separator test
calculation of 7-132
laboratory tests 4-29
last single carbon number
entry of 6-53
line color
in plots 9-168
line style
in plots 9-168
liquid density 7-81

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

liquid enthalpy
of a mixture 7-109
liquid water properties 7-111
list entry panel
how to use 2-13, 2-14
Lohrenz, Bray and Clark 8-156
Lohrenz-Bray-Clark correlation
alternatives to 5-42

M
manual
overview of xv
MB1, MB2, etc.
definition of xvi
Menu Bar
description of 2-6
menu options
how to select 2-7
mixing rules
parameters used in 5-38
mole fraction
calculation of 6-50
entering for nonlinear regression 6-64
entry of 6-52
how to specify 4-29
plotting 6-57
review in table format 6-60
review in tabular format 6-57
mole fraction distribution
entry of 6-52
molecular weight
calculation of 6-50
entering for distillation test 7-117
entry in property table 5-36
entry of 6-52
minimum expected in heavy fraction 6-54
plotting 6-57
molecular weight boundary
in heavy fraction 6-54
molecular weight interval
in heavy fraction 6-54
mouse buttons
how to use xvi
multiple contact steam vaporization test
thermal properties for 4-28
multiple contact vaporization test 4-26, 7-102
multistage separator
modeling of 7-130

R2003.0 - Landmark

Subject

N
new data file
how to open 3-20
Newton-Raphson method 8-156
nonlinear regression 6-49
entering control data 6-70
entering variables for 6-62
package included 1-1
tutorial on 10-183
nonlinear regression calculation
overview of 6-62
non-volumetric observed data 6-71

O
observed data
use in regression 6-71
oil composition
water-free 7-112
Omega A,B
entry in property table 5-36
opening a database file 3-20
output
quantity for regression 6-70
output file
definition of 2-18

P
Parachor
entry in property table 5-37
Parkinson and De Nevers 5-47
Passut-Danner ideal gas state 5-39
Pedersen method 8-156
Pedersen viscosity correlation
how to specify 5-42
phase envelope
calculation of 7-136
phase envelope calculation 4-26, 7-104

Subject-211

Subject

plotting
annotation of plots 9-169
changing the line color 9-168
changing the line style 9-168
customized title 9-172
obtaining X, Y plot location data 9-168
retrieving data 9-173
saving data 9-172
selecting lab procedures for 9-162
zooming the plot 9-166
pop-up windows
summary of 2-8
PostScript output file
definition of 2-18
predictive mode
use in DESKTOP-PVT 1-1
pressure
critical of fluids 5-36
pressure units
definition of 5-36
of pseudo components 6-60
use as input in test procedures 7-76, 7-77
pressure-volume relations test 7-88
printer
setting up output 2-18
PRINTER option 2-18
printing
table of data 9-173
properties
specifying for fluids 5-36
property table
entering for fluids 5-36
pseudo components 6-49
entering data for 6-59
entering number and name 6-58
specifying for heavy fractions 6-53
Pseudo function
overview 6-49
Pseudo menu
Append EOS option 6-61
Calculate option 6-58, 6-60
overview of 6-58
Parameter option 6-59
Pseudo Name option 6-58
Replace EOS option 6-61
Review option 6-60
Save EOS option 6-60
pseudo-critical temperature
entering for nonlinear regression 6-66

Subject-212

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

pseudoization
detail discussion/activating 4-27
overview of 6-58
regression after
tutorial on 10-188
tutorial on 10-185
use in DESKTOP-VIP 1-2

Q
quitting DESKTOP-PVT 3-21

R
reference temperature
entry in property table 5-37
Regres menu
Control option 6-70
Limits option 6-69
overview of 6-62
Variable option 6-62
regression
tutorial on 10-183
regression function
activating 4-27
regression variables
entering 6-67
how to specify for thermal 4-28
setting initial value of 6-69
regression weight factors
entering for distillation test 7-120
Reid, Prausnitz and Sherwood 8-156
Report menu
GetGraph option 2-17, 9-173
GetTable option 9-174
Graphics option 9-162
GraTitle option 9-172
overview of 9-161
PrtTable 9-173
PrtTable option 2-18
SaveCO2T option 9-175
SaveEOS option 9-174
SaveKval option 9-174
SaveVisc option 9-175
SaveZgrd option 9-175
SavGraph option 2-17, 9-172
SavTable option 9-173
Table option 2-18, 9-173

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

residue API gravity
entering for distillation test 7-118
results
displaying 9-162
results of calculation
how to view 2-16
Riazi-Daubert correlation 6-55
Riedel-Pitzer correlation 6-55
Rowe and Chou 5-47
Run menu
Calc Method option 8-156
Debug option 8-160
Expansion Tol option 8-159
Flash Tol option 8-158
Go option 8-156
overview of 8-155
Psat Tol option 8-157
run numbers 4-29
run sequence 4-30
how to specify 4-29
run-time composition option
how to activate 4-29

S
salinity effects
adjusting 5-47
saturation pressure 4-26
of pseudo components 6-60
use in test procedures 7-85
saturation pressure calculation
controlling convergence 8-157
thermal properties for 4-28
saturation pressure type
of pseudo components 6-60
saving a database file 3-20
saving current data 3-20
Sayegh and Najman 5-47
SCN equation-of-state parameters 6-56
screen layout 2-6
search vector length
initializing for regression 6-70
separator, multistage
modeling of 7-130
separators 4-26
solubility
CO2, calculation of 5-45

R2003.0 - Landmark

Subject

specific gravity
entry in property table 5-37
entry of 6-52
plotting 6-57
starting the program 2-5
steam distillation 4-26
steam distillation test
overview of data requirements 7-127
thermal properties for 4-28
steam vaporization 4-27
steam vaporization test
overview of 7-145
sum-of-square
reduction in 6-71
swelling test 4-29, 7-97
swelling test procedure 4-26
system information
adding 4-24

T
table entry panel
how to use 2-15
table look-up
use to calculate EOS 6-55
temperature
boiling, entry of 5-37
critical, of fluids 5-36
reference, entry of 5-37
temperature units
definition of 5-36
of pseudo components 6-60
use as input in test procedures 7-75

Subject-213

Subject

Test menu
Cnst Composition option 7-88
Cnst Volume option 7-92
Density option 7-81
Differential option 7-99
Distillation option 7-114
Gas Enthalpy option 7-107
Liquid Enthalpy option 7-109
Multi-Contact option 7-102
overview of 7-73
Phas Envlop option 7-104
Phas Envlop/Full option 7-136
Sat Pressure option 7-85
Sat Pressure/H20 option 7-112
Separator/No Reg option 7-130
Separator/Reg option 7-132
Steam Distillation option 7-127
Steam Vaporizatn option 7-145
Swelling option 7-97
Vapor Pressure option 7-83
Viscosity option 7-87
Water Property option 7-111
Z-Factor option 7-79
ZGRAD option 7-137
test procedures
specifying the type of 4-25
text
adding to a plot 9-169
text-entry window
how to use 2-9
thermal option
how to activate 4-28
title
customizing for a plot 9-172
tutorials
fluid characterization 10-179
heavy ends characterization 10-177
nonlinear regression 10-183
overview of 10-177
pseudoization 10-185
regression after pseudoization 10-188
regression on viscosity data 10-190
Twu viscosity correlation 8-156

U
unpseudoized fluid compositions
how to specify 4-29
user-defined components 5-32

Subject-214

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

V
vapor pressure 4-26, 7-83
vaporization test 4-26
VIPPOST variable 2-18
VIPPSOUT variable 2-18
VIP-THERM
activating Thermal option in PVT 4-28
defining volatile components 5-33
water-in-oil option for 4-29
viscosity 4-26
entering for nonlinear regression 6-65
of fluid mixture 7-87
of water,calculation of 5-48
regression tutorial 10-190
saving data in file 9-175
viscosity correlation 8-156
specifying 5-42
use in pseudoization 6-58
viscosity data
entering for distillation test 7-123
volume shift parameter
entering for nonlinear regression 6-64
entry in property table 5-37
how computed 5-38
plotting 6-57
use in heavy fraction 6-56

W
water compressibility
how calculated 5-48
water formation volume factor 5-45
water properties 4-26, 7-111
water viscosity
how calculated 5-48
water-free oil composition 7-112
water-in-oil option
how to activate 4-29
Watson characterization factor
for heavy fraction 6-54
use of 6-51
weight factor
use as input in test procedures 7-77
weight fraction
entry of 6-52
plotting 6-57
Whitson correlation 6-56

Landmark - R2003.0

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Subject

Z
z-factor 7-79
critical 5-36
plotting 6-57
zoom
plots 9-166

R2003.0 - Landmark

Subject-215

Subject

Subject-216

DESKTOP-PVT USER’S GUIDE

Landmark - R2003.0