Principles of Physical Chemistry

Laboratory Report
Lab #2 Experiment 11

Thermochemistry: Enthalpy of Vaporization of water from
Vapor Pressure Measurements


September 14, 2012

Lab Lecturer:

Dr. G. Harewood


Kemoy Francis – 0803681
Avis Ross

The change in volume resulted from the thermal expansion of the constant amount of air and by . a known quantity of air was trapped under water and kept at constant pressure. Abstract The enthalpy of vaporization represents the amount of energy required to expand the volume of a liquid material to that of its gas. This magnitude reflects the strength of the intermolecular forces between its molecules. the enthalpy of vaporization of water could be calculated. The enthalpy of vaporization of water was found to be In this experiment. The ln P of water was then plotted versus 1/T and the slope of the resulting line is equal to -Hvap/R.Aim: To determine the enthalpy of vaporization of water from the measurement of its vapor pressure at various temperatures. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation relates the temperature variation of the vapor pressure −∆ H vap of a liquid to it Hvap. The air quickly became saturated with water vapor. This equation can be written as: ln p = R ( T1 ) +C In this experiment the vapor pressure of water was measured for a number of different temperatures. The temperature of the liquid water was varied and the changes in the volume of the trapped gas mixture were then recorded. Vapor pressure on the other hand is the pressure exerted on the inside of a container due to the vapors that escape from a liquid. From this.

Upon reaching 80.7 8. the temperature and volume of the gas were recorded every 3.the variation in the amount of water vapor.0cm3 graduated cylinder which was immersed in a beaker filled with distilled water.0oC.3 9. the vapor pressure of water was calculated for each temperature.0 9.0oC. During the heating process.5 9.0oC. As the water bath cools.3 10. Procedure: A small volume of air was trapped in an inverted 10.0oC .6 9. the water bath was removed from the heat and was allowed to cool to 50. The temperature of the water bath and then lowered further to 0oC by adding a small quantities of ice to the beaker. From this data. the temperature of the water bath and the volume of the air trapped in the graduated cylinder was recorded once per minute. The volume of the air trapped in the graduated cylinder was again recorded once per minute. Results Volume cm3 7.2 7.4 7.7 9. The temperature of the water in the beaker was heated to about 80.9 8.7 Temparature 0C 38 43 48 53 58 63 68 68 67 65 64 62 61 60 .1 8.1 8.9 9.

1 7.9 7. the measurement of the volume of gas should only be made if the pressure inside the graduated cylinder and the atmosphere are equal. The vapor pressure of a liquid depends upon the molecular structure of the liquid and upon the temperature.3 8. The graduated cylinder will be raise to allow the water level inside the cylinder and the water bath to be equal. and hence the fraction of molecules with sufficient energy to escape from the liquid phase.2 5 5 6 Discussion In order to minimize error in this experiment. Increasing the temperature increases the average kinetic energy of the liquid molecules.9 58 56 54 51 50 6. the vapor pressure increases with temperature.1 6. The pressure inside the cylinder and outside the cylinder will be equal.5 8. Only then can the volume of the gas inside be measured.8. .2 6. Thus.