Creating

Models

Creating Models
© 2004 Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 162109

February 2004

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Creating Models

Contents

Creating Models
Introduction
Overview .............................................................................................................

1

Conventions Used in the Guides .....................................................................

2

Stratigraphic Framework Model
Overview .............................................................................................................

3

Framework Terms ..............................................................................................

4

Grids ..............................................................................................................

4

Naive Grids ..............................................................................................

4

Limited Grids ...........................................................................................

5

Using Naive and Limited Grids ..............................................................

5

Events ...........................................................................................................

8

Sequences ....................................................................................................

9

Layers ............................................................................................................

10

Building Layers with Faults ...................................................................

10

Building Layers with Nulls in the Grids ................................................

11

Cells ...............................................................................................................

11

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Framework Terms continued
Clipping, or Resetting the Value of Grids ..................................................

13

Minimum Test ..........................................................................................

13

Maximum Test .........................................................................................

14

Rules for Applying Maximum or Minimum Tests ................................

14

Handling Null Values ..............................................................................

15

Handling Faults .......................................................................................

16

Example of Building a Framework ...................................................................

19

Work Flow for Building a New Framework ......................................................

24

Adding Grids to the Model ................................................................................

26

Selecting the Grids ......................................................................................

27

Determining a Top and Base Limiting Event Number ..............................

29

Top Limit ..................................................................................................

29

Base Limit ................................................................................................

30

Top and Base Limit .................................................................................

30

Selecting a Sequence Type .........................................................................

31

Independent ............................................................................................

32

Onlap .......................................................................................................

32

Offlap/Optional Depositional Pattern Grid ...........................................

33

Proportional ............................................................................................

33

Truncation and Fault ..............................................................................

34

Setting the Rest of the Parameters ............................................................

35

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Building the Model ............................................................................................

38

Creating a List of Grids ...............................................................................

38

Setting Limits ...............................................................................................

39

Row and Column Limits .........................................................................

39

X, Y Limits ...............................................................................................

40

Procedure ................................................................................................

40

Building or Saving .............................................................................................

42

If You Have a Previous Framework Model .................................................

42

If It Is a New Framework Model ...................................................................

43

Viewing Parameters and Information ..............................................................

44

Exiting Stratigraphic Framework Model ..........................................................

44

Well Model
Overview .............................................................................................................

45

Well Sets .......................................................................................................

46

Well Data File Format ...................................................................................

46

Selecting the Wells ............................................................................................

47

Choosing Averaging Methods ..........................................................................

48

Arithmetic Average (Continuous) ...............................................................

50

Discrete .........................................................................................................

50

Harmonic .......................................................................................................

51

Geometric .....................................................................................................

51

Mean ..............................................................................................................

51

Minimum .......................................................................................................

52

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Choosing Averaging Methods continued
Maximum .......................................................................................................

52

Variance ........................................................................................................

52

Entering Raw Data Controls .............................................................................

53

Setting the Preliminary Parameters ...........................................................

54

Compositing .................................................................................................

55

Max% Null Coverage for Compositing ..................................................

55

Sequence Crossing Value ......................................................................

55

Composite Value Positioning ................................................................

57

Composite Definition ..............................................................................

57

Cell Traversal Multiplier .........................................................................

58

Specifying the Data Format ..............................................................................

59

Specifying Well Tops Information ....................................................................

62

Sequence Type of Tops Data ......................................................................

62

Max Pick-to-Intersect distance ...................................................................

64

Type of Tops Data Files ...............................................................................

65

Specifying the Tops File ..............................................................................

65

Formatting Tops Data ..................................................................................

66

Building or Saving the Well Model ...................................................................

67

Exiting Well Model .............................................................................................

68

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Attribute Model
Overview .............................................................................................................

69

Selecting Wells ..................................................................................................

70

Overall Run Parameters ....................................................................................

72

Setting the Search Radius ...........................................................................

73

Selecting the Number of Search Sectors ...................................................

74

Selecting the Allowable Adjacent Empty Sectors .....................................

75

Determining Wells Per Sector .....................................................................

75

Setting a Secondary Search Limit .............................................................

76

Determining the Well Distance Override ....................................................

76

Providing a Stochastic Random Seed .......................................................

77

Resetting Default Values .............................................................................

77

Calculation Parameters .....................................................................................

78

Selecting Well Model Fields ........................................................................

79

Selecting and Creating Attributes ..............................................................

80

Selecting an Attribute .............................................................................

81

Creating New Attributes .........................................................................

81

Selecting a Calculation Code ......................................................................

82

Weighted Average (Sharp Weighting) — or Deterministic .................

83

Weighted Average (Smooth Weighting) — or Statistical ...................

84

Nearest Neighbor (value) .......................................................................

85

Stochastic (value, sharp weighting) .....................................................

85

Minimum (value) .....................................................................................

85

Maximum (value) .....................................................................................

86

Distance to Nearest Well ........................................................................

86

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Selecting a Calculation Code continued
Setting the Power Factor .............................................................................

86

Limiting the Model to Specific Sequences or Layers ...............................

87

Biasing the Interpolation by Direction .............................................................

88

Determining Layer Equivalence .......................................................................

90

Determining Calculation Rules ........................................................................

95

Building the Model ............................................................................................ 102
Viewing Parameters and Information .............................................................. 103
Exiting Attribute Model ..................................................................................... 104

Index ....................................................................................................................

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Creating Models

Introduction
Overview
To display data in three dimensions, you must build three types of
models. The sections in this guide provide the information you need to
build the models:

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Stratigraphic Framework Model ( page 3) explains how to build
a framework from your grids that correctly reflects the stratigraphy
of your data.

Well Model ( page 45) provides information for incorporating
well log data into the model. Well logs provide much of the data
used to calculate the attribute values for each cell of the model.

Attribute Model ( page 69) explains how to build a model that
instructs the program how to calculate attribute values for each cell
of the model.

Introduction: Overview

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Creating Models

Conventions Used in the Guides
The guides use the following conventions:
Menu Options

Menu options and button names are printed in
boldface, for example, Setup.

OK

Click the indicated button, for example, OK.
Menu paths are indicated by menu options in
bold, separated by arrows; in this example, you
select Global, then Exit.
Keys on the keyboard are capitalized.
Text that you are required to enter from the
keyboard appears in a different typeface
(Courier).
Enter the text exactly as shown.

Global → Exit

Return
enter startow

enter
projectname

click

press and drag

highlight
select
double-click

triple-click

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A different typeface in italics (Courier
Italics) indicates that you must supply
information. For example, at this instruction,
enter the project name.
Move the cursor to the option or object
specified and quickly press and release the
mouse button. Unless otherwise specified,
use Button 1.
Press the mouse button and continue to hold it
down while moving the cursor to the option
you want or to a new location in the graphic
display area; then release the button.
Move the cursor to the name of the item you
wish to use and select it with the mouse.
Move the cursor to the option or object you
want to select and click it.
Click the mouse button twice rapidly without
moving the mouse. The first click highlights
the option, object, or text beneath the cursor;
the second click is equivalent to pressing the
OK button to accept the selection.
Click the mouse button three times rapidly
without moving the mouse to highlight a string
of text (more than one word) beneath the
cursor.

Introduction: Conventions Used in the Guides

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Stratigraphic Framework Model
Overview
Stratamodel generates a three-dimensional cellular framework, the
Stratigraphic Framework Model, using grids to define the structural and
stratigraphic nature of the rock formations.
The framework is used by Stratamodel to correctly render stratigraphic
relationships, correlating well intervals that are stratigraphically
similar.
Building a stratigraphic framework model is the first step towards
building a complete model, before creating the well model or attribute
model. It is also one of the most important steps, because you must
build it to correctly reflect the 3D cell geometry for the environment
you are modeling.
You have complete control of the depositional pattern and cell layer
resolution for each sequence of the model. The stratigraphic and
structural complexities may include proportionally varying cell
thickness, offlapping patterns, onlap or baselap, and normal or reverse
faulting.

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Stratigraphic Framework Model: Overview

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Framework Terms
Before you can correctly build a stratigraphic framework model, you
must understand the following terms:





grids
events
sequences
layers
cells
clipping

Grids
Grids are defined as sets of regularly spaced data points (grid nodes)
created from irregularly distributed data such as from wells. Gridding is
a technique used in computer mapping to generate a surface model
from which contour maps are rendered of attribute distributions (for
example, surface elevation). The Stratigraphic Framework Model
application uses the following types of grids: naive, limited, and
depositional pattern grids. For more information, see “Naive Grids” on
page 4, “Limited Grids” on page 5, and step 4.
Naive Grids
It is sometimes appropriate to use grids that cross or intersect. Crossing
grids provide important information to Stratamodel about truncations
along unconformities, channels, or faults. Since geologic surfaces do
not actually cross, these grids are referred to a naive.

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Limited Grids
If intersecting grids are used, Stratamodel limits the grids according to
the geologic sequence of events. These limited grids are stored within
Stratamodel in addition to the naive grids.

Using Naive and Limited Grids
Contouring packages typically require you to create limited grids
according to the geological setting. However, the grids generated by
your mapping package for Stratamodel should preferably be naive
grids. Stratamodel automatically limits the grids according to the order
of grid input and the type of sequence defined. (See page 31.)
Since grids contain values only at the node locations, limited grids
cannot provide the necessary information at the true surface-surface
intersection. Naive grids used within the process of building a
stratigraphic framework, on the other hand, are properly truncated as
required by the grid relationships you determine (truncation, baselap,
fault). The intersections are saved in the complex polygonal face and
edge shapes of the truncated cells.
The following examples help to further illustrate grid limiting in
Stratamodel.
Angular Unconformity Example

3
Grid
Laye

r Pa

Grid

ttern

s

2

Form

Truncated Cells

ation

/Seq

uenc

e

Grid
1

Cross Section with Naive Grids

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The exmple shows the grids that could be built to model this angular
unconformity. Grids 1 and 2 represent formation/sequence tops, and
grid 3 defines the unconformity and limits grids 1 and 2.
The dashed and dotted lines indicate the portions of grids 1 and 2 that
would be limited in typical mapping operations. Stratamodel prefers to
build these grids as if they were not limited, so the trend of the grids
should be maintained to the edge of the modeled area (dotted lines).
This is necessary because the layer position of pre-truncated cells in the
sequence is determined by the attitude of the grid at the naive sequence
top, base, or both. In this example, the cell layers between grid 2 and
grid 1 should rely on the orientation of naive grid 2 as opposed to the
limited grid 2 to build complete cells that are accurately truncated by
the unconformity.
If the limited version of grid 2 was used, and this sequence was
modeled proportionally, the cell layers would pinch out where the
unconformity and grid 1 intersect as shown in the following figure.
Using stratigraphic grids that were previously limited disables the
framework code’s ability to resolve the complex cell geometries at
sequence boundaries.
Cells are not truncated

3
Grid
Grid

2

Grid
1

Cross Section with Limited Grids
Stratamodel now holds naive grids and limited grids. Either the naive or
limited grids can be used to control the cell layer patterns, internal to
sequences, depending on the geological setting.
It is not always necessary to build grids that span the modeled area, but
it is a good idea to do so to ensure that no holes develop in the model.
Holes can develop in areas where Stratamodel tries to compare grids in
which one or both grids contain indeterminate (null) values.
Grids must contain values in each grid node location used in the model.
If the grids do not cover the same AOI, grids must have identical null
distribution around the defined edges of the model. Any optional
depositional grids must cover the entire model AOI regardless of
whether the framework grids have null-defined edges. When an
indeterminate (null) is found at a node that is expected to have a value,
Stratamodel tries to supply a value from adjacent grids directly below
the event.
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Fault Terminated by Unconformity Example
The figure below illustrates a faulted model where the fault is
terminated above by an unconformity. Since faults are not usually used
to control cell layer pattern, it is not necessary to maintain the trend of
the fault where, in a limited form, it will not exist. It is, however,
important to build the fault to the model edge with no indeterminate
values so later grid comparisons with the fault can be accomplished.
This will allow Stratamodel to compare grids correctly, since it does
not have to consider null values.
Grid 6

Grid 6

Grid 2
Grid 1

Grid 5
Grid 4
Grid 3

In addition, the fault grid should not be allowed to project above or
below the data range to unreasonable values. This will not affect the
model itself; however, when the model is displayed, the display is
scaled according to the minimum and maximum values of the grids,
thus reducing the data interval of interest. Grids 1, 2, 4, and 5 should
maintain their trends beyond the fault since they are used to control the
orientation of cell layers up to the fault boundary.
Faults Modeled Continuously in Grids Example
Stratamodel does not require faults to be modeled as separate surfaces.
It is possible, for example, to define a faulted surface using a single
continuous grid as opposed to a horizon grid cut by a set of fault grids;
however, the results may be less desirable. Nevertheless, this approach
may be attractive if the modeled area is characterized by a large number
of faults and you are interested in reducing the number of grids
necessary.

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Using this method, grids 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 in the following figure would
be single grids that include the fault plane at locations A and B. Faults
A and B are modeled in continuous surface grids. The other fault is
modeled by fault plane Grid 3. With no fault plane grids the faults are
incorporated in the grid models at A and B, and the cell layering is
concordant with the top/base sequence.
Grid 6

A

B

r id
G
3

Grid 2

Grid

Grid 1
Proportional
Layering

5

Grid

4

This approach is best used when faults have small vertical displacement
and rigorous cell topology at their location is not required. However, it
is not recommended when faults have large vertical displacement.

Events
The grids generated in mapping programs are used to define key
horizons for Stratamodel. These horizons relate to the top or base of a
geologic interval of interest or to surfaces such as unconformities or
faults. These grids are called events in Stratamodel because they are
processed in a specific order. The basemost grid is Event 1 while the
topmost grid is processed last as Event n.
Event 6

Event 6

Event 2
Event 1

Event 5
Event 4
Event 3

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Sequences
A sequence is generally defined as the interval between two grids,
except in the case of independent sequences, as discussed in
“Independent” on page 32.
Grids typically model formation tops, fault planes, or unconformities,
or represent a depositional pattern not affected by the sequence top or
base. Although the grids representing sequence boundaries are usually
structural, they can also represent nonstructural boundaries, such as
changes in lithofacies.
Sequences subdivide the model into key volumes of layered cells. They
delimit key stratiform geological entities with unique boundaries on the
top, base, and sides, and have their internal character defined by the
layering geometry.
Sequences may represent features at very different scales. The different
scales are achieved by modifying the number and/or thickness of the
layers of cells contained within the sequences. So, large volumes of
comparatively homogeneous stratigraphy need not be represented by a
huge and unnecessary number of cells. This helps ensure appropriate
resolution throughout the model and saves cell storage (and therefore
disk storage) space.
Event 6
Event 2
Event 1

Event 6

Sequence 3
Sequence 2

Sequence 6

Sequence 1
Event 3

Sequence 5
Sequence 4

Event 5
Event 4

Framework Limits and Intervals
When you begin building a stratigraphic framework model, if all your grids do not
have the same x, y limits and grid intervals, the framework will not build. However,
if you do not have the grids defined sufficiently to ensure proper cell geometry, the
framework will build, resulting in incorrect topology for the cell boundaries. To
build a high-quality model, you must ensure that the correct grids are built and
loaded into Stratamodel.

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Layers
A layer is a subdivision of a sequence that defines a correlation pattern.
You control the pattern and layer resolution for each sequence.
Layer 5
Layer 4
Sequence 2

Layer 3
Layer 2
Event 1

Layer 1

Building Layers with Faults
Be sure to extend all grids that are truncated by a fault through the fault
so that cells can be built in the wedge zone and truncated correctly
against the fault.
If you do not extend the grids, the layers and their cells will not be
resolved against the fault plane because Grid 1 in the dashed area does
not have the values to vertically correlate to Grid 2.
grid 2

?
grid 1

Layers from Unextended Grids
Grids that are extended beyond the fault have the layers built into the
wedge by Stratamodel using the naive grids.
grid 2

grid 1

Layers from Extended Grids

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Building Layers with Nulls in the Grids
Make sure you do not have nulls in your grids. In the example below,
Grid 2 contains nulls. When the Stratigraphic Framework Model
application tries to build layers, it fails to build a layer where the nulls
are in the top bounding grid of the sequence. This leaves a gap in the
stratigraphic framework model.
grid 2
grid 1

Resulting
Framework

Cells
A layer cell is a subdivision of a layer laterally according to the x and y
increments of the grids used to build the stratigraphic framework.
Models may have millions of cells and each cell can be assigned up to
100 attribute values. Similarly, a sequence cell is the subdivision of a
sequence. Unless otherwise stated, “cells” refer to layer cells.
Orientation of Cell Sides
The sides of normal (not truncated) cells are always vertical even in dipping layers.

Layer 5
3D Cell

Layer 4
Layer 3

y

Layer 2
Layer 1

Event 1

x

Beds Not Dipping

Eve

nt 1

Lay
er 5
Lay
er 4
Lay
er 3
Lay
er 2
Lay
er 1

Beds Dipping

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A cell has internal pieces to it as well. When a sequence boundary/
event cuts a cell forming a truncated piece, that piece is referred to as a
shell. A cell can contain numerous shell pieces. The vertical pile of
cells, with their shell pieces, under the footprint of one stratigraphic
framework grid cell is referred to as a stack.
Layer 6

Sequence 4

Layer 5

2

6

/G
rid

Layer 10

Ev
en
t

Event/Grid 3

Layer 9

ce

2

Layer 4

en

5
4
3
3

2

Layer 2
Event/Grid 1

Se

qu

en

ce

Layer 8

Se

qu

Layer 3

Sequence 1
1

Layer 1

Layer 7

Stack

Nodes of SF Grids

The stack illustrated above has six cells. Of the six cells only 6 is a
normal cell. All others are truncated, so the enclosed volumes in those
cells are referred to as “shells.” A cell can contain more than one shell
of the same layer number. An example, like the one following, could
occur at a channel-cut unconformity, where there are two shells for
Layer 2 in the stack.

Stack

Layer 2

Layer 2
2

1
Unconformity Event
Layer 1

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Clipping, or Resetting the Value of Grids
Building a stratigraphic framework model that correctly reflects the
relationships of your grids is a vital part of creating your display. With
complex stratigraphy, it can also be difficult to define the correct
relationships.
This section explains how the Stratigraphic Framework Model
application uses clipping rules based on the relationships you establish
between the gridded input sequence boundaries. These boundaries in
every instance describe the potential top limit of a sequence with
layers.
These clipping rules define the volumes for sequences, allowing the
code to carve up cell stacks into shell pieces, as needed, adjacent to
sequence boundaries.
The first thing to learn is that you are not necessarily reconstructing the
layers stratigraphically. Instead you are using the clipping rules
between sequence bounding grids so that the sequences come out
reflecting the correct relationships when displayed.
Basically, the framework is built from the bottom up. When grids cross
each other, the program does a minimum or maximum test, depending
upon the sequence types involved. The result is to come up with the
combined clipping 3D limited surface that will define the top of a
sequence boundary and correctly dissect cells into the appropriate
complex shells (solid partial cell bodies) at the sequence boundaries.
Minimum Test
In a minimum test, the program compares the values of the grids that
cross and keeps the portion of the deepest grid.

Naive Grid

G1

G1

G2

G2
Limited Grid

Minimum Test

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Maximum Test
In a maximum test, the program compares the values of the grids that
intersect and keeps the portion of the second grid that is shallower than
the first grid.
G1

G1
Naive Grid

G2

Limited Grid

G2

Rules for Applying Maximum or Minimum Tests
Here are some of the rules, with explanations, for how the program
clips grids.

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Sequence Type or Limit

Crosses

Test

Fault or Truncation

Any other surface

Minimum

Any grid type

Proportional

Maximum

Any grid type

Onlap/Offlap

Maximum

Top Limit

Fault or Truncation

Minimum

Base Limit

Fault or Truncation

Maximum

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Handling Null Values
As mentioned in a previous section, the program does not build grids
where there are null values. In actuality, when it encounters nulls it sets
the new limited grid elevation equal to the grid elevation of the previous
limited event.
The example below illustrates this concept.

Unconformity Grid 4

Se
Se

Nul

que

que

nce

2

nce

led
of G Por tio
n
rid
3

3
Se

Se

que

que

Se

que

nce

nce

nce

4

4

1

Grid

3

Grid

2

Grid

Null Node Values

1

Grid Node Spacing

Nodes with Values

Grid 3 should be smooth and continuous across the nulled portion.
However, it has a hole which, when the framework is built, fills with
values from the nodes of the next available lower event grid.
Notice the node-to-node snapping nature of the forced null fill on
Grid 3. This “snap” forces a serious and unintentional hole in Sequence
3. If the layering patterns are defaulted for either proportional or
baselap for this framework, Sequences 3 and 4 will have disrupted
patterns in the null area.

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Handling Faults
Stratamodel treats faults in a stratigraphic framework as if they were
unconformities. This is, of course, not entirely correct in a geological
sense. As a result of this assumption, for the program to be able to
handle gridded fault planes, faults must follow the same rules as
unconformities. As gridded surfaces, they must be defined over the
entire modeled area, and they essentially become sequence boundaries.
So, when fault planes are used in an Stratamodel model, the
stratigraphic framework becomes a set of sequences defined by fault
blocks. Geologically, some of the sequences in different fault blocks
are correlatable with each other. The Attribute Model module has
controls for setting up these equivalencies. (For more infomation, see
“Determining Layer Equivalence” on page 90.)
The following illustrations show these fault blocks.
A

A'
Unconformity

loc
k2
Fa
u

lt B

k3
loc

Fa
u

Sequence 2

lt B

Sequence 5

Sequence 4
u
Fa

lt B

loc
k1

Sequence 6

Sequence 3

Sequence 1

Cross Section AA'

Faults
Continuous
Across Model
A

Sequence 6
Fault Block 1

Sequence 4
Sequence 2

A'

Fault Block 3

Fault Block 2

Map of Subcrop below Unconformity

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Faults, of course, have a real geological tendency to disappear as they
traverse a model area. This tendency cannot be modeled in Stratamodel
so that sequences are continuously defined around the zero throw ends
of a fault. Instead, the fault plane grid must exist all over the AOI of the
model. To mimic the dying out of a fault plane, grids must be built for
each top of sequence events — for each block — that shares grid node
representations of the sequence top where the fault has zero throw.
With care in gridding, this technique results in layers and in
neighboring sequences that have no, or very little, offset across the fault
where there is no throw. You can then use Layer Equivalence in the
Attribute Model application to model attribute continuity across the
neighboring layers. The figures below illustrate these concepts:
4 Grid Nodes

4 Grid Nodes of Overlap

A

A'

u
Fa
lt

u
Fa

k
oc

B'

2

k
oc

Bl

Bl

lt

B

1

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In the previous map, the shaded area of replicated grid nodes results in
naive event grids 2 and 4, depicted in the following cross sections:
Grid Event 5
A

A'

Layer 5

Layer 3
Grid 2

Grid 4
Layer 4

Layer 2

Gr
id
Grid 1

3

Naive grids 2 and 4 have exact replicated results in the shaded area close to the
fault intersection.
Grid 5

B

B'

Layer 3
Layer 5

Grid 2
Layer 2

Grid 4

Gr
id

3

Layer 4

Naive grids 2 and 4 have no replicated grid nodes as the surfaces intersect the
fault plan grid B' and the results show fault throw displacement.

Grid events 2 and 4 have to be built to replicate the event’s high and low
points of intersection with the fault plane grid. In the (shaded) shared
area of surface-modeling results for Events 2 and 4, these lines of
intersection overlap each other, indicating zero throw for that part of
the fault plane. Layer control patterns, either by grid-to-grid
relationships or by another pattern grid, must be the same in the
description of Events 2 and 4 to the Stratigraphic Framework Model
application.

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Example of Building a Framework
Building a stratigraphic framework model that correctly reflects the
stratigraphy of your project area is the most vital activity you will
perform in Stratamodel. Depending upon how complex the topology is,
it may also be the most difficult task you have on hand. This section
takes you through building the framework for a moderately complex set
of grids.
Suppose you have naive grids with the following topology.

You want them to build a stratigraphic framework that will clip them
properly and reflect their true stratigraphic relationships.

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To simplify, here is a line rendition of the topology in two dimensional
cross sections only. Try to number these grids in the order you would
add them. Drawing rough dip cross sections through the model area and
assembling the lines that represent the naive and desired result of the
limited events will help you enormously in composing a correct
description of the grid-to-grid relationships to the Stratigraphic
Framework Model application.
Big Fault

Red Top

Red Base
Green Top

Green Base
Grid 1

The object of creating the framework is to order the grids so that this
topology is correctly laid down in the model. This order is not
necessarily a true geological stratigraphic representation where fault
planes are in the model, but the order that will use the clipping rules
and concepts already presented to most correctly represent the
stratigraphy when the model is built. To review these rules, see
“Clipping, or Resetting the Value of Grids” on page 13.
Interpretation of Screen Captures in this Example
All the screen captures in this example display the naive grids being input.

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Always build the framework from the bottom up, starting with an
independent grid. Enter some or all of the following information about
the grid, depending on the sequence type stipulated.
Top
Event

Base
Event

Sequence
Type

Base
Grid

Independent

No.
Layers

Layer
Thickness

1

10

Grid Name
grid1.smg

The next grids to be added are Red Base and Red Top.
Top
Event

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Base
Event

Sequence
Type

Base
Grid

Onlap

Naive

Proportional

Naive

No.
Layers

20

Layer
Thickness

Grid Name

3

redbase.smg
redtop.smg

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Next you would add Big Fault, which is top limited on Red Top
(Event 3).
Top
Event
3

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Base
Event

Sequence
Type

Base
Grid

Faulted

Naive

No.
Layers

Layer
Thickness

Grid Name

10

bigfault.smg

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Next, add Green Base and Top.
Top
Event

Base
Event

Sequence
Type

Base
Grid

Onlap

Naive

Proportional

Naive

No.
Layers

Layer
Thickness
3

20

Grid Name
greenbase.smg
greentop.smg

The final cell model as shown in the 3D model in a sequence display
for Show Displays (using the sequence header value as the attribute)
appear as follows:

Sequence 6
(Green Top)

Sequence 3
(Red Top

Sequence 5
(Green
Base)

Sequence 2
(Red Base)

Sequence 1
(Grid 1)

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Sequence 4 (Big Fault)
Top Limited with Red Top and
Having No Layers

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Work Flow for Building a New Framework
If you open a new control file in the Stratigraphic Framework Model
application, the following two dialog boxes appear. Use these two
dialog boxes interactively to create a new framework.
Build window

Control File dialog box

If you select an existing control file or create a control file from an
existing file, the Build window comes up alone showing the existing
framework. Use the radio buttons underneath the sequence display to
add, change, or delete sequences from the framework.
The following discussion assumes that you are constructing a
completely new control file.

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Create Empty
Control File

Append new Item.

Select Grid Name
and select Type for
First (Bottom,
Independent) Grid

Enter Number of
Layers and/or
Layer Thickness.

Enter a Zone or
Fault Block Number.

Add the grid.

Add Remaining
Grids from Bottom
Up

Build the
Framework

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Adding Grids to the Model
In adding grids to the model, you must understand the principles
discussed earlier in this chapter. Otherwise, you will be unable to
choose them in the correct sequence or choose the correct settings so
that the model will correctly reflect the area’s stratigraphy.
All grid files must have been imported into Stratamodel through the
Import Grids command or created using StrataMap grid editing.
Overwriting Grid Defaults
Stratamodel defaults to different limits (top or base) when building different types
of sequence layering geometries. You can override Stratamodel grid defaults by
selecting other Top and Base Limiting Event number(s) or Types of Base Grid
(Naive or Limited). However, the grid defaults cannot be overwritten for certain
types of sequence descriptions. Stratamodel grays out the defaults if they cannot be
changed.

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Selecting the Grids
To add grids to the model, follow these steps:
1.

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Select Commands → Stratigraphic Framework Model →
Save& Execute (or Defer Execution).

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2.

Click the Grid Name at Sequence Top button.

Enter the grids (events) in order from bottom to top. Each event
represents the top of the sequence it overlies. The base of the
sequence is consequently represented by the event just before that
sequence.
3.

Select a file and click OK.

The file name you selected is entered into the input field.

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Determining a Top and Base Limiting Event Number
This option limits one particular grid with another by referencing the
appropriate Event Numbers for the grid that will do the limiting. A grid
can be limited by an event in the control file regardless of whether or
not the grid is an overlying or underlying grid in elevation. When
defining limits, it is the Event Number that identifies which grid is
referenced, not the Grid File name.
If no limits apply, these fields should remain blank. If the fields are left
blank, Stratamodel uses defaults for the sequence type you chose.
Event numbers should be integers. The event number must correlate to
a current event. Top and base limits cannot refer to events that have not
yet been described to the framework. They must be events existing in
the list already described to the framework.
If you wish to limit by an older event, continue adding events to the
framework until the limit event has been added. Then select the event
you wish to limit and change it, so that the limit is set.
Restrictions on Limiting
The Independent, Proportional, Onlap, and Offlap sequence types cannot have a top
or base limiting event, but faults and truncations can. Truncation or Fault are the
grid types that can limit Independent, Proportional, Onlap, or Offlap sequences.

Enter the event numbers of the grids that limit the current grid.
Top Limit
A top limit performs a minimum z value test between grids.
For example, if the current grid crosses the top limit, the current grid is
reset to the minimum of the z values of the crossing surfaces. Top limits
are used to stop faults surfaces from continuing and can only be
performed on faults or truncations. To stop other types of surfaces, use
a truncation or fault grid.

G1

G1

G2 fault

G2 fault

Naive Grid

Limited Grid

G2 Is the Current Grid, Top Limited on G1

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Base Limit
A base limit performs a maximum z value test between grids. A grid
can be limited by any event in the control file, regardless of whether the
grid is overlying or underlying.
For example, if the current grid (G1) crosses the base limit (G2), then
the current grid is reset to the maximum value of the intersecting
surfaces.
G1

G1

G2

G2

Naive Grid

Limited Grid

G2 is the Current Grid, Base Limited on G1
Top and Base Limit
When a grid has both a top and base limit defined, the minimum
operation is applied last. That is, the top limit dominates the base limit
operation.
For example, if the current grid G1 is top limited by grid G2 and base
limited by G3, then the current grid is set to the minimum of G2 and the
maximum of G1 and G3.
G1
G2

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Naive Grids

G3

G1
G2

Limited Grids

Stratigraphic Framework Model: Adding Grids to the Model

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Selecting a Sequence Type

Click the appropriate radio button to select the sequence type for the
grid name at the sequence top. Depending upon which sequence type
you select, you will have to enter the Number of Layers, the Layer
Thickness, or both.
When building the stratigraphic framework control file, you assign each
sequence a depositional pattern that controls how Stratamodel
generates the layers. These patterns are assigned according to the
geologic settings within each sequence. The sequence type stipulates
which methods and grids are used to pattern the cell layers. The
sequence types are




Independent
Onlap and Offlap
Proportional
Truncation
Fault

You must enter layer thickness and/or number of layers depending on
the sequence type as indicated in the table below.
Sequence
Type

Number
of Layers

Layer
Thickness

Independent

x

x

Proportional

x

Default Depositional
Pattern Grids
Naive Top Grid
Naive Top and Base Grid

Onlap*

x

Naive Top Grid

Offlap*

x

Optional Depositional Grid**

Truncation*

x

Limited Base Grid

Fault*

x

Limited Base Grid

x required field
* These SEQUENCE TYPES can rely on an optional depositional pattern
grid for correlation patterns other than those provided by the default.
** You must use a depositional pattern grid to distinguish Offlap from
Onlap.

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Independent
The first surface (bottom-most) to be used in the Stratigraphic
Framework Model application must always be an independent event.
Layers are built down from the independent event. There is always only
one independent event in each stratigraphic framework model.
Event 1
Layers built below
independent
surface

For this type of sequence you enter the Number of Layers and the
Layer Thickness. You can build a model without an independent
sequence by setting the number of layers to zero.
Onlap
When you specify an onlap, Stratamodel replicates layers at a given
thickness based on the event at the top of the sequence. The layers
terminate against the bottom event as they intersect it. Stratamodel
performs a base limit (maximum test) on the layers being built and the
intersecting grid. Layers are built from the top down.
Layers build
downward
onlapping
lower surface

You must enter the Layer Thickness only.

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Offlap/Optional Depositional Pattern Grid
In some cases, the top and bottom events of a sequence are not
appropriate for defining the layer geometry. In these cases, you can
define the layer geometry using an optional depositional pattern grid.
For example, by default, onlapping layers that are conformable to the
naive top grid of the sequence are built and terminate where they
intersect the limited base grid unless you provide an optional
depositional grid.
To distinguish between onlap and offlap sequence types, you must use a
depositional grid to replicate the offlap cell layer pattern in the
sequence.
The layers are built according to the depositional grid pattern and are
truncated by the upper and lower surfaces.
Layers built
using optional
pattern and
thickness

You must enter the Layer Thickness and a depositional grid pattern.
Proportional
A proportional sequence type maintains a constant number of cell
layers that thicken and thin proportionally as the sequence thickens and
thins. The program calculates the isochore difference at each grid node
and subdivides the sequence into the requested number of layers.
Layers built
proportionally
between
surfaces

You only enter the Number of Layers for this sequence type.
Stratamodel defaults to using the naive top grid and the naive base grid
for a layer correlation. When a proportional grid crosses another grid, a
maximum z value test is done and the grid with the smaller z value is
limited.

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Truncation and Fault
Faults and unconformities automatically truncate other events and
layers according to the geologic setting. The sequence associated with
the truncating event is, by default, filled with layers that parallel the
underlying event.
Truncation
Since the top of the sequence is bounded by an unconformity, the layers
parallel the event at the base of the sequence (event 1). This sequence
type builds cell layers from the bottom up conformable to the limited
base grid of the sequence.
Event 2

Layers
built
upward
parallel to
Event 1.

Event 1

If the layers in sequence 2 are not conformable to Event 1, you can use
an optional depositional pattern grid to modify the layers in sequence 2
to be geologically accurate.
When using a Truncation grid type, enter only the Layer Thickness.
Fault
In this example, event 2 (the fault) is at the top of sequence 2. By
default, the layers in sequence 2 parallel the event at the base of the
sequence (event 1). Stratamodel does a minimum test between the
truncation or faults and any other surface it crosses.
Event 2
Sequence 2

Layers built upward
parallel to Event 1.

Event 1
Sequence 1
Event 3

If the layers in sequence 2 are not conformable to Event 1, you can use
an optional depositional pattern grid to modify the layers in sequence 2
to be geologically accurate.
You must enter Layer Thickness only.

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Setting the Rest of the Parameters
Continue to set the rest of the parameters
1.

Type of Base Grid is not applicable to sequences with Optional
Depositional Pattern grids or Independent sequences. This setting
gives you the ability to override Stratamodel default use of the
naive base grid for various sequences.

Select the radio button appropriate to the current grid.
Review “Grids” on page 4 for an explanation of naive and limited
grids.
2.

You only have to enter the Number of Layers when using
Independent and Proportional sequence types. Otherwise, this field
is inactive and appears dimmed.

Click the Number of Layers box and enter an integer indicating the
number of layers per sequence. This number can be as large as the
available memory in your machine will allow.
3.

You must enter information for Layer Thickness when using
Independent, Onlap/Offlap, Truncation and Fault Sequence types
to tell Stratamodel how to build the cell layers in each sequence.

Click the Layer Thickness box and enter the layer thickness for the
current sequence.

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4.

If the top or base event of a sequence is not sufficient to define the
stratigraphic pattern within the sequence, another surface grid file,
called the Optional Depositional Grid, can be referenced to control
the pattern. For more explanation, see “Offlap/Optional
Depositional Pattern Grid” on page 33.

This grid can be used in any sequence type except Independent and
Proportional. The grid can describe a surface built for that
particular situation, or it can be one of the grids used elsewhere in
the model. Stratamodel generates layers parallel to the surface
described by the grid. Since the layers generated by an optional
grid are parallel to the optional grid, they cannot be used in
proportional events where two grids are required for isopaching.
Null Values in Pattern Grids
Pattern grids cannot have any null node values. The gridded surface must
extend over the total AOI of the framework grid set.

To distinguish between offlap and onlap, you must use an optional
grid in offlapping sequences.

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5.

Click the Optional Depositional Grid button and a file select
dialog box appears.

6.

Select a grid file and click OK.

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7.

If you would like to identify a zone (a group of sequences that are
stratigraphically related, sometimes referred to as a unit), enter a
number in the Zone box. Enter the same number for all sequences
in that zone. You will then be able to visually identify the zone by
color in Show/Build 3D Displays by selecting “zone” as the
current attribute. A zero indicates that no zone is defined.

Zone Information Required
If you are going to use Badley Fault Seal Analysis with Stratamodel, you
must have zone information available.
The zone table is also read by the Attribute Model application to set up layer
equivalency.

8.

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You can also identify fault blocks by assigning the same number to
sequences that are in the same block. Just as with zones, you can
view the fault blocks by selecting the attribute in Show Displays.
To identify fault blocks, enter a number in the Fault Block field.

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Building the Model
You work interactively between the Stratigraphic Framework Model
Build dialog box and the Control File dialog box to build the model by
adding sequences from the bottom up.
This section provides instructions for working in the Build window.

Creating a List of Grids

The list at the top of the window shows the parameters you have set in
the Control File dialog box and the order of your grids. Use the bottom
portion of the window to add or delete grids or to set limits for your
grids.
Click OK when you have filled out the Control File dialog box. The
sequence is added to the Stratigraphic Framework Build window. Work
interactively between these two windows until you have all the
sequences for the stratigraphic framework model.
To review how to create lists, see “Creating Lists” on page 31 in
Introduction to Stratamodel.

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Setting Limits
You can limit the grids in the Stratigraphic Framework Model
application to speed processing or to reduce the model size during
initial work on a project. The limits can be x, y or Row/Column.
Currently, Stratamodel can import grids up to 999 rows by 999
columns. Large grids demand much more of the hardware’s resources;
therefore, the smaller the grids the easier it is to manipulate the displays
and perform operations on the grids and model cell attributes.
Row and Column Limits
If the row and column convention is used to limit grids, the limited
grids may have different row and column values than the originals. If,
for example, the original grids are 400 rows by 300 columns and limits
are set to read only columns 100 to 300 and rows 1 to 200 (lower-right
portion of the grids), then the portions of the grids that now remain are
renumbered so that the lower left-hand corner is row 1, column 1 and
the rows and columns extend to 200.

Original Grid Size

Rows

200
Imported Grid Size

Old Origin

New Origin = 200

1

1
1

200

1
Columns

Therefore, if further limits were to be set in the Stratigraphic
Framework control file using row and column, the limits would be
based on row and column values between 1 and 200.

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X, Y Limits
Limiting grids by x and y accomplishes the same row and column
renumbering scheme as described above. The limits are calculated
using the input coordinate values and clipping the model to the smallest
number of rows and columns that cover the described limits
completely. The resulting grid is always at least as large as the x and y
value entered.
Procedure
1.

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To limit the grid(s), click the Set Limits button.

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2.

Select either Use Truncated Framework Model or Use
NON-Truncated Framework Model.
The Truncated Framework Model is a full topology model with
terminating cells. This means that where layers and sequences
intersect, the intersecting cells reflect the full geometry, with
partial cell pieces called shells. This model type enables you to
make very accurate volumetric determinations and permits true
visualization and evaluation of subcrop patterns above and below
all sequence boundaries, layers, and stratigraphic events. Building
this type of model can be time consuming, however.
The Nontruncated Framework Model builds the old style
framework solution, where cell terminations on sequence
boundaries are snapped to the closest layer above or below. It
creates no partial cells and does not properly represent subcrop
patterns in sequence, layer, or event displays and evaluation
operations. However, this method is the best choice for testing
your framework when you first build it, as it saves significant time
and is more than adequate for finding framework description
errors.

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3.

Click either Yes, limit data using Column/Row limits or
Yes, limit data using XY limits. Depending on the type of limits
you choose, the appropriate portions of the dialog box become
active.

4.

Use the sliders to set row and column limits or enter the values for
limiting the grids by x, y. You must be familiar with the grid to
enter meaningful values.

5.

Click OK.

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Building or Saving
When you have your sequences built in the correct order, click Build to
build the model (in Save & Execute) or Save to save it (in Defer
Execution.)

If You Have a Previous Framework Model
If Stratamodel encounters a previous stratigraphic framework model
file from the same version of the project, Stratamodel warns you of the
consequences, such as overwriting files, and asks if you want to
continue several times during the build.

Click the Yes button if you want to continue or No if you do not.
If you choose to continue, all Models and Graphics files for this project
are deleted.
If you choose not to continue, the new stratigraphic framework model
is deleted and the old one is reinstated.

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If It Is a New Framework Model
The final messages appear in the Stratigraphic Framework Model build
messages box, and can be printed.

To remove the message box, click the Done button.
Once you finish building the stratigraphic framework model, you can
view the stratigraphic framework model limited and naive grids with
Show Displays. You can also view an empty model in 3D displays in
Show Displays.
When you view the grids, remember that Stratamodel builds the
stratigraphic framework model with the model cell corners aligned
exactly with the grid nodes. Consequently, the model cell centers, the
locations where the cell attributes are actually interpolated and
recorded, are not aligned with the original grid nodes. The locations of
the model cell centers are actually in the middle of each cell. You must
be aware of this discrepancy when you import or export grids for
comparisons to ensure that any comparisons made are valid ones.
Building an Empty Model
In previous releases of Stratamodel, in order to view a stratigraphic framework
model in Show Displays, you had to build an empty attribute model. Now, you can
open Show Displays, build a display, and look at the stratigraphic framework model
without attributes. (For instructions, see Creating Displays.) The empty model is
automatically built with the framework.

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Viewing Parameters and Information
Use this command to review any information pertaining to the
stratigraphic framework model.
You cannot change parameters within this option. To change a
stratigraphic framework model, you must return to the Defer
Execution or Save & Execute menus where the files were created.

To print the information, click the Print button.
Click the Cancel button to close the dialog box.

Exiting Stratigraphic Framework Model
To exit from the Stratigraphic Framework Model application, close any
dialog boxes that are open and select Global → Return to Main
Menu.

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Well Model
Overview
The Well Model application uses ASCII files in a specific format to
describe the position of your wells and the values of their attributes
within your model. Each file contains information for one well. The
name of the Well Model is that same as the name of the control file
used to build the Well Model.
You can enter log analysis data, cuttings descriptions codes, and other
information such as well pressures, seismic data, or core information as
attributes, as long as the data is numeric. Virtually any attribute that can
be associated with an interval can be modeled.
To load well data, you prepare an ASCII file in the SM1 format using
your log analysis packages. The SM1 format is described in “Preparing
Well Data” on page 57 in Introduction to Stratamodel.
You must set a value for null in the well model for the following reason.
The Attribute Model has a value that represents null. There is also
likely to be a value defined for nulls in the grids that were used to build
the Stratigraphic Framework. In the Well Model there must be a null
value for well path records with x, y, and z defined. These values tell the
Attribute Model application that no recorded interval data exists for the
associated attribute at the particular location in the well. With this
information, when the program interpolates values for a layer in the
attribute model, it ignores the null entry in the Well Model for the
attribute being modeled.

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Well Sets
You can create more than one well model to use in one project so that
you can show different attributes for different wells, in other words
grouping wells into sets. However, the wells in each well model must
have a common data format and a common extension.
For example, perhaps you have some wells with both saturation and
porosity data, some with saturation data, and some with porosity data.
You can create three well models (or well sets) to accommodate the
data in these three types of wells, but your wells with both saturation
and porosity would have a suffix of, say, .dev, your wells with porosity
only a suffix of .dev2, and your wells with saturation only a suffix of
.dev3. For the wells with a common well model, the attribute must be
the same and must be in the same data field in every well data file.
You may want to build well sets for any number of reasons:

A large well model that took several hours to build has already
been constructed, but you recently received information about one
new well and you want to reinterpolate the attribute model with the
new well information. Instead of rebuilding the entire well model,
you can generate a well set for the new well only. You can then
combine the new well set with the old well set for a total
interpolation of all wells.

You may want to create well sets by individual fault blocks,
grouping wells from each block together. Then you can display
wells by well set in Show Displays.

You may want to create well sets that identify injectors and
producers.

You may want to create well sets for uniquely formatted data.

You may want to create well sets for wells with missing curves,
rather than to add columns of nulls to the well data files.

You may want to create well sets to aid in layer equivalence, using
limited groups of wells to aid in interpolation across faults.

Well Data File Format
Well Data for Stratamodel is in SM1 format. For information about
SM1, see “SM1” on page 62 in Introduction to Stratamodel.

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Selecting the Wells

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1.

Open Well Model by selecting Commands →
Well Model (Save & Execute or Defer Execution).

2.

Click the Enter Raw Well Info button to fill out the information
about the raw data format.

3.

Enter the extension of your well files. If you have more than one
format for well information that you want to use in the same
project, you must give each set of wells with a common format a
common extension (.wdv1, .wdv2).

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Choosing Averaging Methods
You can choose the well attributes to use in your model and the way
you want them to be resampled with respect to the resolution of the
layering in the stratigraphic framework model.
Click the Select Averaging Methods button and use the list building
box and the New Raw Data Attribute window to create a list of
attributes.

The Well Model New Raw Attribute dialog box shows the selected
model attributes with the method of averaging.
Use the information about averaging techniques in the section that
follows to add attributes and choose averaging techniques for each
attribute. Once you make all the needed changes, click OK to close the
dialog box.

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To review the instructions for creating a list, see “Creating Lists” on
page 31 in Introduction to Stratamodel.
Choosing Averaging Methods
You can select more than one averaging method for each attribute. When that
attribute is read into the Well Model application, any number of techniques can be
performed at once. In the Attribute Model application, if you select an attribute that
has several averaging methods applied to it, you are able to choose which result you
want to use for that attribute.

To determine the value of each intercepted cell from a layer of the
Stratigraphic Framework in the well path, Stratamodel uses the selected
averaging techniques. The following example shows a well curve, an
attribute, and how the application uses these to determine an average
value for a cell in the well model.

Top of Sequence 4

Layers in
Sequence 4

Sequence 3

Top of Sequence 2

Top of Sequence 1

A1
A Layer within
Sequence 4l

L =

∑ HI

A2

H1
H2

A4

H3

A3
H4

L = the thickness of the Layer
A1 = an attribute within the layer
H1 = the thickness of the attribute

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Arithmetic Average (Continuous)
Arithmetic Average (Continuous) gives the thickest attribute more
weight in averaging using the following formula:
1
Weighted Average = --- • Σ ( A i • H i )
L
Use this type of averaging to weight the influence of the attribute
according to its thickness in the layer. Using the diagram on page 49,
attribute a1 has more weight than the others and a2 has the least
weight.

Discrete
Use Discrete for detecting the presence of an attribute such as facies,
lithology, or perforation. The program computes this value by checking
for the most abundant attribute code within each layer. The most
abundant thickness-weighted attribute code is then assigned to the
entire cell at the well. For example, suppose that you wanted to check
for a particular lithology, say shale. When you set Discrete as the
averaging technique, you instruct the program to detect the presence or
absence of shale within each layer. If, in the example on the previous
page, the program detected shale in attributes a2, a3, and a4, and sand
(or, more exactly, no shale) in attribute a1, it would mark the entire cell
at that well as shale.
If there are not enough different attribute values to determine which
one is the most abundant, Stratamodel sets the cell value equal to the
first abundant attribute found in the layer. So, if a layer had only two
attributes of equal thickness, the program would set the cell value to the
first attribute.
There remains a maximum limit of fifty discrete codes per attribute. So,
a single well could have 50 different lithology codes and 50 different
facies codes because facies and lithology are different attributes.

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Harmonic
Harmonic averaging preferentially weights the low thickness values. If
any attribute is equal to 0, then the final average is set to 0. For
example, for thinly bedded sandy shales laminae, you may wish to
downgrade the clean sand response because of thin interbedding of
sand and shale, reflected in GR and RT logs.
Vertical permeability often is averaged harmonically.
The formula for Harmonic averaging is:

∑H
A H = -------------i
Hi
∑ ----Ai
Geometric
Use Geometric averaging when you do not wish to emphasize either
high or low values. Geometric averaging uses the following formula:
 ∑ H i log ( A i )
A G = 10  --------------------------------

∑ Hi 
Geometric averaging could be used to de-spike attribute values for
composite calculations (for example, lots of hot sands giving
anomalous GR responses).

Mean
Mean values are generated using this general averaging formula:
ΣA
Mean = ---------i
N

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Minimum
Minimum simply takes the minimum value in the layer and applies it to
the entire layer.

Maximum
Maximum takes the maximum value in the layer and applies it to the
entire layer.

Variance
Variance is actually a statistical technique that measures the dispersion
or scatter of the values of the attribute about the mean. If the values
tend to be concentrated near the mean, the variance is small; if they are
distributed far from the mean, the variance is large.

Small Variance

Large Variance
Mean

The square root of an attribute’s variance is its standard deviation. So,
you could assign Variance to an attribute then compute that attributes’s
standard deviation in Model Operations.

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Creating Models

Entering Raw Data Controls
The raw data controls set the null value and the compositing controls
for the data.
As explained in “Choosing Averaging Methods” on page 48, the
program figures out the value of each cell at the well bore by taking all
the curve data for that cell’s layer and applying the selected averaging
technique and other rules. This process is called “compositing.” The
Raw Data Controls provide you with more controls over the
compositing process.

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Setting the Preliminary Parameters
The first few parameters in the Raw Data Controls are simple to
understand and set:
1.

Click the Enter Raw Data Controls button in the Raw Well Data
Info dialog box.

2.

Set the Raw Data units button to Depth or Elevation. Traversing
down the well, depth becomes more positive, while elevation
becomes more negative. Depth represents True Vertical Depth,
while Elevation is Subsea True Vertical Depth.

Depth Values are converted to elevation values in the model by
subtracting depth values from KB (Elevation = KB - Depth).
3.

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In the Raw Data NULL value field, enter the value that is used for
null in the well data file. The program assumes that all log fields
have identical null values and that none of the x, y, or z values are
null.

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Compositing
Compositing is determining the value of a cell based upon the multiple
values that affect it.
Max% Null Coverage for Compositing
Max% Null Coverage for Compositing indicates what percentage of the
values in a layer can be null to still use compositing (rather than a null
value) to determine the value of the cell. The default for this field is
100.

If you were to set the field to 50, for example, 50% of the
thickness-weighted values in the layer could be null and the program
would use the other values to composite. However, if 51% of the values
were null, the value of the cell would be set to null.
Sequence Crossing Value

When a well intersects a layer at a sequence boundary and there is no
well log sample to use, you have three options for how the cell should
consider the adjacent intervals for compositing.

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The following illustration shows how the three options find a value for
an interval with no log data.

Top of Sequence 4

No log data points

Layer 7

Layer 6

Layer 5
1

2
Layer 4
3
Layer 3

Top of
Sequence 2

Layer 2
Layer 1

Top of Sequence 1
= well log data points
1

Next Interval Value uses the first data
point in Layer 3 and adds the thickness of
the interval from sequence crossing to the
first data point in Layer 3 to the true interval
thickness of the first data point.

2

Previous Interval Value takes the value
from the last data point in Layer 4 and uses
that value for the interval from sequence
crossing to the first data point in Layer 3.

3

Set Interval to Null treats the interval as a
null.

3 indicates null interval

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Composite Value Positioning

You can use this option to control the placement of the composite value
for the cell along the well path.

Layer Center places the value at the midpoint of the entry and
exit path of the well log.
Weighted places the value in the area most populated by log
values. When you are viewing composite well logs in Scaled
Hardcopy, well composite values that are visibly off-center
indicate missing raw log values in a layer. (Missing values indicate
a jump in interval size.) Weighted positioning of composite values
makes most sense in cases where you have large cells compared to
the interval size or for well logs with areas of null values.

Composite Definition
You can use this option to control how many composites are generated
as a well log traverses through multiple adjacent cells in a layer. This
control is important with highly deviated wells, where many log values
may be contained in a layer.

Top of Sequence 4

Sequence 3

Layers in
Sequence 4

Top of Sequence 2

Top of Sequence 1

In the example, the well travels horizontally for some time in the third
layer of Sequence 4. One Composite per Layer lumps all the values of
the log in that layer to determine one value according to the specified
averaging technique. This value is applied to each cell along the
horizontal path.

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Well Layer
Traversal Distance

So, for example, in a situation where you wanted the compositing to
take place in each cell for the entire horizontal portion of the well
above, you would use Cell Traversal to derive the composites. The
Cell Traversal Multiplier controls the number of composites calculated
per layer.
Cell Traversal Multiplier
You can define the compositing so that a specific number of adjacent
cells are used to determine separate cell composite values.
Using Cell Traversal activates the Cell Traversal Multiplier (CTM)
field. Your entry in this field controls the number of composites to be
figured for a layer.
The multiplier works using the following formula:
# of composites = well layer traversal distance ÷ (CTM * cell diagonal)
Suppose, for example, the well layer traversal distance is 100, the cell
diagonal is 5, and you have chosen a multiplier (CTM) of 2.
100 ÷ (2 ∗ 5) = 10
Ten composites would be determined for the length of the layer.
The cell composite calculations are determined by your choice of One
Composite per Layer or Cell Traversal as described in the previous
sections.
Choosing a multiplier of 1 means that the cell diagonal itself is used,
which results roughly in 1 composite every cell diagonal.

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Specifying the Data Format
Use the Enter Raw Data Format button to describe the format of the
well data file to Stratamodel. Although you can use several different
well models in one project to describe wells with different formats,
your well data files must have the following characteristics.


1.

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All well log files that have the same extension must have the same
column width, number of columns, and order.
x, y, and z data must be present in all files. No nulls are allowed in
the x, y, and z fields.
Click the Enter Raw Data Format button to begin formatting
data.

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The Well Model Raw Data Format dialog box allows you to format
your well data. You must be familiar with the data before you can
format it. You have previously defined the log fields with the
attribute names and sampling techniques that will be read into the
Well Model. This formatter autoformats the records assuming that
there is no tops key record and that each attribute occurs
sequentially after the x, y, and z fields.
Two settings in this dialog box relate to “tops.” When grid values
are entered in the stratigraphic framework model and the well path
is defined by the raw well data files, the Well Model application
calculates the sequence and layer intersections with the well data.
Composite values for each cell are calculated based on the raw log
data that falls within each layer.
However, sometimes log intervals and sequence intersects may not
match up perfectly, causing well data to “leak” into the sequence
above or below the proper the sequence. You can correct this
problem using tops. The tops option allows you to move the
sequence intersection to a given measured depth location. As a
result, the log is stretched or squeezed to fit the new sequence
interval.
The tops key refers to a file that provides the information the
program needs to stretch and squeeze raw log data to stay within
sequence crossing boundaries before the calculation of composite
values. Tops keys are usually measured in TVD or elevation (the z
field); if not, they are typically MD down the well path.
Basically, they reflect three different situations regarding tops:

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You are not using Tops. In this case, select Auto Format w/
No Tops. This is the default.

You are using Tops and the information the tops file will key
on is in Data Field 4 (for example, if the tops file contains a
value in measured depth, and measured depth is in Data Field
4). In this case, select Auto Format with Tops Key.

You are using Tops and the information the tops file will key
on is in a field other than Data Field 4 (for example, if the tops
file contains a value in measured depth and measured depth is
in Data Field 5). In this case, format the Tops Key as
explained in Steps 2 through 3.

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You can auto-format at any time by clicking one of the Auto
Format buttons at the bottom of the screen. Auto Format w/No
Tops Key assumes that you will not be using tops data, so that
attribute data starts in Data Field 4. Auto Format with Tops Key
assumes that Data Field 4 contains tops information.
2.

In the bottom half of the dialog box, click the radio button next to
the attribute you are formatting. The auto-format results are
highlighted.

3.

If the autoformatting is incorrect, drag the cursor across the
columns where the data for that attribute appear. The column
numbers appear in the Start Column and Stop Column fields. If
you wish, you can enter the number instead of dragging.

Step 2.
Drag across
the column.

Step 1.
Click the
attribute.

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4.

Repeat this activity until you have formatted all the columns in
your data. If you do not have tops in your well data file, but are
using tops from another file, format the Tops Key the same as the
z field. This reduces execution time for the Well Model build.

5.

Click OK.

6.

Click OK again to close the Raw Well Data Info dialog box.

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Specifying Well Tops Information
In addition to indicating a tops key as instructed on page 60, you must
enter information about tops for it to work correctly. Click Enter Well
Tops Info to fill out information about well tops.

Sequence Type of Tops Data

Because raw well data and tops data are input through two separate
files, there must be a common value for the program to use to merge the
two sets of data. This “merge” key is referred to as the Tops Key, and
both raw data and tops data must contain Tops Key data values.
Measured depth is most often used as Tops Key data.

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This entry specifies the origin of the tops data. Two types of tops files
are supported: sequence picks and event picks. The files for both types
of data must be in ASCII format and must contain a coordinated value
of the same units as those of the tops key field in the log data. This must
represent the desired intersection of the sequence boundary and the
well path in units of the tops key field. They must also contain an
identifier of either sequence number or grid number.
For more information on the format for these files,“Preparing Tops
Data” on page 61 in Introduction to Stratamodel.
Pick one of the following:

Do not use Tops Data

Sequence picks — the intersection identifier refers to the sequence
number.

Event Picks — the intersection identifier refers to the grid
representing a surface event in the model. This may be the same as
the sequence number except in the case of faults or
unconformities.

The example below shows the difference between Sequence and Event
Picks.
Sequence 3

Well

Event 2
Sequence Pick = 2
Event Pick = 3
Sequence 2

Event 1
Sequence 1
Event 3
Sequence = 1
Event = 1

Picking Sequence Picks or Event Picks activates the appropriate
options on the window.

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Max Pick-to-Intersect distance

Sometimes a deviated well intersects a grid or sequence more than
once. To instruct the program in how to determine which intersection
you are interested in moving or replacing with your tops pick, you must
limit the search for the intersection to a specified depth distance from
the original intersection.

2nd
Intersection

Sequence 2
Sequence 1

>10

In the example above, say your pick was for Sequence 1. There are
three intersections between Sequence 1 and the well path. The program
matches the first occurrence of a sequence or grid intersection with the
well path that is found within the Max Pick-to-Intersect distance from
the intersection originally calculated.
For the example, if you wanted to correct the 2nd Intersect but not the
1st Intersect, your measured depth entry in the Tops Key for Sequence
1 must fall within 10 units (+ or -) from the originally calculated
intersection and you would set the Max Pick-to-Intersect distance to 10.

If a sequence-well path intersection is found within the specified
distance down the well path, it is the one that will be moved.

If a sequence-well path is found outside the specified distance, it is
ignored.

Entering 0 is the same as not using tops data.
Enter a number for the Max Pick-to-Intersect distance.

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Type of Tops Data Files

You can have the data for tops in one or more files. If the tops data is in
one file, it must be in the following format.
well_filename

tops_key

grid_or_Sequence_#

If the tops data is in multiple files, for each well they must have the
same file name (different extension) as the Raw Data File name and
they must have the following format:
tops_key

grid_or_sequence_#

The tops key is usually specified in Measured Depth.
Select one of the options.

Specifying the Tops File
1.

Enter Tops File Extension is only activated if you have selected
Tops Data in Multiple Files. The files for multiple tops must have
the same name (with a different extension) as the files for the raw
data.

Enter an extension for the tops file.
2.

Enter Tops File Name is only activated if you have selected Tops
Data in One File.

Click the button and use the filter dialog box that opens to find the
tops data file.

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Formatting Tops Data
If you have selected the correct file and it is in the correct format, the
program can determine the data format. The autoformatter assumes you
have the correct number of fields in the correct order.
1.

Click Enter Tops Data Format. The program accesses the file to
ascertain the format.

2.

If the program is unable to determine correct format, correct the
format by clicking the appropriate attribute at the bottom of the
dialog box, then dragging across the columns at the top.

Step 2. Drag across
the column.

Step 1. Click the
attribute name.

3.

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Click OK when you finish.

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Building or Saving the Well Model
When you have your sequences built in the correct order, clcik Build to
build the model (in Save & Execute) or Save to save it (in Defer
Execution).
If you are building a model, Well Model processes each well and then
prints the information about the well in the Build Well Model messages
box. The message box contains information about all the well
attributes, specifies whether the well is inside the model, whether
points for an attribute were found in the well, and so on. Below is an
example message box:

You can scroll through the information or print it.

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Exiting Well Model
Exit the Well Model application by closing the Well Model dialog
boxes and selecting Global → Return to Main Menu from the Well
Model main dialog box.

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Attribute Model
Overview
Once you have built a stratigraphic framework model to describe the
structure and stratigraphy of the region you are modeling and have built
a well model to correlate the data in the well log files, the next step is to
build an attribute model.
To calculate the attribute model, the program uses well data, the
description of the attributes contained in the well models, and the rules
you set up in the model to distribute the attribute data for all cells in 3D
space as described by the stratigraphic framework model.
You can also use the attribute model to set layers equivalent to each
other and to limit the extent of the model.
Attributes are stored in individual files, so there is virtually no limit in
the number of attributes you can have in an attribute model (up to 999
attributes). This means that you do not need to guess how many
attributes you may need in future or to rebuild the attribute model when
you want to add attributes.
Build Empty Model No Longer Needed
It is no longer necessary to build an empty attribute model if you want to see your
stratigraphic framework model before building the attribute model. You can simply
build a display for the framework without attributes.

To build the attribute model, you must first create a control file (*.daf)
that describes the parameters for interpolating the well data into the
SFM cells. The attribute model control file holds all the parameters that
contain these instructions:




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how far to search for values when filling each cell
which attributes to interpolate from the well model or models
whether to bias the data directionally
which layers are equivalent
which interpolation schemes to use

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What about Attribute Dependence and Model Limits?
Attribute Dependence is a Calculation Parameter on the Attribute Model menu that
allows you to bias the interpolation of the model against a template or an attribute.
However, you must have loaded an attribute or template into the Attribute Model
application to use it (which you generally would do after the first build of the
model). To fit it correctly into your work flow, we have included instructions for
the procedure in “Using Attribute Dependence” on page 112 in Manipulating
Models.
For similar reasons, Model Limits appears in “Limiting a Model with Control
Grids” on page 120 in Manipulating Models.

Selecting Wells
You can use one or more well models to build an attribute model.

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1.

Select Commands → Attribute Model → Save & Execute
(or Defer Execution).

2.

Selecting Well Model Input opens a dialog box for setting up the
well models you would like to use with the attribute model. A well
model is simply the composite set of a well group. You can have
more than one well model assigned to an attribute model. That
allows you to more easily include or exclude groups of wells
without having to recalculate the well composites for every well
each time a new well set is included or excluded.

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3.

Use the Append, Insert, and Change buttons in dialog box to list
all the well models you want defined in your project. Once you
have listed all the well models you want, click OK to close the
dialog box.
For information about creating lists, see “Creating Lists” on
page 31 in Introduction to Stratamodel.
Once you click Append, Insert, or Change, a dialog box appears
that lists the available well models:

4.

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Click the well model and on OK to add a well model to the list.

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Overall Run Parameters
Overall Run Parameters control the way the Attribute Model
application calculates the values for every cell in the overall model. The
Overall Run parameters are:






search radius (required)
number of search sectors (required)
allowable adjacent empty sectors (required)
wells per sector (required)
secondary search limit (optional)
well distance override (optional)
Stochastic random seed (optional)

Stratamodel provides defaults that will give results without nulls. You
can use the defaults as a starting point to generate an attribute model,
but as you work with your data, you may determine that some
parameters need to be adjusted to make the model appear reasonable.
To recalculate all of the Run Parameters default values simultaneously,
click the Reset Default Values button.
Click the Overall Run Parameters button to display the Run
Parameters dialog box.

Once you have set all the parameters click OK.

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Setting the Search Radius

R

The Search Radius helps interpolate a well value to a cell by
determining which well control points the Attribute Model uses and
how to weight those well values relative to other well values. By
selecting a search radius you are telling the Attribute Model how far
from any cell in the model to look for a value for that cell. In the
diagram in the margin, you can see that four wells are not to be used to
calculate the value of the center cell.
The default search radius is one half the length of the stratigraphic
framework model’s cell-centered grid diagonal. This is probably much
longer a radius than needed, unless you have an area that is very
sparsely populated with wells.
The program gives more weight to the wells that are closest to the given
cell. In the example below, in figuring the value of the cell at the center
of the search radius, more weight would be given to Well A than to any
other well. The well that would receive the least weight is Well B. The
wells outside the radius would not be considered in setting a value for
the center cell.
Well B

Radius
Well A

By carefully selecting the search radius you will be able to sample data
evenly and eliminate unrealistic distributions caused by data clustering.
An excessively large search radius lessens the weighting function. On
the other hand, a search radius that is too small can limit the number of
values used and create a very sharp or peaked weighting function,
resulting in unrealistic distributions.
Deciding upon the correct search radius is largely a function of the data
density, the data distribution in the model space, the cell-centered grid
increment, and the geologic setting.
You can either accept the default value or enter another value into the
input field.
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Selecting the Number of Search Sectors

The circle formed by the search radius divides into pie-slice sections
called sectors.
These sectors determine which wells inside the search radius are used
in calculating the attribute values for each particular cell. The sectors
provide even sampling in areas where data distribution may be biased
by linear sampling (seismic) or data clusters.
Stratamodel allows you to have 8 or 16 search sectors. Choosing 16
sectors provides a smoother transition between cells but requires
slightly more time for processing. This choice is well suited for this
release of Stratamodel, which now includes directional biasing of data
interpolation.
Stratamodel’s default value is 16 but you can set it to 8 in your
application default resource file (XSgm) with the following line:
*numberAtmSectors:8

Click the radio button for the number of sectors you want to use.

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Selecting the Allowable Adjacent Empty Sectors

This parameter checks for the number of sectors that are void of data. It
is included to ensure even distribution of well data when interpolating
attributes.
If Stratamodel finds more adjacent empty sectors than the number you
select, it forces the cell to be set to null. For example, if you set the
Allowable Adjacent Empty Sectors to ten and there are eleven or more
adjacent empty sectors, the cell value is set to null.
The range of allowable entries depends on the number of sectors you
have chosen. If you set the number of allowable adjacent empty sectors
to the highest allowable (15 for 16 sectors or 7 for 8 sectors) you ensure
that no cells are set to null if there is even one sector with a value in it.
Drag the slider bar to the number you want.

Determining Wells Per Sector

Use of Terminology
For any given layer, the term “well” refers to the well composite values for the layer
that are derived from the well models.

Stratamodel uses the wells in each sector in its calculations of attribute
values at a particular cell, giving more weight to the closest wells. The
Wells Per Sector option allows you to limit the number of wells within
a sector that it will use in determining values. This number must be an
integer from 1 to 20. If, for example, you had a sector with 15 wells and
you had set the Wells per Sector to 5, only the 5 closest wells would be
used to determine the value of the cell.
The default value is 10. The default can be set in the application default
resource file XSgm in the following line:
* numberAtmSectorsPerWell:10

Change the default Wells Per Sector by selecting the value in the input
field and entering a new value.

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Setting a Secondary Search Limit

You can use the Secondary Search Limit to eliminate wells that are all
at the outside edge of the search radius from the computation of the
value of a cell. This avoids improper weighting, since all wells that are
far from the cell should get the same weighting and they do not.
Well B
Well A

For example, in the picture in the margin, if you were computing a
value for a cell in the center of the search radius (solid line), you could
set a secondary search radius (dotted line) that would tell the program
to disregard Wells A and B and set the value of the cell to null.
The default is set to eighty-five percent (85%) of the search radius. If
the search radius is changed, this value is automatically recalculated.
To bypass the option, simply set the Secondary Search Limit equal to
the Search Radius.
This input should be in model plan x, y distance units.
Change the Secondary Search Limit by highlighting the value in the
input field and entering a new value.

Determining the Well Distance Override

The Well Distance Override is a way of making sure that cells contain a
value if wells are close enough to it, even if there have been too many
adjacent empty sectors for that cell. If there were too many,
Stratamodel checks for the distance of the closest well to the cell center.
This parameter allows normal calculation of a cell value if there are
nearby points within the distance set.
If a well is within the value for the Well Distance Override, the existing
data in the search radius is weighted normally, regardless of the number
of empty sectors.
This input should be in model units. The default is 0. If you do not wish
to use the override, leave the value at 0.
Change the default Well Distance Override by highlighting the value in
the input field and entering a new value.

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Providing a Stochastic Random Seed

The Stochastic Random Seed simply gives the random number
generator a starting place. Use this parameter if you are applying a
Stochastic random number generator against a given attribute and you
want to able to re-create the results. Supplying a number here allows
you to rerun the same sequence of random number generation. For
example, if you entered 10 in this field, every time you specified 10 for
the random seed, you would get the same results.
If you are doing a Stochastic calculation, enter a number in the field. If
no number is entered, the program will use 0.
You select Stochastic under Calculation Code in the Calculation
Parameters dialog box.

Resetting Default Values
To reset all the Run Parameters values to the default values
simultaneously, click the Reset Default Values button.
Here are the default settings:






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Search Radius — 1/2 project diagonal.
Number of Search Sectors — 16
Allowable Adjacent Empty Sectors — 15
Wells per Sector — 10
Secondary Search Limit — 85% of the Search Radius
Well Distance Override — 0
Stochastic Random Seed — 0

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Calculation Parameters
The Calculation Parameters specify which fields are calculated, the
calculation methods, and the variables used.

Click the Calculation Parameters button to define the parameters.

Use the Calculation Parameters dialog box to add, change, or delete
parameters. If you are appending, inserting, or changing items, you
must also fill out the parameters panel for that attribute. This panel
specifies which calculation methods and variables are used to
determine the value for each attribute.
To review how to use the list box, see “Creating Lists” on page 31 in
Introduction to Stratamodel.
The first four parameters in the Calculation Parameters dialog box are
required. Anytime after completing these parameters, you can specify
them by clicking OK.

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Selecting Well Model Fields
When you build the well model or models for the project, you specify
attributes for each model. Use the Selecting Well Model Fields option
to specify which well model attributes to include in the attribute model.
You can use each well model attribute in a variety of attribute model
attributes, applying different calculation codes against them. Variations
in the distribution of the same attribute can be modeled and remodeled
by changing the attribute field while referring to the same well
model attribute.
The Attribute Model field assigns an attribute number to the well model
field you are calculating.
1.

Click the Well Model Field button. The list of well model
attributes appears.

This list shows the attributes for each well model with their
associated averaging techniques as you specified in the well
model.

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2.

Click an attribute to select it.

3.

Click OK to add it to the list of attributes.

4.

Append or insert to add another attribute.

5.

Repeat these steps until you have selected all the attributes you
want in the Attribute Model.
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Selecting and Creating Attributes
Use Attribute Model Field to assign the attribute number for the well
model attribute you are interpolating, to create a new attribute number
for that attribute, to rename the attribute, to rearrange attributes, or to
delete an attribute.
Click the Attribute Model Field button. The list of assigned attributes
appears.

At any time while working in this dialog box, you can change how the
attributes are sorted, by choosing the appropriate button under Sort By
in the middle of the dialog box.
Notice that depending upon which button is selected at the top of the
dialog box, the selections below are active or inactive (grayed out) and
the second button at the bottom changes its name.

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Selecting an Attribute
To write a well model attribute to an active attribute number (and
overwrite the existing attribute), follow these steps.
1.

Make sure that Select is selected at the top of the dialog box.

2.

Click an active attribute to use for writing the well model attribute.

3.

Click OK to select the attribute.

Creating New Attributes
If you do not wish to overwrite an existing attribute, follow these steps:

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1.

Click Create. Notice that the dialog box expands at the bottom,
adding some more fields.

2.

Enter a name in the Description box.

3.

Select a Data Type for the new attribute.
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4.

Choose a Default Value.

NULL sets the attribute to null.

Zero or One mark the attribute for a geobody display.

User Data sets the attribute to any value determined by the
interpolation of the data.

5.

Enter the number of new attributes to create with the current
description, not the number for the new attribute. If you enter 24,
you get 24 new attributes.

6.

Click the Create Attribute button to create the new attributes.

Selecting a Calculation Code

You can use seven algorithms to populate cells with discrete or
continuous values using well model data.
Continuous includes data like porosity, hydrocarbon saturation, and
permeability. Lithology, facies or rock fabric are examples of discrete
data.
For continuous data, you can use the following interpolation functions:

Weighted Average (sharp weighting) or Deterministic

Weighted Average (smooth weighting) or Statistical
Both the sharp and smooth weighted average functions weight the data
based on their distance from the center of the cell being calculated.
For discrete data, you can use the following functions:

Nearest Neighbor (value)

Stochastic (value, sharp weighting)
You can also use the following interpolation functions to calculate
useful intermediate results:

Minimum

Maximum

Distance to Nearest Well
You can interpolate each individual attribute any way you want. For
example, you can interpoloate porosity by using each algorithm with
different power factors as unique attributes in the same model run.
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In the four primary algorithms for discrete and continuous applications,
the attribute values calculated for the cells can never be greater nor less
than the maximum and minimum values of the raw data. Weighted
average always moves back to the average of the well data population
away from the well locations, and Nearest Neighbor and Closest Point
only populate cells with values from the well data in the layer.
Weighted Average (Sharp Weighting) — or Deterministic
Sharp weighting, or deterministic weighting, weights the data based on
the distance from the well to the center of the cell being calculated.
This method honors the data at the well locations. This interpolation
method uses the following equation to derive the cell value:
n

∑ W ( r i, R ) • Z i

=1
V = i----------------------------------------n

∑ W ( r i, R )

i=1

V = final cell value
W = the weighting function
r = the distance from the interpolated point
R = the search radius
n = total number of well values used
Z = well value
The equation used to derive the weighting function for sharp
weighting is as follows:
W ( r, R ) = ( 1 – r ⁄ R ) 2 • ( R ⁄ r ) X
W = the weighting function
r = the distance from the interpolated point
R = the search radius
X = the power factor entered in the interface field
The weighting function considers up to 20 data points, or number of
wells per sector, in each sector within the search radius and then applies
a weight to each data point based on its distance from the cell being
filled. The values are then normalized for all sectors and the cell value
is calculated.
This function honors the data more closely than smooth weighting and
is more sensitive to changes in the power factor.

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Weighted Average (Smooth Weighting) — or Statistical
Smooth weighting, or statistical weighting, also weights the data based
on the distance from the cell center.
Smooth weighting uses the same equation to derive cell values as sharp
weighting does:
n

∑ W ( r i, R ) • Z i

=1
V = i----------------------------------------n

∑ W ( r i, R )

i=1

V = final cell value
W = the weighting function
r = the distance from the interpolated point
R = the search radius
n = total number of well values used
Z = well value
However, smooth weighting uses the following equation to derive
the weighting function:
W ( r, R ) = [ ( 1 – r ⁄ R ) 2 • ( 1 + 2r ⁄ R ) ] X
W = the weighting function
r = the distance from the interpolated point
R = the search radius
X = the power factor entered in the field below
The weighting function considers up to 20 data points, number of wells
per sector, in each sector within the search radius and then applies a
weight to each data point based on its distance from the cell being
filled. The values are then normalized for all sectors and the cell value
is calculated.
The smooth weighting function produces trend results of the data, but it
may violate the raw data at the well locations. This function is usually
better suited for noisy data, where there is no need to tie to every raw
data value but instead to produce a response that moves through the
local average of the raw data examined in the search radius.

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Nearest Neighbor (value)
The nearest neighbor functions work with discrete data types like
lithology and facies data. Nearest Neighbor (value) searches for the
closest data point and fills the cell with that data value. This method is
the traditional closest point method found in many software packages.
The search radius is the main variable in controlling this algorithm, as it
determines which points are considered for closest point interpolation.
Stochastic (value, sharp weighting)
Stochastic uses deterministic weighting to build up a cumulative
probability density function — CPDF — which statistically describes
the relative probability of all data within the search radius as a function
of distance. The program finds the closest well data point for each
sector analyzed. Then the algorithm randomly draws a data point from
the sectors analyzed and assigns that value to the well. The net effect is
a cell distribution that looks like a peppered cloud in between wells that
become more populated with closest well data values closer to a well
location.
All attributes in the result are values observed at well locations within
sectors of the moving search radius. No manufactured values are
produced.
Minimum (value)
For use with mainly discrete data, this technique finds the minimum
value available within the search radius and fills the cell with that data
value. The response, of course, does not honor all well data points and
is discrete in character as it jumps between local minimum values
observed within the moving search radius. Where there is a multitude
of well data, this method could be used, with a small search radius, to
model a moving minimum response as an attribute. The data is
conditional to the search radius used.
Exercise caution in the application of the algorithm to continuous data
types. The response does not attempt to tie to all data values at wells,
instead representing a highly graded, discretized low response with low
attribute values.

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Maximum (value)
Also for use with mainly discrete data, this technique finds the
maximum value available within the search radius and fills the cell with
that data value. The response, of course, does not honor all well data
points and is discrete in character as it jumps between local maximum
values observed within the moving search radius. Where there is a
multitude of well data, this method could be used, with a small search
radius, to model a moving maximum response as an attribute. The data
is conditional to the search radius used.
You should exercise caution in the application of the algorithm to
continuous data types. The response does not attempt to tie to all data
values at wells, instead representing a highly graded, discretized
response with high attribute values.
Distance to Nearest Well
This weighting function finds the distance within the search radius to
the closest well and sets the value of the attribute location in the cell to
that distance. The results are often used to control model operations or
as further attribute modeling steps applied to localized radial areas
around the well paths. You can also build graphical geobodies to show
cell populations within well bore drainage radii.
To prepare for using Find Geobodies to build a shell display of the
connected target cells, you can use this algorithm to set model codes of,
for example, 0 outside the drainage radii and 1 within the radii. The
distance algorithm attribute response would be set to 0 if the value was
greater than the desired radius and set to 1 if it were smaller, using a
Multiple Comparison Model Operation.

Setting the Power Factor
The power factor refers to the exponent in the weight factor equations
for both weighted average techniques (X in the equations on page 83
and page 84).
Increasing the power factor puts more weight on closer data points and
less on those nearer the search limit edge.
Double-click the Power Factor input box and enter the power factor for
the current attribute.

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Relationship Between Power Factor and Search Radius
Although you do not set the search radius here but in the Overall Run Parameters,
it greatly affects the weighting function. A very large search radius produces a
different distribution than a small search radius, even if all other parameters are
identical. If you detect a star pattern in the attribute distribution, it probably
indicates that you should increase the power factor and/or number of sectors (also
set in Overall Run Parameters). If you use the default search radius, a power factor
of 2 or 3 is probably a reasonable starting place. You should, however, try a
combination of power factors with the given search radius to determine which
distribution is the most reasonable.

Limiting the Model to Specific Sequences or Layers
You can use Specific Sequences or Layers to limit the extent of your
attribute model interpolation in a run.
Modeling Sequences or Layers Omitted from the Current Run
You can create more than one run using other sequences or layers, or all of them.

If left blank, all sequences and layers are calculated.
For information on setting limits, see “Setting Limits” on page 42 in
Introduction to Stratamodel.
If you are building an attribute model that is limited to certain
sequences or layers, you must use Save Other Sequence-Layer Values
to specify what to do with the value in other sequences and/or layers
not being calculated in this run.
You can save or overwrite the values in the other sequences or layers by
clicking the appropriate radio button.

Save — Do not change values in other sequences/layers. This
permits specific sequences or layers to be calculated in separate
runs using different parameters.

Overwrite — Put a null value in all cells outside the sequences/
layers being built in this run. This overwrites any previous values
in the target attribute location.
Click OK to save the limiting information.
The Specific Sequences or Layers button input field should now read
“Limited Attribute Model.”
Attribute Dependence
You can use Attribute Dependence to bias the modeling process according to a
previously stored attribute interpolation or a template. To perform it, you must have
already built an attribute model. Attribute Dependence is discussed in “Using
Attribute Dependence” on page 112 in Manipulating Models.

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Biasing the Interpolation by Direction
Directional Bias allows you to bias the interpolation of the well data
toward a specific direction, even from outside the search radius, to all
the attribute fields calculated in an Attribute Model build.
Directional bias weight is expressed as a multiplication of the search
radius. The direction of the bias is indicated by an angle between 0 and
360 degrees representing a compass azimuth.
In the example below, the circle shows the search radius (the minor
axis). The Bias Weight is set to 3, or 3 times the search radius. The
Major Axis Angle is 90 degrees, or east and west.

Well 4
R
Well 2

3R

Well 7

Well 3
Well 1

Well 5

Well 6

In this case, wells that are near the axis of the directional bias, such as
Well 3 and Well 7, are given more weight than wells away from it. As
you can see, wells outside the original search radius are also given
weight. Wells that fall within the new search ellipse are weighted
according to their proximity to the bias axis.
To set a directional bias
1.

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Click the Directional Bias button to set a directional bias.

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Click Yes, use Directional Bias with the following values to
select a bias.
2.

The direction of the bias is expressed as a Major Axis Angle
between 0 and 360 degrees representing a compass azimuth.
Enter an angle for the major axis.

3.

Bias Weight is expressed as a multiple of the original search
radius. A bias weight of one is the same as having no directional
bias. If a bias weight of 4 is used, those wells that fall on the major
axis are weighted 4 times more than wells that fall perpendicular to
the axis.
The suggested bias weight is two. Beyond a bias weight of 4 the
behavior of the power function is highly variable.
Biasing
Directional bias is an overall parameter; that is, it is applied to all attribute
fields calculated in this Attribute Model run. If you want directional bias to be
limited to different layers or sequences or only selected attribute calculations,
you must run several attribute models and append or modify new attribute
fields to the model, using simple rules.

Enter a weight for the bias.
4.

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Click OK to save the directional bias parameters.

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Determining Layer Equivalence
Because of the way the stratigraphic framework model is built, with
limited grids against truncations and faults, for example, the program
does not recognize that some layers that are in neighboring sequences
are stratigraphically equivalent. Layer Equivalence allows you to
instruct the program that layers are equivalent.
In the following example, Sequence 3 and the layers in it are
stratigraphically equivalent to Sequence 6 and the layers in it. The
purpose of Layer Equivalence is to model these layers as
stratigraphically equivalent, so cells in the layers can pull well
composite values appropriately when the attribute model is built for
equivalent layers.
Layer 8
Layer 7
Layer 6

Se

Sequence 3

Layer 5

qu

en

ce

4

Sequence 2

Layer 13
Layer 12

Layer 4

Layer 11
Layer 10

Sequence 6

Sequence 5
Layer 9

Layer equivalence works on entire sequences, not just on the layer that
is specified. The specified layer is the starting point for the equivalence.
The program goes upward in the sequence, from the starting point layer
to the top of the sequence, then continues downward in the remainder
of the sequence, from that same starting point.
Reading Layer Equivalence from Zone Information
You can autmatically set layer equivalency by choosing to use the control file, the
zone definitions indicated in the stratigraphic framework model, or a combination
of both. However, you can only do this once to correctly save the changes in the
control file. To reactivate the selections, exit Attribute Model and re-enter.

By setting discordant layer numbers in the same sequence equal to each
other, you can obtain a smudging effect. Some modelers use this to fill
null areas in models when no well composites are available after all the
true equivalencies are accounted for.
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1.

Click the Layer Equivalence button in the Attribute Model main
dialog box.

2.

Click the Layer Equivalence button in the Build Attribute Model
dialog box. The Layer Equivalence dialog box appears.

3.

In the Layer Equivalence dialog box, choose how to apply layer
equivalence:

Use Layer Equivalence on All Attributes — Apply the
specified layer equivalence to all the attributes in the attribute
model.

Select Attributes for Layer Equivalence — Select attributes
for the equivalent layers.
Click the Select Attributes for Layer Equivalence button.
The List of All Well Field Descriptions and the Attributes for
Layer Equivalence dialog boxes appear:

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In the list box, choose an attribute and click OK. That
attribute appears at the top of the Attributes for Layer
Equivalence dialog box. Use this dialog box to choose more
attributes, delete attributes, or change them.

Select Do Not Use Layer Equivalence when you do not want
to use layer equivalence.

4.

Decide where you want to Derive Layer Equivalency from the
control file, the zone definition information created in the
stratigraphic framework model, or a combination of both.

5.

Click OK when you have made your selection.

6.

Once you click OK in the Type of Layer Equivalence to Use
dialog box, three dialog boxes appear:

Layer Equivalence Layer/Sequence dialog box — Select
layers and sequences to be equivalent

One ATM Layer Equivalence Layer Set dialog box — Create
layer sets that are equivalent

Layer Equivalences Sets dialog box — Add, change, and
delete sets from the list of equivalent layers and sequences

Use these three boxes in combination to produce sets of equivalent
layers. Select your first layer or sequence by using the Layer
Equivalence Layer/Sequence dialog box.

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Choose a sequence by moving the Sequence slider to the
appropriate number.

Choose a layer by moving the Layer slider to the appropriate
number.

Click OK.

Make sure you add another to make at least one pair.

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7.

Use the One AM Layer Equivalence Layer Set dialog box to create
one set of equivalence layers. Once you have a set ready, click OK
to add it to the AM Layer Equivalences Set dialog box.

8.

Use the AM Layer Equivalence Sets dialog box to create sets of
sequence/layers.

Click the Append new Item to End of List or the Insert new
Item before Selected item button. The Layer Equivalence
Layer Selection dialog box appears.

Select a sequence/layer from the Layer Equivalence Layer
Selection dialog box.

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9.

Click OK to add it to the One AM Layer Equivalence Layer
Set dialog box.

Add another sequence/layer to make at least a pair.

Click OK in the One AM Layer Equivalence Layer Set dialog
box to add it to the AM Layer Equivalences Sets dialog box.

When you have set all the appropriate layers and sequences to be
equivalent, click OK.

Result of Defining Zones
If zones are defined, layer equivalence automatically assigns this table based on the
zone equivalency.

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Determining Calculation Rules
Simple interpolation rules allow attributes throughout the model to be
calculated according to rules you define. For example, if you had a
framework with 100 layers and you knew that your attribute only
occurred in layers 50-70, you could limit the model by not calculating
those layers less than 50 and greater than 70.
Application of Simple Rules
The rules apply to all attributes calculated in the current Attribute Model run.

Each rule is structured as an IF-THEN-ELSE statement, where

IF specifies the conditions for the header or data attributes. (You
can have up to 50 conditions for each Attribute Model run.)

THEN specifies what to do if the conditions are met.

ELSE specifies what to do if the conditions are not met.
Rebuilding a Model with Changed Calculation Rules
Stratamodel does not place nulls into fields that are not interpolated. This means
Stratamodel will not always “clean up” a model when you change a Calculation
Rule.

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1.

Click the Calculation Rules button to set calculation rules.

2.

Click Yes, Do use Simple Rules.

3.

Click the IF button.This button enables you to set the conditions
you will apply to the attribute model.

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If you have not set up any simple rules yet, both the New Test Item
for Calculation Rules and the Calculation Test Rules dialog boxes
appear.

4.

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Next to the IF button, select Attribute or Header depending upon
whether you want to apply the condition to an attribute you have
already created or the header from an attribute field.

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If you select Attribute, a list of all active attribute fields
dialog box appears. Choose an attribute and click OK.

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5.

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If you selected Header, a List of All Header Attribute Fields
appears. Choose the attribute header and click OK.

Choose an operator from the menu below the IF statement.

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6.

7.

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Choose an attribute, header, constant or NULL from the next
portion of the statement.

If you chose Attribute or Header, choose the attribute or
header from the list box as you did above.

If you chose Constant, enter a constant value into the
resulting dialog box and click OK.

If you chose NULL, go on to the Additional Tests? button.

Decide whether to apply additional conditions.

To apply no additional conditions, select (no more test
conditions).

To apply more conditions to the attribute model, select AND
or OR from the Additional Tests? menu. You can apply up to
50 conditions to the attribute model. To apply more
conditions, use the Append option on the Calculation Test
Rules dialog box.

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8.

The Then part of the If-Then clause specifies what to do if data
meet the conditions of the IF clause.
Click the THEN button to begin selecting the clause.
The Calculation Rule for Positive Test Result dialog box appears.

Select what to do if the data meet conditions in the IF clause.

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Do NOT calculate it does not use the data to calculate an
attribute value.

Calculate it according to Parameters calculates the attribute
according to the other parameters you have selected.

Set it EQUAL to allows you to set a value for the condition.
Choosing this option activates the bottom menu, from which
you can select Attribute, Header, or Constant. Select the
appropriate attribute or header, or enter a constant, and click
OK.

Set it to the AVERAGE of allows you to pick two attributes
or headers to average. Choosing this option activates both
menus below, from which you can select Attribute or
Header. Select the appropriate attributes or headers.

Set it to the MAX of allows you to pick two attributes or
headers from which the program will choose the maximum.
Choosing this option activates both menus below, from which
you can select Attribute or Header. Select the appropriate
attributes or headers.

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Set it to the MIN of allows you to pick two attributes or
headers from which the program will choose the minimum.
Choosing this option activates both menus below, from which
you can select Attribute or Header. Select the appropriate
attributes or headers.

Set it to NULL sets the values specified by the condition to
null.
Deriving Results
The Equal, Average, Max, and Min selections use local attribute values per
cell to derive their results.

9.

Click OK once you have selected your calculation rule.

10. The ELSE clause specifies what to do if the conditions set in the IF
clause are not met.
Click the ELSE button to finish the statement.

The selections for Else are the same as those explained in step 8 on
page 100 for the Then statement. Select one.
11. Click OK once you have selected your calculation rule.
12. Once you have filled out the If, Then, and Else clauses, click OK
to set the rules.

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Attribute Model: Determining Calculation Rules

101

Landmark

Creating Models

Building the Model
Once the parameters are all filled out, you are ready to build the
attribute model. You can only do this from Save and Execute.

R2003.12

1.

Click the Build button to save and build the attribute model. The
Attribute Model build messages information box appears.

2.

Click the Done button after the message informs you that the
Attribute Model build is complete.

Attribute Model: Building the Model

102

Landmark

Creating Models

Viewing Parameters and Information
Use Parameters/Information to view or print information about the
attribute model. You cannot make changes from this information box.
1.

Select Commands → ATM Attribute Model → Parameters/
Information. The following scrollable information box appears
with the latest information about the attribute model.

2.

Click Cancel to close the information box.

Getting Additional Information About an Attribute Model
Two programs in Global → Utility Programs enable you to get more information
about the existing attribute model: read_aml and read_aml_rec.

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Attribute Model: Viewing Parameters and Information

103

Landmark

Creating Models

Exiting Attribute Model
To exit from the Attribute Model application, select the Quit - Exit
Attribute Model build option, then click the OK button.

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Attribute Model: Exiting Attribute Model

104

Landmark

Creating Models

Index
Creating Models
A
arithmetic average 50
Attribute Dependence, cross reference to 87
Attribute Model 69-104
building 102-104
Calculation Parameters 78-87
Calculation Rules 95-101
Directional Bias 88-89
exiting build 104
Layer Equivalence 90-94
limiting 87
Overall Run Parameters 72-77
Parameters/Information 103
purpose 69
Well Model Input 70-71
attributes
assigning field in Attribute Model 80-82
calculating
methods 78-87
rules 95-101
choosing to calculate 78
creating new 81
describing format of data 59-61
determining values by random number
generator 77
for Attribute Model
choosing from Well Model 79
selecting 81

R2003.12

average
Deterministic 83
methods
arithmetic 50
discrete 50
geometric 51
harmonic 51
maximum 52
mean 51
minimum 52
variance 52
Statistical 84
Weighted
Sharp 83
Smooth 84
well attribute data 48-52
B
bias
well data interpolation
to a specific direction 88-89
C
Calculation Parameters 78-87
Attribute Model Field 80-82
Calculation Code 82-86
Power Factor 86-87
and Search Radius 87
Specific Sequences or Layers 87
Well Model Field 79

Index

105

Landmark

cells
definition 11
determining null value
outside secondary search limit 76
using empty search sectors 75
overriding 76
determining values
generating random numbers 77
Maximum weighting 86
using distance to wells 76
using search radius 73
using search sectors to weight wells 74
weighting 82-86
Distance to Nearest Well 86
Minimum 85
Nearest Neighbor 85
Stochastic 85
Weighted Average Sharp 83
Weighted Average Smooth 84
weighting closest wells 75
nonterminating
explanation 41
terminating
explanation 41
clipping
grids 13-18
maximum test 14
minimum test 13
rules 13-18
compositing
controls 53-58
number of composites per layer 58
placement of value 57
continuous
average 50
data
weighting methods 82
conventions
in manuals 2
create
well sets
reasons 46

R2003.12

Creating Models

D
data
continuous
weighting methods 82
discrete
weighting methods 82
defaults
for Attribute Model run parameters 77
Deterministic weighting 83
Directional Bias 88-89
Major Axis Angle 89
Maximum Bias Weight 89
discrete
average 50
data
weighting methods 82
Distance to Nearest Well weighting 86
distances
from a cell
to look for a value for the cell 73
giving close points exponential weight
86
pick to intersection 64
E
Enter Raw Data Controls
Cell Traversal Multiplier 58
Composite Definition 57-58
Composite Value Positioning 57
Max% Null Coverage for Compositing 55
Raw Data NULL Value 54
Raw Data Units 54
Sequence Crossing Value 55-56
Enter Raw Well Info
Enter Raw Data Controls 53-58
Enter Raw Data Extension 47
Enter Raw Data Format 59-61
Select Averaging Methods 48

Index

106

Landmark

Enter Well Tops Info
Enter Tops Data Format 66
Enter Tops File Extension 65
Enter Tops File Name 65
Max Pick-to-Intersect distance 64
Sequence Type of Tops Data 62
Type of Tops Data Files 65
equivalence
stratigraphic
between layers and sequences 90-94
applying to entire Attribute Model 91
applying to selected layers 91-92
selecting the layers or sequences 92-94
events
definition 8
examples
grid limiting 6-8
of building a framework 19-23
of compositing 57
of correcting well tops intersection 64
of how stratigraphic framework handles nulls
15
of maximum test 14
of minimum test 13
exit
Attribute Model build 104
Stratigraphic Framework Model 44
Well Model 68

Creating Models

G
geometric average 51
Grid increment 73
grids
clipping 13-18
maximum test 14
minimum test 13
definition 4
handling nulls 15
independent 32
intervals
building proper framework 9
limited 5
and truncations 5
limiting
building proper framework 9
one with another 29-30
naive 4
and truncations 5
offlap 33
onlap 32
optional depositional pattern 33
proportional 33
selecting
for framework 26-28
H
harmonic average 51

F
faults
blocks 16-17
handling in stratigraphic framework 16-18
in Stratigraphic Framework Model 34
modeling as grids over entire AOI 17
truncating layers 10
formats
for well data 46
Fortran statements 59-61
framework
clipping rules 13-18
example 19-23
for project 3-44

R2003.12

I
information
about Attribute Model 103
intersections
by deviated well
with grid or sequence 64
intervals
leaking 60
next value for sequence crossing 56
previous value for sequence crossing 56
set to null 56

Index

107

Landmark

Creating Models

L

N

Layer Equivalence
Selecting Equivalent Layers and Sequences
92-94
Type of Sequence to Use 91-92
layers
definition 10-11
indicating stratigraphic equivalence 90-94
applying to entire Attribute Model 91
applying to selected layers 91-92
selecting layers or sequences 92-94
number in a sequence 35
thickness 35
with faults 10
with nulls 11
limit
Attribute Model 87
naive grids 5-8
example
angular unconformity 5-6
fault terminated by unconformity 7-8
one grid with another 29-30
Stratigraphic Framework Model 39-41
by rows and columns 39
by x and y 40
lists
of averaging methods 48

Nearest Neighbor weighting 85
nulls
handling 15
in layers 11
number of
to still use compositing 55
value of 53, 54

M
manuals
conventions 2
maximum
average 52
weighting 86
mean average 51
minimum
average 52
weighting 85
Model Limits
cross reference to 70
mouse buttons
selecting items with 2

R2003.12

O
Overall Run Parameters 72-77
Allowable Adjacent Empty Sectors 75
Number of Search Sectors 74
Reset Default Values button 77
Search Radius 73
Secondary Search Limit 76
Stochastic Random Seed 77
Well Distance Override 76
Wells Per Sector 75
P
parameters
for Attribute Model 103
for Stratigraphic Framework Model 44
picks
event 63
sequence 63
purpose
Attribute Model 69
of Stratigraphic Framework Model 3
of Well Model 45
R
resolution
of cell layers 3
rules
for applying maximum or minimum tests 14
for calculating individual attributes 95-101
for clipping grids 13-18

Index

108

Landmark

S
search
radius
for well control points 73
number of empty adjacent sectors 75
number of sectors 74
relationship to directional bias 88
relationship to weighting power factor 87
secondary 76
sequences
definition 9
indicating stratigraphic equivalence 90-94
intersects
leaking 60
types 31-34
fault 34
independent 32
offlap 33
onlap 32
optional depositional pattern grid 33
proportional 33
truncation 34
shells
definition 12
stacks
definition 12
Statistical weighting 84
Stochastic weighting 85
Stratigraphic Framework Model 3-44
Base Limiting Event Number 29
concepts 4-18
exiting 44
Grid Name At Sequence Top 28
Layer Thickness 35
Number of Layers 35
Optional Depositional Grid 36
Parameters/ Information 44
purpose 3
Set Limits 39-41
Top Limiting Event Number 29
Type of Base Grid 35

R2003.12

Creating Models

Stratigraphic Framework Model continued
Type of Sequence that Grid defines 31-34
Use Non-Truncated Framework Model 41
Use Truncated Framework Model 41
work flow 24-25
T
tests
maximum 14
minimum 13
rules for applying 14
tops
data
file 62
file
format 65
key 62
types
event picks 63
sequence picks 63
U
unconformities
in Stratigraphic Framework Model 34
units
for Well Model 54
V
variance average 52

Index

109

Landmark

W
weighting
Deterministic 83
Distance to Nearest Well 86
for calculating cell values 82-86
continuous data 82
discrete data 82
Distance to Nearest Well 86
factor for distance 86
Maximum 86
Minimum 85
Nearest Neighbor 85
Stochastic 85
Weighted Average
Sharp 83
Smooth 84
Maximum 86
Minimum 85
Nearest Neighbor 85
Power Factor 86
relationship between search radius and power
factor 87
sharp 83
smooth 84
Statistical 84
Stochastic 85
well data
compositing methods 53-58
Well Model 45-68
building 67
Enter Raw Well Info 47
Enter Well Tops Info 62
exiting 68
purpose 45
Well Model Input 70-71

R2003.12

Creating Models

wells
data
formats 46
describing position of 45
determine which are used to calculate cells
distance from cells 76
inside search limit 76
number of search sectors 74
using search radius 73
wells per sector 75
path
defined by raw well info 47-61
positioning in model 45-68
sets 46
selecting to use in attribute model 70
work flow
for Stratigraphic Framework Model 24-25
X
XSgm resource file
setting default number of search sectors 74
setting default wells per sector 75

Index

110