- Reservoir Engineering
- KAPPA - The Analysis of Dynamic Data in Shale Gas Reservoirs 1
- luo2017_2
- Petroleum status in the levant
- Darcy Law-Theoretical Derivation
- Tight Gas Info
- Lab Report permeability
- Marketing Presentation-Compressco July 09
- SPE-955-G
- Dike 2012
- PTA Using Generated Well Test Data.pdf
- LAB-REPORT-2012-2-1
- Spe 205346 Des Waan
- Water Influx 1
- 1404261257_Well%20Testing-1982-9.doc
- PETSOC-65-03-01
- ESP (key)
- HC Occurrence in Mananadi
- SCA1994-18
- 06 GEOTECHNICAL PROJECT RISKING.ppt
- arma2013Paper631_STREAMLINES
- PETSOC-86-37-14
- Water Web
- V3I8_IJERTV3IS080539
- Final OF
- Simulation Study of Polymer Flooding Performance
- Factors Affecting Production_Recovery OCR
- 21257644 Well Productivity in Gas Condensate and 80172
- Syllabus2014_15_tcm13-67024.pdf
- Completion Challenge Paper
- Vip Core
- Job Sub Help
- TWS_InstallationGuide
- pvt
- Pvt Keyword
- Unix Release Notes
- Tech Ref
- TWS_ReleaseNotes
- gridgenr
- Plot View
- Vip Exec
- Release Notes
- Vip Conv Help
- gridgenr
- Vds Help
- 3dview
- Reg Calc Help
- WOW_release_notes.pdf
- Well Cat Release Notes
- Release Notes w Bp
- gcalchelp
- WOW Geolog Release Notes
- Include File Rules
- Well Cat System Requirements
- WSF_ReleaseNotes
- WOW GeoFrame Release Notes
- WBP
- Get Start
- Well Plan Release Notes
- Gtechref

User /

Reference

StrataSim

User/Reference Guide

© 2004 Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 162114

February 2004

**© 2004 Landmark Graphics Corporation
**

All Rights Reserved Worldwide

This publication has been provided pursuant to an agreement containing restrictions on its use. The publication is also

protected by Federal copyright law. No part of this publication may be copied or distributed, transmitted, transcribed,

stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language, in any form or by any means,

electronic, magnetic, manual, or otherwise, or disclosed to third parties without the express written permission of:

**Landmark Graphics Corporation
**

Building 1, Suite 200, 2101 CityWest, Houston, Texas 77042, USA

P.O. Box 42806, Houston, Texas 77242, USA

Phone: 713-839-2000

FAX: 713-839-2401

Web: www.lgc.com

Trademark Notice

3DFS, 3D Drill View, 3D Drill View KM, 3DView, 3D Surveillance, Active Field Surveillance,

Active Reservoir Surveillance, ADC, Advanced Data Transfer, ARIES, Asset Development Center,

Asset Development Centre, Automate, Asset Performance, AssetView, Atomic Meshing, Automate, BLITZ,

BLITZPAK, CasingSeat, COMPASS, Corporate Data Archiver, Corporate Data Store, Data Manager, DataStar,

DBPlot, Decision Suite, Decisionarium, DecisionSpace, DecisionSpace AssetPlanner, DecisionSpace AssetView,

DecisionSpace Atomic Meshing, DecisionSpace Decision Management Systems(DMS), DecisionSpace PowerGrid,

DecisionSpace PowerModel, DecisionSpace PrecisionTarget, DecisionSpace Reservior, DecisionSpace TracPlanner,

DecisionSpace Well Seismic Fusion, DepthTeam, DepthTeam Explorer, DepthTeam Express, DepthTeam Express3,

DepthTeam Extreme, DepthTeam Interpreter, Desktop Navigator, DESKTOP-PVT, DESKTOP-VIP, DEX,

DFW, DIMS, Discovery, Discovery Asset, Drill-to-the-Earth Model, Drillability Suite, Drilling Desktop, DrillModel,

DSS, Dynamic Reservoir Management, Dynamic Surveillance System, EarthCube, EDM, eLandmark,

Engineer’s Data Model, Engineer's Desktop, Engineer’s Link, EOS-PAK, Executive Assistant, ezFault, ezSurface,

ezTracker, FastTrack, FieldWorks, FZAP!, GeoDataLoad, GeoGraphix (stylized), GeoGraphix Exploration System,

GeoLink, GeoProbe, GeoProbe GF DataServer, GeoProbe Integrated, GES, GESXplorer, GMAplus, GRIDGENR,

Handheld Field Operator, I2 Enterprise, iDIMS, IsoMap, Landmark, Landmark and Design, Landmark logo and

Design, Landmark Decision Center, LandScape, Lattix, LeaseMap, LMK Resources, LogEdit, LogM, LogPrep,

Magic Earth, MagicDesk, MagicStation, MagicVision, Make Great Decisions, MathPack, MIRA, Model Builder,

MyLandmark, OpenBooks, OpenExplorer, OpenJournal, OpenSGM, OpenVision, OpenWells, OpenWire,

OpenWorks, OpenWorks Well File, PAL, Parallel-VIP, PetroBank, PetroWorks, PlotView, Point Gridding Plus,

Pointing Dispatcher, PostStack, PostStack ESP, PowerCalculator, PowerExplorer, PowerHub, Power Interpretation,

PowerJournal, PowerModel, PowerSection, PowerView, PRIZM, PROFILE, ProMAGIC, ProMAX, ProMAX 2D,

ProMAX 3D, ProMAX 3DPSDM, ProMAX MVA, ProMAX VSP, pSTAx, QUICKDIF, QUIKCDP, QUIKDIG,

QUIKRAY, QUIKSHOT, QUIKVSP, RAVE, RAYMAP, RTOC, Real Freedom, Real-Time Asset Management

Center, Real-Time Asset Management Centre, Real Time Knowledge Company, Real-Time Operations Center,

Real Time Production Surveillance, Real Time Surveillance, RESev, ResMap, RMS, SafeStart, SCAN, SeisCube,

SeisMap, SeisModel, SeisSpace, SeisVision, SeisWell, SeisWorks, SeisXchange, Sierra, Sierra (design), SigmaView,

SimResults, SIVA, Spatializer, SpecDecomp, StrataAmp, StrataMap, Stratamodel, StrataSim, StratWorks,

StressCheck, STRUCT, Surf & Connect, SynTool, System Start for Servers, SystemStart, SystemStart for Clients,

SystemStart for Storage, T2B, TDQ, Team Workspace, TERAS, Total Drilling Performance, TOW/cs,

TOW/cs The Oilfield Workstation, TracPlanner, Trend Form Gridding, Turbo Synthetics, VIP, VIP-COMP,

VIP-CORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-EXECUTIVE, VIP-Local Grid Refinement, VIP-THERM, WavX,

Web Editor, Web OpenWorks, Well Seismic Fusion, Wellbase, Wellbore Planner, Wellbore Planner Connect,

WELLCAT, WELLPLAN, WellXchange, WOW, Xsection, You're in Control. Experience the difference, ZAP!,

and Z-MAP Plus are trademarks, registered trademarks or service marks of Landmark Graphics Corporation or

Magic Earth, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Note

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a

commitment by Landmark Graphics Corporation. Landmark Graphics Corporation assumes no responsibility for any

error that may appear in this manual. Some states or jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer of expressed or implied

warranties in certain transactions; therefore, this statement may not apply to you.

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Contents

**StrataSim User / Reference Guide
**

Introduction

Overview .............................................................................................................

1

Main Advantages of StrataSim .........................................................................

2

Contents of This Guide .....................................................................................

3

Guide Conventions ............................................................................................

4

Preparing Data for StrataSim ...........................................................................

5

Starting StrataSim

Overview .............................................................................................................

6

Selecting the StrataSim Directory ....................................................................

6

Selecting a StrataSim Run ................................................................................

7

Creating a New Run .....................................................................................

9

Re-Running a Previous Run ........................................................................

13

Modifying a Run Description ......................................................................

13

Deleting a Run ..............................................................................................

14

Selecting Well Models .......................................................................................

15

Setting Units of Measurement ..........................................................................

16

Limiting the Size of the Simulation Model ......................................................

17

Limiting the Model .......................................................................................

18

Limiting the Size of the Upscaled Model ...................................................

20

R2003.12

Contents

iii

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Workflow Manager

Overview .............................................................................................................

21

Reusing Existing Workflow Diagrams .......................................................

21

Workflow Setup .................................................................................................

22

Workflow Diagram .............................................................................................

23

Workflow Steps ..................................................................................................

24

Steps for Creating a Permeability Attribute ...............................................

25

Steps for Creating an Initial Saturation Attribute ......................................

25

Steps for Investigating Flowbody and Volumetrics ..................................

25

Steps for Running a Unit Mobility Ratio Flow Simulation ........................

26

Steps fpr Running a Unit Mobility Vertical Upscaling Simulation ...........

26

Estimating

Overview .............................................................................................................

28

Estimating Permeability ....................................................................................

29

Estimating Initial Oil Saturations .....................................................................

33

Overview of Leverett J Functions ...............................................................

33

Working with Leverett J Functions ............................................................

34

Fitting a Leverett J Function ..................................................................

34

Cataloging Leverett J Functions ...........................................................

37

Equilibrium Region(s) ..................................................................................

40

Estimating Initial Saturations ......................................................................

41

Creating Hardcopy of Leverett J Functions ..............................................

43

R2003.12

Contents

iv

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Setting Up StrataSim

Overview .............................................................................................................

44

Describing Three-Dimensional Variables ........................................................

45

Setting Required Variables .........................................................................

46

Calculating Transmissibilities ....................................................................

49

Permeability ............................................................................................

49

Transmissibility Multipliers ...................................................................

50

Transmissibilities in StrataSim .............................................................

51

Setting Transmissibilities ......................................................................

52

Setting Optional Variables ..........................................................................

54

Constant Pressure Constraint ...............................................................

55

Constant Flow Potential Constraint ......................................................

56

Reference Elevation ...............................................................................

56

Indicating Perforation .......................................................................................

57

Setting Fluid and Rock Properties ...................................................................

59

Using the Fluid and Rock Properties Dialog Box .....................................

60

Setting Interfacial Tension ................................................................................

61

Well Boundary Conditions ................................................................................

62

Editing Well Conditions ...............................................................................

64

Copying Well Conditions .............................................................................

66

Setting Run Parameters ....................................................................................

68

The Pressure Run ........................................................................................

69

R2003.12

Contents

v

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Setting Run Parameters continued
**

The Saturation Run ......................................................................................

70

Porosity Cut-Off ......................................................................................

70

Permeability Cut-Off ...............................................................................

70

Relative Movable Pore Volume Cut-Off ................................................

71

Saturation Error ......................................................................................

71

Water Cut Limit .......................................................................................

71

Setting Output Options .....................................................................................

72

For a Regular Run ........................................................................................

72

Output at Starting Time ...............................................................................

73

Movable Oil Grid Files .................................................................................

75

Time Steps ....................................................................................................

75

Adding Time Steps .................................................................................

76

Deleting Time Steps ...............................................................................

77

Saturation Attributes ...................................................................................

78

R2003.12

Contents

vi

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Running a Simulation

Overview .............................................................................................................

79

Specifying Output Attributes ............................................................................

80

Initializing the Pressure Solver ........................................................................

82

Running a Simulation ........................................................................................

83

Reviewing Results .............................................................................................

86

During the Run .............................................................................................

86

After the Run ................................................................................................

87

Deleting Output Attributes ................................................................................

90

Exporting Run Results to ARIES .....................................................................

91

Technical Reference

Overview .............................................................................................................

92

Darcy’s Law ........................................................................................................

94

An Example of Misinterpreting Darcy’s Law .............................................

95

Hydrostatic Equilibrium ...............................................................................

97

Two-Phase Flow ................................................................................................

98

Darcy’s Law and Two-Phase Flow ..............................................................

98

Total Volumetric Flow Rate .........................................................................

99

**Relative Permeabilities ................................................................................ 101
**

Unit Mobility Ratio ........................................................................................ 103

R2003.12

Contents

vii

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Transmissibility ................................................................................................. 105

Summary of Discussion .............................................................................. 106

Transmissibility in Z Direction .................................................................... 107

Transmissibility in X and Y Directions ....................................................... 111

Transmissibility Multipliers ......................................................................... 113

Comparisons of X, Y, and Z Transmissibilities ......................................... 114

Misinterpreting Darcy’s Law — Revisited .................................................. 117

Using Transmissibilities in StrataSim ........................................................ 119

Double Z Transmissibilities Near Very Thin Cells .................................... 120

Elimination of Zero Thickness Cells .......................................................... 121

When Cells Can Be Eliminated .............................................................. 121

How to Eliminate Zero Thickness Cells ................................................ 122

Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim ................................................. 125

Equation for Flow Potential ......................................................................... 126

Flow Potential Equation for StrataSim ....................................................... 130

Saturation Equation ..................................................................................... 132

Upstream Weighting of Mobilities .............................................................. 135

Summary of Flow Equations ....................................................................... 135

R2003.12

Contents

viii

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Pressure-Constrained Cells ............................................................................. 136
**

Wells .............................................................................................................. 136

Well Types ............................................................................................... 138

Reference Elevations ............................................................................. 139

Pressure Constraints ............................................................................. 139

Flow Rate Constraints ............................................................................ 140

Phase Rates and Water Cuts for Wells ................................................. 140

Perforations ............................................................................................. 141

Pressure Constrained Nonwell Cells ......................................................... 142

Appendix A.

Running StrataSim in Standalone Mode

Running StrataSim ............................................................................................ 143

**Appendix B. StrataSim Files
**

Overview ............................................................................................................. 145

ASCII Files .......................................................................................................... 146

ASCII Control Files ....................................................................................... 146

ASCII Output Files ........................................................................................ 147

Miscellaneous ASCII Files ........................................................................... 148

Binary Output FilesZ ......................................................................................... 148

R2003.12

Contents

ix

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Index ....................................................................................................................

R2003.12

Contents

149

x

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Introduction

Overview

StrataSim is a three-dimensional reservoir characterization

flow-analysis tool. Because of simplifications in the solution

algorithms, StrataSim is able to run faster and require less memory than

full-physics three-phase flow simulators. These qualities give you more

flexibility to investigate the effects of the geological detail inherent in

models created by Stratamodel modeling programs. StrataSim can be

characterized as a steady-state single-phase simplified physics

flow-simulator.

StrataSim and standard reservoir flow simulators offer complementary

approaches to understanding reservoir flow. Each approach offers you

something that the other does not have.

•

•

**Standard reservoir flow simulators use simplified geological
**

models for investigating the effects of complex physics.

StrataSim uses simplified physics for investigating the effects of

complex geological models.

**StrataSim helps you develop an understanding of how major features of
**

a reservoir model affect oil recovery. For example, you can investigate

the effects of permeability distribution, faults, or connectivity of sands.

You can explore infill drilling of a mature reservoir or drilling deviated

wells on a new reservoir. You can use StrataSim to explore other

possibilities as well.

Because of the simplified physics underpinning, it is easier to get

results. So geoscientists as well as reservoir engineers can use it to get a

better understanding of which features in the model affect the results,

facilitating interdisciplinary communication.

R2003.12

Introduction

1

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Main Advantages of StrataSim
**

StrataSim provides a quick sensitivity analysis for:

•

•

•

reservoir architecture

reservoir heterogeneity

effects of well placement on sweep efficiency

**Other StrataSim features are:
**

•

•

•

•

•

•

**speed of performing simulations
**

flow analysis within geological framework

easy visualization

no upscaling necessary

communication tool for geologists and reservoir engineers

complement to full-physics flow simulators

Water injected from left to right

**300 layer simulation (cross-section) 12 layer simulation (cross-section)
**

Typical StrataSim resolution

Typical Full-physics Simulator

resolution

Difference Between High and Low Vertical Resolution Simulation

R2003.12

Introduction: Main Advantages of StrataSim

2

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Contents of This Guide
**

This guide contains the following sections:

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

R2003.12

**Introduction provides an overview of the product and its
**

advantages, explains the book’s typographical conventions, and

tells how to prepare data for use in StrataSim.

Starting StrataSim provides instructions for starting the program

and specifying project information.

Setting Up StrataSim provides instructions for setting up your

simulation run.

Running a Simulation tells how to run the simulation and view

the results.

Technical Reference provides detailed information about how the

simulators calculates flow and transmissibilities and handles

pressure-constrained cells.

Appendix A. Running StrataSim Standalone gives instructions

on how to start the program without running it from Stratamodel.

Appendix B. StrataSim Files explains the files that are important

to the program.

Introduction: Contents of This Guide

3

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Guide Conventions

In StrataSim, certain conventions are used to explain how to access and

use various features of the program. A reference list is provided below:

R2003.12

Menu Options

**Menu options and pushbutton names are
**

printed in boldface, for example, Setup.

key

**Press the indicated key on the keyboard, for
**

example, Return.

enter startow

**Text that you are required to enter is printed in
**

a different typeface (Courier).

Enter exactly what you see.

enter

projectname

**A different typeface in italics (Courier
**

Italics) indicates that you are to supply

information. At this instruction for example,

you should enter the name of your project.

Click

**Move the cursor to the option or object
**

specified and quickly press and release the

mouse button. Unless otherwise specified,

use Button 1.

Press and drag

**Press the mouse button and continue to hold it
**

down while moving the cursor to the option

you want or to a new location in the graphic

display area; then release the button.

Highlight

**In a dialog box, move the cursor to the name of
**

the item you wish to use and select it with the

mouse.

Select

**Move the cursor to the option or object you
**

want to select and click it.

Double-click

**Click the mouse button twice rapidly without
**

moving the mouse. The first click highlights

the option, object, or text beneath the cursor;

the second click is equivalent to pressing the

OK button to accept the selection.

Triple-click

**Click the mouse button three times rapidly
**

without moving the mouse to highlight a string

of text (more than one word) beneath the

cursor.

Introduction: Guide Conventions

4

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Preparing Data for StrataSim
**

StrataSim can be run after you have created an Attribute Model in

Stratamodel that contains porosity and permeability.

You have the following flexibility in StrataSim.

•

**You can have the program read initial saturations (for example,
**

irreducible water saturation) from the Attribute Model, or you can

specify them as constants in StrataSim.

You can assign saturations to every cell in the model using

interpolation techniques, you can model operations in Stratamodel,

or you can use StrataSim’s estimation capability.

You can supply pressure or flow potential information using wells

or attribute fields.

You can specify well conditions as pressure- or flow-constrained

and non-well cell boundary conditions as pressures or flow

potentials. You can incorporate aquifer pressure information into

the simulation run using model operations in Stratamodel.

•

•

•

**Perforation information and well locations are supplied by Well
**

Models. Building Well Models is a standard procedure in creating a

Stratamodel Attribute Model. You can change well configurations by

rebuilding a Well Model.

Simplified Physics Assumptions

•

Invading Fluid Properties = Displaced Fluid Properties.

•

**Incompressible Flow (Steady-State).
**

The volume of the fluids in the reservoir does not change with pressure.

•

Mobility Ratio equals one.

•

There are no Capillary Pressure Effects.

Steady-State

The rate of change of pressure with time is zero, which is most applicable in the

case of secondary recovery (e.g., waterflood, pressure maintenance scheme).

R2003.12

Introduction: Preparing Data for StrataSim

5

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Starting StrataSim

Overview

This section explains how to perform the followingtasks, which

prepare your StrataSim run for work:

•

•

•

•

**selecting a StrataSim directory
**

selecting a StrataSim run

selecting well models

setting units of measurement

**Selecting the StrataSim Directory
**

If you are starting StrataSim as a continuation of a Stratamodel task,

you will have already selected your project information

Start StrataSim by using one of the two following methods:

•

**Select Commands → SIM StrataSim Fluid-Flow Analysis from
**

the Stratamodel menu.

•

Single-click a StrataSim icon in the icon menu.

**Selecting either of these options opens the Specify Run Description
**

dialog box and the StrataSim main window with all its options inactive.

R2003.12

Starting StrataSim

6

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Selecting a StrataSim Run
**

The first dialog box that appears for StrataSim lists the different runs. If

you have not run any simulations, the list of StrataSim Descriptions is

empty. A run contains all the input needed to run a simulation.

**The program uses runs to save input and output. Whenever you create a
**

new run, you use an old run or the defaults as a template for your

project, then change the settings you want to be different.

R2003.12

Starting StrataSim: Selecting a StrataSim Run

7

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Once you have selected a run description, you will be asked to select a
**

Well Model. You can select none, one, or many. After the Well Model

selection, the StrataSim main window options become active:

R2003.12

Starting StrataSim: Selecting a StrataSim Run

8

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Creating a New Run
**

A likely course you may want to follow when you first enter the

program is to create a new run of your project.

1.

**You have three options for beginning a run:
**

•

R2003.12

**If you have not run StrataSim previously, there are no runs in
**

the list at the top of the window and the Create button is the

only one active. In that case, click Create, then go on to step 2

on page 11.

Starting StrataSim: Selecting a StrataSim Run

9

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

•

**If you have a list of previous runs, but you want to create an
**

entirely new run based on program defaults, click Create with

any run selected. Then go on to step 2 on page 11.

Select any

run.

Click Create.

**Defaults Alone Do Not Provide a Solution
**

The defaults alone, with no changes, will not provide a solution if run

immediately, because all the wells are plugged in the default values.

At a minimum, you must provide a source of flow, either by changing

Constant Pressure Cells or Constant Potential Cells under

Three-Dimensional Variables or by unplugging some of the wells

under Well Conditions.

R2003.12

Starting StrataSim: Selecting a StrataSim Run

10

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

•

**If you want to base your new run on a previous run, click the
**

previous run, then click Copy.

Select a

previous run.

Click Copy.

2.

Click OK.

The StrataSim Run Description dialog box appears. This dialog

box indicates either that you are using the default data or copying

from a previous run.

R2003.12

3.

**Select the input files you want to copy and enter the name in the
**

Enter New StrataSim Run Description field. You do not have to

enter a number, StrataSim automatically numbers the run for you.

It is a good idea to give the run a description that identifies what

attributes you intend to work with so that you can identify the run

later.

4.

**Enter a name into the Enter New StrataSim Run Description field.
**

You do not have to enter a number, as StrataSim will number it for

you. It is a good idea to give the run a description that identifies

what attributes you intend to work with so that you can identify

that run later. Click OK to close the box. Your new run now

appears in the list of runs.

Starting StrataSim: Selecting a StrataSim Run

11

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**If you designated certain files to be copied the following dialog
**

appears to show you which fields were copied. To close this

information dialog, click OK.

R2003.12

Starting StrataSim: Selecting a StrataSim Run

12

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Re-Running a Previous Run
**

To rerun a previous run with no changes to the description

1.

Select the run.

2.

Click OK.

Select a

previous run.

Click OK.

You can now set up your run. See “Estimating” on page 28.

**Modifying a Run Description
**

Suppose you decided that a run name is not descriptive enough.

R2003.12

1.

Select the run name.

2.

Click Modify.

3.

**Enter a new description in the StrataSim Run Description dialog
**

box:

4.

Click OK. The run description now appears changed in the list.

Starting StrataSim: Selecting a StrataSim Run

13

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Deleting a Run

You may want to delete a run. When you do, the run disappears from

the list and the other runs are renumbered. Delete removes all of the

following:

•

•

•

output files

input files

StrataSim-generated attributes

To delete a run

R2003.12

1.

Select the run you want to delete.

2.

**Click Delete. You are asked to verify whether you want to delete
**

the files.

3.

**Select Yes if you still want to delete the files. StrataSim completely
**

deletes the run and renumbers the remaining runs.

Starting StrataSim: Selecting a StrataSim Run

14

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Selecting Well Models
**

In Stratamodel you may have created several well models because your

well files were formatted differently or to differentiate groups of wells

in your display. Your first activity when running StrataSim is to specify

which of the well models you want to use in the simulation. If you do

not wish to select a well model, you must specify a constant pressure or

constant flow potential in the three-dimensional variables before you

can run a simulation; otherwise, you have not specified a driving force

for flow.

R2003.12

1.

**Usually this dialog box comes up automatically when you have
**

more than one well model. But if you wish to change your choice,

select Session → Select Well Models.

2.

**Choose the well model or models to use in the simulation.
**

Select or release well models by clicking them.

3.

Click OK when you finish selecting models.

Starting StrataSim: Selecting Well Models

15

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Setting Units of Measurement
**

Although it is not required, it is a good idea to set the units of

measurement before you make other specifications.

1.

Select Session → Units of Measurement.

**Stratamodel Units Must Match
**

All units in this dialog box labeled with SGM (SGM Elevation, SGM

Distance, and so on) must match the units used to construct your

Stratigraphic Framework Model and your Stratamodel Attribute Model.

R2003.12

2.

Set each unit by clicking the menu and selecting it.

3.

**Once you set the units, click OK. All menus that use these units
**

are updated.

Starting StrataSim: Setting Units of Measurement

16

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Limiting the Size of the Simulation Model
**

StrataSim provides two ways to limit the size of the model:

R2003.12

•

**Simulating the whole of a very large model may take time and
**

computing power. Sometimes, simulating only a subset of that

model can give you the results you need. Session → Limit Size of

Model → SGM allows you to isolate a portion of the Stratigraphic

Framework for simulation by limiting the size of the model to a

specific number of sequences, zones, or blocks.

•

**Running StrataSim simulates fluid flow at the resolution of the
**

Stratamodel model. You may want to upscale your model to a

resolution that is more common with larger-scale simulation

engines. Session → Limit Size of Model → Upscale allows you

to express the model as a fraction of the number of Stratamodel

cells.

Starting StrataSim: Limiting the Size of the Simulation Model

17

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Limiting the Model
**

To simply reduce the size of the model, follow these instructions.

1.

R2003.12

Select Session → Limit Size of Model → SGM.

Starting StrataSim: Limiting the Size of the Simulation Model

18

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

2.

**Use the slider bars to limit the columns and rows. As you move the
**

sliders, the information below about the size of the StrataSim

Model changes.

**If you move
**

the slider bar . .

the information

changes.

R2003.12

3.

**You can choose to Include the highlighted sequences, zones or
**

blocks or to Exclude the highlighted ones by pressing the

appropriate radio button.

4.

**Depending on your choice in step 3, highlight either the
**

sequences, zones, and blocks to include or exclude:

5.

When you have limited your model, click OK again.

Starting StrataSim: Limiting the Size of the Simulation Model

19

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Limiting the Size of the Upscaled Model
**

You can choose StrataSim’s upscaling capability by specifying the size

of the upscaled model. Upscale allows you to target the number of

upscaled cells, expressed as a fraction of the total number of cells in the

model. The actual number of cells may vary from the target number

because of the following constraints:

•

•

•

•

**There must be at least one upscaled cell per stack.
**

Cells with a high fluid flow rate may not be lumped together.

Upscaled cells must be from the same StrataSim flowbody.

Upscaled cells may not be greater in volume than the maximum

volume constraint you select.

To upscale the model, follow these instructions:

R2003.12

1.

Select Session → Limit Size of Model → Upscale.

2.

**Use the top slider to target a number of upscaled cells as a fraction
**

of the total number of cells in the model.

3.

**Use the middle slider to select a minimum cell volume, expressed
**

as a fraction of the average cell volume. This constraint assures

that small cells will be lumped.

4.

**Use the bottom slider to select the maximum cell volume, also
**

expressed as a multiple of the average cell volume. This constraint

assures that there will be more than one upscaled cell per stack.

5.

Click OK to upscale the model.

Starting StrataSim: Limiting the Size of the Simulation Model

20

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Workflow Manager

Overview

The Workflow Manager is designed to simplify tasks within the most

common StrataSim workflows. The manager leads you step-by-step

through the process of creating attributes or running several different

types of simulations with an easy to follow workflow chart. Two menu

options (Session → Workflow → Setup or Manager) control the

Workflow Manager dialog boxes.

In the Setup dialog, you choose which procedures you want to

accomplish. A Workflow Chart is generated based on your selections

in the Setup dialog. This chart contains buttons to represent each step

needed to accomplish the tasks. As you select each step or button in the

chart, StrataSim opens the appropriate dialog for you to complete.

As of release 2003, when you enter StrataSim, a dialog offers you the

opportunity to use the Workflow Manager immediately:

If you click Yes, the Workflow-Setup dialog box appears.

**Reusing Existing Workflow Diagrams
**

If a workflow diagram exists for the current StrataSim run, a dialog

appears to allow you to choose from the following options:

R2003.12

1.

Go to the current workflow manager.

2.

Cancel out of the window.

3.

Reset the workflow.

4.

Remove the current workflow.

Workflow Manager

21

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Workflow Setup

When you select the Session → Workflow → Setup menu command,

the Workflow-Setup dialog appears. This dialog allows you to choose

which pre-defined task(s) or workflow(s) to construct.

**To select any of these procedures for your workflow chart, click in the
**

box preceding the title. You can select multiple workflows. In the

proceeding illustration, all the workflows have been selected.

R2003.12

Workflow Manager: Workflow Setup

22

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Workflow Diagram

If you select Session → Workflow → Manager, the Dialog Flow

Chart appears to lead you through the tasks you selected with the

Setup command. The example pictured below chose to run all the

different kinds of simulations offered in the Setup dialog box.

R2003.12

Workflow Manager: Workflow Diagram

23

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Workflow Steps

Each button represents a step in the workflow and is color coded to help

you track your progress:

Button Color

Meaning

Red

**This step is suggested and has not been visited. If you skip a red
**

button, a warning message appears asking you to verify your

decision.

Yellow

**This step is optional. You do not need to accomplish this task to
**

complete the workflow.

Green

A step that has successfully been completed.

**Each button opens a StrataSim dialog. Fill out the values in each dialog
**

and click OK. If you need help on any dialog, press the Help button on

the dialog and developer’s notes appear.

When you close a dialog, the Workflow button turns to green to indicate

that step has been completed successfully.

**Completed steps are green. Optional steps are yellow.
**

Red steps are not yet completed.

R2003.12

Workflow Manager: Workflow Steps

24

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Steps for Creating a Permeability Attribute
**

There are three steps in this workflow:

1.

Units of Measurement (page 16)

2.

Limit StrataSim Model Size (page 17)

3.

Permeability Attribute (page 29)

**Steps for Creating an Initial Saturation Attribute
**

There are up to 8 possible steps in this workflow:

1.

Units of Measurement (page 16)

2.

Limit StrataSim Model Size (page 17)

3.

Select Well Model(s) (page 15)

4.

Interfacial Tension (page 61)

5.

Leverett J Curves Fit - Cores (page 34)

6.

**Leverett J Catalog - an optional step performed to review the list of
**

J Functions

7.

Equilibrium Region(s) (PVT Regions)

8.

Initial Saturations (page 78)

**Steps for Investigating Flowbody and Volumetrics
**

There are up to 10 possible steps in this workflow:

R2003.12

1.

Units of Measurement (page 16)

2.

Limit StrataSim Model Size (page 17)

3.

**SGM: Create Well Model(s) - an optional step performed in the
**

Create Wells feature in Stratamodel. (page 62)

4.

Select Well Model(s) (page 15)

5.

**Well Conditions - Perforations (page 64)
**

or

Well Conditions - Specify (page 64)

6.

Run Parameters (page 45)

7.

Output Options StrataSim (page 72)

8.

StrataSim Physics (Simple)

9.

Flowbody Analysis

Workflow Manager: Workflow Steps

25

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Steps for Running a Unit Mobility Ratio Flow Simulation
**

There are up to 12 possible steps in this workflow:

1.

Units of Measurement (page 16)

2.

Limit StrataSim Model Size (page 17)

3.

Select Well Model(s) (page 15)

4.

Fluid and Rock Properties (page 59)

5.

3D Variables (page 46)

6.

**Well Conditions - Perforations (page 64)
**

or

Well Conditions - Specify (page 64)

7.

Run Parameters (page 45)

8.

Output Options StrataSim (page 72)

9.

StrataSim Physics (Simple)

**10. Flowbody Analysis
**

or

Production Plots

11. Contacted Oil Nearest Well

12. Tabulated Results

**Steps fpr Running a Unit Mobility Vertical Upscaling Simulation
**

There are up to 13 possible steps in this workflow:

R2003.12

1.

Units of Measurement (page 16)

2.

Limit StrataSim Model Size (page 17)

3.

Limit Upscaled Model Size

4.

Select Well Model(s) (page 15)

5.

Fluid and Rock Properties (page 59)

6.

3D Variables (page 46)

7.

**Well Conditions - Perforations (page 64)
**

or

Well Conditions - Specify (page 64)

8.

Run Parameters

Workflow Manager: Workflow Steps

26

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

9.

**Output Options StrataSim (page 72)
**

or

Output Options Upscale

**10. StrataSim Physics (Simple)
**

11. Flowbody Analysis

12. Tabulated Results

Description Panel

This area displays information telling you why this step is needed as

you roll your cursor over the workflow buttons.

R2003.12

Workflow Manager: Workflow Steps

27

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Estimating

Overview

The Estimation modules help you build attributes for two important

variables that are not well suited for simple interpolation from well data

into a 3D geological model: permeability and initial oil saturation.

StrataSim estimates permeability from porosity as a function of a

permeability indicator. It also estimates initial oil saturation from

Leverett J functions, which depend upon indicators.

Calculating initial oil saturations involves the following steps:

1.

Specify capillary pressure data.

2.

Fit one or more Leverett J Functions to the capillary pressure data.

3.

**Estimate initial oil saturation from the Leverett J Functions as a
**

function a free water elevation. The J function can depend on an

indicator that can be a continuous variable (such as V Shale) or a

discrete variable (such as lithofacies). The free water elevation can

depend on sequence number.

**These methods provide an alternative for estimates that rely solely on
**

interpolations from well logs. In the process, StrataSim identifies

possible sources of error in capillary pressure measurements.

StrataSim uses Leverett J Functions as the basis of this approach for

estimating oil saturations. For more information, see “Overview of

Leverett J Functions” on page 33.

R2003.12

Estimating

28

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Estimating Permeability

You can use known porosity values to estimate permeability based on a

permeability indicator (a function and two points on a permeability/

porosity crossplot). If you do not specify a permeability indicator, the

same permeability/porosity correlation is used for the entire model.

R2003.12

1.

**Select Estimation → Permeability. The Estimate Permeability
**

from Porosity dialog box appears:

2.

**Click the Attribute button next to Porosity to select the porosity
**

attribute. Select an attribute from the resulting list and click OK.

3.

**Choose whether the Permeability Indicator is a function of a
**

Discrete (lithofacies, sequence number, reservoir zone) or

Continuous (V shale, clay content, gamma ray log reading)

variable.

•

**If the correlation depends upon a discrete indicator and if
**

StrataSim encounters an indicator cell value that does not

appear in the table, it sets the permeability of that cell using the

default (Indicator = 0) correlation. If a default is not provided it

sets the cell value to null.

•

**If the correlation depends on a continuous indicator, StrataSim
**

linearly interpolates between two indicator values in the table

at the bottom of the dialog box. If the indicator value does not

fall between the two values, then the permeability of that cell is

set to null.

Estimating: Estimating Permeability

29

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

4.

**Click the Permeability Indicator Attribute button to select the
**

permeability attribute, if desired. If you choose None Selected then

the same Permeability-Porosity correlation is used for the entire

model. Select an attribute from the resulting list and click OK.

5.

**At the bottom of the dialog box, use the button to add, modify, or
**

delete a permeability/porosity correlation.

Any values outside the correlations described in this table are set

to null, as explained in step 3. Choose wheter the Permeability

Indicator is a function of a Discrete (lithofacies, sequence number,

reservoir zone) or Continuous (Vshale, clay content, gamma ray

log reading) variable. The correlations used for this calculation are

two-parameter fits, so it is necessary only to add two points for

each entry in the table.

If you add or modify a correlation, the following dialog box

appears:

6.

R2003.12

**Enter a value for the Permeability Indicator. This value can be
**

either an integer (for a discrete attribute) or float (for a continuous

attribute), depending upon your choice in step 3. Choose whether

the Permeability Indicator is a function of a Discrete or

Continuous vaiable. The indicator is zero for the default

correlation, which is used whenever other values in the table do

not apply.

Estimating: Estimating Permeability

30

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

7.

**Select a Type of Correlation. In the equations explained in the
**

bullets below, porosity is expressed in fractions (specified in Units

of Measurement). StrataSim adjusts if your choice for units is

percent.

•

**Semi Log — crossplots of permeability and porosity are most
**

commonly represented by the log of the permeability on the

ordinate, or y axis.

•

**Log-Log1 — this is a generalized form of the Kozeny equation
**

(explained in the next bullet), suggested by Timur in 1968.

•

**Log-Log2 — Kozeny’s equation is to plot log(k/(1-por) against
**

log(por/(1-por). When porosity is very small, the denominators

of the arguments are close to 1, thus collapsing to Timur’s

generalized equation (Log-Log1).

8.

Enter a porosity cut-off, if desired. For porosities below this cutoff, the permeability is set to zero.

9.

**Enter two points for a correlation between porosity and
**

permeability.

**10. Select a sequence to Include or Exclude. All sequences are
**

included in the preceding illustration.

11. Click OK.

12. Continue to add as many correlations as needed, repeating step 5

through 11. At the bottom of the dialog box, use the button to add

modify or delete a permeability/porosity correlation. Any values

outside the correlations described in this table are set to null as

described in Step 4. Choose whether the Permeability Indicator is

a Discrete or Continuous variable. The correlations used for this

calculator are two-parameter fits, so it is only necessary to add two

points for each entry in the table. It is a good idea to specify a

default correlation, signified by Indicator = 0.

R2003.12

•

**For a discrete indicator, you must specify a correlation for all
**

values contained in the Stratamodel Attribute Model, cells for

which no value has been specified will be set to null.

•

**For a continuous indicator, you must specify a range of
**

correlation that includes all values in the Stratamodel Attribute

Model, or the default is used; in case of no default, the cell is

set to null.

Estimating: Estimating Permeability

31

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**13. When the correlation table at the bottom of the dialog box reflects
**

the correct values for your attributes, click Calculate to calculate

estimated permeability and save the selections in the dialog box or

click Save to save the selections without calculating.

If you click Calculate, an xterm reports the progress of the

calculation and informs you of the name of the created attribute

that contains the permeability. You can view the permeability in

Show Displays.

14. Press Enter to close the xterm.

R2003.12

Estimating: Estimating Permeability

32

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Estimating Initial Oil Saturations
**

StrataSim uses laboratory measurements of capillary pressure to

determine initial oil saturation, through the following steps:

•

**Specify the capillary pressure data curves to fit with the Leverett J
**

Function.

•

Fit one or more Leverett J Functions to the capillary pressure data.

•

**Estimate initial oil saturation from the Leverett J Functions as a
**

function a free water elevation. The J function can depend on an

indicator that can be either continuous or discrete. The freewater

elevation can depend on sequence number.

This section explains the procedures for completing this estimation.

**Overview of Leverett J Functions
**

The remaining items on the Estimation menu use the Leverett J

Function as a basis for calculating Initial Oil Saturation. The function is

defined as:

(Capillary Pressure)

J = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • k ⁄ ( por )

( InterfacialTension ) • (Contact Angle)

where k denotes permeability and por denotes porosity.

This function is dimensionless. To see that this is so, note that in the cgs

system of units, capillary pressure is in dyne/cm2 and permeability is in

cm2. So, the Leverett J Function can be thought of as a dimensionless

capillary pressure.

The Leverett J function is important because in general, two core

samples that have different permeabilities or porosities have different

capillary pressure curves. Consequently, complex models that contain

more than a million cells could require millions of measurements to

describe the necessary capillary pressure curves.

Leverett identified a way around this problem by noticing that it was

easier to correlation capillary pressure curves when he plotted the J

Function on the y axis. The advantage of his approach is that capillary

pressure curves from various core samples with different permeabilities

and porosities can be plotted using a single J function curve.

Leverett J functions are typically correlated with parameters such as

lithology, shale volume, or porosity.

R2003.12

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

33

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Working with Leverett J Functions
**

The choices under the Estimation → Leverett J Function menu

enable you to fit a Leverett J Function to selected capillary pressure

curves or to maintain a catalog of Leverett J functions. For more

information about these functions, see the previous overview of

Leveritt J functions.

The catalog lists the template files included with StrataSim along with

all of your fitted J functions.

**Fitting a Leverett J Function
**

You must have at least one capillary pressure file set to fit a function.

StrataSim helps diagnose two types of errors when attempting to fit a

function.

•

**A negative Irreducible Saturation can indicate an underestimated
**

pore volume. You can test for this by selecting Variable for

Irreducible Saturation. See Step 4.

•

**In the entry region of the curve, the Wetting Phase Saturation is
**

expected to remain 1 (or 100, in percent) until a displacement

pressure is overcome. Sometimes a curve exceeds the

displacement pressure at a lower saturation, say 0.95. This usually

indicates the presence of a “dead volume” in the experimental

apparatus. Instead of filling the core sample, the nonwetting phase

was filling up void space in the apparatus.

**To fit a Leverett J Function, follow these steps:
**

1.

R2003.12

Select Estimation → Leverett J Function.

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

34

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

2.

**Select one or more capillary pressure curve files from the list. You
**

can see the curve in the graphic at the bottom right of the window.

Use the buttons above the graphic to examine the curve.

If no capillary pressure curves exist, you can import a curve from

an ASCII file by clicking the Import Curve button.

3.

**Choose a fitting from the Fitting Function buttons:
**

•

•

•

R2003.12

**Most curves can be fit using either the O’Meara Unimodal or
**

Thomeer model

Brooks-Corey and Benson-Anli fit for special cases but do not

seem to have widespread applicability.

Select the O’Meara Bimodal for curves that exhibit bimodal

behaviour and for more flexibility for hard-to-fit unimodal

curves.

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

35

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

4.

**Choose a method to handling values below zero from the
**

Irreducible Saturation field:

•

•

**Select Variable (the default) to explore whether there are
**

errors in the measured data. If a fit encounters a negative

Irreducible Wetting Phase Saturation, an error message appears

to indicate that there may be underestimation in the pore

volume of the core sample. Once you have verified that there

are no errors, refit the curve using Negative Not Allowed.

Select Negative Not Allowed if you are confident of no errors

in the measured data, since values of saturation below zero are

not physical.

.

**Results of Using Negative Irreducible Saturation
**

If a curve with a negative irreducible saturation is used in the

Estimation: Initial Oil Saturation dialog box, StrataSim limits the

lowest calculated oil saturation to zero so that saturations that are not

physical do not appear in your Stratamodel Attribute Model.

5.

**Fit the curve by clicking the Fit Curve button under the list of
**

curves. It will take probably take a few minutes to return a fit or a

bit longer for the bimodal curve, which fits eight parameters. If the

program has problems fitting the curve, an informative error

message suggests some solutions.

Goodness of Fit is shown once the fit is finished. The lower the

value, the better. This criterion is equal to the sum of the squares of

the residuals of the fit.

R2003.12

6.

Click OK when you have a good fit.

7.

**A dialog box appears allowing you to enter a filename for the fitted
**

function. This function is saved in your project directory file with

an extension of .jff_ss.

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

36

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

8.

**Enter a description of the function. The description can be up to 80
**

characters long.

9.

Click OK to save the J Function.

**Cataloging Leverett J Functions
**

StrataSim provides a catalog for keeping track of your Leverett J

Functions. The catalog includes templates that have been provided with

the program. You can use the catalog to locate a template or previously

fit function that most closely matches your needs. Template functions

cannot be modified, so you must copy them first to your project

directory.

To create your own template of previously fitted Leverett J Functions,

simply copy (with superuser permission) a J function file (with the

extension .jfn) from your project directory to the StrataSim Template

directory called StrataSim.tpl, which resides in your installation

directory.

To view the catalog

R2003.12

1.

Select Estimation → Leverett J Function → Catalog.

2.

Click a template or fitted curve.

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

37

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Comparing Functions

You can compare functions by selecting more than one from the list and

clicking the Compare button. A dialog box like the following appears:

**You can use the buttons at the top of the dialog box to manipulate the
**

curves for a better view, or you can change the Y Axis Maximum and

use the Re-Plot button.

Copying Functions

You can copy a function for future modifying. You must copy template

files before you can modify them.

R2003.12

1.

Click the Copy button.

2.

Enter a file name and a description in the dialog box that appears.

3.

Click OK. The copied file is now available for use in your project.

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

38

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Viewing or Modifying a Function
**

You can view any function, but you cannot modify template functions.

If the data that went into fitting a J function is available in your

Stratamodel project directory, this dialog box allows you to view it

along with the fit.

1.

**Click View/Modify. The dialog box shows a view of the function
**

on the bottom right. If you are viewing the function, you can use

the buttons above the graphic to change the view. When you are

finished viewing, skip to step 6. If you are modifying the function,

continue on to the next step.

2.

**For copied or modified files only, enter a new name in the filename
**

box. The file will be copied into the project directory with the

extension .jfn_ss.

3.

Enter a description of the file.

4.

**Change the values for the Irreducible Wetting Phase Saturation
**

and Leverett J Function Displacement Value if desired.

5.

**The parameters that are unique to a particular function appear in
**

the boxed field. To change a value, select the parameter and enter a

new value into the field.

6.

**When you finish modifying the function, click OK to save the
**

modifications.

Removing Functions

You can remove functions by using Clear or Delete.

•

•

R2003.12

**Use Clear to remove all functions from the list.
**

Use Delete to select and delete functions that are not templates.

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

39

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Equilibrium Region(s)

The next step is to create one or more equilibrium regions.

1.

Select Estimation → Equilibrium Region(s).

2.

Optional: To add a new region, click the Add button.

3.

**Select a Free Water Elevation and the associated sequence(s),
**

zone(s), or block(s).

4.

**Click OK to add the region. The new region appears in the list of
**

equilibrium regions.

.

R2003.12

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

40

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

5.

Repeat the previous step for each region you want to include.

6.

Click OK to accept and save all changes.

**Estimating Initial Saturations
**

Once you have fit one or more Leverett J Functions, you can estimate

initial saturations from them.

R2003.12

1.

Select Estimation → Initial Saturation.

2.

**Select an attribute for Porosity by clicking the Attribute button
**

and choosing one from the list. Click OK.

3.

**Select an attribute for Indicator by clicking the Attribute button
**

and choose one from the list. Click OK.

4.

**Select an attribute for Permeability by clicking the Attribute
**

button and choosing one from the list. Click OK.

5.

**Optional: To create a grid of the fluid contact, click the check box
**

for Output Fluid Contact Grid File. A grid is provided for free

water elevation.

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

41

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

6.

**Optional: To control the output, use these features:
**

•

**Null or All Water for the Undefined Leverett J Function under
**

Output Options.

•

**Attributes for the Equilibrium Regions and Aquifer Potential
**

by clicking Yes.

•

Fluid Contact Grid File(s) by clicking Yes.

•

**To grade the undefined placement as Optimistic, Neutral, or
**

Pessimistic.

7.

**In the table, add the J Leverett functions the system will use to
**

compute the Initial Saturation. Click the Add button.

8.

**Enter the J Function Indicator.
**

If you have only one J function in the table, use the default of 0. If

you enter another value, an error message appears.

9.

**Select the file from the list. You can use the graphic and button at
**

the bottom of the dialog box to examine the functions.

10. Click OK.

11. When you have the functions you want, click the Calculate button

to compute the Initial Saturation. An xterm appears that reports the

progress of the calculation and tells you the name and number of

the newly calculated initial saturation attribute in your model.

Press Enter to close the xterm.

You can view your output or the attribute for initial saturation or the oil/

water contact grid in Stratamodel by using Show Displays.

R2003.12

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

42

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Creating Hardcopy of Leverett J Functions
**

From the catalog dialog box, the curve-fitting dialog box, or the table

dialog box under Estimate Initial Oil Saturation, you can print a

hardcopy of the functions.

R2003.12

1.

Click Hardcopy.

2.

**Provide a name for the hardcopy file, which will be written as a
**

postscript file with an extension of .ps.

3.

Click OK.

4.

Print the file by using standard Unix commands.

Estimating: Estimating Initial Oil Saturations

43

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Setting Up StrataSim

Overview

To set up StrataSim, complete the following tasks:

•

**Describe three-dimensional input variables from the Attribute
**

Model.

•

Specify perforated intervals from the Well Model.

•

Adjust fluid and rock properties to obtain a mobility ratio of one.

•

Specify well conditions.

•

Set up parameters for the pressure and saturation solutions.

•

Specify the content and timing of the output.

**The first option on the Session menu, Run Description, is
**

automatically set if you have been running from StrataModel.

(For information about the geological model, see “Selecting the

StrataSim Directory” on page 6. For information about runs, see

“Selecting a StrataSim Run” on page 7.) This option is included in the

Session menu so you can reset it at any time, as long as you are not

running StrataSim in standalone mode (without running StrataModel).

If you are running standalone, this option reminds you what you chose

when you set up the model and project.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim

44

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Describing Three-Dimensional Variables
**

Next you have the option to describe the three-dimensional variables

the simulation uses as input. StrataSim provides defaults for all

variables. However, it is a good idea to check and consider modifying

the following values:

•

•

•

•

•

Porosity

Initial Saturation

Residual Oil

Immobile Water

Permeabilities

**The other variables are optional.
**

Units for the constant values for these settings are determined in the

Units of Measurement dialog box.

Volumetrics

Transmissibilities

Optional

Variables

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

45

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**For most runs, you describe Porosity, Initial Saturation, and
**

permeability in the Attribute Model. For simpler runs, you can set the

remaining variables to constants, which saves space in the Attribute

Model.

**Setting Required Variables
**

Looking at the Attribute Model

You may want to pull up a display of your Attribute Model from Show Displays

in Stratamodel while you are providing information for setting these variables.

1.

Select Setup → Three-Dimensional Variables.

2.

**From the Porosity menu,choose whether to specify a constant
**

porosity or a variable porosity described by an attribute field.

•

•

R2003.12

**If you chose Attribute Field, a list of the appropriate attributes
**

for this field appears. StrataSim makes it easy to find the

attributes by giving you a list of the attributes that excludes

StrataSim-generated attributes. Click an attribute field, then

click OK.

**If you chose Constant, enter a constant value, expressed in the
**

units you chose under Units of Measurement, into the text field

beside the attribute constant, and click OK.

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

46

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

3.

For Initial Saturation, choose oil or water.

4.

**Click the menu button and choose whether to specify a constant
**

value for saturation or a variable attribute. Make specifications in

the dialog boxes that appear, as you did for Porosity.

Appropriate Choices for Saturation Attributes

When StrataSim offers “appropriate” choices for saturation attributes, it

cannot exclude StrataSim output. Suppose, for example, you want to start up

a new run when the last one ended. In this case, the final saturation for the

first run becomes the initial saturation for the second run. Because of such

possibilities, saturation output from previous runs must be included for

consideration.

Phase 2 = 1.0 - Phase 1

**StrataSim calculates the initial saturations of the second phase. For
**

example, if you choose the initial oil saturation to be 0.3 (30%),

the calculated initial water saturation for all of the cells in your

model will be 0.7 (70%).

If you specify the initial oil saturations to be read from an attribute

field, StrataSim calculates the corresponding water saturation for

each individual cell in the model. The units for saturations read

from the Attribute Model can be either a fraction or percent and

can be specified later in the session.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

47

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Since saturation distributions can
**

cross-cut stratigraphy, it is often

necessary to distribute saturation

data using depth information. This

can be performed using tools from

Stratamodel or by StrataSim’s

Estimation module, using Leverett

J functions.

Saturations vary with depth

**Oil saturation values interpolated along the layers of the
**

Stratigraphic Framework

Saturations adjusted to depth

Oil saturation values assigned to cells using depth information

Saturation Considerations in StrataSim & Stratamodel

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

48

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**100% saturation = im-mobile water + residual oil saturation + initial
**

movable oil saturation + initial movable water saturation

5.

**Follow the same instructions for Residual Oil and
**

Immobile Water.

Calculating Transmissibilities

A transmissibility value is associated with the interfacial area between

two cells. Transmissibilities are a function of permeability, cell

geometry, and transmissibility multipliers associated with the interface

between cells.

X

Location of X

Transmissibility

Permeability

Different permeabilities for the x, y, and z directions are available. For

example, the x and y permeability may have been averaged in the well

model using a thickness-weighted arithmetic average, while the

z permeability was averaged using a harmonic average in the well

model. The result will be that the values for the interpolated

permeabilities in the x and y direction are higher than the

z permeabilities.

You can modify permeabilities after interpolation using model

operations in Stratamodel.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

49

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Transmissibility Multipliers

You may wish to apply a multiplier to transmissibilities that are

calculated using only permeabilities and a cross-sectional area between

adjoining cells. Multipliers, for example, can be useful for modeling

shales that are too thin to include explicitly in your Stratigraphic

Framework. You can create three-dimensional multiplier fields for the

x, y, and z transmissibility using Stratamodel templates or Model

Operations.

You can also use a transmissibility multiplier and a barrier attribute that

signals a change across a cell face to investigate, for example, the effect

of barriers to flow because of changes in sequence, layer, or lithology.

For example, suppose you wanted to investigate what happens when

there is no flow across sequence boundaries. You would select

Sequence Number for the barrier attribute and set the Transmissibilities

Multiplier to zero.

Fault Zone Properties

If you have used Badley’s Fault Seal Analysis in Stratamodel, you may import

fault zone thickness and permeability attributes. StrataSim uses cell connection

information to apply these attributes across cell interfaces that occur in fault zones.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

50

Landmark

**StrataSim User / Reference Guide
**

Injector

Injector

Producer

Attribute = 0

Multiplier = 0.0

**Injected fluids are allowed to
**

cross the sequence and layer

boundaries

**Flow without transmissibility
**

dependence

Injector

Injector

Producer

Attribute =

Sequences

Multiplier = 0.0

**Injected fluids are not
**

allowed to cross the

sequence boundaries

**Flow with transmissibility
**

dependence using sequences

Injector

Producer

Injector

Attribute =

Layers

Multiplier = 0.0

Injected fluids are not

allowed to cross the layer

boundaries

**Flow with transmissibility
**

dependence using layers

Transmissibilities in StrataSim

The general definition of transmissibility in the x-direction is:

2∆y ∆z 1 k 1 ∆z 2 k 2

T xi = TM xi ⋅ ---------- ------------------------------------∆x ∆z 1 k 1 + ∆z 2 k 2

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

51

Landmark

**StrataSim User / Reference Guide
**

Location of

X Permeabilities

at cell centers

k1

k2

Variable

TMxi

∆Z2

∆Z1

X

Name

transmissibility multiplied in

direction

∆z, ∆z2

cell lengths

k1

x permeability for cell 1

∆x, ∆y

cell width and thickness

Location of

X Transmissibility

**You can compare x, y, and z transmissibilities if you assume that two
**

neighboring cells have the same cell thickness. Assuming that the x, y,

and z permeabilities are isotropic (the same in all directions), the

transmissibilities are then defined as follows:

2∆y∆z k 1 k 2

T x = ----------------- -----------------∆x k 1 + k 2

2∆x∆z k 1 k 2

T y = ----------------- -----------------∆y k 1 + k 2

2∆x∆y k 1 k 2

T z = ----------------- -----------------∆z k 1 + k 2

Assume:∆x = ∆y = 100 ft.

∆z = 1 ft.

Assume that k1 = 10 md and k2 = 1 md

Then:

Tx =

6.67

Ty =

6.67

Tz =

66,666.67

Ratio Tz/Tx = 9995.0

**The z transmissibilities are much higher than x and y transmissibilities
**

because ∆z is typically much smaller than ∆x and ∆y.

Setting Transmissibilities

To set transmissibilities, follow these steps:

1.

**The permeability variables are required for all simulations.
**

Click the button next to X Permeability, and choose either

Attribute Field or Constant.

•

•

R2003.12

**If you choose Attribute Field, select an attribute you built for
**

permeability in the Attribute Model from the resulting dialog

box and click OK.

If you choose Constant, enter a constant in the dialog box that

appears and click OK.

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

52

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

2.

**Repeat step 1 for Y Permeability and Z Permeability. Remember
**

tat these variables are required.

3.

**Optional: To apply a multiplier, use the same procedure again to
**

specify a constant multiplier or to read one from the attribute

model for x, y, and z. If you do not pick a value for the multiplier,

the default value of 1 assures that there is no implication.

Transmissibility is calculated from permeability and the cell

geometry.

4.

**Optional: To investigate the effect of barriers to flow because of
**

changes in sequence, layer, lithology, and so on, use the following

two barrier selections, which interact with each other.

•

**You can choose an attribute (Attribute for Barriers(a)) whose
**

change across a cell face will signal the application of a

transmissibility multiplier (Barrier Trans. Multiplier(b)) to

modify flow across the face.

• You can set a constant transmissibility multiplier (Barrier

Trans. Multiplier(b)) to be applied across a face for which the

Barrier Attribute changes, or you can set up a table of barrier

attribute changes for which specific multipliers can be applied.

For either choice, select an attribute for the Attribute for

Barrier(a) and a constant for Barrier Trans. Multiplier(b).

To investigate what happens if there is no flow across sequence

boundaries, select Sequence Number for the barrier attribute and

set the transmissibility multiplier to zero. To determine what

happens if there is not flow between sequences (for example,

between sequence 8 and 12,) select Table as input and between 8

and 12, apply a multiplier of zero.

5.

**To factor a fault zone into your calculations, select an attribute
**

field for Fault Zone Thickness (a) and Fault Zone Permeability

(b). These options assume that you have already constructed the

necessary attributes using the Fault Seal Analysis module in

Stratamodel. If StrataSim does not detect such attributes, you will

receive a warning message.

Fault Seal Analysis calculates the fault zone permeability and

thickness and stores this information in the Attribute Model. These

calculations consider both the juxtaposition of reservoir and

nonreservoir material in the fault zone and the composition and

fabric of the fault rock. StrataSim picks up this information

directly from the Attribute Model and uses it to calculate

Transmissibility Multipliers.

R2003.12

6.

Click OK to close the Transmissibility Calculation dialog box.

7.

Click OK to close the Three-Dimensional Variables dialog box.

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

53

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Setting Optional Variables
**

The optional three-dimensional variables allow you to constrain the

pressure of flow potential for particular cells within your simulation

model. You might want to do this for several reasons.

Suppose, for example, that you partitioned your entire Stratigraphic

Framework into several smaller simulation models. You may find it

useful to constrain the pressure on the periphery of one model by what

you have already calculated using another model.

As another example, you may want to simulate aquifer influx of water

at a prescribed flow potential. Yet another example would be the

calculation of effective properties over a portion of the reservoir for

which you may want to impose the following left-to-right flow, as

shown in the following example.

High Potential

Injecting Cells

Low Potential

Left-to-Right Flow

Flow

Producing

Cells

**To constrain the flow potential as shown above, use the Stratamodel
**

Model Operations. Put a high potential in cells in the first column and

low potential in cells in the last column. Set all other cells as null to

signal no constraint in these cells.

Sometimes the need for constraints can be clear, but it is not clear

which constraint to use. Here is a simple rule you may find helpful:

•

•

R2003.12

**If output from a previous StrataSim run is used as a constraint,
**

constrain the pressure.

For all other cases constrain the flow potential unless you are

absolutely sure you have properly accounted for gravitational

effects when you calculated the pressure constraint.

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

54

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**This rule helps to avoid the most common problem: that pressure is
**

used when flow potential is intended. This confusion between pressure

and flow potential is surprisingly widespread, for example, in

interpreting Darcy’s law. For a more thorough explanation, see “An

Example of Misinterpreting Darcy’s Law” on page 95.

Definition of Reference Elevation

To input data correctly you should understand that reference elevation is equal to

the elevation at which the flow potential equals the pressure.

**Constant Pressure Constraint
**

You can assign constant pressure values to an attribute field using

Model Operations in Stratamodel. Using the rule stated above, you

would constrain pressure using pressures calculated from a previous

run. The constant pressure attribute would consist of the calculated

pressures in the cells that you wish to constrain and nulls in all other

cells.

Constraints are imposed only at cells with nonnull values.

To set Constant Pressure Cells, follow these steps:

R2003.12

1.

Click the Constant Pressure Cells Attribute Field button.

2.

Select an attribute from the resulting list.

3.

Click OK.

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

55

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Constant Flow Potential Constraint
**

You can assign constant flow potential values to an attribute field using

Model Operations in Stratamodel. The following figure shows an

example with a high flow potential on the left-hand side of the model, a

low value at the right-hand side, and all nulls in between.

low flow

potential

**high flow potential
**

Sequence Numbers

Pressure Distribution

**Pressure Distribution in an Onlapping Depositional Environment
**

To set Constant Potential Cells:

1.

Click the Constant Potential Cells Attribute Field button.

2.

Select an attribute from the resulting list.

3.

Click OK.

Reference Elevation

You must set a reference elevation if you are using Constant Potential

Cells. To set reference elevation

R2003.12

1.

Click Reference Elevation Constant.

2.

Enter the value of the reference elevation in feet.

3.

Click OK.

Setting Up StrataSim: Describing Three-Dimensional Variables

56

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Indicating Perforation

You have the option to read in perforation interval information from a

well model in the Well Model Attributes dialog box. If no data is

available, the wells are assumed to be fully perforated along the length

of the well. StrataSim assumes that there is no pressure drop (zero skin)

between the well and the cells penetrated by the well.

You can input perforations in the well data files used to build a well

model. Any value greater than zero assigned to a depth interval

signifies a perforation zone. We advise you to use the Discrete Well

Model Calculation option for averaging perforations when building a

well model.

Because of the nature of the discrete well model calculation, with some

choices of vertical layer resolution in the Stratigraphic Framework

model small perforation zones may not show up in the final well model.

Distributing the perforation data using the nearest neighbor

interpolation algorithm allows you to verify the location of the

perforations at the well.

Perforations in Well Model

Calculations

Well-logs

Cell

layer 3

GR

Perf.

layer 2

layer 1

**After Well Model Build
**

GR = 30 not perfed! layer 3

GR = 20 perfed

layer 2

GR = 40 perfed

layer 1

**To verify perforations, visualize in the attribute model
**

by using the nearest neighbor interpolation

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Indicating Perforation

57

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

To read in perforation information, follow these steps:

R2003.12

1.

Select Setup → Well Model Attributes.

2.

Select one of the well model names.

3.

**Select an attribute to assign to the selected well model, and click
**

OK.

4.

**Optional: Repeat Step 3 for any other well models you want to set
**

perforations for.

5.

Click OK.

Setting Up StrataSim: Indicating Perforation

58

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Setting Fluid and Rock Properties
**

Use the Properties → Fluid and Rock Properties dialog to set up

fluid and rock properties that deal with assumptions underlying

StrataSim’s flow algorithms that mobility and density ratios equal 1.

The text at the left side of the page explains the formulas for relative

permeability, effective permeability, and mobility ratios.

1.0

Relative Permeability

**K'r = end-point relative
**

permeability

Kr = relative

permeability

Sw = water saturation

0

water

Swr = irreducible

ksaturation

ro

S0r = residual oil

saturation

K = permeability

µ = viscosity

0

λr = endpoint

mobility

S

wr

k

S or

0

rw

1.0

Water Saturation

Effective Permeability:

Ke = Kr × K

λr = K r ⁄ µ

**Unit End-point Mobility
**

Ratio:

K' rw µ o

M = ----------------- = 1

K' ro µ w

R2003.12

**As mentioned in the Introduction, StrataSim assumes incompressible
**

flow of oil as water. However, this dialog box allows you to specify

formation volume factors and the solution gas/oil ratio. This input does

not affect fluids in the reservoir; it only relates reservoir volumes to

produced volumes. In other words, StrataSim does not simulate flow of

gas in the reservoir; it associates solution gas to produced oil, resulting

in gas production.

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Fluid and Rock Properties

59

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Using the Fluid and Rock Properties Dialog Box
**

To display and use the Fluid and Rock Properties dialog box, follow

these steps:

1.

Click Properties → Fluid & Rock Properties.

**If you change the default values for viscosity and end-point
**

relative permeability, the change in the mobility ratio appears at

the bottom of the screen. If the mobility ratio is not equal to 1.0,

when you click OK, StrataSim forces it to that value by setting the

relative phases to the average of the values for oil and water. To

ensure unit density, StrataSim uses the average density of both

phases.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Fluid and Rock Properties

60

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

2.

**To change the defaults, enter new values in the appropriate fields
**

and make sure you keep the Mobility Ratio close to 1.

3.

**StrataSim assumes that flow due to differences in fluid densities is
**

negligible compared to overall flow. So the program calculates

gravitational potential using the average density of the oil and

water phases. To change the default Density values, double-click

in the field and enter a new number.

4.

**Enter a Formation Volume Factor. StrataSim assumes an
**

incompressible flow of water and oil. This parameter relates

reservoir volume to stock tank volume. The default for this factor

is 1.0.

5.

**Enter the estimated Solution Gas/Oil Ratio by clicking in the
**

field and typing the new number. The default is zero, indicating

that no gas will be associated with produced gas.

6.

Click OK.

**Setting Interfacial Tension
**

Use the Properties → Interfacial Tension dialog box to input values

of interfacial tension and contact angle.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Interfacial Tension

61

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Well Boundary Conditions
**

If you have wells available in your well model, you can specify the

boundary conditions for each well.

Well Traces

**StrataSim differentiates between a shut-in well and a plugged well by
**

ignoring plugged wells in the simulation, while allowing flow to occur

in cells penetrated by shut-in wells.

A shut-in well has no net flow of fluid into or out of the well; however,

there may be flow into or out if its individual cells.

Looking at Wells

You may want to pull up a display of your wells in Stratamodel’s Show Displays

while you are specifying well boundary conditions.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Well Boundary Conditions

62

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Display the Well Conditions dialog box by clicking Setup →
**

Well Conditions.

**This dialog box shows the well conditions as they are read from the
**

Well Model. The first three columns, as you can see in the illustration,

are well name, x location, and y location. These fields are not editable

in StrataSim. They merely reflect data read from the Well Model. The

next five fields are editable.

Well Type — The first editable field is well type. There are four

possible types of wells:

•

INJT (Injection) — wells that supply water to the reservoir

•

**PROD (Production) — wells that are producing; for these wells
**

there is a fractional flow of oil and water that is proportional to the

mobile saturations in the producing cells

•

**SHUT (Shut-In) — wells for which there is no flow into or out of
**

the reservoir, but there may be flow into or out of individual cells;

total net flow sums to zero

•

**PLUG (Plugged) — plugged wells, which are removed from the
**

simulation

**The next four columns are well constraint (Cnt.), well constraint value
**

(Value), reference elevation (R), and watercut limit (Water Cut).

These four options will be explained in context.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Well Boundary Conditions

63

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Editing Well Conditions
**

If you want to change the well conditions or add information to them,

follow these steps:

1.

In the list of wells, click the well you want to edit.

2.

**Click the Edit button.
**

The dialog box that appears shows the conditions for that well:

**You cannot edit the well name, x location or y location. These
**

values are read directly from the Well Model created in

Stratamodel.

The active states of the other options are controlled by the Well

Type. In the example above, none of the options are active because

the Well Type is Plugged, so the well will not be considered in the

simulation.

R2003.12

3.

**Click the Well Type button and select the appropriate type. You
**

must have at least one Injector to show flow.

4.

**Choose Pressure or Flow Rate if you want to specify a well
**

constraint. You must choose a constraint for production or

injection wells. The only pressure changes within a well in

StrataSim are caused by differences in hydrostatic head from

changes in elevation.

Setting Up StrataSim: Well Boundary Conditions

64

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

5.

**If you picked a constraint, enter a value for that constraint into the
**

Value field. The units for the field appear next to it, depending

upon your choice of constraint. To change the units, select

Setup → Units of Measurement.

6.

**Choose a Reference Elevation. This is necessary because pressure
**

varies along a well with differences in the gravitational head. You

have the following choices:

• Top of Stratigraphic Framework

• Bottom of Stratigraphic Framework

• Top of well

• Bottom of well

For flow rate constrained wells, StrataSim reports a well pressure

located at the Reference Elevation.

7.

**You can use the Water Cut Limit field to shut in production wells
**

that have exceeded a specified cut. Once the limit is reached, the

net flow out of the well is set to zero, but the cells within the well

continue to be at the same flow potential.

Choosing this option causes the pressure field to be recalculated

when the water cut constraint is exceeded. If you merely want to

ensure that your simulation ends when too much water is being

produced from the entire reservoir, select the Run Parameters

dialog box and set the field-wide water cut limit.

8.

R2003.12

Once you finish editing well conditions, click OK.

Setting Up StrataSim: Well Boundary Conditions

65

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Copying Well Conditions
**

You can copy conditions for one well onto the description for other

wells.

R2003.12

1.

Click the well you want to copy.

2.

Click the Copy button.

Setting Up StrataSim: Well Boundary Conditions

66

Landmark

R2003.12

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

3.

**In the Copy Well Conditions dialog box, click the target well to
**

which you want to copy conditions.

4.

Click OK.

5.

**Click OK in the Well Conditions dialog box when you are satisfied
**

with the conditions displayed.

Setting Up StrataSim: Well Boundary Conditions

67

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Setting Run Parameters

Injected Fluids

**Oil Saturation Output from a 50-Year Waterflood Simulation Run
**

The Run Parameters include parameters for the Pressure Run and the

Saturation Run. Open the Run Parameters dialog from Setup →

Run Parameters.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Run Parameters

68

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**The Pressure Run
**

Pressure Run is the common term for the flow-potential run. Usually it

is not necessary to change its defaults.

If you want to change the parameters, follow these steps:

1.

**Enter a new number for Maximum Iterations.
**

For many simulation runs the pressure run converges in the default

500 iterations. If the pressure run does not converge to within the

specified tolerance (relative error), it automatically doubles the

default number of iterations before quitting. If it still does not

converge, StrataSim warns you to increase the default number of

iterations. To avoid a complete re-run, save whatever pressure

solution results and use it to initialize the next run.

2.

**Enter a new number for Relative Error.
**

Increasing the tolerance of the pressure run results in quicker

convergence. The disadvantage of this time-saving approach is that

the resulting pressure field is less accurate.

The definition of relative error is in the following table:

Term

Defining Equation

relative error

**| average residual per cell | ÷ average volumetric flow
**

rate per source cell

residual

**net volumetric flow rate of fluid out of a cell - net
**

volumetric rate of a fluid injected into the cell

**For incompressible flow, the residual should equal zero.
**

Consequently the size of the residual provides a measure of how

well the pressure equation has obtained an incompressible

solution.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Run Parameters

69

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**The Saturation Run
**

If you want to change the defaults for the Saturation Run, enter new

numbers for Porosity Cut-Off, Relative Movable PV Cut-Off,

Saturation Error, and Water Cut Limit. Click OK when the

specifications are complete.

**Porosity Cut-Off
**

Interpolation methods sometimes cause the porosity of a cell to be as

low as 0.0001 percent, a value that looks like zero in a Stratamodel

porosity display. As a onsequence, you may not be aware that such cells

exist in your Attribute Model.

These cells must be eliminated from the StrataSim model, or they will

noticeably slow down the solution of the saturation equation.

You can also use the Porosity Cutoff to create no-flow cells. This can be

very useful in simulations such as flowbody investigations. For

example, you can study flowbodies (or cell connectivity) as a function

of porosity cutoff.

**Permeability Cut-Off
**

Cells with permeability below this cut-off value are treated like no-flow

cells.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Run Parameters

70

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Relative Movable Pore Volume Cut-Off
**

Stratigraphic Framework Models can sometimes have cells of near zero

volume, which are virtually invisible in Stratamodel displays. These

cells slow down the solution of the pressure equation.

You can eliminate this problem while maintaining conservation of mass

by using the Relative Movable PV Cut-Off. Cells with a pore volume

that is less than the cut-off are lumped into the smallest cell above or

below that exceeds the cut-off. The cells are thereby eliminated from

the simulation.

Computation of Relative Movable Pore Volume

Relative Movable Pore Volume equals Cell Movable Pore Volume divided by the

average movable pore volume of all cells in a particular column of the model.

Saturation Error

You typically do not need to change the Saturation Error.

When a cell is nearly filled with fluid, slight errors in solving the

pressure equation can create oscillations that slow down solution of the

saturation equation.

So, for example, on one time step a cell may be filling up to a mobile

water saturation of 1. On the next step, because of small errors, it may

be emptying itself. Then it may turn around and start filling itself again.

Throughout, the water saturation of the cell may fluctuate between

99.99 and 100.00 percent.

Saturation Error avoids this problem by signalling to StrataSim that a

cell should be prevented from determining time-step size for the

saturation run when the mobile saturation of the cell is within the

specified tolerance.

**Water Cut Limit
**

The Water Cut Limit terminates your simulation when the flow rate out

of your wells is mostly due to water.

For example, if you have a situation in which most of your oil is

recoverable within 5 years, but your simulation is set to run for 20, 15

years of the simulation are not very interesting. If, however, you set

your water cut limit to .99, the simulation would stop when 99% of the

fluid flowing out of the wells is water.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Run Parameters

71

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Setting Output Options
**

Depending upon whether you have chosen upscaling or not, you have a

two choices of output options: those for a regular run or those for one

that includes upscaling.

**For a Regular Run
**

In the Output Options dialog box (Setup → Output Options → Flow

Simulation) you can specify the output options of StrataSim to the

Attribute Model. These simulation results can be seen using the Show/

Build Displays option in Stratamodel.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Output Options

72

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Injectors

Double Five-Spot Injection Pattern Oil Saturation at 12 years

**Output at Starting Time
**

Use the Initial Time Attributes radio buttons to request threedimensional output variables at initial time. The Stratamodel attribute

information in this dialog box allows you to keep track of how many

attributes are available, given your choices for output requests.

The panel at the bottom left of the dialog box shows the attributes

needed in Stratamodel for the run depending upon your selections of

Initial Time Attributes.

•

**A flowbody (or productive flowbody) is a connected group of cells
**

set off from the rest of the reservoir by no-flow boundaries and

penetrated by at least one injection cell and one production cell.

You can specify injection and production cells using wells or using

constant pressure or flow potential attributes.

A productive flowbody meets at least one of the following criteria:

•

•

•

R2003.12

**It contains one cell in a flow-rate-constrained injection well
**

and one cell in a flow-rate-constrained production well.

It contains one cell in a flow-rate-constrained injection well

and one cell in a pressure-constrained cell, which is not

necessarily in a well.

It contains one cell in a flow-rate-constrained production well

and one cell in a pressure-constrained cell, which is not

necessarily in a well.

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Output Options

73

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

•

**It contains two pressure-constrained cells that have difference
**

flow potential values.

Injector

Producer

flow

zero transmissibility barrier

Attribute Model

Productive Flowbody

StrataSim determines the existence of flowbodies before it

continues the simulation run. Flowbodies are written to an attribute

field. Positive values designate productive flowbodies, and

negative integers designate nonproductive ones. Cells that fall

outside flowbodies are assigned zero values.

•

**Pressure is calculated in the pressure run and is written to the
**

attribute model. StrataSim has the capability of initializing its

pressure run using the pressures from earlier simulation runs. You

can use an earlier pressure field as a time-saving measure or as a

restart for a simulation run after changing well-boundary

conditions or other reservoir parameters.

•

**Volumetric flow rate shows the amount of fluid passing through a
**

cell because of the potential drop across it.

•

**The residual of a cell is the net volumetric flow rate of fluid out of
**

a cell through cell faces minus the net volumetric flow rate of fluid

injected into a cell from a source, such as a well or pressureconstrained cell. You can use the residuals output as a quantitative

analysis tool to check on the accuracy of the pressure solution. The

residual values have the units specified for volumetric flow rates. If

the highest residual value is less than one percent of the maximum

flow rate in the reservoir, you can assume that the pressure run has

produced an accurate pressure field.

**You can change the units of pressure, volumetric flow rate, and
**

residuals output to the attribute model under Setup → Units of

Measurement.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Output Options

74

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Movable Oil Grid Files
**

In the Movable Oil Grid Files, you can choose the source of grid files to

be output by the program. You can also choose whether the actual z

value or a z value expressed in pseudo elevation will be output.

Time Steps

With the Number of Time Steps set to 1, every time StrataSim takes a

time step in the saturation run, a report is written to the screen

containing the time, volume of water produced, volume of oil

produced, overall water-cut, and reason for the time-step report. To

decrease the number of time-step reports, change the value of the

number of time steps between time step summaries to a value greater

than one. You set the actual time steps under Saturation Output.

Enter numbers for beginning and ending time of the simulation. The

Ending Time determines the length of the simulation run irrespective of

any choices for Saturation Output.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Output Options

75

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Adding Time Steps
**

Saturation Attributes controls when and how many saturation reports

are written to the Attribute Model. For example, if the beginning time is

zero, the ending time is ten years, and you choose equally spaced time

steps, entering 10 for number of time steps produces saturation reports

at the end of each year.

R2003.12

1.

Toggle the radio button to select Oil or Water Saturations.

2.

**The dialog box appears initially showing no time steps. To make
**

time steps appear in the list you must specify their intervals. First,

decide whether you want to set equal time steps or to enter specific

time steps.

•

**To specify equal time steps, toggle the Equal Time Steps
**

button on.

•

**To disable equal time steps, toggle the Equal Time Steps
**

button off.

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Output Options

76

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

3.

**Now you must set the number and occurrence of the time steps:
**

•

**If you selected equal time steps, move the Set Number of
**

Time Steps slider to specify the number of steps. As you move

the slider the number of time steps appear.

•

**If you diabled equal time steps, enter a specific time in the
**

Specify a Time box.

**Click the Add One Time Step to List button. Continue to specify
**

and accept time steps until you have all the time steps needed.

4.

When you have filled out all theOutput Options, click OK.

**Deleting Time Steps
**

To delete time steps, follow these steps:

1.

Click the times you want to delete in the List of Times.

**If you select a time by mistake, click it again to clear the selection.
**

2.

**After you highlight the times you want to delete, click the Delete
**

button near the bottom of the window. The times are deleted.

3.

When you are satisfied with the time step specifications, click OK.

4.

When you have filled out all the Output Options, click OK.

**The simulation run is now set up. The next section explains how to run
**

it.

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Output Options

77

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Saturation Attributes

The Saturation section controls the type of fluid reported and frequency

of reports written.

Time = 2.0

Injected Fluids

Time = 5.0

Time = 8.0

**Cross-Section from Simulation through Random Permeability
**

Field

R2003.12

Setting Up StrataSim: Setting Output Options

78

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Running a Simulation

Overview

This section covers the three steps for running a simulation once it is

set up, and describes the methods for reviewing the results:

•

•

•

•

**“Specifying Output Attributes” on page 80
**

“Initializing the Pressure Solver” on page 82

“Running a Simulation” on page 83

“Reviewing Results” on page 86

**The section concludes with tasks you may want to perform after you’ve
**

finished the run:

•

•

R2003.12

**“Deleting Output Attributes” on page 90
**

“Exporting Run Results to ARIES” on page 91

Running a Simulation

79

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Specifying Output Attributes
**

In setting up your run you designated which three-dimensional

variables you wanted to be output. The first step in running the

simulation is to assign these variables to inactive attributes.

1.

**Select Simulation → Specify Attributes for Output.
**

If you have not already run the simulation, the Specify StrataSim

Output Attributes dialog box appears. Otherwise, you are asked to

choose between creating a new run or specifying new output

attributes.

2.

**Now you must choose a way to assign attributes.
**

•

•

R2003.12

**If you already have some choices selected, but you want to
**

change them, use the Clear All Choices button.

If you are not particular about which variables are assigned to

which attributes, you can assign them at once. Select the

attribute you wish to assign first from the list on the left, then

click the All at once button.

Running a Simulation: Specifying Output Attributes

80

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

•

**If you want to assign specific variables to specific attributes,
**

you can assign them one at a time. Click an Inactive Attribute

from the list on the left side of the dialog box and click a

variable in the list on the right side. Finally, select One at a

time to make the assignment.

Click an

attribute.

Click a

variable.

Click

One at a time.

3.

R2003.12

Once you assign all the StrataSim variables to attributes, click OK.

Running a Simulation: Specifying Output Attributes

81

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Initializing the Pressure Solver
**

In the setup part of the program you set your parameters for the

pressure solver. Since the pressure solver is iterative, it can reach a

solution faster if you initialize it. You can do this only if previous

pressure solutions exist in the Attribute Model. This menu for

initializing is optional. The solver will still obtain a solution if you

choose not to initialize it.

1.

**Select Simulation → Initialize Pressure Solver.
**

The dialog box that appears asks if you want to use a previous

solution for a faster result.

2.

R2003.12

**To use a previous solution, click it, then click OK. If you do not
**

want to use a previous solution, just click OK.

Running a Simulation: Initializing the Pressure Solver

82

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Running a Simulation

1.

**Now begin the simulation run by selecting Simulation →
**

Run Simulation.

2.

**At this point a simulation begins to run if you have completed the
**

following tasks:

• Chosen a run that has no previous output

• Filled out all setup menus

• Specified attributes for output

If not, you encounter the following dialog boxes informing you of

the run status:

•

R2003.12

In the example below, a dialog box enables you to doublecheck the variables that were not changed before the run. If you

do not wish to return to the setup, select Run. In this example,

none of the listed items were changed since the current run was

created.

Running a Simulation: Running a Simulation

83

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

•

**If you limited the model size, a message appearsand asks if you
**

want nulls in the unused output attribute cells.

**Writing nulls into the unused cells makes it easy to see which
**

cells have been excluded from the simulation and overwrites

any extraneous information in the cells. However, information

contained in the unused cells may be important in another

simulation run.

•

**If you selected a previous run, a dialog box like the following
**

one appears:

**To retain the output from the previous run, select Create New
**

Run. To select new output attributes and delete the output of

the previous run, select Specify Output.

R2003.12

Running a Simulation: Running a Simulation

84

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**If you choose to create a new run, the following dialog boxes
**

appear:

**Enter a new description for the run and click OK. StrataSim
**

begins again by copying the files and you must restart the

simulation.

R2003.12

Running a Simulation: Running a Simulation

85

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Reviewing Results

StrataSim provides you with mechanisms for reviewing results both

during and after the simulation run.

**During the Run
**

During the simulation run, an xterm appears that reports the progress of

the simulation.

This shell contains important output for a normal run, including:

•

•

•

•

•

**Information about reading values and writing them into attributes
**

A pre-conditioning solution of the flow potential equation

Solution information for the flow potential equation

Volumetric flow rates of sources

Characteristic times

**For a successful run, the xterm report also includes a summary of the
**

time-step information like the one in following example:

R2003.12

Running a Simulation: Reviewing Results

86

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**If there is a runtime error or if StrataSim must modify your input to
**

obtain a successful run, a warning message appears in addition.

For example, the following message tells you that the simulation was

terminated because oil recovery occurred much faster than expected.

**After the Run
**

Although you will most likely view your simulation results in Show

Displays in Stratamodel, you can view some important output while

still in StrataSim. Select Output → Tabulated Results.

**Tabulated Results Report Window
**

This window displays the following information:

•

R2003.12

Run description

Running a Simulation: Reviewing Results

87

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

R2003.12

**Run creation date
**

Units of measurement used

Description of the Stratigraphic Framework Model

Description of the simulation model

Relative error and iterations for the pressure equation input

Production plot information

3D output variables

Frequency of timestep summaries

Well information

Fluid property information

Flowbody information

Ratios of nonzero transmissibilities for flowbodies and cells

Relative error and iterations for the pressure equation output

Volumetric flow rates of sources

Characteristic times

Volumetric flow rates for wells

Well pressures

Solution of the saturation equation

Time for simulation to complete

Running a Simulation: Reviewing Results

88

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**The following example shows the display of a simulation in
**

Stratamodel Show Displays. Sample displays appear throughout this

guide.

Permeabilities

generated

stochastically

**Oil saturation timestep using stochastic
**

permeabilities in a

left-to-right flow

simulation.

Simulation Using Stochastic Permeabilities

R2003.12

Running a Simulation: Reviewing Results

89

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Deleting Output Attributes
**

Once you have finished your run, you may want to delete some of your

output attributes. The main reason for doing this is to free up space for

storing attributes in subsequent runs.

R2003.12

1.

Select Session → Delete Output Attributes.

2.

**Click the attributes you want to remove. If you select one
**

accidentally, click it again to release it.

3.

Click OK.

4.

**A message appears and asks you to confirm that you want to delete
**

the output.

5.

Click Yes to delete the output, No to cancel the deletion.

Running a Simulation: Deleting Output Attributes

90

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Exporting Run Results to ARIES
**

You can export values from your StrataSim solution to ARIES, for a

complete economic decision analysis. The values provided by

StrataSim to ARIES are “monthly” production volumes for oil and

water in addition to the instantaneous water cut at the end of the month.

ARIES imports this information directly into its historical production

database, allowing you to view the results graphically in many formats

on screen or in hardcopy plots. The volumes can also be used as direct

input to the economics engine using a standard LOAD command.

R2003.12

1.

**Select Session → Export to ARIES. The program asks for a file
**

name.

2.

**Enter a name of eight characters or less in the File Name box.
**

Note that the dialog box shows you the extension that will be

added to the name.

3.

**Click OK. The program notifies you that the ARIES file is being
**

created.

Running a Simulation: Exporting Run Results to ARIES

91

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Technical Reference

Overview

This section contains essential information about the way StrataSim

works. The topics cover these concepts:

•

•

**Important concepts for understanding StrataSim results
**

A clear statement of the equations StrataSim solves

**The goal of this section is to provide physical insight into what
**

StrataSim does. For the geologist, the presentation is relatively free of

differential equations. However, for the reservoir engineer, the results

are stated so that you can easily recognize the finite difference

equations. The derivations presented here are tailored to StrataSim and

the needs of StrataSim users. For additional discussion of mathematical

underpinnings, please consult standard texts, such as in Bear (1972),

Aziz and Settari (1979) or Peaceman (1977).

Even experienced reservoir engineers can be surprised at StrataSim

results. Usually, they are not surprised for long. They think through the

implications of their input and rationalize the outcome. In this regard,

the discussion on transmissibility is particularly important, as

transmissibility is the most important variable governing the outcome

of your StrataSim simulations.

The physics underpinning StrataSim is simpler than for standard

reservoir simulators. This simplicity offers an advantage to reservoir

engineers and geoscientists alike: a modest investment in time can lead

to a greatly enhanced appreciation for StrataSim’s range of capabilities.

This technical reference guide has been purposefully designed to build

up to the flow equations. Consequently, the ratio of explanatory

material to equations is high in the beginning. Eventually, however, the

equations start to dominate. Fortunately, it is not the calculus or finite

difference methods that are difficult; rather, it is subscripts. Once you

get the hang of them, understand the equations is much easier.

Consequently, we urge you to stay with it. Your enhanced

understanding will pay off, through better appreciation of and

communication with your colleagues in reservoir engineering.

R2003.12

Technical Reference

92

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**This section presents discussions of:
**

•

•

•

•

•

Darcy’s Law

Two-phase flow, highlighting the StrataSim assumptions for

relative permeabilities and mobility ratio

Transmissibilities

Incompressible flow equations, which are solved to determine

profiles for both flow potential and saturation

Well models and constraints

**Along the way, the text explains simplifications to the following areas,
**

which underpin the StrataSim approach:

•

•

•

•

•

•

R2003.12

**Two-phase flow
**

Incompressible fluids

Unit mobility ratio

Linear relative permeability curves

Unit density ratio

Zero capillary pressure

Technical Reference: Overview

93

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Darcy’s Law

The basis for describing flow in porous media is Darcy’s Law. In one of

its simplest forms for one-dimensional, single-phase flow, Darcy’s Law

states that volumetric flow rate, Fz, in the z direction is proportional to

the derivative in flow potential, Φ with respect to z.

Equation 1

kA ∂Φ

F z = – ------- ------µ ∂z

**In Equation one, k denotes permeability; A, cross-sectional area; µ,
**

fluid viscosity; and z, length along the flow direction. The flow

potential is defined as follows.

Equation 2

Φ = P – ρg ( z 0 – z )

**In Equation 2, P denotes pressure; ρ, fluid density; g, the constant of
**

gravitational acceleration in the direction of the z axis; and z0, a

reference elevation. Because Darcy’s Law deals only with differences

in flow potential, the choice of z0 is entirely arbitrary.

This definition of flow potential assumes that gravity acts parallel to the

z axis. In general, you can imagine choosing a coordinate system that

has components of gravity along each of the three axes. Fortunately,

our models employ the natural coordinate system where gravity acts in

the z direction, as shown in the following figure. Therefore, a more

general formulation is unnecessary. For our models, the z axis points

upward and gravity acts downward. Consequently, the gravitational

acceleration vector is g = – gk , where k denotes the unit vector for

the z axis, as shown in the figure below.

z

g = – gk

y (rows)

x

(c

ol

um

ns

)

**Layer Numbers Increase
**

with Increasing Z

Gravitational Vector in Stratamodel/StrataSim Coordinate System

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Darcy’s Law

94

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Sometimes you will hear Darcy’s Law loosely described as “flow rate is
**

proportional to pressure drop,” rather than to flow potential. As you can

see from above, this is only strictly true when flow is horizontal

(constant z) or when gravity is zero (for reservoirs in outer space).

Unfortunately, if you think of Darcy’s Law in terms of “pressure”

rather than “flow potential,” you can be surprised by your simulation

results, as shown in the following section.

**An Example of Misinterpreting Darcy’s Law
**

As mentioned above, Darcy’s Law is often misinterpreted, which can

lead to apparently surprising results. As an example of this, consider

the following problem. Suppose you want to determine the effective

permeability in the x direction for a portion of your model. You may try

to do this by setting up a StrataSim run with a pressure drop as shown

in the following figure:

g = – gk

PR

L

z

PL

?

No-Flow

Boundary

x

**What Is the Flow Direction If a Pressure Drop Is Imposed Across a
**

Limited Portion of a Model with No-Flow Boundaries?

In the figure, PL and PR denote pressures on the left and right hand

sides of your model. If PL is greater than PR, you expect to get flow

from left to right.

Granted, if the geology is heterogeneous, you are likely to get some

components of the flow in other than the x direction. However, you can

orient the bulk of the flow in the x direction by imposing no-flow

boundaries on the top and bottom, as shown. From solving the pressure

equation using StrataSim, you can calculate the corresponding

volumetric flow rate for the imposed pressure drop. Given the pressure

drop and flow rate, you can apply Darcy’s Law to the overall model to

calculate an effective permeability.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Darcy’s Law

95

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Can you detect the flaw in this analysis?
**

The flaw is that we imposed a constant pressure, not constant flow

potential, on the boundary. If we let the reference elevation, z0, equal L,

the length of the model along the z axis, then the following figure

shows the values of the potential at the top and bottom on both sides of

the model.

Φ = PL

Φ = P L – ρgL

PL > PR

Φ = PR

Φ = P R – ρgL

No-Flow Boundary

**Imposing constant pressure leads to a drop in flow potential on the
**

boundaries. This creates an additional flow along the z axis,

perpendicular to the direction that was intended.

As expected, there is a drop in potential between left and right sides.

However, there is also a drop in potential from top to bottom.

Consequently, there will be a flow not only from left to right but also

from top to bottom.

As you can see from inspecting Darcy’s Law in Equation 1, the

strengths of these flows, both intended and unintended, depend not only

on the size of the drop in flow potential but also on the permeability,

cross-sectional area, and distance over which the flow potential is

imposed. The concept of transmissibility, which incorporates these

other factors into one parameter, is explained in “Transmissibility” on

page 105. Consequently, further discussion of this example is

postponed until then. This example, however, is worth revisiting

because it shows what can go wrong when implications of Darcy’s Law

are poorly appreciated.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Darcy’s Law

96

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Hydrostatic Equilibrium

An important, yet simple, solution of Darcy’s equation occurs for the

case of no flow, or hydrostatic equilibrium. For the flow rate to be zero,

Φ must be a constant, which we denote as Φ0. From Equation 2 we

obtain the following:

Equation 3

P = Φ 0 + ρg ( z 0 – z )

Suppose z0 denotes the top of your model; then all other values of z are

less than z0. Therefore, P = Φ 0 at the top of the model and

P = Φ 0 + ρgz 0 at the bottom, where z=0. In other words, the pressure,

P, increases linearly with depth (decreasing z). The term after the plus

sign is referred to as the hydrostatic head. Another way to state this

result is that the pressure difference between two points in hydrostatic

equilibrium is equal to the difference in gravitational head.

Like other simulators, StrataSim assumes that wellbore fluids are in

hydrostatic equilibrium. In other words, at any point in the simulation,

a well can be described by a single flow potential and reference

elevation or by a single pressure and reference elevation. In general,

however, that this single potential per well can vary with time,

depending on the density of the wellbore fluids.

StrataSim offers four choices of reference elevations for describing

wellbore pressures:

•

•

•

•

**Top of the well
**

Bottom of the well

Top of the model

Bottom of the model

**Internally, StrataSim datums all pressures to one reference, the bottom
**

of the model.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Darcy’s Law

97

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Two-Phase Flow
**

This section describes StrataSim’s assumptions concerning relative

permeabilities and mobility ratio. The primary motivation for

employing these assumptions is to minimize the time and computer

memory spent in solving the equation for the flow potential, which is

described in “Equation for Flow Potential” on page 126. To be sure,

the models we use entail simplifications over what is possible with

standard reservoir simulators. Nevertheless, StrataSim still allows you

to investigate a very important aspect of relative permeability, the

immobile saturations which define the end-points of the curves.

This section includes:

•

•

•

**A presentation of Darcy’s Law for two-phase flow.
**

An expression for the total volumetric flow rate

StrataSim’s assumptions concerning relative permeabilities and

mobility ratio

**Darcy’s Law and Two-Phase Flow
**

The extension of Darcy’s Law to two-phase flow entails applying

Darcy’s Law for single-phase flow to each phase individually:

Equation 4

∂Φ w

F wz = – kλ rw A ----------∂z

and

Equation 5

∂Φ o

F oz = – kλ ro A ---------∂z

where

Equation 6

k rw

k ro

λ rw = -------- , λ ro = ------µw

µo

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Two-Phase Flow

98

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**The subscript β in the following description denotes the phase, either
**

“o” for oil or “w” for water. The relative mobility of the phase,

denoted by λrβ, is equal to the relative permeability of the phase, krβ,

divided by the viscosity, µβ. Oftentimes, two-phase flow is discussed in

terms of the mobility, which consists of the relative mobility multiplied

by the permeability. To separate explicitly the effects of reservoir

architecture from effects of reservoir fluids, the relative mobility is

employed instead.

**Total Volumetric Flow Rate
**

This section derives an expression for the total volumetric flow rate in

terms of the flow potential in the water phase. Applying Equation 2 for

each of the phases obtains the following equations:

Equation 7

Φo = Po –ρ0 g ( z0 – z )

and

Equation 8

Φw = Pw – ρw g ( z0 – z )

**Subtracting Equation 7 from Equation 8 obtains an expression for the
**

oil-phase flow potential in terms of the water-phase oil potential,

capillary pressure, and density difference between phases:

Equation 9

Φo = Φw + Φc

where

Equation 10

Φ c = P c + ∆ρg ( z 0 – z )

and

Equation 11

Equation 12

R2003.12

Pc ( Sw ) = Po – Pw

∆ρ = ρ w – ρ o

Technical Reference: Two-Phase Flow

99

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**The capillary pressure, Pc, which is defined as the difference between
**

the oil and water phase pressures, is a function of water saturation. The

potential, Φc, describes the contribution of both capillary pressure and

gravitational effects, which depend on the density difference between

fluids.

Substitute Equation 9 for the flow potential in the oil phase for

Equation 5 for the flow rate in the oil phase. Then add the oil and water

phase flow rates together to obtain the desired result for the volumetric

flow rate for both phases.

Equation 13

∂Φ w

∂Φ c

F z = F wz + F oz = – kA λ r ----------- + λ ro ----------

∂z

∂z

Equation 13 defines the total relative mobility. Note that the lack of a

phase subscript indicates that the variable refers to a total for both

phases.

Equation 14

λ r = λ rw + λ ro

**The expression for the total volumetric flow rate in
**

Equation 13 will be used later, in “Incompressible Flow Equations in

StrataSim” on page 125, to derive the flow potential equation.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Two-Phase Flow

100

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Relative Permeabilities

For a given rock-fluid, two-phase system, the relative permeability of a

particular phase is usually taken to depend only on the saturation of that

phase:

Equation 15

k rβ = k rβ ( S β ), β = o, w

StrataSim simplifies the description of the relative permeabilities in

Equation 15 to the linear relationships shown in the following figure.

Relative Permeability

1.0

k

0

ro

k

0

S wr

S or

0

rw

1.0

Water Saturation

**StrataSim assumes linear relative permeabilities to oil and water.
**

However, the immobile saturations can be different for every cell in

your model.

The StrataSim model for relative permeabilities is as follows:

Equation 16

k rw = k

0 ˆ

0

S , k ro = k ( 1 – Sˆ )

rw

ro

where

Equation 17

S w – S wr

Sˆ = -----------------------------1 – S or – S wr

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Two-Phase Flow

101

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**The immobile saturations for water and oil are denoted by Swr and Sor.
**

The end-point relative permeabilities to water and oil are denoted by

k0rw and k0ro respectively. The movable water saturation, denoted by

Sˆ , varies between zero and 1.

Linear relative permeability curves certainly have a precedent. In fact,

such assumptions were commonplace before the advent of highpowered computers. Muscat (1937), for example, implicitly assumed

them in order to obtain analytical expressions for two-dimensional flow

in standard pattern floods, such as line drive or five spot. Dake (1978),

provides another example for how such curves are used to model

segregated flow. The StrataSim approach is to use these assumptions,

which have proved so worthy in the past. The computing power is

reserved, not for the physics, but for describing high-resolution

geological models.

The linear model captures end-point information. For example, the

immobile saturations can be different for every cell in your model.

StrataSim reads in immobile saturations directly from your Attribute

Model. Because it is closely linked your geological modeling package,

StrataSim offers you great flexibility to investigate sensitivity of

recovery predictions to immobile saturations.

Immobile saturations can easily be expressed as functions of

attributes — such as layer, sequence, elevation, lithofacies.

For example, if you are modeling a fluvial environment, you may want

to assign immobile saturations as a function of lithofacies: mud clast,

cross beds, ripple laminated beds, crevasse splays, etc. Or for a

carbonate model with a significant diagenetic overprint, you may want

to assign immobile saturations as functions of elevation, sequence, or

layer.

Even linear relative permeability models depend upon measured data

for input. Thus, this section concludes with a word or two on

measurement of relative permeabilities.

The three most commonly used methods for measuring relative

permeabilities are the Welge unsteady-state method (Welge, 1952;

Johnson et. al., 1959), the steady-state method (Osoba et al., 1951 and

Leverett and Lewis, 1940), and the centrifuge method (Hagoort, 1980;

O’Meara and Lease, 1983; O’Meara and Crump, 1985).

Strictly speaking, relative permeabilities depend on a number of other

parameters than saturations. For example, wettability, interfacial

tension, and flow rate all can play a role in affecting experiments

designed to measure relative permeabilities on core samples.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Two-Phase Flow

102

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Whether you run StrataSim or a standard simulator, wettability is
**

important. Wettability affects not only the shape of the relative

permeability curves but also the end-points. Consequently, to obtain the

correct relative permeabilities, it is crucial to measure under the correct,

in situ, wettability conditions. This is an area of much intense research.

Given the attendant uncertainties, StrataSim offers you an excellent

way to explore the sensitivity of immobile saturations on your recovery

predictions.

Interfacial tension and flow rate are relatively unimportant in the

StrataSim context. They are of interest, primarily in chemical flooding,

where the idea is to decrease the residual (or trapped) oil saturation

after waterflood through decreasing interfacial tension. For further

discussion on this topic, see Taber (1969) and Stegemeier (1977).

**Unit Mobility Ratio
**

Given the relative permeabilities of Equation 16, we can now calculate

the total mobility, as defined in Equation 14. Using Equation 6, which

describes the relative phase mobilities, derives:

Equation 18

λr = λ

0

[ Sˆ + M ( 1 – Sˆ ) ]

rw

**For Equation 18, the end-point relative mobilities of water and oil are
**

defined as:

Equation 19

0

0

k

k

0

rw 0

ro

= ---------- , λ = -------λ

µ w ro µ o

rw

The end-point mobility ratio is defined as:

Equation 20

0

λ

rw

M = ---------0

λ

ro

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Two-Phase Flow

103

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Note that M is defined so that M exceeds one if the end-point relative
**

mobility of the water exceeds the end-point relative mobility of the oil.

Displacements for which M exceeds 1 are referred to as unfavorable

mobility ratio displacements, because the likelihood of viscous

fingering and of a drawn out recovery curve is increased. On the other

hand, displacements for which M is less than 1 are referred to as

favorable mobility ratio displacements. Such displacements are stable,

typified by piston-like saturation fronts.

StrataSim assumes that the end-point mobility ratio, M, equals 1:

Equation 21

λr = λ

0

0

= λ ↔M = 1

rw

ro

**This is not a particularly bad assumption for many waterfloods.
**

Typically, the viscosity of water, µw, is less than the viscosity of oil, µo.

However, the end-point relative permeability to water, k0rw, is often less

than the end-point relative permeability to oil, k0ro. Thus, the effects

compensate.

StrataSim requires you to specify a viscosity and an end-point relative

permeability for only one phase. The relative mobility of the other

phase is calculated to insure a unit mobility ratio.

A consequence of StrataSim’s unit mobility ratio assumption is that the

total relative mobility does not depend on saturation. As you will see in

the next section, this has a great advantage in minimizing the time

needed to solve the equation for flow potential.

Not to put too fine a point on it, here is a possibility that may be useful

to you in modeling the case where this end-point mobility changes in

every cell. To do this, simply define the end-point relative mobility as

an attribute. Using Model Operations, construct attributes that are the

product of end-point relative mobility and permeabilities in the three

coordinate directions. Then read these reduced permeabilities into your

StrataSim model instead of the original permeabilities.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Two-Phase Flow

104

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Transmissibility

Perhaps the most important variable governing the outcome of your

StrataSim simulations is transmissibility. This variable encapsulates the

effects of permeability, cell thickness, and cross-sectional area on flow.

Moreover, modifications of it are used to model effects of shales,

fractures, and faults.

Transmissibility is too important to remain in the obscurity of

numerical analysis if geoscientists and reservoir engineers are to

appreciate the effect of geology on shaping flow. Given our experience

in interpreting StrataSim simulations, an extensive discussion of it is

warranted.

In recent years, there has been much interest in “upscaling” reservoir

simulations, where simulations on a fine-scale are used to estimate

effective properties on a coarser scale. Even here, the emphasis seems

to be on calculating “effective permeabilities” not on “effective

transmissibilities.” People who write numerical simulators, however,

know that the latter, rather than the former, are more crucial to

determining flow.

Unfortunately, one of the problems with lurking in obscurity is that

definitions of transmissibility can vary from text to text. There seems to

be no commonly accepted definition of transmissibility. If this were not

bad enough, groundwater hydrologists have complicated matters by

talking about “transmissivity.”

Perhaps a reason that transmissibility is under-appreciated is that the

usual definitions tend to lump too many things together. For the present

discussion, we adopt the following definition:

Transmissibility between two cells is defined as an average of the

permeability, multiplied by cross-sectional area, divided by the

distance between cell centers.

This definition reduces to what Aziz and Settari (1979) refer to as the

“constant part of the transmissibility,” excluding effects of viscosity,

relative permeability, and compressibility. In other words, our

definition concentrates on the effects of the reservoir itself, and

separates out the effects of reservoir fluids. This is consistent with

StrataSim’s effort to highlight the importance of geology on shaping

flow.

The appropriate way to “average” permeability, cross-sectional area,

and distance between cell centers is the subject of “Transmissibility in

Z Direction” on page 107 and “Transmissibility in X and Y

Directions” on page 111.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

105

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Summary of Discussion

Highlights from the following discussion on transmissibility are as

follows:

R2003.12

•

**Transmissibility combines effects of permeability, cell thickness,
**

and cross-sectional area on flow rate between adjoining cells. It is

transmissibility, not permeability, which needs to be kept in mind

when thinking about flow between cells (“Transmissibility in Z

Direction” on page 107).

•

**X and Y transmissibilities equal zero when the thickness of either
**

adjoining cell is zero (“Transmissibility in X and Y Directions” on

page 111).

•

**Transmissibility multipliers can be used to model shales, fractures,
**

and faults without requiring additional cells (“Transmissibility

Multipliers” on page 113).

•

**Z transmissibility can often be quite larger than X and Y
**

transmissibilities; consequently, small potential differences in z

can cause sizeable flow rates, and vice versa. Do not be surprised if

you see vertical stripes in your pressure displays. This is a

consequence of high Z transmissibility causing little variation of

pressure with elevation (“Comparisons of X, Y, and Z

Transmissibilities” on page 114).

•

**For the case of “An Example of Misinterpreting Darcy’s Law” on
**

page 95, where constant pressure, rather than constant flow

potential, was specified on the boundaries, there is an unexpected

flow in the z direction. Due to high Z transmissibility, the

magnitude of this flow can overwhelm the intended flow in the x

direction (“Misinterpreting Darcy’s Law — Revisited” on

page 117).

•

**StrataSim offers the user two choices for input of transmissibilities
**

and two choices for input of transmissibility multipliers (“Using

Transmissibilities in StrataSim” on page 119).

•

**Displays of Z transmissibility may indicate higher than expected
**

values due to very thin or zero thickness cells (“Double Z

Transmissibilities Near Very Thin Cells” on page 120).

•

**StrataSim eliminates zero thickness and thin cells from your
**

simulation model (“Elimination of Zero Thickness Cells” on

page 121).

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

106

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**The following presentation introduces transmissibility in a physically
**

meaningful way through applying Darcy’s Law to flow between

adjoining cells. The discussion proceeds without involving finite

difference methods. The approach is to consider flow first in the

direction of the z axis, then in the directions of the x and y axes. Once

transmissibility equations are obtained, the section examines their

physical significance, pointing out features that have a high impact on

simulation results. The discussion tells you what to look for and how

easily to overcome any problems. StrataSim features for

transmissibility input are discussed. In addition, the discussion revisits

the example of “An Example of Misinterpreting Darcy’s Law” on

page 95 to explain how these misinterpretations can be compounded

for typical models in which z transmissibilities are much higher than x

and y transmissibilities.

Transmissibility in Z Direction

To develop the concept of transmissibility, consider an application of

the single-phase version of Darcy’s Law to flow between two adjoining

cells that are stacked one upon the other along the z axis, as shown in

the figure below. Although the use of subscripts may at first seem

cumbersome, bear with it. The final result introduces you to exactly the

form of the transmissibility that is used by StrataSim and for that

matter, many numerical simulators.

∆x

A = ∆x ⋅ ∆y

∆y

FZ

k zijk + 1 ,Φ ijk + 1

∆z ijk + 1

∆z ijk

( ∆z ijk + ∆z ijk + 1 ) ⁄ 2

k zijk ,Φ ijk

FZ

**Transmissibility in z Direction Is Calculated by Considering Flow
**

Through Two Vertically Aligned, Adjoining Cells

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

107

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Consider flow of an incompressible (constant density) fluid through the
**

two cells where Fz denotes the volumetric flow rate. Because of mass

conservation, this rate does not vary spatially. The indices for the top

and bottom cells are (i,j,k+1) and (i,j,k) respectively, where the indices

(i,j,k) denote the x, y, and z axes respectively. The index of the interface

between cells is (i,j,k+1/2), where the 1/2 refers to the boundary

between cells, which is not necessarily the same as the point halfway

between cell centers.

Permeabilities in the z direction are denoted by kz ijk for the lower cell

and kz ijk+1 for the upper one. The cells have the same cross-sectional

area, A, equal to ∆x·∆y where ∆x and ∆y denote lengths along the x

and y axes. This regular grid in the x, y plane is the case for all

Stratamodel models.

If we let Φijk and Φιjk+1 denote the flow potentials at the centers of the

two cells and Φijk+1/2 denote the flow potential at the interface between

the two blocks, we can calculate the difference in flow potentials

between cell centers as the sum of the differences between centers and

the interface.

Equation 22

Φ ijk + 1 – Φ ijk = ( Φ ijk + 1 – Φ ijk + 1 ⁄ 2 ) + ( Φ ijk + 1 ⁄ 2 – Φ ijk )

The cells are of different thicknesses, denoted by ∆zijk and ∆zijk+1.

Consequently, the distance from the center of the (i,j,k) cell to the

interface is (∆zijk)/2 and the distance from the interface to the center of

the (i,j,k+1) cell is (∆zijk+1)/2.

Applying Darcy’s Law to calculate the differences in flow potentials on

the right-hand side of the equation obtains the following:

Equation 23

R2003.12

**µF z ∆z ijk + 1 ∆z ijk
**

Φ ijk + 1 – Φ ijk = – ----------------- ------------------ + -----------2∆x∆y k zijk + 1 k zijk

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

108

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Because the flow rate, Fz, does not vary spatially, this equation can be
**

rewritten in terms of the volumetric flow rate of fluid through the

interface, Fz ijk+1/2 and the transmissibility of the interface, Tz ijk+1/2:

Equation 24

T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2

F zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = – ----------------------- ( Φ ijk + 1 – Φ ijk )

µ

where

Equation 25

k zijk k zijk + 1

T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = 2∆x∆y ------------------------------------------------------------------∆z ijk k zijk + 1 + ∆z ijk + 1 k zijk

Thus, the volumetric flow rate is equal to the transmissibility divided by

viscosity multiplied by the difference in flow potentials. Notice that the

transmissibility is defined at the interface between cells and it combines

the effects of permeability, cell thickness, and cross-sectional area on

flow rate (or flux) across the face between the two cells.

Transmissibility, not permeability, must be kept in mind when thinking

about flow between cells. So, extremely low permeability does not

necessarily result in no flow if it is counterbalanced, for example, by a

large cross-sectional area.

For example, in many of your simulations, the lengths of cells in the x

and y directions, ∆x and ∆y, will be much larger than the length in the z

direction. The latter may be on the order of feet and the former on the

order of hundreds of feet. In this case, even small permeabilities can

result in substantial transmissibility and, consequently, flow. Flow

within laterally continuous but thin turbid sands is an example of this.

This topic is re-examined in “Comparisons of X, Y, and Z

Transmissibilities” on page 114, which compares transmissibilities in

the three directions and describes the significance of the differences to

your simulations.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

109

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**The above derivation assumed that the two cells were rectangular. In
**

general, this is not the case for Stratamodel models. However, such a

situation can be approximated as shown in the figure below:

Actual

Approximation

∆z ijk + 1

∆z ijk

**Approximation of Nonrectangular Cells for Calculating
**

Transmissibility in the z Direction

The left-hand portion of the figure depicts two cells that are not

rectangular. The right-hand portion shows how StrataSim approximates

them as rectangular cells with the same thickness as in the actual cells.

To be sure, this is only an approximation. A more rigorous

consideration of such nonrectangular cells would require consideration

of flow in other than just the z direction. The consequence of this for

three-dimensional flow is the occurrence of “cross-derivative” terms in

the flow potential equation. For a discussion of these terms, see Chapter

9 in Chin (1993). However, as stated by Chin, the inclusion of these

terms is typically neglected in standard reservoir simulators. Certainly,

if standard simulators do not include them, StrataSim’s “relaxed

physics” approach does not warrant their inclusion.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

110

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Transmissibility in X and Y Directions
**

For the case of flow in the direction of the x or y axes, we start

immediately with the general situation in which the cells are not

rectangular. The figure below depicts this for flow along the x axis:

Actual

∆z ijk

∆x

∆z i + 1 jk

Approximation

∆x

Fx

∆z ijk

k xijk, Φ ijk

A ijk = ∆z ijk ⋅ ∆y

∆z i + 1 jk

Fx

k xi + 1 jk, Φ i + 1 jk

A i + 1 jk = ∆z i + 1 jk ⋅ ∆y

**As before, consider flow of an incompressible fluid through the two
**

cells where Fx denotes the volumetric flow rate. Strictly speaking, this

flow is two-dimensional at least. However, ignore all but the x

component of flow and assume that Fx does not vary spatially. The

permeabilities in the x direction of the two cells are denoted by kxijk for

the left-most one and kxi+1jk for the right-most one. The cells are of

different cross-sectional area, denoted by ∆zijk·∆y and ∆zi+1jk·∆y

respectively. However, they have the same length, ∆x, in the direction

of flow.

If Φijk and Φi+1jk denote the flow potentials at the centers of the two

cells, and Φi+1/2 jk denotes the flow potential at the interface between the

two blocks, you can calculate the difference in flow potentials between

cell centers as the sum of the differences between centers and the

interface:

Equation 26

Φ i + 1 jk – Φ ijk = ( Φ i + 1 jk – Φ i + 1 ⁄ 2 jk ) + ( Φ i + 1 ⁄ 2 jk – Φ ijk )

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

111

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Applying Darcy’s Law, Equation 1, for flow in the x direction to
**

calculate the differences in flow potentials on the right-hand side of the

equation obtains the following:

Equation 27

µF x ∆x

1

1

Φ i + 1 jk – Φ ijk = – ----------------- -------------------------------------- + ----------------------2∆y ∆z i + 1 jk k xi + 1 jk ∆z ijk k xijk

**You can rewrite this in terms of the flux of fluid through the interface
**

and the transmissibility of the interface:

Equation 28

T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk

F xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk = – ------------------------ ( Φ i + 1 jk – Φ ijk )

µ

where

Equation 29

**2∆y ∆z ijk k xijk ∆z i + 1 jk k xi + 1 jk
**

T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk = ---------- -------------------------------------------------------------------∆x ∆z ijk k xijk + ∆z i + 1 jk k xi + 1 jk

**The derivation for the y direction transmissibility proceeds the same as
**

for the transmissibility in the x direction. To avoid repetition, here are

the results:

Equation 30

T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k

F yij + 1 ⁄ 2k = – ------------------------ [ Φ ij + 1k – Φ ijk ]

µ

where

Equation 31

**2∆x ∆z ijk k yijk ∆z ij + 1k k yij + 1k
**

T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k = ---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------∆y ∆z ijk k yijk + ∆z ij + 1k k yij + 1k

**Notice that when the cell thickness of either cell becomes zero in either
**

Equation 29 or Equation 31, the transmissibility also becomes zero.

This confirms what you would expect if either cell in the above figure

disappears. Naturally, there would be no flow into it.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

112

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Transmissibility Multipliers

Suppose you want to model the effect of a very thin, yet laterally

continuous shale. For example, suppose the shale is only 0.5 ft. thick

and your cells are 20 ft. thick. Do you define an additional sequence in

your Stratamodel model just for the shale? Probably not. There is an

easier way. You can approximate the shale as being a property of the

interface between adjoining cells, rather than requiring a cell itself.

However, doing this begs the question of how to modify the

transmissibility between the two cells to account for the effect of the

shale on flow.

Of course, if the shale is a no-flow boundary, the answer is simply to set

the transmissibility to zero. If the shale allows flow, the standard way to

handle this is to incorporate “transmissibility multipliers” in

Equations 25, 29, and 31.

Equation 32

TM zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 k zijk k zijk + 1

T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = 2∆x∆y ------------------------------------------------------------------∆z ijk k zijk + 1 + ∆z ijk + 1 k zijk

Equation 33

**2∆y TM xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk ∆z ijk k xijk ∆z i + 1 jk k xi + 1 jk
**

T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk = ---------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆x

∆z ijk k xijk + ∆z i + 1 jk k xi + 1 jk

Equation 34

**2∆x TM yij + 1 ⁄ 2k ∆z ijk k yijk ∆z ij + 1k k yij + 1k
**

T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k = ---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆y

∆z ijk k yijk + ∆z ij + 1k k yij + 1k

**The default value for the multipliers is one. The most common
**

modification entails setting a multiplier to zero for no-flow interfaces.

Multipliers greater than one would signify an enhancement to flow

because of a high permeability zone. Assignment of values is typically

ad hoc.

You could obtain an alternative to using transmissibility multipliers by

deriving the above equations again with the addition of a permeability

barrier of finite extent located on one side of the interface between

adjoining cells. The formulas equivalent to Equations 25, 29, and 31

would obtain additional terms including the barrier permeability and

thickness. This approach requires two Stratamodel attributes, barrier

permeability and thickness, instead of a single transmissibility

multiplier. Given the uncertainty in describing the flow characteristics

of barriers, this extra degree of complexity is usually not worth it.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

113

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Transmissibility multipliers can also be used to model flow due to
**

fractures and faults. Faults described in Stratamodel can be made either

sealed or open by appropriate choice of multipliers. A possible way to

model fractures is to make transmissibility multipliers dependent

(through a model operation) on, say, local curvature of the stratigraphic

framework model.

**Comparisons of X, Y, and Z Transmissibilities
**

Equations 25, 29, and 31 describe how to calculate transmissibilities

for the general case where cell thickness is variable. To simplify

comparison of transmissibilities, consider these equations for the case

where cells are of the same thickness, ∆z:

Equation 35

2∆x∆y k zijk k zijk + 1

T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = ----------------- ----------------------------------∆z k zijk + 1 + k zijk

Equation 36

2∆y∆z k xijk k xi + 1 jk

T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk = ----------------- ----------------------------------∆x k xijk + k xi + 1 jk

Equation 37

2∆x∆z k yijk k yij + 1k

T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k = ----------------- ----------------------------------∆y k yijk + k yij + 1k

Reservoirs are usually far larger in area extent than vertical.

Consequently, in many of your simulations the lengths of cells in the x

and y directions, ∆x and ∆y, will be much larger than the length in the z

direction, ∆z. This suggests that the z transmissibility is often much

larger than x and y transmissibilities. Notice when you use “Show

Displays” to examine transmissibilities, that the color bar may be the

same, but the scale values can easily be four to six factors of ten higher

for z transmissibility than for x and y transmissibilities.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

114

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**To illustrate this point further, consider the following dimensionless
**

numbers, Nzx and Nzy, which are composed of ratios of

transmissibilities:

Equation 38

T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2

∆x 2 k z

- = ------- ----N zx = ---------------------- ∆z k x

T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk

Equation 39

T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2

∆y 2 k z

N zy = ----------------------- = ------- ---- ∆z k y

T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k

Dimensionless numbers are often a good way to examine contrasting

effects. Instead of simply stating that the z transmissibility can be

“high,” the dimensionless numbers can answer the question “high

compared to what?”

Consider the following example:

∆x = 100 ft. ∆y = 100 ft.

∆z = 1 ft.

kx = ky = kz

then

N zx = 10, 000

N zy = 10, 000

**In light of Equations 24, 28, and 30, you can interpret this in two ways.
**

For a given difference in flow potential, the flow rate in the z direction

will be 10,000 times greater than in the x or y directions. Or, for a given

flow rate, the flow potential drop in the z direction will be 10,000 times

smaller than in the x or y directions. The latter suggests that, in many

cases such as this one, we can expect the flow potential not to vary

along the z axis. This is equivalent to saying we expect hydrostatic

equilibrium to prevail.

Consider a case where you have specified constant potential within a

vertical well that is only partially completed. The foregoing analysis

suggests that you should not be surprised if, at the (x, y) location of the

well, your simulation shows the same potential for all values of z

irrespective of whether they are penetrated by the well.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

115

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Now, consider what happens when Nzx and Nzy drop to 1,000. This can
**

be done in the above example by holding everything else constant and

by decreasing the vertical-to-horizontal permeability ratio by a factor of

10. In other words, kx still equals ky, but kz/kx= 0.1. Should you expect a

change in simulation results? Probably not. For a given flow rate, the

flow potential drop in the z direction will still be 1,000 times smaller

than in the x or y directions.

Consequently, what seems to be a large change in permeabilities is not

likely to have much of an effect on simulation results, thus

underscoring the importance of transmissibility versus permeability.

On the other hand, for values of Nzx and Nzy near 1, you should expect

to see a significant change when the vertical-to-horizontal permeability

ratio decreases by a factor of 10.

Equations 35, 36, and 37 make it clear that transmissibilities are

comprised of harmonic averages of permeabilities. This is the natural

outcome of summing flow in series, as in “Transmissibility in Z

Direction” on page 107 and “Transmissibility in X and Y Directions”

on page 111. The result for summing flow in parallel is an arithmetic

average.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

116

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Misinterpreting Darcy’s Law — Revisited
**

“An Example of Misinterpreting Darcy’s Law” on page 95 considers a

case where specifying constant pressure, rather than constant flow

potential, on the boundaries can lead to unexpected flow in the z

direction. This section revisits this example to show how the magnitude

of the inadvertent flow can be compounded due to high z

transmissibility.

For lengths and permeabilities in the x and z directions, we shall use the

example from “Comparisons of X, Y, and Z Transmissibilities” on

page 114:

∆x = 100 ft.

∆z = 1 ft.

kx = kz

Recall that in this case, which is not atypical, the z transmissibility is

much greater than the x transmissibility.

To simplify calculations, we consider just a four-cell version of the

model discussed in “An Example of Misinterpreting Darcy’s Law” on

page 95, as shown in the following figure:

∆x = 100 ft.

Φ = PL

Fx

Fz

∆z = 1 ft.

Fz

Φ = PR

Fx

Φ = P L – ρgL

Φ = P R – ρgL

No-Flow Boundary

**In this case, there are only four volumetric flow rates to be concerned
**

about, as shown in Figure. On dropping the (i,j,k) subscripts on flow

rate and transmissibility, we arrive at the following equation comparing

flow rates in the z and x directions.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

117

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Equation 40

T z ρg∆z

F

∆x 2 k z ρg∆z

-----z = ----------------------------- = ------- ----- ---------------------- ∆z k x ( P L – P R )

Fx

Tx ( PL – PR )

**Suppose you impose a pressure drop across the model, shown again of
**

500 psi.

P L = 1000 psi

P R = 500 psi

**If the fluid flowing through the model is water, then the pressure
**

gradient is 0.43 psi/ft.:

ρg∆z = 0.43 psi

Consequently

F

-----z = 8.6

Fx

Therefore, with a not atypical transmissibility ratio, we can easily

generate a sizeable flow in the z direction by imposing a constant

pressure, rather than constant flow potential, on the boundary.

If you were to construct such a model using StrataSim, you would

probably use more than two cells in each direction. In that case, a large

contrast in the vertical to horizontal transmissibility ratio would cause a

sizeable volumetric flow rate in cells along the boundaries where

constant pressures have been constrained. However, within one cell

inside these boundaries, the pressure is no longer constrained.

Consequently, the high z transmissibility would cause pressures to

approach hydrostatic equilibrium, thereby resulting in very little

vertical flow. When visualizing volumetric flow rates in “Show

Displays,” you would see a high band of values within the boundary

cells and much lower values within the rest of the model.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

118

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Using Transmissibilities in StrataSim
**

The rules for storing transmissibility information are as follows:

•

**The X transmissibility, describing flow across the interface
**

between the (i,j,k) and (i+1,j,k) cells, is stored as an attribute of the

(i,j,k) cell.

•

**The Y transmissibility, describing flow across the interface
**

between the (i,j,k) and (i,j+1,k) cells, is stored as an attribute of the

(i,j,k) cell.

•

**The Z transmissibility, describing flow across the interface
**

between the (i,j,k) and (i,j,k+1) cells, is stored as an attribute of the

(i,j,k) cell.

**The same rules apply to the storage of transmissibility multipliers.
**

StrataSim offers you two choices for input of transmissibilities:

•

Specify transmissibilities explicitly as input attributes.

•

**Specify permeabilities and transmissibility multipliers which are
**

used to calculate transmissibilities.

**In the first case, you save disk space by requiring only three attributes
**

to describe transmissibility. In the second case, you have a choice of

whether to save calculated transmissibilities in three additional

attributes or to calculate them “on the fly.”

If you want to specify transmissibility multipliers, StrataSim offers two

choices:

•

Specify transmissibilities explicitly as input attributes.

•

**Specify an attribute whose change requires application of a
**

multiplier.

**The second option is a useful one for easy investigation of the
**

importance of flow across boundaries. For example, it requires

changing only one input parameter to modify transmissibility

multipliers across layers or sequences.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

119

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Double Z Transmissibilities Near Very Thin Cells
**

Occasionally, in the Stratamodel modeling process, cells can occur

whose thickness is either zero or very nearly zero. Generally, if you are

a user of only Stratamodel, you will not notice these cells because you

cannot see them in “Show Displays.” However, when you use

StrataSim, you can see their effect if you display the z transmissibility.

You will observe z transmissibilities that are approximately double

what you expect. This section explains why this occurs. In the

following section, we provide a way to avoid this problem for zero

thickness cells only.

As pointed out in “Transmissibility in X and Y Directions” on

page 111, when the cell thickness of either cell across the interface

becomes zero, the x and y transmissibilities also become zero.

However, this is not the case for the z transmissibility. To illustrate,

assume that the transmissibility multipliers are equal to one. Consider

Equation 25 for the case where ∆zijk+1 is zero:

Equation 41

k zijk

T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = 2∆x∆y -----------∆z ijk

Compare Equation 41 with what happens in Equation 25 when the

(i,j,k+1) cell has the same thickness and permeability as the (i,j,k) cell.

Equation 42

k zijk

T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = ∆x∆y -----------∆z ijk

Notice that the transmissibility in Equation 41 is double the

transmissibility in Equation 42.

Imagine, now, that you are inspecting Z transmissibilities in “Show

Displays.” If you were to see a jump in transmissibility between two

apparently adjoining cells that have the same z direction permeability, it

would not be wrong. This jump occurs because of the presence of a

very thin, near zero thickness cell that you are not seeing in the display.

If the apparently adjoining cells have nearly the same z permeability,

the anomalous transmissibility will be double what you expect. Of

course, once you know where the thin cell is — by virtue of the double

transmissibility — you can search for it using the zoom feature.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

120

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Elimination of Zero Thickness Cells
**

This section explains how StrataSim eliminates zero thickness cells.

Typically, zero thickness cells most frequently cause the “double”

transmissibilities described in the previous section.

**When Cells Can Be Eliminated
**

StrataSim allows you to eliminate very thin cells. To do so, you must

make an a priori decision on what constitutes “thin.” Overestimation

could easily eliminate cells that are important to the simulation.

Although the method for elimination of thin, non-zero thickness cells is

straightforward, it is complicated and will not be presented here.

Eliminating thin, nonzero thickness cells requires you to lump

transmissibilities, thickness, volume, pore volume, and saturation of

such cells into neighboring cells. Then, after simulation, saturations

need to be “un-lumped,” to apportion fluids to the eliminated cells.

Eliminating zero thickness cells, however, is much simpler. Because

they have no volume, there is no need to lump and un-lump saturations.

Furthermore, zero thickness assures zero transmissibility in the x and y

directions, eliminating the need for lumping these quantities also. The

only problem is to account for flow in the z direction.

At first glance, you might decide that a reasonable way to eliminate a

zero thickness cell is to connect the cells above and below it, as if the

zero thickness cell were not there. Unfortunately, even zero thickness

cells can affect flow in the z direction.

Suppose, for example, such a cell contains a zero transmissibility

multiplier in the z direction. In this case, the two neighboring cells

above and below it should not communicate. Consequently, ignoring

the effect of the zero thickness cell would obtain the wrong result. Such

situations, by the way, are not farfetched. They easily occur when

transmissibility multipliers are assigned to sequence or layer

boundaries, because it is at these boundaries that Stratamodel is most

likely to insert zero thickness cells.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

121

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**How to Eliminate Zero Thickness Cells
**

This section describes how to lump z transmissibility for zero thickness

cells. Consider the figure below, which depicts three superposed

Stratamodel cells and the corresponding approximation to two cells

made by StrataSim.

Notice that the subscripts to describe cells are different in Stratamodel

and StrataSim. This is necessary, although a bit confusing. Without

getting wrapped up in subscripts, suffice to say, Stratamodel (SGM)

cell (i,j,L) corresponds to StrataSim cell (i,j,k) and Stratamodel (SGM)

cell (i,j,L+2) corresponds to StrataSim cell (i,j,k+1). Stratamodel

(SGM) cell (i,j,L+1) is the zero thickness cell whose effect is subsumed

into the Z transmissibility between each of the two StrataSim cells.

Actual

Approximation

SGM cell (i, j, L+2)

T zijL + 3 ⁄ 2

SIM cell (i, j, k+1)

∆z ijk + 1

SGM cell (i, j, L+1)

T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2

∆z ijk

T zijL + 1 ⁄ 2

SGM cell (i, j, L)

SIM cell (i, j, k)

**Approximation of Nonrectangular Cells for Calculating
**

Transmissibility in the z Direction

“Transmissibility in Z Direction” on page 107 shows how to calculate

transmissibility in the z direction between two cells. We now apply the

same reasoning to obtain an effective z transmissibility for the interface

between the two StrataSim cells of the figure above by considering flow

between the three Stratamodel cells. From Equation 24, we obtain the

flow rate across the interfaces between Stratamodel cells in terms of

transmissibilities evaluated at the interfaces and flow potentials

evaluated at cell centers.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

122

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**For the two Stratamodel cells of the figure above, the flow rates at the
**

interfaces are calculated as follows:

Equation 43

T zijL + 1 ⁄ 2

F zijL + 1 ⁄ 2 = – ------------------------ ( Φ ijL + 1 – Φ ijL )

µ

Equation 44

T zijL + 3 ⁄ 2

F zijL + 3 ⁄ 2 = – ------------------------ ( Φ ijL + 2 – Φ ijL + 1 )

µ

In Equation 44 the transmissibilities are defined as in Equation 25 in

“Transmissibility in Z Direction” on page 107.

The flow potential between centers of the top and bottom cells of the

StrataSim approximation can solved for by summing the difference in

flow potential between the top Stratamodel cell and the middle one

together with the difference between the middle Stratamodel cell and

the bottom one:

Equation 45

Φ ijk + 1 – Φ ijk = ( Φ ijL + 2 – Φ ijL + 1 ) + ( Φ ijL + 1 – Φ ijL )

The flow potential difference on the left hand side of this equation can

be obtained through rewriting Equation 24:

Equation 46

µF zijk + 1 ⁄ 2

Φ ijk + 1 – Φ ijk = – -------------------------T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2

**By rewriting Equations 43 and 44 to substitute into the right-hand side
**

of Equation 45 for the flow potential differences between Stratamodel

cells, we obtain the following:

Equation 47

R2003.12

µF zijk + 1 ⁄ 2

µF zijL + 3 ⁄ 2 µF zijL + 1 ⁄ 2

--------------------------- = -------------------------- + --------------------------T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2

T zijL + 3 ⁄ 2

T zijL + 1 ⁄ 2

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

123

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Recall that the flow rate in the z direction does not vary spatially:
**

Equation 48

F zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = F zijL + 3 ⁄ 2 = F zijL + 1 ⁄ 2

Consequently, the transmissibility between the two StrataSim cells is

given as:

Equation 49

1

1

1

----------------------- = ------------------------ + -----------------------T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2

T zijL + 3 ⁄ 2 T zijL + 1 ⁄ 2

**Not surprisingly, the harmonic average is the way to approximate the z
**

transmissibility between the two StrataSim cells. This is the same kind

of average arrived at in Equation 25 in “Transmissibility in Z

Direction” on page 107 for calculating the z transmissibility from

permeabilities.

Using Equation 32 to evaluate the transmissibilities on the right side of

Equation 49 for the case where the middle cell is of zero thickness

obtains the following result to the transmissibility between the two

StrataSim cells:

Equation 50

2∆x∆yTM zijL + 3 ⁄ 2 TM zijL + 1 ⁄ 2 k zijL + 2 k zijL

T zijK + 1 ⁄ 2 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆z ijL TM zijL + 3 ⁄ 2 k zijL + 2 + ∆z ijL + 2 TM zijL + 1 ⁄ 2 k zijL

Thus, if the transmissibility multiplier between the zero thickness cell

and the cell above it is zero, the transmissibility between the two

StrataSim cells is zero.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Transmissibility

124

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim
**

This chapter derives equations needed to simulate incompressible, twophase flow. At first, the flow potential equation is derived in a more

general form than is used by StrataSim, which serves as a good starting

point for illustrating some of StrataSim’s key simplifying assumptions.

This approach leads naturally into a presentation of StrataSim’s

condensed flow potential equation. Then the saturation equation is

derived. The assumption of incompressible flow requires that the

density of the phases does not vary with pressure. Therefore, the

following derivations entail volume balances, which are equivalent to

mass balances.

StrataSim uses a modified IMPES scheme, see Peaceman (1977) or

Aziz and Settari (1979). IMPES means that the flow potential is solved

for implicitly and the saturations explicitly. The solution for the flow

potential of water is obtained for all of the cells simultaneously, or

implicitly. Once the flow potential is obtained, the saturations for each

cell are updated cell by cell, explicitly, using the saturation equation.

Typically, an IMPES scheme solves the flow potential and saturations

once for every time step in the simulation. However, as will be shown

in the following section, the StrataSim assumptions require that the

flow potential equation need only be solved once. Except for changes in

boundary conditions, such as well constraints, the flow potential does

not vary with time. Consequently, there is no need to solve the flow

potential equation at every time step, as in a standard IMPES scheme.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

125

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Equation for Flow Potential
**

The equation for flow potential (often referred to as the pressure

equation) can be derived by balancing the net volumetric flow rate out

of the six faces of a cell with the volumetric rate of injection into the

cell:

(Net flow out of cell) - (Rate of injection into cell) = 0

The following figure shows the volumetric flow rates for the six faces.

Note that volumetric rates can be used instead of mass flow rates

because StrataSim assumes incompressible flow.

F xi – 1 ⁄ 2 jk

z

F zijk + 1 ⁄ 2

F yij – 1 ⁄ 2k

F yij + 1 ⁄ 2k

y

F xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk

x

F zijk – 1 ⁄ 2

The Equation for Flow Potential Is Obtained by Balancing Total

Volumetric Flow Rate out of Cell Faces with the Total Volumetric

Rate of Injection into the Cell

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

126

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**The mathematical expression for the volume balance is as follows,
**

where Qijk denotes the total volumetric rate of injection into the (i,j,k)

cell.

Equation 51

F xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk – F xi – 1 ⁄ 2 jk

+ F yij + 1 ⁄ 2k – F yi j – 1 ⁄ 2 k

+ F zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 – F zijk – 1 ⁄ 2 – Q ijk = 0

Now, derive expressions for the volumetric flow rates for the cell faces.

Comparison of Equation 13, describing the total volumetric flow rate

for two-phase flow, with Equation 24 for the total volumetric flow rate

in single phase flow results in an expression for the total volumetric

two-phase flow rate at the interface between the (i,j,k+1) and (i,j,k)

cells:

Equation 52

F zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = – T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 λ rijk + 1 ⁄ 2 ( Φ wijk + 1 – Φ wijk )

– T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 λ ro ijk + 1 ⁄ 2 ( Φ cijk + 1 – Φ cijk )

In Equation 52, Φc denotes the capillary potential defined in Equation

10, and the relative mobilities at the cell interfaces are defined in terms

of the movable saturation at the interface:

Equation 53

λ rijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = λ r ( Sˆ ijk + 1 ⁄ 2 )

and

Equation 54

λ roijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = λ ro ( Sˆ ijk + 1 ⁄ 2 )

The proper way to evaluate saturation at the interface is covered in

“Saturation Equation” on page 132.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

127

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**In the same way as for the z direction, comparison of Darcy’s Law for
**

flow in the x and y directions with Equation 28 and Equation 30 yields

expressions for the total volumetric two-phase flow rate at the interface

between the (i+1,j,k) and (i,j,k) cells and the interface between the

(i,j+1,k) and (i,j,k) cells:

Equation 55

F xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk = – T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk λ ri + 1 ⁄ 2 jk ( Φ wi + 1 jk – Φ wijk )

– T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk λ roi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk ( Φ ci + 1 jk – Φ cijk )

Equation 56

F yij + 1 ⁄ 2k = – T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k λ rij + 1 ⁄ 2k ( Φ wij + 1k – Φ wijk )

– T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k λ ro ij + 1 ⁄ 2k ( Φ cij + 1k – Φ cijk )

Substituting these expressions for the volumetric flow rates for the cell

faces into the volume balance of Equation 51 results in the flow

potential equation:

Equation 57

– A xijk Φ wi + 1 jk – A xi – 1 jk Φ wi – 1 jk

– A yijk Φ wij + 1k – A yij – 1k Φ wij – 1k

– A zijk Φ wijk + 1 – A zijk – 1 Φ wijk –1

+ B ijk Φ wijk = Q ijk – D ijk Φ cijk

+ C xijk Φ ci + 1 jk + C xi – 1 jk Φ ci – 1 jk

+ C yijk Φ cij + 1k + C yij – 1k Φ cij – 1k

+ C zijk Φ cijk + 1 + C zijk – 1 Φ cijk – 1

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

128

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**In Equation 57 the coefficients on the left-hand side of the equation
**

contain the total mobility evaluated at the interfaces:

Equation 58

A xijk = T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk λ ri + 1 ⁄ 2 jk

A yijk = T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k λ rij + 1 ⁄ 2k

A zijk = T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 λ rijk + 1 ⁄ 2

and

Equation 59

B ijk = A xijk + A xi – 1 jk

+ A yijk + A yij – 1k

+ A zijk + A zijk – 1

The coefficients on the right-hand side of the equation contain the

relative mobility to oil evaluated at the interfaces

Equation 60

C xijk = T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk λ roi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk

C yijk = T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k λ roij + 1 ⁄ 2k

C zijk = T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 λ roij + 1 ⁄ 2

and

Equation 61

D ijk = C xijk + C xi – 1 jk

+ C yijk + C yij – 1k

+ C zijk + C zijk – 1

For a given time step, the flow potential for water, Φw, is solved using

Equation 57, which is a matrix equation containing the flow potential

for water on the left-hand side. The solution for the flow potential of

water is, therefore, obtained for all of the cells simultaneously, or

implicitly. The right-hand side is evaluated at the previous time step.

Once the flow potential of water for all cells is obtained, the saturations

for each cell are updated on a cell-by-cell basis, explicitly, using the

saturation equation, which is derived in the next section.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

129

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Flow Potential Equation for StrataSim
**

The section examines the effect of StrataSim’s assumptions on solving

the equation for flow potential. The discussion begins with the

following two assumptions:

•

•

**mobility ratio is equal to one
**

relative permeability curves are linear

**Under the two assumptions, the total relative mobility does not change.
**

Consequently, the coefficients on the left-hand side of the flow equation

are independent of saturation and, thereby, time. From Equation 58, we

obtain the following:

Equation 62

A xijk = T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk λ r

A yijk = T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k λ r

A zijk = T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 λ r

In Equation 62, the superscripts of 0 on the relative mobilifier have

been removed. These coefficients need only be calculated once.

Because of the unit mobility assumption, the total relative mobility,

Equation 50, can be evaluated for either phase, oil or water.

The coefficients, described by Equation 60, on the right-hand side of

the flow equation change with saturations. However, because the total

relative mobility is constant, they can be calculated from the A

coefficients shown in Equation 62.

Equation 63

C xijk = T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk λ r ( 1 – Sˆ i + 1 ⁄ 2 jk ) = A xijk ( 1 – Sˆ i + 1 ⁄ 2 jk )

C yijk = T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k λ r ( 1 – Sˆ ij + 1 ⁄ 2k ) = A yijk ( 1 – Sˆ ij + 1 ⁄ 2k )

C zijk = T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 λ r ( 1 – Sˆ ijk + 1 ⁄ 2k ) = A zijk ( 1 – Sˆ ijk + 1 ⁄ 2 )

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

130

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Next, consider the effect of assuming that the fluids are of the same
**

density and that there is no pressure difference between the phases:

•

•

**density ratio equals zero
**

capillary pressure equals zero

**These assumptions require Φ c = 0 .On substituting this result into
**

Equation 57, we obtain the following simplified version of the flow

potential equation

Equation 64

– A xijk Φ wi + 1 jk – A xi – 1 jk Φ wi – 1 jk

– A yijk Φ wij + 1k – A yij – 1k Φ wij – 1k

– A zijk Φ wijk + 1 – A zijk – 1 Φ wijk – 1

+B Φ

=Q

ijk

wijk

ijk

**Thus, the remaining portion of the right-hand side involves only the
**

source term, Qijk. Neither the left- nor right-hand sides vary with time,

unless, of course, the source conditions are changed. Consequently, the

flow potential equation need only be solved once because the flow

potential does not change throughout the course of the flow. We now

examine how to evaluate the source term, both at wells and at non-well,

pressure constrained cells.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

131

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Saturation Equation

The saturation equation for water can be derived by balancing the net

volumetric flow rate of water out of the six faces of a cell minus the

volumetric rate of water injection into the cell with the rate of

accumulation of water in the cell:

(Net water flow out of cell) - (Rate of water injection into cell) (Rate of accumulation of water in cell) = 0

The following figure shows the volumetric flow rates of water for the

six faces. Note once again that you can use volumetric rates instead of

mass flow rates because StrataSim assumes incompressible flow.

F wxi – 1 ⁄ 2 jk

z

F wzijk + 1 ⁄ 2

F wyij – 1 ⁄ 2k

F wyij + 1 ⁄ 2k

y

F wxi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk

x

F wzijk – 1 ⁄ 2

The Equation for Flow Potential Is Obtained by Volume Balance

on Total Flow Rate into a Cell

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

132

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Comparing Equation 4, describing the volumetric flow rate of water in
**

two-phase, with Equation 24, for the total volumetric flow rate in single

phase flow, results in an expression for the volumetric flow rate of

water at the interface between the (i,j,k+1) and (i,j,k) cells:

Equation 65

F wzijk + 1 ⁄ 2 = T zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 λ rwijk + 1 ⁄ 2 ( Φ wijk + 1 – Φ wijk )

In the same way, comparison of Darcy’s Law for flow in the x and y

directions with Equation 28 and Equation 30 yields expressions for the

total volumetric two-phase flow rate at the interface between the

(i+1,j,k) and (i,j,k) cells and the interface between the (i,j+1,k) and

(i,j,k) cells:

Equation 66

F wxi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk = – T xi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk λ rwi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk ( Φ wi + 1 jk – Φ wijk )

Equation 67

F wyij + 1 ⁄ 2k = – T yij + 1 ⁄ 2k λ rwij + 1 ⁄ 2k ( Φ wij + 1k – Φ wijk )

Note, once the flow potential equation has been solved, the volumetric

flow rates of water in Equation 65, Equation 66, and Equation 67 can be

evaluated.

Before we write the volume balance, we show how to calculate the

accumulation of water in the cell from one time step to the next. This is

equal to the water saturation difference between time steps multiplied

by the pore volume of the cell. In terms of the movable saturation of

water, we obtain the following for the accumulation:

Equation 68

n+1 ˆ n

(Rate of accumulation of water in cell) = φ ijk ( 1 – S wrijk – S orijk )∆x∆y∆z Sˆ

–S

ijk

ijk

Movable pore volume of cell

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

133

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**In Equation 68 φ denotes porosity, and the superscripts n and n+1
**

denote time steps. Note, the (i,j,k) subscript on the immobile

saturations indicates that they can be different for every cell in your

model. This expression can be simplified by defining the movable pore

volume of the cell as a new variable:

Equation 69

n+1 ˆ n

–S

(Rate of accumulation of water in cell) = pvm ijk Sˆ

ijk

ijk

where the following expression describes the movable pore volume for

the (i,j,k) cell

Equation 70

pvm ijk = φ ijk ( 1 – S wrijk – S orijk )∆x∆y∆z

**Let Rijk denote the rate at which water enters the cell, then
**

Equation 71

**R ijk = – F wxi + 1 ⁄ 2 jk + F wxi – 1 ⁄ 2 jk
**

– F wyij + 1 ⁄ 2k + F wyij – 1 ⁄ 2k

– F wzijk + 1 ⁄ 2 + F wzijk – 1 ⁄ 2

+ Q wijk

**In Equation 71, Qwijk denotes the volumetric rate of water injection
**

into the (i,j,k) cell. Now, we can write the volumetric balance on water.

Solving for the saturation at the n+1 time step results in the following:

Equation 72

∆tR ijk

n+1

n

Sˆ

= Sˆ

+ ---------------ijk

ijk pvm ijk

**This is the so-called “saturation equation.” To solve it, the volumetric
**

flow rates on the right-hand side of Equation 71 are first obtained

through solving the flow potential equation implicitly. Then, saturations

are updated, cell-by-cell, or explicitly, using Equation 72.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

134

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Upstream Weighting of Mobilities
**

The flow potential equation contains relative mobility terms that are

evaluated at interfaces between cells. Unfortunately, calculating these

terms is not straightforward. In fact, some obvious choices, such as

midpoint weighting, are numerically unstable. How best to weight

contributions to relative mobility from both sides of the interface has

been the subject of a sizeable body of research. See, for example,

discussions in Peaceman (1977) or Aziz and Settari (1979). The main

focus of this research is to identify mobility-weighting schemes that are

both numerically stable and accurate.

StrataSim employs the single upstream weighting scheme for relative

mobilities. In reference to Equations 53 and 54, define the scheme in

terms of the saturation for evaluating the mobility. Considering the flow

between cell (i,j,k) and cell (i,j,k+1), this scheme is defined as follows:

Equation 73

Sˆ ijk + 1 ⁄ 2 =

**Sˆ ijk if F zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 > 0
**

Sˆ ijk + 1 if F zijk + 1 ⁄ 2 < 0

**In other words, evaluate the relative mobility using the saturation
**

upstream cell.

**Summary of Flow Equations
**

The procedure to solve the equations for the flow potential and

saturations is as follows:

1.

**Use Equation 73 to solve for the water flow potential for all cells
**

simultaneously.

2.

**Use this solution for the water flow potential equation to evaluate
**

the volumetric flow rates of water at the cell faces using Equations

65, 66, and 67.

3.

**Use Equation 71 to calculate the rate at which water leaves the
**

cell.

4.

Update movable water saturation of cells using Equation 72.

**The flow potential is solved for implicitly and the saturations explicitly.
**

The solution for the flow potential of water is, therefore, obtained for

all of the cells simultaneously, or implicitly. After the flow potential of

water for all cells is obtained, the saturation of each cell is updated on

cell by cell, explicitly.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Incompressible Flow Equations in StrataSim

135

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Pressure-Constrained Cells
**

This section contains information on pressure-constrained well and

nonwell cells.

Wells

StrataSim employs the following assumptions to simplify handling

wells:

•

**There is no pressure drop between the wellbore and the cell that it
**

lies within.

•

**Fluid flow within wellbores is assumed to occur without frictional
**

losses.

**The first assumption entails ignoring pressure differences between the
**

wellbore and the cell it is in. This is a simplification over what is

assumed for full-physics simulators. In the latter case, the pressure

difference between cell and wellbore is assumed to be proportional to

the volumetric flow rate. As in, for example, Craft and Hawkins (1991),

the proportionality constant is called the “productivity index,” in the

case of production wells, or the “injectivity index,” in the case of

injection wells. For the case of vertical wells, Peaceman (1983) and

others have shown how to relate this proportionality constant to the

well radius and the “skin” friction factor. However, no such relationship

exists for a arbitrarily deviated well.

The second of these assumptions is typical of most full-physics

simulators. In this case, pressure differences in wells are due to

differences in hydrostatic pressure, or gravitational head. As in

Equation 3, which describes hydrostatic equilibrium within the

reservoir, we obtain the following similar result for the wellbore

pressure:

Equation 74

R2003.12

P m = P Rm + ρg ( z Rm – z )

Technical Reference: Pressure-Constrained Cells

136

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**In Equation 74, PRm denotes the wellbore pressure of the mth well at a
**

reference elevation, zRm, and ρ denotes the average density of fluid in

the wellbore. This reference elevation can be anything you desire.

Typical points of reference are the top or bottom of the stratigraphic

framework model or the top or bottom of the wellbore. Equation 74 can

be used to describe either the water or oil pressure, since in the

wellbore the capillary pressure is assumed to be zero.

Since the flow equations are written in terms of the flow potential of

water, Φ w , an expression for its value along the wellbore can now be

derived. We shall assume that the fraction of water in the wellbore is

equal to the instantaneous water cut for the well. If Wm denotes the

water cut for the mth well, then the average density is calculated as

follows:

Equation 75

ρ = W m ρ w + ( 1 – W m )ρ o

**Substitution of this and Equation 74 into Equation 26 obtains the
**

following expression for the flow potential of water within the mth

wellbore:

Equation 76

Φ wm = Φ wRm – ( 1 – W m )∆ρg ( z Rm – z )

where

Equation 77

Φ wRm = P Rm – ρ w g ( z 0 – z Rm )

**Inspection of Equation 76 reveals the following:
**

The flow potential of water is constant along the well only if one of

three conditions apply:

•

•

•

**The fluids have no density difference, ∆ρ = 0 .
**

The water cut is unity, Wm = 1.

Elevation along the well is constant.

**The first case occurs for unit density ratio flow. The second case always
**

occurs for injection wells. The third case occurs for a well which is

horizontal over its entire perforated interval.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Pressure-Constrained Cells

137

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Inspection of Equation 77 reveals that the reference wellbore flow
**

potential of water, Φ wRm , is equal to the reference pressure, PRm, when

the reference elevation for the well, zRm, is the same as StrataSim’s

internal reference elevation, z0.

StrataSim allows for two ways to constrain an injection or a production

well:

•

•

Pressure constraint

Volumetric flow rate constraint

Well Types

StrataSim handles four types of well:

•

•

•

•

Injection well

Production well

Shut-in well: no net flow into or out of well

Plugged well: excluded from simulation

The first two of these are self-explanatory.

Shut-In Wells

A shut-in well is a special case of an injection or production well. Such

a well is flow rate constrained such that there is no net volumetric flow

either into or out of the well. There may, however, be flow into or out of

individual cells in the well. Nevertheless, their total flow must sum to

zero.

“Shut-in” may describe the condition of a well that watered out in an

earlier simulation. In the current simulation, this well has no

production; however, its open wellbore allows communication between

layers.

Shut-in wells can serve to model flow between non-neighboring cells.

For example, flow along faults or fractures can be modeled by virtual

shut-in wells.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Pressure-Constrained Cells

138

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Plugged Wells

A plugged well is effectively ignored in the simulation. This is a useful

option when you do not want to be bothered with modifying your

Stratamodel well model once you have entered StrataSim. Suppose, for

example, you want to try out several possible combinations of wells.

There are two ways to this. One way entails redefining your well model

every time you want to run a new combination. An easier way entails

setting up a single well model that contains all the wells of interest. In

this way, you can simulate different combinations by selectively

“plugging” wells that you want removed from consideration in a

particular StrataSim run.

Reference Elevations

StrataSim requires you to specify a reference elevation for all but

plugged wells, whether they are pressure or flow rate constrained. As

mentioned above, pressure constraints must be referenced to an

elevation. For flow rate constrained wells, StrataSim reports back the

calculated pressure and flow potential at your specified reference

elevations. There are four choices for such elevations:

•

•

•

•

**Top of StrataSim reservoir model
**

Bottom of StrataSim reservoir model

Top cell in the well

Bottom cell in the well

**If you were to choose either of the first two for all of your wells, you
**

could also datum all wells to the same elevation. This can be a useful

way to compare flow capacities of your wells. On the other hand, the

last two choices are useful when you know the well pressures at some

particular location with the cells which are penetrated by a well.

Pressure Constraints

Pressure constraints are easier to handle computationally. You specify a

pressure and its corresponding elevation. Then, the wellbore flow

potential of water is calculated using Equation 76. For this case, the

matrix equation for flow potential, Equation 57, is modified for cells

within the well. If the (i,j,k) cell is within the well, then the “A”

coefficients are set to zero, B ijk is set to 1, and the right-hand side is set

equal to the flow potential calculated by Equation 76.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Pressure-Constrained Cells

139

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Flow Rate Constraints
**

Constraining the volumetric flow rate is a bit more complicated than

pressure. The total volumetric flow rate into or out of the mth well is

the sum of the volumetric flow rates for all of the individual cells within

the well:

Equation 78

Nm

Q tm =

∑ Qmi( p ) j( p )k ( p )

p=1

**In Equation 78 Nm denotes the total number of cells in the mth well and
**

Qmi(p)j(p)k(p) denotes the total volumetric flow rate for the pth cell of the

mth well. You can obtain the volumetric flow rates for individual cells

by substituting from Equation 57. Thus, Equation 78 becomes an

equation for the total volumetric flow rate in terms of the water flow

potential at the well’s reference elevation.

**Phase Rates and Water Cuts for Wells
**

This section distinguishes between injection cells, for which Qmijk > 0,

and production cells, for which Qmijk < 0. An injection well has only

injection cells and a production well has only production cells.

However, a shut-in well has a mixture of both, so that the total rate

sums to zero.

In the same way as Peaceman (1977), we assume that the volumetric

flow rates of each phase leaving a production cell is proportional to the

mobility of the phase in the cell containing the well. Therefore, for

volumetric flow rate of water, the following results:

Equation 79

Q wijk = f ijk Q ijk if Q ijk < 0

**In Equation 79 the function f of saturation denotes the ratio of water
**

mobility to the sum of the water and oil mobilities:

Equation 80

R2003.12

λ rw

f ( Sˆ ) = --------------------λ rw + λ ro

Technical Reference: Pressure-Constrained Cells

140

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**For the case of unit mobility ratio, this function is simply equal to the
**

movable water saturation. Consequently, for the volumetric production

flow rate of water for the pth cell in the mth well is as follows:

Equation 81

Q wmi ( p ) j ( p )k ( p ) = Sˆ i ( p ) j ( p )k ( p ) Q mi ( p ) j ( p )k ( p ) < 0

As can be seen from Equation 76, when the density difference is not

zero, the flow potential of water within the wellbore depends on water

cut except for injection wells, where Wm = 1. The water cut is defined

as the fraction of the total production rate which is due to water:

Equation 82

Nm

∑ Sˆi( p ) j( p )k ( p ) Qmi( p ) j( p )k ( p )

p=1

- for Q mi ( p ) j ( p )k ( p ) < 0

W m = ---------------------------------------------------------------------N

m

∑ Qmi( p ) j( p )k ( p )

p=1

**To calculate the water cut at a given time step, use movable saturations
**

and total volumetric rates at the previous time step. This presents a

problem for the initial time step because there is no previous volumetric

flow rate. The approach here is to update water cuts via Equation 82 as

the iterative solution of the flow potential equation proceeds.

The volumetric injection flow rate of water for the pth cell in the mth

well is as follows:

Equation 83

Q wni ( p ) j ( p )k ( p ) = W m Q mi ( p ) j ( p )k ( p ) for Q mi ( p ) j ( p )k ( p ) > 0

This equation is particularly important for injection cells within a shutin well. Unlike injection wells, shut-in wells can have both oil and

water in the wellbore.

Perforations

StrataSim reads perforation information from the well model. Given

the assumptions of the StrataSim well description, a simplified

perforation model is used. If no perforation information is read from

the well model, then all cells in wells are considered to be fully

perforated. If a perforation index is read, then volumetric flow rates

calculated for individual cells from Equation 57 is multiplied by this

index.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Pressure-Constrained Cells

141

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Pressure Constrained Nonwell Cells
**

At times, it can be useful to constrain non-well cells to constant flow

potential or constant pressure. One example of this is in modeling

aquifer influx. Another example occurs when calculating effective

properties of substantial portions of the reservoir, through simulating

flow due to pressure drop in a single direction.

StrataSim allows you to specify either constant flow potential or

constant pressure for any cell within your reservoir model. In this case,

the matrix equation for flow potential, Equation 64, is modified for

such cells in the same way as if there is a pressure constrained cell

within a well. If the (i,j,k) cell is within the well, then the “A”

coefficients are set to zero, Bijk is set to 1, and the right hand side is set

equal to the calculated flow potential, Φn.

For solving the saturation equation, the assumption is that any fluid

influx needed to maintain such constant flow potential or pressure is

comprised entirely of water.

R2003.12

Technical Reference: Pressure-Constrained Cells

142

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Appendix A.

Running StrataSim in Standalone Mode

This appendix describes how to run StrataSim in standalone mode —

that is, without running it from StrataModel. Although you must build a

Stratamodel framework and Attribute Model before you run StrataSim,

once that is done you can enter StrataSim directly at any time. You only

need to start StrataSim and specify the project information.

Running StrataSim

1.

**Change to the product directory and enter StrataSim from an
**

xterm or shell.

The first time you enter StrataSim, the StrataSim main window

and the following dialog box appear. The options in the main

window remain inactive until you complete specification in some

preliminary dialog boxes.

**If you run StrataSim from the Stratamodel icon or Commands
**

menu, this dialog box is inactive. The information helps you verify

that you are running the right project and version.

R2003.12

Appendix A. Running StrataSim in Standalone Mode

143

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**If you are running without Stratamodel, follow this procedure to
**

make the selections:

2.

**Enter your user name in the Enter User Name box. Use the same
**

user name that you used when you created your Attribute Model

(and Well Model if you are using wells) in Stratamodel.

If you have previously used this user name to store project

information, you can set all the other selections by clicking Reset

at this time. Then click OK and skip the rest of this procedure.

If you have not used this user name before, continue on.

3.

**Click the Set SGM Project Directory button and use the filter
**

button to find the project directory, just as you used one to find the

StrataSim directory. This should be the directory that contains

your project data and the geological model you created in

Stratamodel. If you do not choose a directory that contains an

Stratamodel project, there will be no projects listed in the

Stratamodel Project Name dialog box.

4.

**Click the Set SGM Project Name button and select your project
**

name from the list. This project should contain the geological

model you created in Stratamodel. Click OK.

5.

**Click the Set SGM Project Version button and select the version
**

created in Stratamodel that describes your geological model. Click

OK.

**Once you have either viewed the information about your Stratamodel
**

project or selected your project information, click OK.

Now you are ready to run the program by following the instructions in

“Starting StrataSim,” starting on page 6.

R2003.12

Appendix A. Running StrataSim in Standalone Mode

144

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Appendix B. StrataSim Files
**

Overview

When you run StrataSim, several files appear in the project directory.

These files contain information you supplied during the StrataSim

session.

All StrataSim files use the Stratamodel project/version, denoted by

proj000n, as a prefix. Files that are specific to a StrataSim run attach an

additional 000m to this prefix, where m denotes the StrataSim version

number. Except for production data files for individual wells, suffixes

are denoted by a period followed by three letters and _ss. The suffix for

a production data file is a period followed by the wellid (up to twelve

characters) followed by _pw. The unique suffix for production data files

prevents conflicts with the suffixes for StrataSim control files.

Character Changes in Production Data Files

If you name your wellid using a metacharacter such as a slash, that metacharacter

will be changed to an underscore.

The following sections contain a brief description of StrataSim files.

R2003.12

Appendix B. StrataSim Files

145

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

ASCII Files

There are three types of ASCII files: control files, output files, and

miscellaneous files. All ASCII files begin with a file name of the form

proj000n000m.

**ASCII Control Files
**

The following are control files that are filled out through queries from

the user interface.

File

Extension

R2003.12

Description

.ais_ss

**Contains information about how attributes needed to run StrataSim
**

are stored in the Stratamodel Attribute Model

.cap_ss

**Contains information on how to calculate a Leverett J Function
**

from one or more capillary pressure curves

.cpc_ss

Contains capillary pressure data

.fis_up

Contains the size of the upscaled model

.jfn_ss

Describes a fitted Leverett J Function

.oss_ss

**Describes your choices for StrataSim output. For example, time
**

step summary information or three-dimensional output, such as

pressure, residuals, flow rate, and saturations

.prm_up

Contains permeability correlations

.sec_ss

**Describes simulation options, such as fluid properties, that depend
**

on the choice of flow model assumptions. For example, properties

are required for only one phase if incompressible, unit mobility

ratio, or unit density ratio flow is used

.sis_ss

**Describes portion of the Stratigraphic Framework Model being
**

used for the StrataSim simulation model. This file describes the

areal (x, y) simulation grid as well as the layers and sequences

contained in the simulation model. Modify only through user

interface

.soi_ss

Describes the initial oil saturation

.sol_ss

**Describes your choices for solver parameters, including porosity
**

and thickness cutoffs

.tis_ss

**Contains information about how attributes needed to calculate
**

transmissibilities are stored in the Stratamodel Attribute Model.

Such attributes include permeabilities and transmissibility

multipliers

.uni_ss

Describes your choices for units of measurement

Appendix B. StrataSim Files

146

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

File

Extension

Description

.wbc_ss

**Describes boundary conditions at wells: well type, constraint,
**

reference elevations

.wis_ss

Contains information on well model attributes: perforations

.wmd_ss

Contains Stratamodel well model names to be used in simulation

**ASCII Output Files
**

The following are output files that describe results from a StrataSim

session.

File Name or Extension

Description

specified_name.cpc_ss

**Contains capillary pressure curves output by
**

Capillary Pressure Data

specified_name.jfn_ss

Modified Leverett J Functions

.con_ss

Contains contacted Oil output data

.fdb_ss

Contains flowbody output data

.oss_up

Contains output options for upscaling

.tab_ss

**Contains a summary of both input and output from
**

StrataSim run

.wellid_pw

**Contains a summary of production data for
**

production or shut-in wells named wellid. Every

file contains cumulative water production,

cumulative oil production, and water cut data as

functions of time

simdir/proj000n.wrn_ss

Contains StrataSim warning messages

**It is a good habit to inspect your .tab_ss file after every run. This file
**

provides valuable information on several aspects of your run, from

flowbodies to overall production data to performance indicators for

solvers of the flow potential and saturation equations.

The wellid that is used as part of the suffix in production data files’

names is the same wellid that appears in your Stratamodel files. This

name can be up to twelve characters long.

R2003.12

Appendix B. StrataSim Files

147

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

**Miscellaneous ASCII Files
**

The following file is for StrataSim internal use. It should not be edited.

File Extension

Description

.att

**Describes where StrataSim output was stored in
**

the Stratamodel Attribute Model on the previous

StrataSim run. This file offers you the opportunity

to overwrite previous results.

**Binary Output FilesZ
**

The following binary files are output from StrataSim.

R2003.12

File Name

Description

.prd_ss

**Contains a summary of production data for all
**

production wells.

.prd_up

Binary file containing production data

simdir/proj000n.ver_ss

StrataSim run descriptions

Appendix B. StrataSim Files

148

Landmark

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Index

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

A

advantages over other simulators 2

Attribute Model

output solution to 72-77

attributes

assigning variables all at once 80

assigning variables clearing choices 80

assigning variables one at a time 81

assigning variables to 80-81

deleting after run 90

transmissibilities as 119

B

boundary conditions of wells 62-67

C

cells

calculating transmissibilities (different

thicknesses) 108

calculating transmissibilities (same

thickness) 114

connected as flowbodies 73

faces:volumetric flow rate equation 127

injection vs. production in a well 140

limiting number of 20

nonrectangular

and zero thickness 122

nonrectangular and transmissibilities 110

nonrectangular and transmissibilities (x, y

directions) 111

pore volume cut-off 71

pressure constrained 136-142

pressure constraint of nonwell cells 142

very thin thickness 120

very thin thickness (eliminating) 121

zero thickness:eliminating 121-124

R2003.12

**centrifuge method of measuring relative
**

permeabilities 102

columns

limiting in simulation model 17

command

starting StrataSim from an xterm 143

compressibility: excluding effects 105

constraint of flow potential 56

constraint of flow potential: rules 54

constraint of flow rate

in shut-in well 138

into or out of a well 140

within well 64

constraint of injection or production well 138

constraint of pressure

calculation of 139

in nonwell cells 142

to a constant value 55

within cell 136-142

within well 64

constraint of pressure: rules 54

contents of guide 3

control files 146

conventions used in guide 4

Create button 9

D

Darcy’s Law 94-97

and two-phase flow 98

developing concept of transmissibilities 107

equations (total volumetric two-phase flow

rate) 128

misinterpretation of 95-96, 117-118

data preparation 5

default template 7

Delete Run button 14

Index

149

Landmark

**density ratio of fluids
**

zero assumption 131

dimensionless numbers

using to examine contrasting effects 115

E

Ending Time 75

equation

for balance of total volumetric flow rate 127

for end-point mobility ratio 103

for end-point relative mobilities of water/oil

103

for flow potential 94, 126, 128

StrataSim’s assumptions 130-131

for gravitational acceleration vector 94

for hydrostatic equilibrium 97

for incompressible flow 125-135

for relative permeabilities 101

for relative permeabilities: StrataSim model

101

for saturation 132-134

for total mobility 103

for transmissibilities (uniformly thick cells)

114

for transmissibilities (variable thickness

cells) 108

for transmissibilities (x direction) 112

for transmissibilities(in y direction) 112

for volumetric flow rate 94

for volumetric flow rate (cell faces) 127

for water cut 137

for well’s volumetric injection flow rate 141

equilibrium

hydrostatic 97, 115, 118

estimation 28-43

fitting a Leverett J Function 34-36

overview 28

permeability 29-32

permeability: type of correlation 31

R2003.12

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

F

files

control 146

for StrataSim internal use 148

important 145-148

output 147

suffixes: StrataSim and production data 145

flexibility in assigning saturations/pressure

information 5

flow

and transmissibility 109

assumptions 5

describing in porous media, see Darcy’s Law

examples of constraining 54

in shut-in vs. plugged well 62

incompressible

residual equation 69

two-phase

equations 125-135

modeling flow due to fractures and faults

with transmissibility multipliers 114

none across sequence boundaries

indicating using transmissibilities 50

potential

constant along well

restrictions 137

constraining 54, 56

defining equation 94

equation 126, 128

StrataSim’s assumptions 130-131

summary 135

oil-phase

equations 99

relationship to reference elevation 55

single per well 97

solving for 69

total volumetric flow rate in terms of

equations 99-100

Index

150

Landmark

flow continued

rate

constraint of

in shut-in well 138

into or out of a well 140

within well 64

equal to zero 97

defining equation 97

for cell faces

equation 127

for oil and water phases

equation 100

importance in StrataSim context 103

total volumetric

equations 99-100

volumetric

as output 74

as proportional to pressure difference

between cell and wellbore 136

defining equation 94

injection for a cell

equation 141

relationship to transmissibility 109

volume balance

equation 127

two-phase 98-104

and Darcy’s Law 98

flowbodies

as output 73

definition 73

fluids

density ratio

zero assumption 131

properties 5, 59-61

Formation Volume Factor 61

R2003.12

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

G

gravitational acceleration vector 94

H

highlighting

or selecting

one word or value 4

hydrostatic equilibrium 97, 115, 118

hydrostatic head

causing pressure changes within well 64

I

index

productivity or injectivity 136

initial oil saturations

estimating 41-43

Initial Time 73-74

injection well 63

injectivity index 136

internal files 148

introduction 1-5

K

Kozeny’s equation

brief description 31

L

Leverett J Function

catalog 37-39

comparing functions 38

copying 38

creating hardcopy 43

equation 33

fitting to a capillary pressure curve 34-36

modifying 39

overview 33

viewing 39

Index

151

Landmark

Log-Log1

correlation for estimating permeability 31

Log-Log2

correlation for estimating permeability 31

M

mobility

end-point relative of water and oil

equation 103

relative

upstream weighting of 135

total

equation 103

relative

equation 100

mobility ratio 5, 59-61

end-point

equation 103

StrataSim’s assumptions 98-104

unit assumption 103-104

consequences 104

model

limiting size 17-19

upscaling 20

Modify Run Description button 13

multiplier

applying to transmissibilities 50

N

numbers

dimensionless

using to examine contrasting effects 115

R2003.12

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

O

oil

phase

fluid and rock properties 60

residual

as required three-dimensional variable 45

output

files 147

of solution 72-77

assigned to attributes 80-81

flowbodies 73

number of time steps 75

saturation 78

variables at starting time 73-74

viewing results 86-89

overview 1

of reference section 92-93

P

perforation 57-58

information read from well model 141

zones not showing up in final well model 57

permeabilities

effective 59-60

end-point relative 104

relationship to transmissibilities 49

relative 59-60, 101-103

and wettability 103

equation 101

excluding effects on transmissibility 105

measurement of 102

centrifuge method 102

steady-state method 102

Welge unsteady-state method 102

simplification to linear relationships 101

precedent 102

StrataSim model 101

StrataSim’s assumptions 98-104

Index

152

Landmark

permeability

cut-off 70

estimating 29-32

indicator 29

phase rate

for wells 140-141

physics

flow 5

fluid properties 5

mobility ratio 5

simplified assumptions 5

for handling wells 136-142

of perforation model 141

plugged well 63

ignored in simulation 139

porosity

as required three-dimensional variable 45

cut-off 31, 70

pressure

as output 74

assigning constant values 55

assumptions for perforation 57

capillary

zero assumption 131

constant

vs. constant flow potential 96

constraint

of nonwell cells 142

within cell 136-142

within well 64

calculation of 139

difference between cell and wellbore

as proportional to volumetric flow rate

136

of flow potential

constraining 54

rate of change with time 5

relationship to reference elevation 55

single per well 97

solving for 69

number of interations 69

relative error 69

definition 69

R2003.12

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Pressure Solver 68-69

initializing 82

production data

files

naming wellid 145

production well 63

shutting in with water cut limit 65

productivity index 136

project

information

setting 143-144

purpose

of StrataSim 1

R

reference elevation

choices for 139

definition 55

relationship to flow potential and pressure

55

set to a constant 56

single per well 97

specifying 65

reference section 92-142

overview 92-93

relative permeability 59-61

reservoir

effects vs. effects of reservoir fluids 105

residual

as output 74

equation for 69

for incompressible flow 69

using to evaluate pressure solution 69

resolution

vertical 2

results

viewing 86-89

rock

properties 59-61

Index

153

Landmark

rules

for constraining flow potential or pressure

55

for storing transmissibility information 119

runs

changing description of previous run 85

creating new 9-11

default 7

deleting 14

modifying description 13

previous

selecting with no changes 84

selecting 7-14

selecting previous run with no changes 83

using to save input and output 7

S

saturation

adding time steps 76-77

as output 78

considerations in StrataSim and SGM 48

deleting time steps 77

equation 49, 132-134

summary 135

error 71

flexibility in assigning 5

fluctuation 71

immobile

expressed as functions of attributes 102

initial

as required three-dimensional variable 45

calculation of 47

specifying an attribute

appropriate choices 47

permeability cut-off 70

porosity cut-off 70

relationship to relative permeability of a

phase 101

relative movable pore volume cut-off 71

solving for 70-71

upstream cell

using for evaluating relative mobility 135

water cut limit 71

R2003.12

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

Saturation Solver 68-71

Semi Log

correlation for estimating permeability 31

sequences

limiting in simulation model 17

Set SGM Project Directory button 144

Set SGM Project Name button 144

Set SGM Project Version button 144

setup 44-77

limitations in standalone 44

shale

modeling thin, laterally continuous

using transmissibility multipliers 113

shortcuts

double-clicking to select data 4

triple-clicking to highlight 4

shut-in well 63

constraint of flow rate 138

simulation

running 79-89

starting 83-85

viewing results 86-89

simulators

advantages of StrataSim over others 2

StrataSim vs. standard 1

size of model

limiting 17

solution

output 72-77

Solution Gas/Oil Ratio 61

solver

of simulation equations 68-71

startup

from an xterm 143-144

from inside SGM 6-14

steady-state method

of measuring relative permeabilities 102

stratasim command 143

Stratigraphic Framework Model

limiting size 17-19

matching units 16

problems with thin cells 71

suffix

for StrataSim files 145

Index

154

Landmark

T

tasks

for setup 44

template 7

tension

interfacial

in StrataSim context 103

time

starting

specifying attributes for 73-74

steps

adding 76-77

deleting 77

number in output report 75

water cut at a given

calculating 141

Timur

generalized form of Kozeny’s equation

brief description 31

transmissibilities 49-53, 105-124

calculated by permeabilities and multipliers

119

calculating 49-53

choices of input for 119

comparisons of x, y, and z 114-116

definition 105

definition in StrataSim 51

double z near very thin cells 120

examples of using 50-51

explanation of 53

in StrataSim

rules 119

in x and y directions 111-112

in x direction

equation 112

in y direction

equation 112

in z direction 107-110

and nonrectangular cells 110

calculation of 107

compounding magnitude of inadvertent

flow 117

location of 49

R2003.12

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

transmissibilities continued

multipliers 50, 113-114

options 119

using to model

effects of thin, laterally continuous shale

113

flow due to fractures and faults 114

permeability values 49

summary 106-107

where cells are the same thickness

equations 114

two-phase flow 98-104

typographical conventions used in guide 4

U

units

of measurement 16

upscaling 20

constraints 20

V

variables

not changed before run 83

three-dimensional 45-56

assigned to attributes 80-81

optional 54-56

purpose 54

requested at starting time 73-74

required

setting 46-49

specifying a constant 46

specifying an attribute field 46

vector

gravitational acceleration

defining equation 94

version

selecting 144

vertical resolution 2

viscosity 59-61

and unit mobility ratio 104

excluding effects on transmissibility 105

Index

155

Landmark

W

water

cut

at a given time step

calculating 141

equations 137

for wells 140-141

limit 65, 71

immobile

as required three-dimensional variable 45

phase

fluid and rock properties 59-60

weighting

upstream

of mobilities 135

Welge unsteady state method

of measuring relative permeabilities 102

well model

and perforation information 141

boundary conditions 63

reading perforation interval information from

57

selecting 15

Well Model Attributes

for reading perforations 58

wellbore

cells within and pressure drop 136

fluid flow within 136

wellid

name of 145

wells

assumptions to simplify handling of

136-141

boundary conditions

copying 66-67

editing 64-65

constraining pressure or flow rate within 64

constraint of flow rate into or out of 140

definition of

injection 63

plugged 63

production 63

shut-in 63

R2003.12

StrataSim User / Reference Guide

wells continued

difference between plugged and shut-in 62

phase rates and water cuts for 140-141

plugged

ignored in simulation 139

shut-in

and flow rate constraint 138

types of 63, 138-139

with constant flow potential

restrictions 137

wettability 103

relationship to relative permeabilities 103

X

X and Y transmissibilities 111-112

Z

Z transmissibility 107-110

zero thickness cells

elimination of 121-124

Index

156

- Reservoir EngineeringUploaded byalang_business
- KAPPA - The Analysis of Dynamic Data in Shale Gas Reservoirs 1Uploaded byGabriela Gomez
- luo2017_2Uploaded byakreminho89
- Petroleum status in the levantUploaded byEb Kouthayr
- Darcy Law-Theoretical DerivationUploaded byhphan9449
- Tight Gas InfoUploaded bytsar_philip2010
- Lab Report permeabilityUploaded byAhmad Fakhri
- Marketing Presentation-Compressco July 09Uploaded byDavid Alfredo Aliaga
- SPE-955-GUploaded byGilberto Garcia de la Paz
- Dike 2012Uploaded byyuths8
- PTA Using Generated Well Test Data.pdfUploaded byLaPresencia82
- LAB-REPORT-2012-2-1Uploaded byheganthedon
- Spe 205346 Des WaanUploaded bycontradictorio_alex
- Water Influx 1Uploaded byChoiriahAgustinaSaritikaPutriani
- 1404261257_Well%20Testing-1982-9.docUploaded byMelody Vance
- PETSOC-65-03-01Uploaded byJessica King
- ESP (key)Uploaded byChristian Perner
- HC Occurrence in MananadiUploaded byShihabsir
- SCA1994-18Uploaded byRosa K Chang H
- 06 GEOTECHNICAL PROJECT RISKING.pptUploaded bysupercooljt
- arma2013Paper631_STREAMLINESUploaded byJonathan Teixeira
- PETSOC-86-37-14Uploaded bySahib Qafarsoy
- Water WebUploaded byGilberto Garcia de la Paz
- V3I8_IJERTV3IS080539Uploaded bynilesh
- Final OFUploaded bySoumadeep Banerjee
- Simulation Study of Polymer Flooding PerformanceUploaded byRajiv Dukeran
- Factors Affecting Production_Recovery OCRUploaded byWassef MB
- 21257644 Well Productivity in Gas Condensate and 80172Uploaded by13670319
- Syllabus2014_15_tcm13-67024.pdfUploaded bySergio Pablo Rodríguez
- Completion Challenge PaperUploaded bygregorio2407

- Vip CoreUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Job Sub HelpUploaded byahmed_497959294
- TWS_InstallationGuideUploaded byahmed_497959294
- pvtUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Pvt KeywordUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Unix Release NotesUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Tech RefUploaded byahmed_497959294
- TWS_ReleaseNotesUploaded byahmed_497959294
- gridgenrUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Plot ViewUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Vip ExecUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Release NotesUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Vip Conv HelpUploaded byahmed_497959294
- gridgenrUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Vds HelpUploaded byahmed_497959294
- 3dviewUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Reg Calc HelpUploaded byahmed_497959294
- WOW_release_notes.pdfUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Well Cat Release NotesUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Release Notes w BpUploaded byahmed_497959294
- gcalchelpUploaded byahmed_497959294
- WOW Geolog Release NotesUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Include File RulesUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Well Cat System RequirementsUploaded byahmed_497959294
- WSF_ReleaseNotesUploaded byahmed_497959294
- WOW GeoFrame Release NotesUploaded byahmed_497959294
- WBPUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Get StartUploaded byahmed_497959294
- Well Plan Release NotesUploaded byahmed_497959294
- GtechrefUploaded byahmed_497959294